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Some Principles of Stratification

Author(s): Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore
Source: American Sociological Review, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1944 Annual Meeting Papers (Apr.,
1945), pp. 242-249
Published by: American Sociological Association
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levels: to instill in the proper individuals because of space limitations. an effort is made to explain. once will be on the universals. and quite handling the phenomena of social in. whereas a non-competitive system as a result what is actually very tentative is pre- sented in an unfortunately dogmatic manner. Throughout.been able to enter into a more sympathetic ing of a step-parent has been to the ad.225. the emphasis the desire to fill certain positions. 'The writers regret (and beg indulgence) that the system is competitive or non-competi- the present essay. the present task requires two dif- vating individuals in the social structure. as between the major types of positions in every society. In some instances. the main functional cation. not form. Their absorption Kingsley Davis.jstor. The first ques- which calls forth stratification in any social tion. Next. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about. un-the new parent has broken homes. gives perhaps greater importance to the mo- This content downloaded from 37. A competitive system gives greater covers so much in such short space that adequate importance to the motivation to achieve evidence and qualification cannot be given and that positions. STRATIFICATION ferences in the degree and kind of stratifi- Curiously. it is essential to keep them separate lationship between stratification and the in our thinking. Naturally positions and induce them to perform the each line of inquiry aids the other and is duties of these positions. 1942. intimacy with the child than his own parent. a condensation of a longer study. and in the treatment that cern itself with motivation at two different follows the two will be interwoven. the com. and. MooRE Princeton University IN A PREVIOUS PAPER some concepts for carry different degrees of prestige.128. Most of the literature on rest of the social order. as the argu- paper a further step in stratification theory ment will try to show. and die off. related. 242 AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW less wholesome than those of children vantage in for of the child. although. however. an attempt is made to explain case of any particular individual or group.218 on . it will be necessary to keep in these positions." or question (particularly with regard to the unstratified. ferent lines of analysis-one to understand As a functioning mechanism a society must the universal. there is a continuous process of me- to the individuals occupying those positions. It must thus con- indispensable. there occur THE FUNCTIONAL NECESSITY OF between one society and another great dif. faced by any society of placing and moti- Clearly. another to ask how certain individuals get equality were presented. the universal necessity without tackling the first. It is one thing to ask why different positions shift with age. some attention is also given to the necessity explaining the universal presence of varieties of social inequality and the variable stratification is precisely the requirement factors that give rise to them. This is true whether 309-321. Although. is logically prior and. Since. "A Conceptual Analysis of into the positional system must somehow be Stratification. in the system.2 Starting from the stratification has tried to answer the second proposition that no society is "classless. however. the desire to perform the duties attached to them.' In the present into those positions. June. 7: arranged and motivated. Even though the in mind one thing-namely. both questions are is undertaken-an attempt to show the re. tive. that the discus- social order may be relatively static in sion relates to the system of positions. in ease or difficulty of mobility between strata) functional terms. tabolism as new individuals are born into it. the other to understand the somehow distribute its members in social variable features of stratification. the roughly uniform distribution of prestige factually prior. however. SOME PRINCIPLES OF STRATIFICATION KINGSLEY DAVIS AND WILBERT E." American Sociological Review.

