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Laboratory work

Student: Emrah Qulubeyli
Lecturer: Professor Suleymanov Eldar Məmməd
Subject: Oil and gas wells drilling technique and
technology
Group: 272.6(E)
Course: 3rd

such as water wells. Various kinds of drilling muds. in which a wide range of gases can be used. with water added to increase viscosity.  Air/water: The same as above. drilling fluids are also used for much simpler boreholes.[1] Liquid drilling fluid is often called drilling mud. The three main categories of drilling fluids are water-based muds (which can be dispersed and non-dispersed). usually called oil-based mud. . Drilling Fluids Driller pouring anti-foaming agentdown the drilling string on a drilling rig Barite powder used for preparation of water-based mud In geotechnical engineering. or that some types be used in combination with others. drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth. Some wells require that different types be used at different parts in the hole. oil-based drilling muds (OBs) and their formatives are being used along with appropriate polymer and clay additives for drilling various oil and gas formations. carrying out drill cuttings. The various types of fluid generally fall into a few broad categories:[3]  Air: Compressed air is pumped either down the bore hole's annular space or down the drill string itself. provide more cooling. Often used while drilling oil and natural gaswells and on exploration drilling rigs. The main functions of drilling fluids include providing hydrostatic pressure to prevent formation fluids from entering into the well bore. keeping the drill bit cool and clean during drilling. The drilling fluid used for a particular job is selected to avoid formation damage and to limit corrosion. non-aqueous muds. flush the hole. such as water-based drilling muds (WBs). and suspending the drill cuttings while drilling is paused and when the drilling assembly is brought in and out of the hole. and gaseous drilling fluid. Types[edit] Source:[2] Many types of drilling fluids are used on a day-to-day basis. and/or to control dust.

or specific types of clay that are processed and sold as additives for the WBM system. The mud then carries the crushed or cut rock ("cuttings") up the annular space ("annulus") between the drill string and the sides of the hole being drilled. frequently referred to in the oilfield as "gel". including increased lubricity. enhance drilling rate of penetration. Synthetic-based fluid poses the same environmental and analysis problems as oil-based fluid. Oil-based muds also withstand greater heat without breaking down. it can be very thin and free-flowing (like chocolate milk). including: viscosity control. In offshore drilling sea water is typically used while drilling the top section of the hole. is added to the water & air mixture to create specific conditions. This is most often used on offshore rigs because it has the properties of an oil-based mud. and greater cleaning abilities with less viscosity. The use of oil-based muds has special considerations. including cost. then clays and other chemicals are incorporated into the water to create a homogeneous blend resembling something between chocolate milk and a malt (depending on viscosity). potassium formate) are added to a WBM system to achieve various effects. environmental considerations such as disposal of cuttings in an appropriate place. though when pumping is stopped. the pits are also where the fluid is treated by adding chemicals and other substances. the static fluid builds a "gel" structure that resists flow. and the exploratory disadvantages of using oil-based mud.  Water: Water by itself is sometimes used. . Cuttings are then filtered out with either a shale shaker. The clay is usually a combination of native clays that are suspended in the fluid while drilling. where it emerges back at the surface.  Synthetic-based fluid (SBM) (Otherwise known as Low Toxicity Oil Based Mud or LTOBM): Synthetic-based fluid is a mud where the base fluid is a synthetic oil. Using an oil-based mud interferes with the geochemical analysis of cuttings and cores and with the determination of API gravitybecause the base fluid cannot be distinguished from oil returned from the formation. A foaming agent is a good example of a polymer. Oil-based muds are used for many reasons.g. The mud pits let the drilled "fines" settle. When an adequate pumping force is applied to "break the gel". The most common of these is bentonite. and the mud returns to the mud pits. cooling and lubricating of equipment. mud is pumped from the mud pits through the drill string where it sprays out of nozzles on the drill bit. On a drilling rig. most often referred to as a type of polymer.  Oil-based mud (OBM): Oil-based mud is a mud where the base fluid is a petroleum product such as diesel fuel. shale stability. but the toxicity of the fluid fumes are much less than an oil-based fluid. flow resumes and the fluid returns to its previously free-flowing state. up through the surface casing. especially in wildcat wells. cleaning and cooling the drill bit in the process. Gel likely makes reference to the fact that while the fluid is being pumped. enhanced shale inhibition. This is important when men work with the fluid in an enclosed space such as an offshore drilling rig.  Water-based mud (WBM): Most basic water-based mud systems begin with water. Air/polymer: A specially formulated chemical. Many other chemicals (e. or the newer shale conveyor technology.

