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IMPORTANCE OF ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR

3.2 HISTORY

SUBMITTED BY:

DEVANG GAUR

2ND YEAR, 3RD SEMESTER

(UID No– SM0117016)

SUBMITTED TO: MRS. NAMRATA GOGOI

NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY AND JUDICIAL ACADEMY, ASSAM

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TABLE OF CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………….………………….3

1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………..….4-5
1.2 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE…………………………………..................................5
1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………….6

2. JAPANESE ROLE IN PROVOKING AMERICA ENTRY IN WWII………………6-7

3. ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOUR AND ITS IMPACT…………............................8-11

4. WAR IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN & JAPAN DEFENCE PARAMETER…………11-12

5. BATTLE OF CORAL SEA AND MIDWAY……………………….……………..13-15

6. REASONS BEHIND JAPANESE AGGRESSION……………………………….21-23

7. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………25

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………25

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and European democracies. The Japanese hoped that their string of we11. They hoped to defeat newly arriving American forces bit by bit in a prolonged war of attrition. These are some key elements which have been pondered upon in this project. However. which many people remember well today. if we the International forum. To deter such a move. 1. Pacific Fleet be based at Pearl Harbor. the other parts of the Japanese master plan swing into action. Today Japan and the United States are close allies. In the following research through the help of various chapters we will see the important developments rather the events which took place in the mean while. and from here itself we can trace the occurrence of the event of Pearl Harbor. and it was contemptuous of the "softness" of the U. American strategists reasoned that a Japanese military move into the Indies would be their next logical step. the Japanese had to find an alternative source of oil. They took Thailand without resistance. But between 1941 and 1945. INTRODUCTION When the United States restricted the sale of oil to Japan in July 1941 in response to Japanese expansion into Indochina. they fought a bitter and bloody war. this research tries to highlight the structure and the reasons behind the occurrence of mentioned events. With the American fleet crippled in Pearl Harbor. All these would fall to the Japanese by year's end.S. Moreover. Eventually. territories of Wake Island and Guam and at British Hong Kong. Their planes bombed US air bases in the Philippines. This was the main juncture. But the incidents which took place in the Pacific Ocean were basically a series of events and thus were termed as the Pacific Ocean theatre. the Japanese hoped that it would cause the American people to become disheartened and willing to make a compromise peace that would let Japan keep her newly acquired territory. Japanese forces landed on the Malay Peninsula to begin their successful push toward the great British base at Singapore. where loyalty and patriotism were tempered by the rights and well-being of the individual.S. The Dutch East Indies were the only possible source of supply in the western Pacific region. President Roosevelt had directed that the battleships and aircraft carriers of the U. and troops landed on the U. The Japanese military was convinced of the willingness of its people to go to any sacrifice for their nation.S. Thus.defended bases and their fine navy would be sufficient to keep the growing American strength at bay. 3 .

This book helps the researcher in developing the idea behind the situation of which led to several wars between the allied and axis forces.C. that. The point that the first stage of the offensive began with the Navy under Admiral Nimitz and Marine landings on Guadalcanal and nearby islands in the Solomons is also taken into consideration. Alan D. Deceptions. and especially essential supplies like oil. In the Coral Sea the U. Casemate Publishing. neither side would budge.  Norman Lowe. It seemed that war was all but inevitable. Combat.1 LITERATURE REVIEW  Zimm. after the Battle of Midway. Navy checked the Japanese.. It also depicts that how the turning point in the Pacific theatre came in mid-1942 with history's first great carrier battles. the Allies were able to launch a counter-offensive is emphasized on through this project. pg no. In this article. This Book gives a starting to the entry of the United State of America in the World war including several wars which took place. These views have helped the research to focus on the event of Pearl Harbor. They reasoned that without access to money and goods. like the war of Midway. Attack on Pearl Harbor: Strategy. 3 rd ed. Instead. During months of negotiations between Tokyo and Washington D. It highlights as to how the attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise. Macmillan Publishers India ltd. 1. page number 165-172. It brings out the fact that how The United States was particularly unhappy with Japan‘s increasingly belligerent attitude toward China. Japan would have to rein in its expansionism. Modern World History. 2011. but Japan and the United States had been edging toward war for decades. Myths. The fact. The Japanese government believed that the only way to solve its economic and demographic problems was to expand into its neighbor‘s territory and take over its import market. the sanctions made the Japanese more determined to stand their ground.99-102. In the Battle of Midway it defeated them. emphasize is given on the circumstance which led to the event of Pearl Harbor. 4 . 1997.S. American officials responded to this aggression with a battery of economic sanctions and trade embargoes. Thus this article was indeed of great help in framing the basic concept.

