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Mechanical & Energy .Eng. Techniques Dep.

Lecture Notes

Lecturer:

AbdulRahman Bahaddin Shakir

2016-2017

website : www.abdulrahmanbahaddin.epu.edu.krd

Mechanical Vibrations

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

stationary frame of reference or nominal position. Oscillatory systems

(Vibrations) can be broadly characterized as linear or nonlinear.

Any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration or

oscillation.

motion of mechanical and structural systems.

kinetic energy and kinetic energy to potential energy, alternately.

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If any system has mass and elasticity it will undergo vibration.

Mass will store kinetic energy and elasticity in the system will store potential

energy.

Causes of vibration

Unbalanced forces in the machine.

External excitations applied on the system.

Elastic nature of the system.

Winds, Earthquakes etc.

Effect of Vibration

Produces unwanted noise, high stresses, wear, poor reliability and premature

failure of one or more of the parts.

In spite of these harmful effects, it is used in musical instruments, vibrating

conveyors etc.

Elimination of Vibrations

Using shock absorbers

Using vibration absorbers

Resting the machinery on proper type of isolation.

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Classification of Vibration:

Vibration can be classified in several ways. Some of the important classifications

are as follows: (Free Vibration and Forced Vibrfation)

Free Vibration:

Free vibration takes place when a System oscillation under action of forces

inherent in system and external forces absent .The system under free vibration

will vibrate at one or more of its natural frequencies .which Natural frequencies are

dynamic characteristics. The oscillation of a simple pendulum is an example of free

vibration.

Forced Vibration:

The vibration that takes place under the excitation of external forces is called

forced vibration. If excitation is oscillatory (harmonic), then the response will occur

at the excitation frequency. If excitation occurs at one of the natural frequencies,

then the condition of resonance occurs. The oscillation that arises in machines

such as diesel engines is an example of forced vibration.

Forced vibrations are also known as excitations.

Damping:

All dynamic systems are subject to dissipative forces - friction, structural

resistances . Generally, damping in structural systems is small and has little

effect on the natural frequency , However, damping has a large effect on

minimizing the resonance of any structural system .

Frequency:

It is Number of cycles per unit time.

Frequency of free vibrations of the system is called natural frequency. Expressed

in Hz (or) rad/sec. When system vibrates freely it follows simple harmonic motion.

Amplitude:

Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-3

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The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position.

Resonance:

When the frequency of external excitation is equal to the natural frequency of a

vibrating body, the amplitude of vibration becomes excessively large. This concept

is known as resonance.

Time Period:

Time taken to complete one cycle.

Deterministic vibration

If in the vibratory system the amount of external excitation is known in

magnitude it is deterministic vibration.

Random vibration

Non deterministic vibrations. (Earth quake is because of random forces)

Linear vibration

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A vibratory system basically consists of these elements:

Mass

Spring

Damper

- If in a vibratory system mass, spring and damper behave in a linear manner, the

vibrations caused are known as linear vibrations.

- Linear vibrations are governed by linear differential equations.

- They follow the law for superposition.

Nonlinear vibrations

If any of the basic components of a vibratory system behaves non linearly, the

vibration is called non-linear vibration.

It does not follow the law of superposition.

Linear vibration becomes nonlinear for very large amplitude of vibration.

In ideal systems, the free vibrations continue indefinitely as there is no damping.

Such vibration is termed as steady state vibration.

Transient vibrations

In real systems, the amplitude of vibration decays continuously because of

damping and vanishes finally. Such vibration is real system is called transient

vibration.

Degree of Freedom:

Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-5

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The minimum number of independent co-ordinates required to specify the

motion of system at any instant is known as degrees of freedom. It is equal to the

number of independent displacements that are possible. This number varies from

zero to infinity.

The body at rest is said to have zero degree of freedom.

Here there is only one independent co-ordinate to specify the configuration.

Eg: A mass supported by a spring.

There are two independent co-ordinates to specify the configuration.

Eg: Springs supported Rigid mass. (It can move in the direction of springs and also

have angular motion in one plane)

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A rigid body will have 6 DOF to describe its motion - 3 translation

and 3 rotation

Harmonic motion:

Simplest form of periodic motion is harmonic motion and it is called simple

harmonic motion (SHM). It can be expressed as

𝑡

𝑥 = 𝐴 sin 2𝜋

𝜏

Where A: is the amplitude of motion, t is the time instant and 𝜏 is the period of

motion.

Motion that repeats in regular intervals of time 𝜏 , it is called period motion

Reciprocal of the repetition time is the frequency, 𝑓 = 1⁄𝜏

If the motion is periodic, then

𝒙(𝒕) = 𝒙(𝒕 + 𝝉)

Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-7

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Harmonic motion is often represented as the projection on a straight line of a

point that is moving on a circle at constant speed, as shown in Figure below.

With the angular speed of the line o-p designated by , the displacement 𝑥 can be

written as 𝑥 = 𝐴 sin 𝜔𝑡

The quantity 𝜔 is generally measured in radians per second, and is referred to as the

circular frequency. Because the motion repeats itself in 2𝜋 radians, we have the

2𝜋

relationship 𝜔 = = 2𝜋𝑓

𝜏

Where 𝜏 and 𝑓 are the period and frequency of the harmonic motion, usually

measured in seconds and cycles per second, respectively .The velocity and

acceleration of harmonic motion can be simply determined by differentiation

𝑥̇ = 𝜔𝐴 cos 𝜔𝑡 = 𝜔 𝐴 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜋⁄2)

𝑥̈ = −𝜔2 𝐴 sin 𝜔𝑡 = 𝜔2 𝐴 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝜋) 𝑥̈ = −𝜔2 𝑥

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Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-9

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Useful Formula

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Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-11

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Lecture notes on Mechanical Vibrations 1-12

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