INDUSTRIALIZATION IN ENGLAND
The Industrial Revolution began in England in the early 18th century for the following reasons: 1. England had experienced all of the forerunners of industrialization in the previous century: an agricultural revolution, cottage industry, and an expanded commercial revolution. These developments had built surplus capital and an infrastructure (shipping, banking, insurance, joint stock companies). 2. England already had a handcraft textile industry using wool, but with the availability of cotton from overseas markets as an alternative raw material. 3. The scientific revolution in England prepared the way for new inventions to be applied to industry. 4. A spreading shortage of wood (used for energy, for shipbuilding and construction) stimulated a search for alternatives. 5. England was rich in supplies of coal for energy and iron for construction. 6. England had a long, irregular coastline with many rivers and natural harbors which provided easy transportation by water to many areas. 7. England's population grew rapidly in the 18th century, providing a labor force for industry. NEW TECHNOLOGY IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY: In about 1765, Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny which could spin numerous spools of cotton simultaneously. It was hand-powered, yet it could multiply several-fold the amount to be spun. At about the same time Arkwright invented the water frame which could spin several hundred spools at a time. But it required water power, and it could only spin coarse thread. Both inventions were used, the one to spin coarse thread, the other to spin fine thread. About 1790, Crompton's Mule, powered by a steam engine, provided an alternative method. Cotton yarn could be spun in great quantity, but weaving of cloth was by hand until the power loom was perfected about 1800.
For per-capita levels of industrialization during the 19th Century. the employment market was dramatically changed twice in a short period of time by the process of industrialization. Thus. THE PROBLEM OF TRANSPORTATION The process would nevertheless have stagnated if there had not been a revolution in transportation. and steam-powered rolling mills. invented in 1705. These are hallmarks of industrialization. it brought great numbers of consumers within reach of the growing volume of goods being produced. was an inefficient but acceptable method of pumping water out of the mines. This was the greatest achievement in transportation since ancient times. In the 1780's Henry Cort developed the puddling furnace. All of the above developments were to change the source of energy from wood to coal. The iron industry consumed large quantities of lumber to produce charcoal. however. Steam-driven bellows enabled coke (produced from coal) to be burned in a blast furnace rather than charcoal. Once accepted. The combination of iron rails and the steam engine to transport people and goods was the railroad. weavers were well paid. Iron rails were developed for coal carts to be hauled to nearby water transport. The new textile machines could be driven by water power. In the early 1760's through the 1780's. generate power. then eastward and southward across Europe and westward across North America. The iron industry was coming to a halt. lack of lumber threatened to cut short the industrial growth. Industrial development on the continent lagged behind England for at least a generation. but that would have set severe limits to the available locations. It could not.In the interim. These developments revitalized the iron industry. This was the most important of all the inventions of the time because it enabled coal to be burned to drive machinery. The separation of England from the Continent by the Napoleonic Wars delayed the spread of English technology. until displaced by the power loom. needed for production of pig iron. Eventually. James Watt improved the design of the steam engine so that it could generate power. industrialization spread. first to the lowlands and the northeastern United States. Newcomen's steam engine. It made a market economy possible. THE PROBLEM OF ENERGY: The shortage of trees for lumber had led to the use of coal for heating. and the preferred construction material from wood to iron.
. but coal mines constantly flooded. Furthermore.
Power-driven machines replaced handwork. English skilled technicians were much in demand and paid high wages. Before the revolution. These scholars insist that the basic elements of the Industrial Revolution can be traced back to developments in Europe hundreds of years before the 1700s. particularly in the financing of railroads. They point to the overcrowded and unsanitary housing and the terrible working conditions created by rapid industrialization in the cities. Other historians have stressed the negative parts of the revolution. great changes took place in the lives and work of people in several parts of the world. Some of this increase in production resulted from the introduction of power-driven machinery and the development of factory organization. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700s. During the 1700s and early 1800s. For the first time in European history. By the mid-1800s.