Japan had emerged from its own period of depression.edu. The emperor-based ideology of Japan during World War II was a relatively new creation. with few natural resources. dumping of goods. and other trade manipulation. Their commitment to the military effort to expand Japanese territory to achieve economic security can be understood partly in these terms. and it was contemptuous of the "softness" of the U. In furtherance to this the objective of this project is basically to analyze the mentioned events and its importance in the world history. if we the International forum. Columbia University. dating from the efforts of Meiji oligarchs to unite the nation in response to the Western challenge. The great powers not only jealously protected their special economic rights within their colonies and spheres of influence. These aspects are highlighted in this project with the help of this article. published by Asia for Educators. Today Japan and the United States are close allies. they fought a bitter and bloody war.S. However. Furthermore. This article published by the Columbia online database. sought to copy this pattern. Moreover the scope is also to see as to what were the reasons behind this event which changed the nature of world war completely. where loyalty and patriotism were tempered by the rights and well-being of the individual. and European democracies. Thus this article has helped the research in giving it a reason behind all the arguments which it tends to put forward. But between 1941 and 1945. but sought to bolster their sagging economies through high tariffs. 2009. The Japanese military was convinced of the willingness of its people to go to any sacrifice for their nation. and would do so partly because of the war. which many people remember well today.2 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES The scope of the project is limited to the study of incident which took place at the Pearl Harbor and the Pacific Ocean theatre of World War II. 1. 5 . Columbia. points out the reason and background behind the Great War. Starting with the Economic background wherein the United States was still struggling to emerge from the Great Depression at the end of the 1930s. The Japanese. Japan‘s Quest for Power and World War II in Asia.

Secondary data is used throughout the research which involves study of various books. Various books pertaining to the subject have been taken into consideration.1. 6 . articles and journals.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Researcher conducted Doctrinal type of research to collect data and gather appropriate information about the particular topic. The use of library sources and internet sources has greatly supplemented the research.

It is true that Japan was not militarily or economically powerful enough to fight a long war against the United States. for they have almost none on their own islands. China and the Empire of Japan had been at warfare considering the fact that Japanese troops invaded Manchuria in 1931. published by Asia for Educators. the military thought that if it suddenly destroyed the U. the Japanese military could not fight for long. and it chafed against the punitive measures of the Versailles Treaty that had ended World battle I. then it could defend its interests in China and Indo china against those Europeans who were now busy fighting a major war in Europe against the Germans and Italians. and Japan had been checking out the newly situated League of international locations with multiple invasions and occupations of neighborhood nations. The Japanese military saw another solution to the problem. America would simply give up and allow Japan to consolidate its grasp on East Asia.2 Without oil. and other raw materials it needed.pdf 2 Japan‘s Quest for Power and World War II in Asia. Italy. Knowing that many Americans did not want to fight a war against Japan. 7 . Japan knew the United States was economically and military powerful. Japan did worry however. JAPANESE ROLE IN PROVOKING AMERICA ENTRY IN WW II The years leading up to the assertion of battle between the Axis and Allied powers in 1939 have been tumultuous instances for people throughout the globe. shipments of steel and oil the Japan. The question arises that what was Japan‘s role in provoking America entry in the world war. but it was not afraid of any American attack on its islands. When President Roosevelt stopped U. Without imports of steel and oil. Columbia University.genealogycenter.S. The fine depression had started a decade before. 2. leaving much of the sector unemployed and desperate. he was doing exactly this: the Japanese are dependent on other countries for raw materials.info/military/images/dittoediary/Dittoe-Diary-Pearl-Harbor-History-Speeches_2. Why did Japan attack the United States? This is a more complicated question. rubber. 2009.edu. 1 http://www. Roosevelt hoped that this economic pressure would force Japan to end its military expansion in East Asia. Germany. they thought that if it could quickly conquer the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia and gain complete control of the oil. Nationalism was sweeping by way of Germany. The only force that could stop the Japanese was the American Pacific fleet which was conveniently gathered close to Japan at Pearl Harbor. the navy would not be able to move after it had exhausted its six-month reserve. and felt emboldened after they encountered no significant penalties. fleet. in Hawaii.S. Columbia. that the Americans might help the Chinese resist the Japanese invasion of their country1.

Eventually great power like USA was now officially a participant in the World war. the Japanese had watched the European powers dominate East Asia and establish colonies and trading privileges. in battles over who should dominate Korea. The Japanese military tried to convince the Japanese people that complete loyalty and obedience would make Japan invincible. 8 . and finally. but also the Asian people themselves. Ever since Commodore Perry's fleet opened Japan in 1853. which controlled the government by the 1930s. however. Its attack on Pearl Harbor was a tremendous gamble and though the short-run gamble was successful. felt that it then could. Japan defeated China in 1895 and Russia in 1905. Japan was able to develop the economic and military strength to join this competition for dominance of the Asian mainland. After an amazingly short time. brought resistance from not only the European colonial powers. Japan joined the allies against Germany in 1914-18 in a struggle to control a portion of China and then conquered Manchuria in 1931 in an effort to secure a land area rich in raw materials. The Japanese nation and its military. in an era of great colonial expansion. Japan's military invasions of other Asian countries. and should. control all of East Asia by military force. the long-run gamble was lost because the Japanese were wrong about the American reaction. But behind this mistake was another.and the Japanese military knew this. the United States. earlier miscalculation.

