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Designation: G206 − 11

Standard Guide for
Measuring the Wear Volumes of Piston Ring Segments Run
against Flat Coupons in Reciprocating Wear Tests1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation G206; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 3.2.1 conformal contact, n—in friction and wear testing,
1.1 This guide covers and describes a profiling method for any macro-geometric specimen configuration in which the
use accurately measuring the wear loss of compound-curved curvature of one contact surface matches that of the counter-
(crowned) piston ring specimens that run against flat counter- face.
faces. It does not assume that the wear scars are ideally flat, as Discussion—Examples of conformal contact include
do some alternative measurement methods. Laboratory-scale a flat surface sliding on a flat surface and a ball rotating in a
wear tests have been used to evaluate the wear of materials, socket that conforms to the shape of the ball. A pair of surfaces
coatings, and surface treatments that are candidates for piston may begin a wear or friction test in a non-conforming contact
rings and cylinder liners in diesel engines or spark ignition configuration, but develop a conformal contact as a result of
engines. Various loads, temperatures, speeds, lubricants, and wear.
durations are used for such tests, but some of them use a curved 3.2.2 cylinder bore/cylinder liner, n—in an internal combus-
piston ring segment as one sliding partner and a flat or curved tion engine, the cylindrical cavity in which the piston moves.
specimen (simulating the cylinder liner) as its counterface. The Discussion—The terms cylinder bore and cylinder
goal of this guide is to provide more accurate wear measure- liner are used interchangeably in the description of this
ments than alternative approaches involving weight loss or method. Cylinder liners are most commonly used in heavy-
simply measuring the length and width of the wear marks. duty engines which are intended to be rebuilt. They are sleeves,
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the generally of a cast iron, which are surrounded on their outer
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the surface by coolant for better heat transfer, and meant to be
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- replaced when excessively worn. A cylinder bore is machined
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- directly into an engine block and is more commonly used in
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. light-duty engines which are not meant for rebuilding. The
material of the cylinder bore is, therefore, the same material as
2. Referenced Documents the engine block, however the inside surface of the bore may or
may not have additional surface treatment.
2.1 ASTM Standards:2
G40 Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion 4. Summary of Guide
G181 Test Method for Conducting Friction Tests of Piston 4.1 A reciprocating wear testing apparatus is used to simu-
Ring and Cylinder Liner Materials Under Lubricated late the back-and-forth motion of a piston ring within a
Conditions cylinder bore in the presence of a heated lubricant. Depending
on the duration and severity of the imposed test conditions,
3. Terminology some degree of wear is generally produced on one or both
3.1 Definitions—See Terminology G40. members of the sliding pair. Mathematical models of the wear
scar geometry on both the piston ring and cylinder liner
3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
surfaces allow the degree of wear to be quantified in terms of
volume lost. The contact geometry for such tests, in the context
of ring-on-liner frictional behavior, is exemplified in Practice
This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee G02 on Wear and
Erosion and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee G02.40 on Non-Abrasive
G181. That method uses pre-worn-in surfaces, and therefore it
Wear. differs from the present case in which wear loss is based on
Current edition approved May 1, 2011. Published May 2011. DOI: 10.1520/ measurements of initial and final profiles of the test specimens.
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or 5. Significance and Use
contact ASTM Customer Service at For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on 5.1 The practical life of an internal combustion engine is
the ASTM website. most often determined by monitoring its oil consumption.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States


The worn surface on degrease and clean specimens prior to conducting wear tests the ring usually will not be flat but also has compound and cleaning specimens afterward. G206 − 11 FIG. examples of its use. showing the 7. 2. they are or to be subjected to wear. 1. as shown in Fig. complicating artifacts. except that they should not chemically another ellipsoid whose minor semi-axis is the final radius rw attack the tested surfaces. Procedure by the investigator. and depths of the subject wear scars. 848-855. materials of construction can extend engine life and reduce cost 7.1 Specimen Preparation—The test specimens shall be of operation. 3 illustrates the side view of the worn surface. Apparatus and Specimen Preparation the conferential direction of the ring (2a). No specific solvents are curvatures. like segments of published elsewhere. Reagents cal piston ring with compound curvatures can be considered as the central slice of an ellipsoid with initial ring radius ro as the 6.1 Cleaning Solvents—Suitable solvents may be used to minor semi-axis. width. such tests tend to be expensive and time consuming. may be used. It is the user’s responsibility to determine which of the and widths of wear scars may not provide sufficient accuracy to following procedures best suits the wear scar geometry pro- discriminate between small differences in wear. Vol 261. Fig.” These include stylus-type profiling instruments. The use of curved specimens. This guide is duced in the reciprocating test method that was used.. Weight loss or linear measurements of lengths graphs. as illustrated in Fig. optical or Wear. Although components made from more wear. J. presents challenges for precise wear specimens are separately described in the following para- measurement.1 Description of the Test Apparatus—Any dimensional metrology instrument that is capable of measuring the length. solvent cleaned and free from debris or other measurement- resistant materials can be tested in actual operating engines. Wear Volumes of Sliders with Non-flat Wear Scars and Compound Curvatures. and Truhan. The wear scar can be considered as a patch of recommended here. and com- specimens whose degree of wear needs to be accurately parison with other methods for measuring wear. 1 Schematic Drawing of the Ring Excessive oil consumption is cause for engine repair or laser-based interferometric instruments. intended to address that problem.1 The current procedure.1.3 Wear measurements for ring and liner crowned piston rings. shape with scar length across the crown (2b) and scar width in 7. and the like. nor leave a residual film or stain after on the wear scar. It is the replacement and can be symptomatic of excessive wear of the responsibility of the user to ensure that the dimensional piston ring or the cylinder bore or both. J.. and they 7. The test parameters for those tests are selected 8. and the curvatures 3 Qu. pp. 7-8.1.2 Specimen Fixturing—A suitable shall be used to clamp often lead to variable results because of the difficulty in the specimens in the proper orientation for profiling and controlling the operating environment. “An Efficient Method for Accurately Determining of the regions that surround and contain them. J.2 Wear Volume of the Piston Ring Specimen—A hypotheti- 6. 2006. but the end result is a pair of worn 8. More wear-resistant measurement apparatus used has been correctly calibrated. have been measured. Although bench-scale dimensional measurement without touching the area subjected tests do not simulate every aspect of a fired engine. The top view of the wear scar is in elliptical cleaning. used for cost-effective initial screening of candidate materials and lubricants. 8. 2 .