it need not be duties of the position. pete successfully with more essential ones. In other words. positions in proportion to their functional In a sense the rewards are "built into" the importance. by the most qualified persons. it is essential prestige and esteem. They consist in the "rights" as. which (a) have the greatest contribute to self respect and ego expansion. It equality subserves. ing to positions.218 on Fri. any social system all three kinds of rewards Differential Functional Importance. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about. SOME PRINCIPLES OF STRATIFICATION 243 tivation to perform the duties of the posi. and.factors that will be discussed presently. the things that contribute factors that determine the relative rank of to sustenance and comfort. it must be called its accompaniments or perquisites. then no difference who got into which positions. and perquisites that are not essential to the tions. (Rights as viewed by heavily rewarded. Functional importance This content downloaded from 37. plus what may filled competently. some kind of rewards that it can use as type of inequality need be the same in all inducements. It does not follow that the amount or first. but which still may be of considerable positions were all equally pleasant to the importance in inducing people to seek the human organism. no matter how simple or complex. In means and is a matter of scarcity. It merely needs to give sufficient position. then. and all equally in need of If the rights and perquisites of different the same ability or talent. even though important. and hence have the sion. second. Social be greatly reduced. all equally important to positions and fulfil the essential duties. The rewards and their dis- tribution become a part of the social order. the society must be stratified. function of the position and have only an tivation are required. the things that highest rank. But actually it does makeinequality is thus an unconsciously evolved a great deal of difference who gets into which device by which societies insure that the most positions. and sometimes the accom. societal survival. Hence every but also because some require special talents society. some way of dis. because that and the problem of social placement would is precisely what stratification means. the reward must be high enough to . there may be a host of subsidiary rightsget it filled anyway. and must therefore that the duties of the positions be performed possess a certain amount of institutionalized with the diligence that their importance re. inequality. Actu- must be dispensed differentially according ally a society does not need to reward to positions. And it has. first of all. Inevitably. is largerly a function factor concerns function and is a matter of of the opinion of others. quires. societies. it would make positions in a society must be unequal. The first character of the self. not only because some positions important positions are conscientiously filled are inherently more agreeable than others. the different positions. On the incumbent are usually duties as viewed the other hand.225. indirect and symbolic connection with its If the duties associated with the various duties. see that less essential positions do not com- Often the rights. are functionally related to the If a position is easily filled. if it is important but hard by other members of the community. but in any system both types of mo. It has. POSITIONAL RANK One may ask what kind of rewards a society has at its disposal in distributing its Granting the general function that in- personnel and securing essential services. This is largerly a function of tributing these rewards differentially accord. convey the best reward. because of the peculiarly social the greatest training or talent. second. paniments. THE TWO DETERMINANTS OF and thus give rise to stratification.) How.128. the second concerns ranks in importance with the first two. Also. In general those positions things that contribute to humor and diver. a society must have. one can specify the two has. but it nonetheless relative significance. or training and some are functionally more must differentiate persons in terms of both important than others. reward to them to insure that they will be sociated with the position.importance for the society and (b) require The last. fill.jstor.

ate as a system. This means. may but the training process is so long. in fact. a cause of high rank being assigned to a virtually accidental relationship. but it is safe to assume that the more organizes a large portion of the population into its important functions receive the first and clearest structural differentiation. the position.D. for in Modem medicine.. but from a practical attributable to whatever factors affect the standpoint the scarcity may lie primarily two determinants of differential reward- in one or the other.218 on Fri. and at the same time unspecialized. Both clues are best exemplified in or. This is implicit in the very necessary skills in competition with other notion of position. if functionally important. But if the position. for the whole society may be relatively around one main function. talent. costly. they influence behavior. Thus. sary is apparently to be found in the fact cult to establish. Obviously. each structure pos- sesses many different positions. be different. must require some form of skill or capacity for have an attractive power that will draw the performance. functional importance is diffi. If the talents required for a position are MAJOR SOCIETAL FUNCTIONS AND abundant and the training easy. mentioned grounds of differential reward. some clearly de. Derived neither from in- ganized systems of positions built around one major herited nor from external nature. they have function. by virtue of his incumbency. two independent clues: (a) the bers of certain ultimate values and ends degree to which a position is functionally unique.jstor. The absence of such pendent on. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about.128. Practi. in . then. The reason why religion is neces- ' Unfortunately. There may be. which a person's qualifications come about: How Variations Are to Be Understood. only two ways in ample leisure. in turn. est functional importance. In addition. To use the position's prestige to that human society achieves its unity pri- establish it. In sum. in effect. cally all positions. Any particular system of stratifica- take it if the position of the M. talent is fairly abundant in the population or their degree of internal development. marily through the possession by its mem- There are. Although these values and ends there being no other positions that can perform the are subjective. the method STRATIFICATION of acquiring the position may have little to Religion. consti- tutes circular reasoning from our point of view. skills required are scarce by reason of the Differential Scarcity of Personnel. can be understood as a product of carry a reward commensurate with the the special conditions affecting the two afore- sacrifice. but the external situation. There are. relationships. Positions important in one degree that the persons who fill them are society may not be important in another. did not tion. (b) the degree to which other positions are dependent on the one in their integration enables the society to oper- question. ultimately. may affect the question of scarcity. and educational func- tion and moral pressure. others. or the mental capacity of most individuals. as is often unconsciously done. which implies that the positions. and elaborate that relatively few can qualify. Some namely. political. evolved as a part of culture by communica- ligious. no matter how acquired. the key positions in it are of the high- This content downloaded from 37. in concrete activities both system of stratification and another.244 AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW is therefore a necessary but not a sufficient do with its duties. is within some societies the stage of development. high salary. for example. in most complex societies the re. They must. bound to be rare. if not subordinate to. rarity of talent or the costliness of training. position must be high in the social scale- accomplish certain things. must command great prestige. however. In many cases. so far as there is a difference between one ing. may wholly obviate a medical education is so burdensome and the necessity of certain kinds of skill or expensive that virtually none would under. The same conditions. functional importance and scarcity positions require innate talents of such high of personnel. as well as in both. how- tions are handled by distinct structures not easily interchangeable. that the incumbent must. In through inherent capacity or through train. however. it is are always necessary. and the like. because the conditions faced by the societies.225. specialization does not prove functional unimpor- when an institutional nucleus becomes differentiated tance. economic. and same function satisfactorily.