borehole stability. special monitoring sensors and explosion-proof certifiedequipment is commonly installed. and workers are advised to take safety precautions. Because of the risk of a fire or an explosion if they ignite. After testing. and density. as cuttings will settle to the bottom of the well if the viscosity is too low. Function[edit] The main functions of a drilling mud can be summarized as follows:[2] Remove cuttings from well[edit] Mud Pit Drilling fluid carries the rock excavated by the drill bit up to the surface. and other requirements listed below.Fluid Pit The returning mud can contain natural gases or other flammable materials which will collect in and around the shale shaker / conveyor area or in other work areas. the mud is treated periodically in the mud pits to ensure properties which optimize and improve drilling efficiency. The mud viscosity is another important property. and speed of fluid traveling up the well (annular velocity). shape. The mud is then pumped back down the hole and further re-circulated. Its ability to do so depends on cutting size. These considerations are analogous to the ability of a stream to carry sediment. . large sand grains in a slow-moving stream settle to the stream bed. while small sand grains in a fast- moving stream are carried along with the water.

this causes a wide variation in the density of well fluid. drill solids must be removed from mud on the 1st circulation from the well. This characteristic keeps the cuttings suspended when the mud is not flowing during. where poor hole cleaning conditions occur. Control formation pressures[edit] Source: [2]  If formation pressure increases.  Conduct a test to compare the sand content of mud at flow line and suction pit (to determine whether cuttings are being removed).Fly Ash Absorbent for Fluids in Mud Pits Other properties include:  Most drilling muds are thixotropic (viscosity increase during static conditions).  High density fluids may clean hole adequately even with lower annular velocities (by increasing the buoyancy force acting on cuttings). to move into higher transport regions of the annulus. so mud weight is not usually increased for hole cleaning purposes. If re-circulated. Transport ratio (transport velocity / lowest annular velocity) should be at least 50%.  High concentrations of drill solids are detrimental to:  Drilling efficiency (it causes increased mud weight and viscosity. The most common weighting material is barite.  Weight material that settles is referred to as sag.  Drill cuttings that settle can causes bridges and fill. Increased rotation is the one of the best methods for increasing hole cleaning in high angle and horizontal wells. Unbalanced . which can cause stuck-pipe and lost circulation. maintenance. This helical flow around the drill-string causes drill cuttings near the wall.  Higher rotary drill-string speeds introduce a circular component to annular flow path. weight materials and additives under a wide range of conditions. this more frequently occurs in high angle and hot wells. cuttings break into smaller pieces and are more difficult to remove. mud density should also be increased to balance pressure and keep the wellbore stable.  Higher annular velocity improves cutting transport. for example. But may have a negative impact if mud weight is in excess of that needed to balance the pressure of surrounding rock (formation pressure). Suspend and release cuttings[edit] Source:[2]  Must suspend drill cuttings.  Fluids that have shear thinning and elevated viscosities are efficient for hole cleaning. which in turn increases maintenance costs and increased dilution)  Rate of Penetration (ROP) (increases horsepower required to circulate)  Mud properties that are suspended must be balanced with properties in cutting removal by solids control equipment  For effective solids controls.

