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Human Resource Development
Chapter 4 to 7

1. Assessing HRD Needs
2. Designing Effective HRD Programs
3. Implementing HRD Programs
4. Evaluating HRD Programs

Assessment of HRD Needs
Chapter 4

Goals of HRD  Solving current problems (like an increase in customer complaints)  Preventing anticipated problems (such as a shortage of skilled technicians)  Including as participants those individuals and units that can benefit most .

Levels of Needs Analysis  Organizational Analysis  Task Analysis  Person Analysis . Needs Assessment Needs assessment (or needs analysis) is a process by which an organization’s HRD needs are identified and articulated.

Unwillingness to Perform Needs Assessment  Can be a difficult time-consuming process  Action is valued over research  Unnecessary because available information already specifies organization needs (fads.)  Lack of support . etc.

 Analytic needs.  Compliance needs are those needs mandated by law. rather than emphasizing existing problems. or compliance with healthcare regulations. They most often involve mandated training programs. such as safety training. on the other hand. . Diagnostic needs focus on the factors that lead to effective performance and prevent performance problems. food handling. identify new or better ways to perform tasks.

Organizational Analysis Organizational analysis is a process used to better understand the characteristics of an organization to determine where training and HRD efforts are needed and the conditions under which they should be conducted. resources)  Organizational culture/climate  Environmental constraints . According to Irwin Goldstein. facilities. an organizational analysis should identify  Organizational goals and strategy  Organizational resources (financial.

. reject per thousand Goal is to become ISO certified and 90. Where training emphasis To maintain a quality Objectives and Budget can and should be standard of no more than 1 placed.000 dollars has been allocated to this effort Labor Inventory Where training is Thirty percent of our truck needed to fill gaps drivers will retire over the caused by retirement. Data Sources for Organizational Analysis – Part 1 of 3 Data Source Training Need Example Recommended Implications Organizational Goals. etc. age. next four years turnover.

Data Sources for Organizational Analysis – Part 2 of 3 Data Source Training Need Example Recommended Implications Organizational Climate These may help focus on Indices problems that have training components  Grievances Items related to Seventy percent of productivity are useful grievances are related to in determining behaviors of 6 supervisors performance deficiencies  Absenteeism High absences in clerical staff  Accidents Accident rate for line workers increasing .

Data Sources for Organizational Analysis – Part 3 of 3 Data Source Training Need Example Recommended Implications Analysis of Efficiency Can help document Indices difference between actual performance and desired performance  Cost of labor Labor costs have increased 8 percent in the last year Changes in System or New or changed equipment The line has been shut down Subsystem may present training about once per day since the problem new machinery was installed. Waste has doubled since using the new cutting tool .

Task Analysis  Task analysis (sometimes called operations analysis) is a systematic collection of data about a specific job or group of jobs used to determine what employees should be taught to achieve optimal performance  Overall job description  Task identification  What it takes to do the job/KSAs  Areas that can benefit from training  Prioritizing training needs .

Performance Objectives of the tasks of Very useful if available. description and suffer from the same problems 3. Data Sources For Task/Operational Analysis – Part 1 of 3 Sources for Obtaining Training Need Implications Practical Concerns Job Data 1. but often which they are judged. and Standards job. but is them not meant to be all inclusive 2. Job Specifications List specified tasks required May be product of the job for each job. organizations do not have formal performance standards . and standards by accurate. Job Descriptions Outlines the job’s typical Often inaccurate due to time duties and responsibilities constraints or job knowledge.

Be aware of the impact of but has serious limitations being observed can influence in higher level jobs behavior . possibility. but has serious limitations in higher level jobs 5. short cycle type jobs are a determining specific tasks. Observe Job—Work Most effective way of Useful again for very short cycle Sampling determining specific tasks. Data Sources For Operational Analysis – Part 2 of 3 Sources for Obtaining Training Need Implications Practical Concerns Job Data 4. Perform the Job Most effective way of Easy. jobs.