S. 11. no one believed that the Japanese would start a war with an attack on the distant islands of Hawaii.S. p. including 8 battleships. turning Pearl Harbor into a sneak attack! The Japanese strike force consisted of 353 aircraft launched from four heavy carriers. is located near the center of the Pacific Ocean. When Admiral Yamamoto learned that his forces had not destroyed the U.S. The Japanese were unable to locate them and a planned third wave of attack planes was never launched. survived until the end of the war. But the message was delayed and not relayed to U. and 11 destroyers.S. The three aircraft carriers of the U. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:55 that morning. 9 . The Japanese planned to give the U. ―Tora. Navy ships. American intelligence officials were confident that any Japanese attack would take place in one of the relatively nearby European colonies in the South Pacific: the Dutch East Indies.‖ to the Japanese fleet after flying over Oahu to indicate the Americans had been caught by surprise. Pearl Harbor (New York: Ballantine Publishing. Hawaii. To the Japanese. 1969).000 miles from Japan. To begin with. The Japanese lost 29 aircraft and 5 midget submarines in the attack. Captain Mitsuo Fuchida sent the code message. roughly 2. Additionally. still had their carrier fleet intact. and destroyed or damaged 19 U. nine oilers. the Ushio.S. he feared that the 3 A J Barker. two battleships.S. Almost the entire Pacific Fleet was moored around Ford Island in the harbor. Therefore. 3. fleet. the naval facilities at Pearl Harbor were relatively undefended. The U. officials in Washington until the attack was already in progress. at Yokosuka Naval Base. and hundreds of airplanes were squeezed onto adjacent airfields. Pacific Fleet were out to sea on maneuvers. a declaration of war before the attack began so they would not violate the first article of the Hague Convention of 1907. ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOUR AND ITS IMPACT Pearl Harbor. Tora. two light cruisers.S. personnel. These included 40 torpedo planes. It was surrendered to the U.S.S. Out of all the Japanese ships that participated in the attack on Pearl Harbor only one. and 79 fighters.S. Because American military leaders were not expecting an attack so close to home. including 68 civilians.403 U. 3 The attack also consisted of two heavy cruisers. 103 level bombers. mainland and about 4. Singapore or Indochina. aircraft carriers or completely destroyed the U. 35 submarines. The attack killed 2. 131 dive-bombers. One Japanese soldier was taken prisoner and 129 Japanese sailors and airmen were killed.000 miles from the U. Pearl Harbor was an irresistibly easy target. The entire attack took only one hour and 15 minutes. Tora.

torpedoes pierced the shell of the battleship USS Oklahoma. ―No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion. Roosevelt addressed a joint session of the U. The attack struck all parts of the harbor at once because all the Japanese pilots had pre designated targets. 4 Next. USS Oklahoma. USS Tennessee and USS Nevada—had sustained significant damage. Within moments the battleship Arizona exploded and sank after a bomb set off her ammunition magazines. Loss of oil would have hindered later American naval operations even more than the damage done to the ships. December 7. the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.S.200 had been wounded.dtic. Altogether some 2. Thus USS Arizona had to bears the brunt initially. The Japanese plan was simple to destroy the Pacific Fleet. Soon all remaining battleships were sunk or badly damaged.‖ He went on to say.pdf 5 Pearl Harbor: Deterrence Theory and DecisionTheory by Bruce M. USS West Virginia.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a263962.5 4 http://www. I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost. the Americans would not be able to fight back as Japan‘s armed forces spread across the South Pacific. every battleship in Pearl Harbor—USS Arizona.‖The fact could not be denied that Japan had awakened the ‗sleeping giant‘. Russett First Published June 1. USS Maryland. after months of planning and practice. ―Yesterday. That way. By the time the attack was over. but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again. rolled onto her side and slipped underwater. including all eight of the battleships. the Japanese launched their attack. would soon recover and fight back. Also. USS California. USS Pennsylvania. were practically untouched. the day after the crushing attack on Pearl Harbor. Nineteen ships had been sunk or severely damaged. With 400 sailors aboard.400 American servicemen had been killed and another 1. with its enormous industrial potential. 1967. On December 7. which would make possible the eventual salvage and return to duty of fourteen of the nineteen ships disabled by the attack. USS Utah. Congress on December 8. 10 . 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. important repair yards and machine shops. the Oklahoma lost her balance. Over 230 planes had been destroyed on the ground.United States. President Franklin D.