asphalt and gilsonite). in this condition mud filtrate invades the formation. Formation damage is reduced by conservative hydraulics system.  For effectiveness. glycols and oil – best for water sensitive formations)  Oil (and synthetic oil) based drilling fluids are used to drill most water sensitive Shales in areas with difficult drilling conditions. mist. Maintain wellbore stability[edit] Source:[2]  Chemical composition and mud properties must combine to provide a stable wellbore. natural & synthetic polymer.  Wellbore stability = hole maintains size and cylindrical shape. air.  Depending on the mud system in use.  Hydrostatic pressure = density of drilling fluid * true vertical depth * acceleration of gravity. ground cellulose). Seal permeable formations[edit] Source:[2]  Mud column pressure must exceed formation pressure. which can cause tight hole conditions. poor hole cleaning.  Mud is designed to deposit thin. then mud solids can form seal. brittle shales can be extremely unstable (leading to mechanical problems). If hydrostatic pressure is greater than or equal to formation pressure.  To add inhibition. potassium. With water base mud. chemical differences can cause interactions between mud & shale that lead to softening of the native rock.  If formation pressure is subnormal. salt.  If the hole is enlarged. solids loading and poor formation evaluation  In sand and sandstones formations. A good quality filter cake containing bentonite is known to limit bore hole enlargement. it becomes weak and difficult to stabilize.  Bridging agents (e. poor log quality. resulting in problems such as low annular velocities. mud density should be limited to the minimum necessary for well control and wellbore stability. lost circulation and formation damage.  Well control means no uncontrollable flow of formation fluids into the wellbore.  Various chemical inhibitors can control mud / shale interactions (calcium. low permeability filter cake to limit the invasion. stuck pipe. stiff foam. asphalt. these may make wellbores unstable even when formation fluid pressure is balanced.  In practice. polymers. bridging agents must be over the half size of pore spaces / fractures. tight hole conditions.g. Highly fractured.  Problems occur if a thick filter cake is formed. mud weight is usually sufficient to balance formation stress. or low density mud (oil base) can be used. whole mud may invade the formation. a number of additives can improve the filter cake (e. . calcium carbonate.  Use bridging agents to block large opening. dry. hole enlargement can be accomplished by mechanical actions (hydraulic forces & nozzles velocities). gas.  Wellbore instability = sloughing formations.  In shales. as these wells are usually stable. bentonite. formation pressures will cause an unexpected influx (also known as a kick) of formation fluids in the wellbore possibly leading to a blowout from pressured formation fluids.  In highly permeable formations with large bore throats. depending on mud solids size. and a filter cake of mud is deposited on the wellbore wall.  Hydrostatic pressure also controls the stresses caused by tectonic forces. formation fluid will not flow into the wellbore. bridges and fill on trips (same symptoms indicate hole cleaning problems).g. emulsified brine phase (calcium chloride) drilling fluids are used to reduce water activity and creates osmotic forces to prevent adsorption of water by Shales. If too great it may fracture the formation. Weight of the mud must be within the necessary range to balance the mechanical forces.

poor hole cleaning and incorrect bottom hole assemblies design.  Amount of lubrication provided by drilling fluid depends on type & quantity of drill solids and weight materials + chemical composition of system. lubricate.  Most common damage. heavy string or casing. buoyancy possible to run casing strings whose weight exceed a rig's hook load capacity. .  When running long. drill string and mud motors would fail more rapidly. but these problems are also caused by key seating. plastic viscosities and solids.  Poor lubrication causes high torque and drag.  Mud or drill solids invade the formation matrix. heat checking of the drill string.  Weight that derrick can support limited by mechanical capacity.  Cool and transfer heat away from source and lower to temperature than bottom hole.  Drilling fluids also support portion of drill-string or casing through buoyancy. Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit[edit] Source:[2]  Hydraulic energy provides power to mud motor for bit rotation and for MWD (measurement while drilling) and LWD (logging while drilling) tools. minimize formation damage.Minimizing formation damage[edit] Source:[2]  Skin damage or any reduction in natural formation porosity and permeability (washout) constitutes formation damage  skin damage is the accumulation of residuals on the perforations and that causes a pressure drop through them . reducing porosity and causing skin effect  Swelling of formation clays within the reservoir. increase depth so weight of drill-string and casing increase.  Lubrication based on the coefficient of friction. Hydraulic programs base on bit nozzles sizing for available mud pump horsepower to optimize jet impact at bottom well.  Limited to:  Pump horsepower  Pressure loss inside drillstring  Maximum allowable surface pressure  Optimum flow rate  Drill string pressure loses higher in fluids of higher densities. buoyed by force equal to weight (or density) of mud. Cool.  If not. reduced permeability  Precipitation of solids due to mixing of mud filtrate and formations fluids resulting in the precipitation of insoluble salts  Mud filtrate and formation fluids form an emulsion. reducing reservoir porosity  Specially designed drill-in fluids or workover and completion fluids. Suspend in drilling fluid. the bit.and synthetic-based mud generally lubricate better than water-based mud (but the latter can be improved by the addition of lubricants). so reducing hook load at derrick. and support the bit and drilling assembly[edit] Source:[2]  Heat is generated from mechanical and hydraulic forces at the bit and when the drill string rotates and rubs against casing and wellbore.("Coefficient of friction" is how much friction on side of wellbore and collar size or drill pipe size to pull stuck pipe) Oil.