. a period of great and sudden changes. It started spreading to other parts of Europe and to North America in the early 1800s. Historians have disagreed on the significance of the Industrial Revolution. The term Industrial Revolution refers both to the changes that occurred and to the period itself. They argue that this increase did more during the 1800s to raise peoples standard of living than all the actions of legislatures and trade unions. Some historians have even denied that the Industrial Revolution was revolutionary--that is. The Industrial Revolution created an enormous increase in the production of many kinds of goods. but required large amounts of capital. A few worked in shops in towns as part of associations called guilds. Governments played a more prominent role on the continent. These changes resulted from the development of industrialization. Some have emphasized that the importance of the revolution was in the great increase in the production of goods.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:Industrial Revolution. wealthy business leaders called capitalists took over the control and organization of manufacturing. manufacturing was done by hand or simple machines. and factories developed as the best way of bringing together the machines and the workers to operate them. industrialization had become widespread in western Europe and the northeastern United States. Most people worked at home in rural areas.When it did come. Financiers and banks thus became as important as industrialists and factories in the growth of the revolution. As the Industrial Revolution grew. These were the most visual evidence of industrialization. The Industrial Revolution eventually took manufacturing out of the home and workshop. private investors and financial institutions were needed to provide money for the further expansion of industrialization.
Before the Industrial Revolution. and weapons. Craftworkers in the shops worked with simple tools to make such products as cloth. They often spread their operations to include workers in nearby villages. They lived under the constant threat that their crops might fail. took place in homes in rural areas. paid for the work. Merchants called entrepreneurs distributed raw materials to workers in their homes and collected the finished products. furniture. These people spent most of their working day farming. but it also created a large number of problems that still remain critical in the modern world. most historians agree that the Industrial Revolution was a great turning point in the history of the world. food products. The rest lived in small towns and villages scattered across the countryside. For most people. there were few opportunities for investment. Life before the Industrial Revolution On the eve of the Industrial Revolution. usually because they owned land. however. Water wheels furnished some power. In fact. textiles. Most manufacturing. harvesting. Many countries did not even hold elections. and epidemics were common. Only a few people enjoyed large incomes. Town products were also exported to pay for luxuries imported from abroad. and tools from raw materials produced on the farms or in forests. they grew little more than they needed for themselves. the soil. depending on the climate. Some products made in the towns were exchanged for food raised in the countryside. or had succeeded in business. Although few people starved. cultivating. most industrial countries face problems of air and water pollution. The way of life differed from place to place. held public office. and processing the harvest. and took the risk of finding a market for their products. they caught diseases readily. most European countries were ruled by a monarch who had much personal power. the whole family worked together making clothing. Life was hard for most people. and the distance from towns and trade routes. and most sons followed their father's trade. rich merchants. or they were sent to the colonies in payment for raw materials. A little manufacturing was carried on in guild shops in towns. Great landowners. Unless they could sell surplus food in nearby towns. As a result. Workers themselves provided most of the power for manufacturing. Most workers produced little and earned little. It changed the Western world from a basically rural and agricultural society to a basically urban and industrial society. jewelry. leather goods. In the home. Although Great Britain had a
. and some members of the clergy also had considerable political influence. Little money was saved or invested in business ventures. For example. many of them suffered from malnutrition. less than 10 per cent of the people of Europe lived in cities. The entrepreneurs owned the raw materials. But the workers and farmers had no voice in the government.Today. hardware. Before the Industrial Revolution. life revolved around the agricultural seasons-planting. silverware. and wood products. The way of life changed little from one generation to the next. some industry existed throughout western Europe. Industrialization brought many material benefits. The people in rural areas made most of their own clothing.