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor crippled or destroyed nearly 20 American ships and more than 300 airplanes. It got itself the short term breathing space it wanted. Had Japan focused beyond the fleet and targeted the crucial shore facilities and oil reserves. soldiers and civilians were killed and about 1. only three . Pearl Harbor Attack (New Jersey: Leeward Publications.6 Despite the attack's apparent success at the time. Although only chance saved the American aircraft carriers.IMPACT In all. it could have inflicted far greater and more lasting damage. As it was. Dry docks and airfields were likewise destroyed.403 sailors. the attack forcibly altered the mind-set of the senior American naval leadership. the attack on Pearl Harbor roused and infuriated the American public in general. Japan lost. So why all the conspiracy theories? Maybe because some just cannot accept that on the day.S. it could never really win. First. which had until then believed that the dominant ships in naval warfare would be battleships. 2. Faced with American military and economic might.the Arizona. As far as is known. But the Japanese had failed to cripple the Pacific Fleet. and its allies had no choice but to build their offense in the Pacific around the aircraft carrier. rather than demoralize their American enemy. 11 . and the U. as nothing else could have. Most important. and perhaps most important. Pearl Harbor and the invasion of South-east Asia showcased Japan at its best capable of massive daring and painstaking preparation. 5. However. The Japanese held to a belief in the 6 At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor by Gordon W Prange (1991). p. the primary problem with the attack was the planning.S. 1974). their survival was a major blow. the Japanese had made three serious miscalculations. The definitive history of Pearl Harbor. To invite such confrontation was the result of courage.000 people were wounded.7 Second. optimism and (possibly) madness on a massive scale. of the ships damaged or sunk on December 7th 1941. 7 Arnold Lott and Robert Sumrall. as had the sneak attacks on their Chinese foes in 1894 and the Russians in 1904. Navy in particular. the attack was nonetheless strategically disastrous. Third. After Pearl Harbor. and the other submarines were never able to successfully interdict the sea-lanes between California and Pearl Harbor. none of the midgets reached then" targets. they had counted heavily on the efforts of twenty submarines deployed in the area and five midget submarines launched for the attack. the U. Never again would Japan have the opportunity to act with such forethought and planning. Operationally brilliant. in round one. but also a war against both Britain and America. their boys were beaten by the better team.

The Tide at Sunrise. Admiral King's first instructions to Nimitz were clear. Masatake.S. 1974. West Coast and second to maintain communications between the West Coast and Australia by holding a line drawn north to south from Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Mitsuo and Okumiya.world ever since. Available forces were to be sacrificed in delaying Japanese advances in the Dutch East Indies in order to hold that defense line. With the American fleet crippled in Pearl Harbor. There was no question that was rolling the show. Midway. Nimitz was to prove equal to the monumental task he had been assigned. territories of Wake Island and Guam and at British Hong Kong. New York: Ballantine Books. inspiring confidence. Admiral Chester W. through Midway to Samoa. Nimitz was quiet and unruffled. Their planes bombed U. They took Thailand without resistance. would be the dominant naval weapon in the Pacific in World War II.8 It was up to him to win the biggest naval war the United States had ever faced. first to cover and hold the Hawaii-Midway line and maintain communications ·with the U.superiority of a battleship-centered strategy limit the end. the United States was going to have to make a major effort in the Atlantic in order to keep the sea-lanes open to Britain and thwart the massive German threat facing the British and Soviet allies. History would show that the carrier. air bases in the Philippines. Into the confusion of successive defeats in the Pacific came the new commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet. 1958. the other parts of the Japanese master plan swing into action. All these would fall to the Japanese by year's end. Nimitz. and troops landed on the U.S. as it has been in all the major navies of the . Japanese forces landed on the Malay Peninsula to begin their successful push toward the great British base at Singapore.9 8 Warner. New Guinea. In the meantime. New York: Charterhouse. Denis and Peggy. He arrived at Pearl Harbor on Christmas Day and assumed command in a brief ceremony aboard a submarine on 31 December.S. then southwest to New Caledania and Port Moresby. The order 'was to hold the line against any further Japanese advance. not the battleship. 9 Fuchida. 12 . Forces would be sent to the Pacific to reinforce as they became available.