shear thinning drilling fluids such as polymer fluids.  During casing run. For effectiveness.  Mud non progressive gel strength[clarification needed] . foaming and other O2 trapped conditions cause corrosion damage in short period time. mud must remain fluid and minimize pressure surges so fracture induced lost circulation does not occur. Facilitate cementing and completion[edit] Source:[2]  Cementing is critical to effective zone and well completion. Control corrosion (in acceptable level)[edit] Source:[2]  Drill-string and casing in continuous contact with drilling fluid may cause a form of corrosion. caving or bridges will prevent a good casing run to bottom. and drilling fluid composition. rates and to tell correct chemical inhibitor is used in correct amount. carbon dioxide. turbulent flow . catastrophic failure  May be deadly to humans after a short period of time  Low pH (acidic) aggravates corrosion.  Mud loggers examine cuttings for mineral composition. Circulate well bore until clean.  Mud aeration.  Mud should have thin.  Dissolved gases (oxygen.low viscosity high pump rate.high viscosity. usually 70 degrees. high pump rate. mud parameters should be tolerant of formations being drilled. wellbore with minimal cuttings. use proper hole cleaning techniques.  When drilling in high H2S. so use corrosion coupons[clarification needed] to monitor corrosion type. sonic.  Transfer information from MWD & LWD to surface by pressure pulse. and perform wiper trip to shoe. gas detection or geological parameters.  Hole near gauges. mud displace by flushes and cement. slick filter cake.  Mud low viscosity. asphalts will mask hydrocarbon indications. lubricants.  Wireline logging measure – electrical. visual sign of hydrocarbons and recorded mud logs of lithology.  Temperature of water used for cement must be within tolerance of cementers performing task. pumping sweeps at TD. Ensure adequate formation evaluation[edit] Source:[2]  Chemical and physical mud properties as well as wellbore conditions after drilling affect formation evaluation. most notably in winter conditions. nuclear and magnetic resonance.  Potential productive zone are isolated and performed formation testing and drill stem testing. more efficient in transmit hydraulic energy.  Depth can be extended by controlling mud properties. hydrogen sulfide) cause serious corrosion problems.  Cause rapid.  So mud for drilling core selected base on type of evaluation to be performed (many coring operations specify a blend mud with minimum of additives). ROP. with minimal solids in filter cake.  Mud helps not to disperse of cuttings and also improve cutting transport for mud loggers determine the depth of the cuttings originated.  To cement and completion operation properly. Low solids. laminar flow .  Oil-based mud. elevated the pH fluids + sulfide scavenging chemical (zinc).