2. cussed in 8. By measuring the wear scar size a (2a and 2b) and ring curvatures (ro and rw) before and after V ring 5 p 3b @ 2r 3o 2 ~ 2r 2o 1b 2 ! =r 2o 2 b 2 # (3) testing.1 Spherical Ring Surface—When the two compound follows: curvatures on a ring specimen are identical. 2 Schematic Top View of the Wear Scar on the Ring Specimen FIG. G206 − 11 FIG. 3 Schematic Side View of the Wear Scar on the Ring Specimen curvature change after testing.2.2. the worn surface on ring the wear volume Vring and maximum wear depth hring h ring 5 r o 2 =r 2o 2 b 2 (4) can be obtained by the following formulae: a 8. the ring will be the 3 . as dis- 8.2 Please note that when the crown curvature is zero or V ring 5 p 3b @ 2r 3o 2 2r w3 2 ~ 2r 2o 1b 2 ! =r 2o 2 b 2 1 ~ 2r w2 1b 2 ! =r w2 2 b 2 # very small compared to the ring curvature. tance compared to the flat specimen. h ring 5 r o 2 r w 2 =r 2o 2 b 2 1 =r w2 2 b 2 (2) the ring surface should be considered as cylindrical. the wear scar length (1) is restricted by the ring thickness and the above formulae for wear volume calculations will no longer be valid.3 Special Cases: will be fairly flat and Eq 1 and Eq 2 can be simplified as 8. In this case.3.1 When the ring specimen has much lower wear resis.

4 .2 Cylindrical Ring Surface—When the crown curva. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). 610-832-9555 (fax). The wear scar on the flat is directly applied to commonly used ball sliders. the wear volume and maximum wear depth can be calculated by Eq 7 and Eq 4.1. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. Although Eq 2 and Eq 9 are still valid for maximum wear depths. or (e-mail). at the address shown below. flat specimen. piston ring. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. 8. shall be reported in accordance with the test method When the ring specimen has far lower wear resistance than the that was used to generate the wear.3. respectively. West Conshohocken. or wear factors. Note that the calculations in this case can be denoted as L and W.1 cylinder liner. expressed as the volume of mate- rial lost. Report F V flat 5 L· r f2 arcsin S D Œ W 2r f 2b r f2 2 W 4 2 G (6) 9. different formulae have been derived for wear COPYRIGHT/). are entirely their own responsibility. either reapproved or PO Box C700. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. and the risk of infringement of such rights. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. or in place of the calculated wear In that case. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. 4. composed of three segments. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. volume. The length and width of the wear scar on the flat are 1-4 with a = b. respectively. data may be normalized to express wear volume loss per unit sliding distance per unit applied normal force. The wear volume ture is zero or very small compared to the ring curvature. The worn surface is also cylindrical with F S D Œ V flat 5 L s r f2 arcsin W 2r f 2 W 2 r f2 2 W2 4 G (8) radius rw. PA 19428-2959. wear measurement ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. G206 − 11 FIG.1 Wear measurements. 4 Schematic Wear Scar on a Flat Specimen central slice of a sphere with a round shape wear scar. of rf and the two compound-curvature ends. the worn surface on ring will be relatively flat. which you may attend.1 In addition to. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. Namely: 1p ~L 2 Ls 3W ! F S DŒ 2r f3 2 2r f2 1 W2 4 r f2 2 W2 4 G S V ring 5 t· r 2o arcsin b ro b 2 r w2 arcsin 2 b =r 2o 2 b 2 1b =r w2 2 b 2 rw D h flat 5 r f 2 Œ r f2 2 W2 4 (9) (5) 9. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www. the Vflat and maximum wear depth hflat can be calculated by ring surface should be considered as cylindrical and the wear scar is rectangular with width 2b and length equal to the ring thickness 2a = t. or through the ASTM website (www. wear rates. or S V ring 5 t· r 2o arcsin b ro 2 b =r 2o 2 b 2 D (7) similar combined parameters.3 Wear Volume of a Flat Counterface Specimen—A sche.2. The wear illustrated in Fig. 10. Keywords matic drawing of the wear scar on the flat specimen is 10.astm. United States.astm. the cylindrical middle with radius 8. Ls is the stroke length of the reciprocating volumes and maximum wear depths can be calculated using Eq test. 9.