Marshalls. the Dutch East Indies. near Midway Island.17. Japan made Trunk in the Carolines into its "Pearl Harbor" of the central Pacific and developed Rabaul into a major forward base for further expansion southwestward. and the British Gilbert Islands.10 It officially came into existence on March 30. Borneo. Australia.10. The Second World War.worldwar2history. and Marianas. and the American people would not let the Japanese achieve their hopes. extending to include Rabaul on New Britain and Kavieng on nearby New Ireland in the southwest. which included most of the Pacific Ocean and its islands. but the Japanese General Staff felt it was not necessary. Admiral Yamamoto wanted to seal this gap. Guam. The Japanese hoped that their string defended bases and their fine navy would be sufficient to keep the growing American strength at bay. accessed from http://www. it included all of the Dutch East Indies and northern New Guinea on the south. Navy. But Admiral Nimitz. they hoped. 11 Keegan. 1942. This. LIMITED OFFENSE BECOMES THE BEST DEFENSE 10 U.11 Only on the central perimeter. during World War II was a major theater of the war between the Allies and Japan. the U. while mainland Asia was excluded. They hoped to defeat newly arriving American forces bit by bit in a prolonged war of attrition. as were the Philippines.info/.S. It was defined by the Allied powers' Pacific Ocean Area command. THE JAPANESE DEFENSE PERIMETER The Japanese had now established their defense perimeter. WAR IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN & JAPAN DEFENCE PARAMETER The Pacific Ocean theatre. most of the Territory of New Guinea and the western part of the Solomon Islands. 1990. John. 4. Anchored by Rangoon in the Indian Ocean area. 13 . would cause the American people to become disheartened and willing to make a compromise peace that would let Japan keep her newly acquired territory. New York: Penguin Book. did a gap exist. The Pacific theatre. On the northern flank Japan was protected by bases in the Kurile Islands.S Army Centre for Military History. on 28. Japan had also improved its many bases in the islands acquired from Germany during World War I-the Carolines. It then crossed the Pacific northward to newly acquired Wake. when US Admiral Chester Nimitz was appointed Supreme Allied Commander Pacific Ocean Areas.

12 Martin. the Japanese naval code had been broken by U. a two-pronged thrust into the Solomon Islands and toward Port Moresby in New Guinea. 1988. This would cause much concern in the Japanese high command. Then came an electrifying surprise U. John. aware of these intentions through decoding of Japanese messages. None of the B-25s were lost over Japan. Hans Louis. and Walcott. also was started. They then continued on into China. since they did not have sufficient fuel to return to the carrier. Best Laid Elflflg. On 18 April the all-volunteer pilots.S. 1958. on many crucial occasions throughout the war. New York: United Printing serves Inc. and Kobe. 14 .Admiral Nimitz knew that the Japanese were planning additional moves to the southwest. They made air raids on Tokyo. Vice Admiral William Halsey was selected as the man to strike the Japanese bases. In April 1942.S. planned his own actions carefully. and so the raids achieved part of their purpose. A third Japanese move. led by Army Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle.S. The Japanese armed forces were humiliated.‖ New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Unknown to them. Nirnitz.‖ The Maids Story of America's War Against Terrorism. He was to conduct raids at widely separated locations so as to cause the Japanese the most anxiety. though some were captured and executed in Japanese-controlled areas. Yamamoto's plans to attack Midway in June in order to close the gap in the Japanese defense perimeter were no revived. 12Halsey even hoped to make them believe that there were more U. This allowed successful countermeasures to be planned and executed. Another Japanese move into the Coral Sea to cut the sea-lanes to Australia was put into action for early May. Nagoya. What Happened at Pearl Harbor. David C. Their boast that the sacred territory of the Land of the Rising Sun would never be attacked was proved wrong. 13 Trefousse. The plan was to latch the bombers on a one-way mission to the Japanese home islands as soon as the force approached within maximum range. Halsey's carrier shocking force boldly sailed deep into Japanese waters with sixteen long-range Army B-25s lashed to the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Homel. Back home the press exaggerated the effects of the raids and greatly boosted American public morale. Thus. naval intelligence. attack on the Japanese home islands. naval task forces in the region than they thought existed.13 Most escaped in friendly Chinese territory. successfully took off when the force had come within 660 miles of Japan. Nimitz felt that he could best defend the sea lanes to Australia by attacking Japanese bases in the central Pacific with carrier task forces in a series of hit-and run raids. Yamamoto himself was afraid that the Americans might even attempt a raid on Tokyo and endanger the emperor's life. Japanese plans were known ahead of time.