or starch. all clay from mining operations. However. polyanionic cellulose (PAC). Various thickeners are used to influence the viscosity of the fluid. a large oil field in Ecuador where drillers were effectively unregulated.[4] Water based drilling fluid has very little toxicity. when mixed into water based drilling fluids.[6] Factors influencing drilling fluid performance[edit] Three factors affecting drilling fluid performance are:[7]  The change of drilling fluid viscosity  The change of drilling fluid density  The change of mud pH  Corrosion or fatigue of the drill string[8]  Thermal stability of the drilling fluid[9] . bentonite. Oil Base Mud and synthetic drilling fluids can contain high levels of benzene. then was made obsolete when lignosulfonates became available. polyphosphates. A Vanity Fair articledescribed the conditions at Lago Agrio. A weighting agent such as barite is added to increase the overall density of the drilling fluid so that sufficient bottom hole pressure can be maintained thereby preventing an unwanted (and often dangerous) influx of formation fluids. anhydrous lime. such as hydrochloric acid. usually found in Wyoming and in Lunde. e. barite and polymers are the most common chemicals used in water based drilling fluids. use of silica and clay nanoparticles for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) invert emulsion based muds. lignosulfonates (Lig) or tannic acid derivates such as Quebracho) are frequently used. Caustic (sodium hydroxide).g. Other components are added to provide various specific functional characteristics as listed above. calcium carbonate (chalk) or hematite. bentonite and barite. fluid loss additives (to control loss of drilling fluids into permeable formations). shale inhibitors. Some other common additives include lubricants. In turn. acrylates. Source:[2] Mud is. named after the color of the red tannic acid salts. Telemark. anionic polyelectrolytes (e. it was commonly used in the 1940s to 1950s. xanthan gum.Minimize impact on environment[edit] Unlined drilling fluid sumps were commonplace before the environmental consequences were recognized. Red mud was the name for a Quebracho-based mixture. There are specific chemicals that can be used in water based drilling fluids that alone can be corrosive and toxic. made from water. It is also difficult and expensive to dispose of it in an environmentally friendly manner. and other chemicals Most common chemicals added to OBM Muds:  Barite  Bentonite  Diesel  Emulsifiers  Water Composition of drilling mud[edit] Source:[5] Water-based drilling mud most commonly consists of bentonite clay (gel) with additives such as barium sulfate (barite). and observed their positive effect on the rheology of the drilling mud. hydrochloric acid only decreases the pH of the water to a more manageable level. carboxymethylcellulose. toxic. Also. in varying degrees. soda ash.g. deflocculants are used to reduce viscosity of clay- based muds. glycol. guar gum.

bentonite. service personnel who monitor gas from the mud and collect well bore samples.low pH gypsum. In Europe this is more commonly a 21-day shift pattern. alkalinity. The cost of the drilling fluid is typically about 10% (may vary greatly) of the total cost of drilling a well. This individual typically works for the company selling the chemicals for the job and is specifically trained with those products. Most muds of this type are water-based with varying quantities of bentonite and a polymer.  Oil based mud: Oil based muds contain oil as the continuous phase and water as a contaminant. organic mud and organic colloid treated mud. . or more properly drilling fluids engineer.0–9. Two mud engineers also reduce insurance costs to oil companies for environmental damage that oil companies are responsible for during drilling and production. Differential sticking Drilling mud classification[edit] They are classified based on their fluid phase. The role of the mud engineer.5 lbs/gal. is very critical to the entire drilling operation because even small problems with mud can stop the whole operations on rig. Oil-based muds are usually a mixture of diesel fuel and asphalt. In offshore drilling. Non-dispersed systems[edit]  Low solids mud: These muds contain less than 3–6% solids by volume and weight less than 9. Having two mud engineers makes economic sense to prevent down time due to drilling fluid difficulties. The internationally accepted shift pattern at off-shore drilling operations is personnel (including mud engineers) work on a 28-day shift pattern. A senior mud engineer typically works in the day.  Water based drilling mud that represses hydration and dispersion of clay – There are 4 types: high pH lime muds. Dispersed systems[edit]  Freshwater mud: Low pH mud (7.5 in pH. however can be based on produced crude oil and mud Mud engineer[edit] Main article: mud engineer Mud pit with fly ash "Mud engineer" is the name given to an oil field service company individual who is charged with maintaining a drilling fluid or completion fluid system on an oil and/or gas drilling rig. The mud engineer is not to be confused with mudloggers. though independent mud engineers are still common. and not an element in the design of the mud. with new technology and high total day costs. wells are being drilled extremely fast. They typically contain less than 5% (by volume) water.  Emulsions: The two types used are oil in water (oil emulsion muds) and water in oil (invert oil emulsion muds). where they work for 28 continuous days and rest the following 28 days. dispersion and the type of chemicals used. seawater and saturated salt water muds. and a junior mud engineer at night. and demands competent mud engineers. high pH mud example alkaline tannate treated muds are above 9. natural.5) that includes spud. Large cost savings result when the mud engineer and fluid performs adequately. phosphate treated muds.