A handful of voters often determined who would represent a district in Great Britain. Under the domestic system. but also provided markets for manufactured products. The textile industry One of the most spectacular features of the Industrial Revolution was the introduction of powerdriven machinery in the textile industries of England and Scotland. The country had large deposits of coal and iron. This took place between 1750 and 1800 and marked the beginning of the age of the modern factory. Some of them owned the spinning and weaving equipment and the workers' cottages. and technical skills. economic. They often accepted work from several merchants at the same time. merchants bought as much material and employed as many workers as they needed. They sought more economical and efficient ways of using capital and labor so the amount each worker produced would increase faster than the cost of production. They had difficulty regulating standards of workmanship and maintaining schedules for completing work.Parliament. the two natural resources on which early industrialization largely depended. and others wove the yarn into cloth. Growth of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain for several reasons. The merchants financed the entire operation. merchants purchased raw materials and distributed them among workers who lived in cottages on farms or in villages. machines. These colonial markets helped stimulate the textile and iron industries. Further demand could not be satisfied until Britain enlarged its capacity to produce goods inexpensively. However. the workers had much independence and set their own pace of work. All these social. As the demand for cloth increased. Other industrial raw materials came from Great Britain's colonies. The rising costs of production began to cut into profits. Sometimes they hired help and had apprentices. British merchants did not want to raise the prices of their goods and thus discourage demand. The merchants achieved their goal through the development of factories. Great Britain's colonies not only provided raw materials. Before the industrialization of the textile industry. which raised production costs. By the mid-1700's. The domestic system presented many problems for the merchants. Some of these workers spun the plant and animal fibers into yarn. and political conditions changed in Great Britain as the Industrial Revolution developed. only male members of the Church of England who paid a certain amount of taxes could vote. This demand forced businesses to compete with one another for the limited supply of labor and raw materials. merchants
. Workers sometimes sold some of the yarn or cloth for their own profit. the country had become the world's leading colonial power. which were probably the two most important industries during the Industrial Revolution. This system was called domestic or cottage industry. The demand for British goods grew rapidly during the late 1700's both in Britain and in other countries.
Agriculture as well as rural industry began to feel the changes brought about by the industrialization of textile manufacturing. two new machines revolutionized the textile industry. Mechanically. To meet the increased demand for textiles and other products. Many farms were organized along industrial lines. By the 1780's. John Kay. For further information on the development of spinning machines. a former Preston barber. spinning had been done in the home on a simple device called a spinning wheel. it was the first step in the industrialization of textile manufacturing. However. For hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution. these strands were stronger than strands of uniform tightness. The other machine was the water frame. When combined. in time. This machine made all the movements for weaving. especially in the production of yarn used to make coarse cloth. Between 1774 and 1779. The first textile mills appeared in Great Britain in the 1740's. England had 120 mills. landowners began raising raw materials rather than food on their land. In the 1760's. These machines ended the home spinning industry. Both machines solved many of the problems of roller spinning. and John Wyatt. Weaving machines. This machine combined features of the spinning jenny and the water frame and. making some strands tighter than others. They had metal rollers and several hundred spindles. During the 1780's and 1790's. The first spinning machines were crude devices that often broke the fragile threads. invented by Sir Richard Arkwright. invented the flying shuttle. which. but
. had been imported from India. the merchants turned increasingly to machinery for greater production and to factories for central control over their workers. almost all weaving was done on handlooms because no one could solve the problems of mechanical weaving. powering it with a foot pedal. There was a large increase in capital investment in agriculture. or throstle. As a result. In 1738. One person operated the wheel. The finished yarn was wound onto a bobbin that revolved on a spindle. a Lancashire weaver named Samuel Crompton developed the spinning mule. a Lichfield mechanic. invented by James Hargreaves. before the invention of the mule. All these problems increased the merchants' costs. larger spinning mules were built. Until the early 1800's. a Blackburn weaver and carpenter. a Lancashire clockmaker. patented an improved roller-spinning machine. The size of farms increased. The mule was particularly efficient in spinning fine yarn for highquality cloth. the roller-spinning machine was not completely successful. a Middlesex inventor.often had to compete with one another for the limited number of workers available in a manufacturing district. The spinning wheel produced only one thread at a time. In 1733. and several had been built in Scotland. replaced both machines. the part of the machine that twisted the strands into yarn. Lewis Paul. Standards of farm management improved. The combined strands passed onto the flier. One was the spinning jenny. This machine pulled the strands of material through sets of wooden rollers that moved at different speeds. The quality of livestock and crop seed also improved greatly. Spinning machines.