intelligence. But he devised a curious battle plan that split his forces into ten separate groups. better torpedoes. On 8 May the Battle of the Coral Sea was fought. While only one Japanese carrier was sunk. The Battle of the Coral Sea turned back the Japanese advance for the first time in the Pacific war. It was the first great combat between carrier forces. and sixty-five destroyers. The Lexington was struck by two torpedoes. and both the Yorktown and Lexington were hit. The ship had to be abandoned and was later sunk by one of her own escorting destroyers. Nimitz had deduced the entire major movements In the Japanese plan through radio intercepts and code breaking. eight carriers. They were pitted against Nimitz's small force of three carriers.S. and a storm front that partly concealed their movements. with a Japanese diversionary attack on Dutch Harbor in the Aleutians. BATTLE OF CORAL SEA AND MIDWAY CORAL SEA. The Americans were not going to be surprised-much to the astonishment of the Japanese. MIDWAY- In mid-1942 Yamamoto's Combined Fleet had immense numerical superiority over Allied forces in the Pacific. and the third lost so many aviators it was kept out of the Midway operation. Nagumo's Midway force would be short three carriers for the major action of Yamamoto's grand plan. The key to the impending action however was U. The Japanese had several advantages: fliers with more combat experience. spread all the way from the Aleutian Islands to Midway itself. and fourteen destroyers. Both groups launched their attack waves about the same time. The opposing waves hit the two task groups almost simultaneously. the strategic victory was clearly on the side of the United States. twenty-three cruisers. Even though the American losses were somewhat greater. which ruptured her fuel lines and caused major explosions. eight cruisers.Nimitz directed his carrier task groups to converge on the Coral Sea to stop the Japanese moves toward the Solomons. with neither fleet ever coming into sight of the other. The Japanese carrier Shokaku was severely damaged. The Japanese Combined Fleet was a huge armada of eleven battleships. A scout plane ranging 700 miles to sea from Midway alerted the 15 . 5. The Lexington and her group were sent to reinforce Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher's Yorktown group. The first action occurred on 3 June 1942. another was damaged.

1958. New York: Ballantine Books. American bombs hit the carriers Soryo. Only the carrier Hiryu. The American planes proved to be no match for the Zero fighters and were quickly shot down. Fletcher located the Japanese force with patrol bombers and then ordered Rear Admiral Raymond Spruance in the Enterprise to attack while the Yorktown recovered the search planes. But his luck had run out. all aircraft on Midway took off to attack the Japanese force. At the same time the first Midway attack wave returned. Kaga. He changed course to approach it and ordered that the bombs that had been loaded on aircraft for the second Midway attack be replaced with torpedoes for an attack on the U. At that moment another American wave of dive bombers from the Enterprise and Yorktown came screaming down on a high-altitude dive- bombing attack. Masatake.ported that another attack was needed to destroy the runways there. At almost the same time. carrier torpedo planes. The Americans caught the Japanese carriers with planes on their flight decks about to take off. however. Refueling. 14 Nagumo launched his first attack of 108 planes against Midway at dawn on the fourth. Her dive bombers followed 14 Fuchida. the aircraft returning from the first Midway attack re. Nagumo's force was now attacked by three low and slow waves of U. 15 Their sacrifice would not be in vain. farther north. Nagumo had now turned back eight attacks in three hours without a scratch. They met almost no resistance from the Japanese combat air patrol. escaped this attack. the four Japanese carriers turned into the wind. Midway. His carriers were successively attacked by torpedo planes and bombers.S. all of which missed. Nagumo received word of the American carrier task force. Finally. carrier force. 15 16 . all of which were shot down in flames before they could score a hit. which had been pulled down to meet the previous American low-level torpedo attack. and Nagumo ordered that the planes be recovered before launching the second wave. At the same time.Midway defenders. and the off-loaded bombs lying around waiting to be returned to the magazines. Nagumo now was faced with four hours of fast action and difficult decisions. other planes. none of which scored a hit and almost all of which were shot down. Mitsuo and Okumiya. Fletcher drew his two task forces in to within 200 miles of Midway and waited. About to launch the counterattack. Then an American submarine penetrated his formation and fired torpedoes. The bombs were left lying on the deck. and Akagi and turned them into flaming torches in minutes.S.

The cruiser force now came under attack by a U. rather than have his surface force exposed to a daylight dive-bombing attack.S. the Mogami and Mikuma. He ordered his entire force to retire to the west. and in the process of dodging torpedoes. About the time the Yorktown was being abandoned. The spread of torpedoes also sank an escorting U. After Midway. On 6 June Spruance located the damaged ships and sank the Mikuma. Additional hits by torpedo planes caused Fletcher to abandon his flagship and turn tactical command over to Admiral Spruance. he canceled the Midway operation in the early hours of the morning. destroyer. her search planes discovered the Hiryu and reported her location and course. Though he ordered a counterattack during the night with four cruisers of his bombardment force. the Japanese would never be able to launch a major offensive. But from then on. A short rune later a wave of dive bombers from the Enterprise set the Hiryu on fire with four direct bomb hits. They had succeeded in occupying Kiska and Attu in the Aleutian Islands without resistance. two of them. The final action came when the Yorktown.S. Only the Japanese northern forces had achieved success in Yamamoto's grand plan. which was under tow after being abandoned.S. The Battle of Midway was the turning point in the Pacific war. carrier with three hits. new aviators sent to the carrier fleet were less prepared to face the growing number of well-trained American pilots. 17 .the Yorktown's planes back and stopped the U. was sunk by a Japanese submarine. Yamamoto was now without aircraft carriers to protect his main body of heavy warships. collided. submarine. The Japanese loss of four carriers and a cruiser was compounded by the loss of her best Japanese carrier pilots. This loss of pilots was one of the chief causes of Japan's ultimate defeat at sea.