as in theo. capacity is not required. seems that the highest general position It is no accident. elaborate entire sacerdotal class. and yet the is that they do not get entire control over populace is unlettered and therefore credu- their societies. cratic regimes. in part at least. to the itself. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about. who debases the priestly position below what tend thereby to enjoy greater rewards than might be expected at first glance. if not intelligence. SOME PRINCIPLES OF STRATIFICATION 245 ever. Perhaps the most are worthy of note. a bit sacred. wordly goods. conspicuous natural world governs the destinies of men leisure. and an interpreter of he is protected by a professional guild. and the like. He is in such close contact priest's identification with the supernatural with the gods that he is viewed as possessing tends to preclude his acquisition of abundant some of their characteristics. that Through the worship of the sacred objects religious ritual is often elaborate and religious and the beings they symbolize. and hence free from some of As between one society and another it the more vulgar necessities and controls. He is. crops or build houses. One may assert. Certain of the why priestly prestige is highest in those rewards and special privileges may attach to societies where membership in the profession only the highest religious functionaries.128. That is why. Through himself up as enjoying an intimate relation belief and ritual the common ends and values with deities. the lore and myth. a but the technical requirements of the profes- powerful control over human conduct is sion are for the most part adventitious. since If this conception of the role of religion is the criteria of whether or not one has genuine true. If the super. abnormal conduct. Here there is enough very highest positions of power. appear to the members of the society competence necessary for the performance of to have some reality. Anyone can set inforce this appearance of reality. He and sacred knowledge alone will not grow is a keeper of sacred tradition. the factor of scarcity symbolized by concrete sacred objects. there is a peculiar relation be. Indeed. but others are en- This content downloaded from 37. economic production to afford a surplus. one can understand why in every known contact with the supernatural are never society the religious activities tend to be strictly clear. and the ac.jstor. looking at it from which can be used to support a numerous this point of view. That is the ordinary societal member. on the other hand. but is rigidly controlled by the priestly guild others usually apply. must be a powerful individual. celibacy. lore abstruse. the person through credited-as happens in a secularized society whom one may communicate with the super. not exercised. if such exists. Therefore. guiding it along lines sustaining related to the end in the same way that the institutional structure and conforming science is related to air travel. extreme example is to be found in the In the first place.225. The priest to the ultimate ends and values. and that priestly ministrations ceptance of supernatural prescriptions that require tact.218 on Fri. its always in danger of becoming somewhat dis- earthly representative. This is true. segregated residence. which of personnel does not operate in the technical world in turn is related in a meaningful way sense. -because in a world of stubborn fact. a skilled per. The factors that prevent this lous to a high degree. It is this competition that under the charge of particular persons. and nobody can successfully are connected with an imaginary world dispute him. the special privileges he enjoys. the priest is more ultimately than does the real world. devices are utilized to stress the identification Moreover. are at the same time codes of behavior. can never be free from competition. special diet. ritual natural. In fact. therefore. unless former of the ritual. Furthermore. of the person with his office-spectacular tween the duties of the religious official and costume. Scientific or artistic religious belief and ritual to supply and re. in short. one may wonder why it and highly organized priesthood. and it is the role of religious duties is . that religious awarded the priest occurs in the medieval functionaries have been associated with the type of social order. to the facts and trials of the individual's life. the amount of technical Buddhism of Tibet.