Iron was used to improve machines and tools and to build bridges and ships. The first commercial steam engine was produced in 1698. John Horrocks. Most of them were used to weave cotton. Thomas Savery. When Watt began to experiment with the steam engine. handlooms were used only to make fancy-patterned cloth. James Watt of Scotland began working to improve the steam engine. After the mid-1800's. Newcomen's engine came into general use during the 1720's. Early ironmaking. In the 1760's. which still could not be made on power looms. The pigs were then hammered by hand
. That year. Industry needed a new. English inventors developed a planer. an Anglican clergyman named Edmund Cartwright developed a steampowered loom. nearly all the basic machine tools necessary for modern industry were in general use. which smoothed the surfaces of the steam engine's metal parts. In 1803. It wasted much heat and used a great amount of fuel. Oxygen in the ore combined with the fuel. invented a boring machine that drilled a more precise hole. Coal provided the power to drive the steam engines and was needed to make iron. and the pure. he had eliminated many of the problems of earlier engines. For more information on the development of the steam engine. a Cornish army officer. melted metal flowed into small molds called pigs. Between 1800 and 1825. This separation process is called smelting. In 1775. In the mid-1780's. Great Britain had more than 120. and efficient source of power and found it in the steam engine. the metal must be separated from the nonmetallic elements in the ore. As a result. his engines leaked steam. he could not find a tool that drilled a perfectly round hole. The enormous potential of the steam engine and power-driven machinery could not have been achieved without the development of machine tools to shape metal. a Devonshire blacksmith.it often went out of control. built an all-metal loom. By 1835. John Wilkinson. In 1712. a Lancashire machine manufacturer. Great Britain's large deposits of coal and iron ore helped make it the world's first industrial nation. improved on Savery's engine. By 1785. a Staffordshire ironmaker. cheap. For thousands of years before the Industrial Revolution. smelting had been done by placing iron ore in a furnace with a burning fuel that lacked enough oxygen to burn completely. By 1830. Coal and iron The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without coal and iron. Watt's engine used heat much more efficiently than Newcomen's engine and used less fuel. patented a pumping engine that used steam. Thomas Newcomen. Newcomen's steam engine had serious faults.000 power looms. The steam engine Many of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution required much more power than horses or water wheels could provide. To make iron. Other British machine makers made further improvements in the steam-powered loom during the early 1800's.
and iron production expanded enormously. Grooves were added to the rolling cylinders. The next year. including machine frames. Great Britain had almost used up its hardwood forests by the early 1700's. allowing manufacturers to roll iron into different shapes. Beginning in the early 1600's. a Shropshire ironmaker. The use of coke for smelting and puddling finally freed the British iron industry of any dependence on charcoal. for example. Smelting and rolling thus became rural activities done by local workers. In 1806. coke smelting spread throughout Britain. Abraham Darby. steam engine parts. Cort did not invent the puddling furnace. Since the 1600's. and rolling steps could be combined into a continuous operation near the coal fields. Before Cort developed his puddling furnace. Ironmaking techniques continued to improve. Smelting with coke was much more economical and efficient than smelting with charcoal. the pigs were shipped to rolling mills. After 1760. the smelting. The puddling process produced high-quality iron. Pig iron was reheated in Cort's puddling furnace until it became a paste. A person called a puddler stirred the paste with iron rods until the impurities were burned away. the pig iron was softened by reheating and rolled into sheets by heavy iron cylinders.