with few natural resources. which had begun in 1926. A J. But the Soviet army's resistance to Japanese attacks was sufficient to discourage northern expansion.S. U. Pearl Harbor. dumping of goods. President Franklin D. The Japanese. Japan used high tariffs to limit imports of American and European industrial products. They also developed sources of raw materials and heavy industry in the colonies they established in Korea. the very two Western nations trying to restrict Japan's expansion. severely undercutting British and European manufacturers. disliking and distrusting the zaibatsu (large Japanese corporations).16 The Japanese army. Moreover the Japanese military faced a particular tactical problem in that certain critical raw materials. Their commitment to the military effort to expand Japanese territory to achieve economic security can be understood partly in these terms. sought to copy this pattern. which had stocks for only about six months of operations. Japan had emerged from its own period of depression. 1969. because of the army's preoccupation with Manchuria and China. Japan received most of its oil from the United States and rubber from British Malaya. markets. Roosevelt's embargo of oil exports to Japan pressured the Japanese navy. The depression ended in the mid-1930s in Japan partly because of government deficits used to expand greatly both heavy industry and the military. the intensification of Chinese resistance to the pressure 16 Barker. where the effects of the depression were devastating and poverty was widespread. Meanwhile in 1937. especially oil and rubber were not available within the Japanese sphere of influence. Internationally. Taiwan and Manchuria. for its part.S. New York: Ballantine Books Inc. Instead. was originally concerned with fighting the Soviet Union. The Japanese army governed Manchuria indirectly through the "puppet" state of Manchukuo and developed heavy industry there under its favorite agencies. and other trade manipulation. Many of the young soldiers mobilized into the Japanese army by the early 1930s came from the rural areas. 18 . this was a time when "free trade" was in disrepute. REASONS BEHIND JAPANESE AGRESSION Economic Background-While the United States was still struggling to emerge from the Great Depression at the end of the 1930s. They used cut throat trade practices to sell textiles and other light industrial goods in the East Asian and U. The great powers not only jealously protected their special economic rights within their colonies and spheres of influence. and would do so partly because of the war. 6. by the mid-1930s. but sought to bolster their sagging economies through high tariffs.

until the 1931 Manchurian Incident. Japan was at war with China. published by Asia for Educators. especially in light of his own known preference for peace. but Japanese emperors after the Meiji Restoration had 17 Japan‘s Quest for Power and World War II in Asia. DOMESTIC POLITICS The political structure of Japan at this time was inherited from the Meiji era and was increasingly dominated by the military. the nation was in a state of "total war" and the military and their supporters were able to force their policies on the government and the people. These men used their position to coordinate the bureaucracy. 19 . it would be too much to say that colonialism. Columbia University. From 1937 on. During the Meiji period. the government was controlled by a small ruling group of elder statesmen who had overthrown the shogun and established the new centralized Japanese state. and the police. and other branches of government. no single governmental institution was able to establish full control. including schools and textbooks.of the Japanese military drew Japan into a draining war in the vast reaches of China proper. 2009. the media. but Japan continued to have more of an authoritarian government than a totalitarian one like Hitler's Germany. While it seems that economic factors were important in Japanese expansion in East Asia. The wartime regime used existing government controls on public opinion. the government was never able to gain real control of the economy and the great zaibatsu. the Imperial Household. Thus. the parliament. Following their deaths in the early 1920s. when Japan took control of Manchuria. far to the south. Columbia. and in 1940 into operations in French Indochina.edu. By the time General Hideki Tôjô became prime minister and the war against the United States began in 1941. 17 The emperor has been criticized for not taking a more forceful action to restrain his government. and the American embargo compelled Japan to take this course. which were more interested in the economic opportunities provided by the military's policies than in submitting loyally to a patriotic mission. Domestic politics. This began a process in which the military behaved autonomously on the Asian mainland and with increasing authority in politics at home. In particular. ideology and racism also played a role. the army agreed. the military. trade protection. when the navy pressed for a "southern" strategy of attacking Dutch Indonesia to get its oil and British Malaya to control its rubber.