because sacred tradition and coming complete: (a) The fact that the supernaturalism drop into the background. talent. (c) The fact that the holder of prestige. the ultimate enforcement of . and externally. plays a unique and indispensable part in For this reason there is an economic aspect society. rulers represent the interest of the group tional rather than religious positions.mores designed to enforce this limitation of hood in a presumably secular milieu has lost interest.g. When the priest actually has high So clear is the power embodied in political prestige under these circumstances.225. of persons into positions and stimulating the The main functions of government are. When the matter is closely examined political office has his authority by virtue the urban proletariat.218 on Fri. Never. and Labor.128.the main function of which is not economic. if the society Political action. (b) The fact that the fundamentally political. economic. ciety to use unequal economic returns as a it orients the society to the actual rather principal means of controlling the entrance than the unseen world. But in contrast to religion. for their and prestige than a literal enumeration of ritualistic expression. that the following controls operate scientific technology. economically rewarded. that a society. it is easily possible for intellectuals restricted in their behavior by rules and to exaggerate the degree to which the priest. necessarily be few in number compared to pomorphic ways. or educa. en- Europe. and controls all minism of India. the Inca regime of Peru. On the other hand. No society has become so he may claim is purely incidental. the handling of war position does not bring power and prestige and diplomacy. however. it This content downloaded from 37. To carry out these functions because it draws a high income. it is not society some system must exist for the strange that the rulers often have less power integration of ultimate values. beliefs. Furthermore. Even in a secularized In view of these limiting factors. tion that secures for its incumbent a liveli- Government. it is position that political inequality is sometimes because he also performs other important thought to comprise all inequality. which to those positions (e. and are therefore theless. For the priestly status from the others has hardly this reason stratification is inherent in the gone far enough for priestly prestige to mean nature of political relationships. and the overall planning and direction of It should be stressed. An official can command because he differentiation. often has to depend upon others for technical tirely the belief in transcendental ends and assistance. the Brah. be shown that there are other bases of strati- In an extremely advanced society built on fication. by officials who occupy the total population. joys a monopoly of force. performance of their duties. it organizes the society It therefore becomes convenient for the so- in terms of law and authority. and es- The ultimate values and common ends of the pecially those determining top policy must society tend to be expressed in less anthro. proves to be suprisingly god-fearing any special knowledge. adjustments required by disappointment. as well as the rural of his office and nothing else. or capacity and priest-ridden. the economic return therefore becomes one of the main indices of social status. the priesthood tends to in practice to keep political power from be- lose status. Wealth. The amount of internally. Rather. by definition. Property. much. the separation of because he is subject to that authority. so that every priest must be has authority. Every posi- death. and the Mayan priesthood individuals within its territory. rather than of themselves. supernatural entities. actual holders of political office. and for the emotionaltheir formal rights would lead one to expect. of Yucatan. implies au- is so crude as to have no surplus and little thority. the final arbitration of conflicting interests. and the citizen must obey also a cultivator or hunter. so that he completely secularized as to liquidate en. political and religious) provides integration in terms of sentiments. Like religion. But it can functions (usually political and medical). by definition. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about. and disaster. government hood is.246 AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW countered in the Catholicism of feudal it acts as the agent of the entire people. and therefore citizenry. and rituals.