. Darby's son Abraham Darby II developed a process that made coke iron as easy to work as charcoal iron. As a result. ironmakers had to use charcoal to reheat the pig iron for rolling. The revolution in ironmaking. In addition. Coke is made by heating coal in an airtight oven. They still preferred the more workable iron smelted with charcoal. Most of Great Britain's iron ore deposits and hardwood forests were in rural areas.900 metric tons) of iron. Most machines were made of wood. he patented a puddling furnace. At a rolling mill. made by burning hardwoods. instead of simply into thin sheets. and water pipes. Between 1709 and 1713. southern Wales. Charcoal became so expensive that many ironmakers in Britain quit the industry because of the high costs of production. But Cort's furnace--with its combined rolling mill--used coke. the British iron industry became concentrated in four coal-mining regions--Staffordshire. Manufacturers complained that coke-smelted iron was brittle and could not be worked easily. As a result. The most practical fuel for smelting was charcoal. A Fareham ironmaker named Henry Cort took out a patent for improved grooved rollers in 1783. Wood was also in demand for other purposes. succeeded in using coke to smelt iron. an important breakthrough occurred in rolling the iron.into sheets. they produced over three times that amount. But by the early 1800's. and along the River Clyde in Scotland. but he made great improvements in it.000 short tons (68. British ironmakers produced about 76. probably only about 5 per cent of all British iron was made into machine parts. The purified iron was then passed through Cort's grooved rollers and formed into the desired shape. puddling. But most ironmakers continued to use charcoal. About 1750. During the mid-1700's. charcoal had been used in many other manufacturing processes besides smelting and rolling. In 1788. manufacturers used iron to make a wide variety of products. rails. Yorkshire. In the 1720's.
Locomotive (History). Great Britain had many rivers and harbors that could be adapted to carrying freight. They rode horseback or walked. iron. Telford developed a technique of using large flat stones for road foundations. which moved on iron rails. People rarely traveled by stagecoach. McAdam originated the macadam type of road surface. The orders and money involved in business and industry also moved faster and more simply. By the mid-1800's. The first rail systems in Great Britain carried coal. the story of the Industrial Revolution is also the story of a revolution in transportation. John Loudon McAdam and Thomas Telford. Thus. They also built canals to link cities and to connect coal fields with rivers.
. See Railroad (History). and pack animals carried goods over long distances. which consists of crushed rock packed into thin layers. Several other locomotives were built during the next 20 years. But by the late 1700's. A series of turnpikes was built between 1751 and 1771. steampowered ships were beginning to carry raw materials and finished products across the Atlantic Ocean. As a result. Horses pulled the freight cars. Railroads. the American inventor Robert Fulton built the first commercially successful steamboat. made important advances in road construction during the early 1800's. Steam locomotives did not begin to come into general use for passenger and freight transportation until the late 1830's. Two Scottish engineers. the Grand Trunk Canal connected the River Mersey with the Trent and Severn rivers and thus linked the English ports of Bristol. Richard Trevithick. Most usable roads extended only a short distance beyond a town. However. a Cornish engineer.Transportation The growth of the Industrial Revolution depended on industry's ability to transport raw materials and finished goods over long distances. waterways provided the only cheap and effective means of hauling coal. and Liverpool. manufactured goods could be delivered more efficiently. In 1807. Until the early 1800's. Horse-drawn wagons traveled with difficulty. In 1804. the turnpikes needed repairs badly. Within a few years. built the first steam locomotive. Waterways. British engineers widened and deepened many streams to make them navigable. Britain had poor roads. steamboats became common on British rivers. In 1777. These new methods of roadbuilding made travel by land faster and smoother. British engineers also built many bridges and lighthouses and deepened harbors. and they were used to haul freight at coal mines and at ironworks. Until the early 1800's. which made travel by horse-drawn wagons and stagecoaches easier. industry generally preferred to use stationary engines that pulled the freight cars by means of cables. Roads. Hull. and other heavy freight.
In 1750. These merchants and other English people began seeking investment opportunities after seeing industries make large profits. Most banks did not directly invest in factories or make loans to factory owners for the purchase of machinery. the individuals who provided capital grew increasingly important. Some banks. who then placed orders with manufacturers. As machinery and factories became more expensive. wholesalers.The role of capital Individual investors played a vital part in the growth of the Industrial Revolution from the beginning. made short-term loans to industrialists to cover their operating expenses. Such loans allowed industrialists to use their own money to buy equipment and improve and expand their factories. These industrial capitalists soon became one of the most powerful forces in British commercial and political life. the city had 70.
. By 1800. Gradually. or from commerce with Britain's colonies. London had 20 banks. banks were founded to handle the increased flow of money. however. Many English merchants made fortunes during the 1700's from European wars. and retail merchants. from the slave trade with North America. Banks mainly provided credit to farmers.