however. 19 Ibid 4. Before the Meiji Restoration. At Dawn We Slept. The people were not allowed to look at the emperor. It is sometimes difficult to comprehend the extreme sacrifices the Japanese made in the name of the emperor. patriotism had been raised to the unassailable level of sacredness. The doubts are strengthened in light of the difficulty the emperor had in forcing the military to accept surrender after the atomic bombings. The Japanese greatly resented this. 20 . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. and 18 Prange. Their attempt to establish a statement of racial equality in the Covenant of the League of Nations was vetoed by the United States (because of opposition in California) and Great Britain (Australian resistance). He was the head of the Shintô religion. that the emperor is descended from gods who created Japan and is therefore semi divine. for political and ideological reasons — since Buddhism had originated in India and come to Japan via China. The emperor's decision at that point to bring agreement among his advisers was an extraordinary event in Japanese history."reigned but not ruled. for their emperor. Gordon W. Japan's native religion. or even to speak his name. among other beliefs. as extreme patriotism — Japanese were taught to give their lives. which holds."18 One wonders if a more forceful emperor in fact could have controlled the army and navy at this late date. IDEOLOGY The emperor-based ideology of Japan during World War II was a relatively new creation. 1981. if necessary. dating from the efforts of Meiji oligarchs to unite the nation in response to the Western challenge. This can perhaps best be viewed. The Japanese military was convinced of the willingness of its people to go to any sacrifice for their nation. the emperor wielded no political power and was viewed simply as a symbol of the Japanese culture. Westerners of that time knew him only as a shadowy figure somewhat like a pope. RACISM The Japanese were proud of their many accomplishments and resented racial slurs they met with in some Western nations. The Meiji oligarchs brought the emperor and Shintô to national prominence. 19 But this was not entirely different from the Americans who gave their lives in the same war for their country and the "American" way. replacing Buddhism as the national religion.

But although the Japanese were initially welcomed in some Asian colonies by the indigenous populations whom they "liberated" from European domination. the arrogance and racial prejudice displayed by the Japanese military governments in these nations created great resentment.it was contemptuous of the "softness" of the U.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a263962.dtic.pdf 21 . whom they disdained. This resentment is still evident in some Southeast Asian nations. the Japanese saw themselves as less representatives of Asia than Asia's champion. where loyalty and patriotism were tempered by the rights and well-being of the individual. and European democracies.S. 20 http://www. While Asians. The military's overconfidence in its own abilities and underestimation of the will of these other nations were thus rooted in its own misleading ethnic and racial stereotypes.20They sought to liberate Asian colonies from the Westerners.

CONCLUSION Today Japan and the United States are close allies. which many people remember well today. but bewildered and shocked by the defeat. the US. US was shocked by the huge loss it faced and it began preparing for the biggest attack. the Japanese nation was not only starving and devastated by the bombing. After that there was no going back. However it is also noticed throughout the project that how Americans tried to counter and respond to the massive attack. Japan's early victories seemed to prove this. 22 . ‗A date which live in infamy‘. The attack was so sudden and severe that on the very next day of the attack. There is no doubt that Pearl Harbor was very unfortunate event in the History and it created an environment of war as it awakened the mightiest rather it awakened a sleeping giant. as a direct response to the Pearl Harbor. The Japanese navy was destroyed. When this was followed by massive bombardment from the air and the final blow of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. cutting them off from needed supplies of raw materials. they fought a bitter and bloody war. it seemed that the sun rose through thick black smoke that blanketed the devastated harbor. when he addressed the Congress after the attack on Pearl Harbor. when Japan attacked US on Pearl harbor. It was followed by several battles which have already been mentioned.S. Eventually these events of Pearl Harbor and the wars at the Pacific Ocean proved to be vital elements of entire World War II. led 16 B-25 bombers on a mission to attack military layouts in Japan. these were the words of the president Roosevelt. At the end of the war. James H. things were totally different but. The Japanese military tried to convince the Japanese people that complete loyalty and obedience would make Japan invincible. Before the America's entry in World War II. Furthermore. Doolittle. The events which followed just worsened the situation and also it gave shape to the future of World War II. Japanese invincibility was proven to be a myth. but the U. leaving it into a very poor condition made US realize that it's time to show the world its power. victory at Midway Island in June 1942 led to the steady encirclement of the Japanese islands. But between 1941 and 1945.

 Pearl Harbor: Deterrence Theory and Decision Theory by Bruce M. Casemate Publishing.  Zimm. Modern World History. 1997.edu. published by Asia for Educators. Attack on Pearl Harbor: Strategy.  Norman Lowe. Deceptions. Alan D. pg no. 2009. Combat. Myths. page number 165-172. 3 rd ed. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Japan‘s Quest for Power and World War II in Asia. Macmillan Publishers India ltd. Russett First Published June 1. Columbia. 1967. 2011. 23 .99-102. Columbia University.