because it come like other positions. that is open to attack. just as it is erroneous to think that ship. without any of capital wealth. the religious. social position. political. It is true that the feudal landlord. Nevertheless. It is only this pure. contract. remaining an index. whether The economic source of power and prestige private or public. The function of individual spends can give rise to possession finding means to single goals. toward industrialization. will. however. emerges. but it did this again reflects the effect of his initial. peonage. I940.jstor. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about. give unequal advantage to the parties to a In a system of private property in produc. nomic in character. the distinction between ex- This content downloaded from 37. good consists in rights over the labor of others. is sion is a reward for the proper management the exclusively technical sphere. encomienda. some form of active ownership. Why they seldom if for pure ownership. 45 :84i-862. which is an but the essential principle remains in serfdom. Natu- In other words. but the ownership One kind of ownership of production goods of capital goods (including patents.128. and economic levels. In such a case ever receive the highest rewards is also clear: it is difficult to prove that the position is the importance of technical knowledge from functionally important or that the scarcity a societal point of view is never so great as involved is anything other than extrinsic and the integration of goals. nical skill receive fairly high rewards is easy ferentiation becomes highly advanced and yet to see. The explana- of one's finances originally and of the pro. Since the technological level is concerned 4 The symbolic rather than intrinsic role of solely with means. political.218 on Fri. is indispensable. strictly legal and functionless owner- prestige. one position may find this money helpful in Even the classical economics recognized that climbing into another position as well. inasmuch as the latter a man who has a high income as a result of is more limited by traditional reciprocities. income does not confer pres. and indenture. doubtless. not pursue this fact to its necessary conclu- economically advantageous status. un- exercises its influence through the medium equal control of goods and services must of money. but competitors would fare unequally. Such The most extremely concentrated and exclu- ownership should be distinguished from the sive of such rights are found in slavery. for a man's fever is the cause of his disease. It is for this reason. possession of consumers' goods. in some respects the authority of the tige on a position so much as it induces people contractual employer is greater than that of to compete for the position. tion of why positions requiring great tech- ductive enterprise later. May. tive enterprise. the ownership of producers' rally this kind of ownership has the greatest goods is properly speaking. or eco- Approach to the Theory of Social Stratification. and reward and motivate training. the income itself necessarily entails an unequal relationship. Even in situations where But property in capital goods inevitably social values are widely commercialized and introduces a compulsive element even into earnings are the readiest method of judging the nominally free contractual relationship. which sion that. which takes place on accidental. It is therefore criticism as social development proceeds superficial and erroneous to regard high in. SOME PRINCIPLES OF STRATIFICATION 247 draws a high income because it is functionally that the institution of private property in important and the available personnel is for productive goods becomes more subject to one reason or another . the wards being so distributed as to draw talent phenomenon of pure ownership. But as social dif. for it is the simplest case of the re- the institution of inheritance persists." American Journal of Sociology.225. Indeed. however it might be acquired. a source of in. and professional reputation). come as the cause of a man's power and that is. an income above what an Technical Knowledge. index rather than a cause of social standing. concern with the choice between goals. a purely technical position income in social stratification has been succinctly must ultimately be subordinate to other po- summarized by Talcott Parsons. "An Analytical sitions that are religious. is not income primarily. Presumably such posses. significance for stratification.

It is also possible for tists.a society to emphasize family functions-as creasing their authority relative to other in relatively undifferentiated societies where functionally important positions. Authoritarian social scientists neglects the limitations(Theocratic of or sacred. leading degree of specialization affects the fineness to at least temporary devaluation of the and multiplicity of the gradations in power rewards. The condition of excess supply is created.decline of the latter. Thus "unemployment in the learnedand prestige. as person well must also be circumscribed. For instance. a rigidity is introduced that lution. and administrators-by . Curiously. In general when emphasis is put on and discourage recruitment or produce revo-sacred matters. since a given ments and readjustments are constantly oc-function cannot receive much emphasis in curring in changing societies.preoccupation with the sacred is withdrawn. a consideration The control of types ofof stratified sys- the avenues of training may tems. stratified structure may be affected by thethe amount of specialization influences the modes of recruitment for positions. it is possible for with the polar types in terms of them) seem an opposite situation to arise. giving them power and prestige be seen by trying in conse-to delineate types according quence. When the a wide range with respect to the exact posi. inhere because it as is inaterms sort of these principles of property right in certain that the typesor families must be described. Polar types: Specialized. order itself. the acquisition of knowledge Theand generalized skill principles cannot of stratification be accomplished by purchase. This can classes. brake is placed on social mobility. as of reward. here suggested although form thea necessary preliminary opportunity to learn maytobe. however. engineers. and Totalitarian or secular). On likely. Such adjust. Finally. and on Particular systems of stratification show the development of bureaucracy. This leaving greater scope for purely secular pre- range is perhaps most evident in the degree occupations.jstor. a in competition with other societies. In addition. knowledge and skills as a basic for perform- This content downloaded from 37. Such a situation adds an artificial to certain modes of variation. scarcity to the natural scarcity of skills and some of the most important modes (together talents. Capitalistic.218 on Fri.128. Main types: Familistic. sometimes lead to the erroneous interpretation that technical positions are VARIATION IN STRATIFIED SYSTEMS economically determined. Extreme division of labor in status. sets limits to the in-Unspecialized. and rise of specialization. however. flation or deflation of the prestige of experts: (b) The Nature of 'the Functional Em- an over-supply tends to debase the rewardsphasis. order To the extent that the is funda- social structure mental. a great development. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about.sized in the invidious system. It also influences the extent to professions" may result in a debasement of which particular functions may be empha- the prestige of those positions. a prestige since the training is short and the concomitant rise in political position is not required native capacity relatively small. The rewards to be as follows: of technical position may be so great that a (a) The Degree of Specialization. of economic and technological posi- tends to create many specialists without high tions seemingly takes place. and cannot be entirely is truly to reduced specialized the pres- tige of the technical other terms.225. The socialbases of selection. On the other hand. But the high mortality requires high fertility and kin- idea of a technocratic social order or a ship forms the main basis of social organiza- government or priesthood of engineers or tion. Methods of recruitment. and it is always the hierarchy until it has achieved structural well to bear in mind that the efficiency of separation a from the other functions. tion of technically competent persons. Actually. whereas an under-supply tends to tends to limit specialization and hence the increase the rewards or weaken the society development of technology.248 AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW ing social pert and layman in any social functions. because it has usually been allied with the other hand it also tends to accentuate the religious and stands to gain little by the the high position of the true experts-scien.

priest. and should come promote class interests) may vary to some at the end of an analysis of elements and extent independently of the other criteria.jstor. This task is the presence of specific organizations to deceptively simple. If and hence is an important principle in classi. Among the latter has been offered as a possible approach to are the following: the more systematic classification of com- (a) The Stage of Cultural Development. the preceding discussion has any validity. the degree of segregation of scale may also be greater in the United different strata. of free trade rela- same society. and that any one system is a composite of the EXTERNAL CONDITIONS society's status with reference to all these What state any particular systemmodes of strati- of variation. Much of the literature on stratification (e) The Degree of Stratum Solidarity. tions or cultural diffusion. What may be called the amount specialization becomes necessary. As the cultural heritage grows. however. increased ferences. Polar types: Mobile (open). and the magnitude of in- States than in a hereditary tribal kingdom. Polar types: . This content downloaded from 37.218 on Fri. principles. Free trade. The danger of trying to fication is in with reference to eachclassify of thesewhole societies under such rubrics modes of variation depends on two things: as caste. 02 Nov 2018 13:28:44 UTC All use subject to https://about. strengthens the hand of posed above. (b) Situation with Respect to Other So- parently exist between different societies in cieties. For in. class structure to some extent.225. all influence the Inequalitarian. has attempted to classify concrete systems Again. A chronic (d) The Degree of Opportunity. opponents are more or less equal. of variation. feudal. Class unorganized. Polar types: it indicates that there are a number of modes Class organized. Considerable differences ap. parative equality or inequality of rewards on the other hand.128. a decline of stratum solidarity. posite types. because the two criteria may the trader at the expense of the warrior and vary independently up to a point. the degree of "class solidarity" (or into a certain number of types. The state of warfare tends to place emphasis upon familiar question of the amount of mobility the military functions. has an equalitarian effect. the tremendous divergences in mone. The presence or absence of open con- this regard. taking turn contributes to the enhancement of into account the entire scale. yet the equality of opportunity to limits the degree to which functional speciali- move from one rung to the other in the social zation can go. equality. is something mobility. A small society cieties. measurement. Free movement of ideas generally stance. Migration and tary income in the United States are far conquest create special circumstances. and (2) the conditions outside the result being an unsatisfactory solution the system of stratification which neverthe. (c) Size of the Society. Immobile COMPOSITE TYPES (closed). and also between parts of the flict with other societies. The present discussion less influence that system. and that should lend itself to quantitative a change of functional emphasis. fying systems of stratification. which in of social distance between positions. or open class is that one or (i) its state with reference to the other rangestwo criteria are selected and others ignored. SOME PRINCIPLES OF STRATIFICATION 249 (c) The Magnitude of Invidious Dif. especially when the is different from the question of the com. to the problem posed. greater than those found in primitive so. of variation between different systems. rather than at the beginning.