Questions directed to Most often used method the job the job holder and holder and his supervisor the supervisor. have different perspectives and information 7. Review Literature Useful for determining Need to be sure information is concerning job specific issues related to relevant to your organization in professional the job and what is being journals practitioner done by others and what journals other the results are industries . Data Sources For Operational Analysis – Part 3 of 3 Sources for Obtaining Training Need Implications Practical Concerns Job Data 6.

prior knowledge. Person Analysis  Person analysis is directed at determining the training needs of the individual employee. motivation . education. motivate  Target population – values. replace.  Performance deficiency  Is performance substandard?  Are current employees capable of training?  Can performance be improved through training  Issue of whether to train.

good reasons not to Observation – Work More subjective Done effectively in some Sampling technique. Data Sources for Person Analysis – Part 1 of 5 Data Sources for Training Need Remarks Obtaining Data Implication Performance Data or Easy to analyze and Supervisor ratings are Appraisals quantify for purposes often done poorly as there of determining subjects is no real incentive to do and kind of training them well. situations like customer service where you can monitor behavior Interviews Only individual knows Be sure employee believes what he believes he it is in his best interest to (she) needs to learn. and a lot of needed. be honest .

Care of scoring keys is b. process Attitude Surveys On an individual basis. Achievement related qualities. Important to use well useful in determining developed scales morale. Skills must be taken so that important and difficult to they measure job do if not trained in the c. . Job knowledge standardized. interview Tests Can be tailor-made or Care in the development a. or satisfaction of each employee. motivation. Data Sources for Person Analysis – Part 2 of 5 Data Sources for Training Need Remarks Obtaining Data Implication Questionnaires Same approach as Same concerns as the the interview.

. see “Performance employee ratings. ratings. data or Appraisals” Critical Incidents Observe actions critical Rely on supervisor to successful and ratings. see “Performance charts data or Appraisals” Rating Scales Care must be taken to Rely on supervisor ensure objective ratings. see “Performance unsuccessful data or Appraisals” performance. Data Sources for Person Analysis – Part 3 of 5 Data Sources for Training Need Remarks Obtaining Data Implication Checklists or Up-to-date listing of each Rely on supervisor Training Progress employee’s skills.

Useful. but again. and of attitudes in development of are demonstrated in scoring criteria is these techniques. develop and operate. Devised Situations Certain knowledge. care skills. Data Sources for Person Analysis – Part 4 of 5 Data Sources for Training Need Remarks Obtaining Data Implication Diaries The individual employee records details of his (her) job. these are very good . important Assessment Centers Combination of several of Although expensive to the above techniques.

management . Data Sources for Person Analysis – Part 5 of 5 Data Sources for Training Need Remarks Obtaining Data Implication Coaching Similar to interview – Must choose coaches one-to-one. related to organizational and Review Systems are and group or individually the support of top negotiated standards. carefully and train to be most effective MBO or Work Provides actual performance Good process when Planning data on a recurring basis implemented properly.

Designing Effective HRD Programs Chapter 5 .

Phase One: Needs Assessment  Should be completed before you start Phase Two  You know:  Where training is needed  What kinds of training are needed  Who needs to be trained  Conditions for training .

Phase Two: Design .

Phase Two: Designing the Training or HRD Intervention Key activities include:  Setting objectives  Selecting the trainer or vendor  Developing lesson plans  Selecting methods and techniques  Preparing materials  Scheduling training .

Example: “Given all available engineering data regarding a proposed product. an objective identifies the criteria of acceptable performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable.”  Conditions An objective describes the important conditions (if any) under which the performance is to occur.”  Criteria Wherever possible. Example: “The product profile must describe all of the commercial characteristics of the product that are appropriate for its introduction to the market. Objectives  Performance An objective always says what a learner is expected to be able to do and/or produce to be considered competent. Example: “Write a product profile for a proposed new product.” . the objective sometimes describes the product or result of the doing. including descriptions of at least three major product uses. trainee will write a product profile.

“Make or Buy” Decisions  You cannot be an expert on everything  You can’t afford to maintain a full-time staff for once-a-year training  You can’t afford the time or money to build all of your own training programs  Implication: Much training is purchased. rather than self-produced .

Factors to Consider Before Purchasing an HRD Program  Level of expertise available/required  Timeliness  Number of trainees  Subject matter  Cost  Size of HRD organization  “X” Factor (other conditions) .

Other Factors to Consider  Vendor credentials  Vendor background  Vendor experience  Philosophical match (between vendor and organization)  Delivery method .

Other Factors to Consider – 2  Content  Actual product  Results  Support  Request for proposal (RFP) .

Selecting the Trainer  Training competency  How well can he/she train?  If they can’t train. why are they employed?  Subject Matter Expertise  How well is the material understood? .

If No Subject-Matter Experts (SMEs) are Available…  Use a team to train  Use programmed instruction or CBT  Train your trainers…  You are training subject matter experts to be trainers  You are not training trainers to be SMEs .

Preparing Lesson Plans  Content to be covered  Activity sequencing  Selection/design of media  Selection of trainee activities  Timing and phasing of activities  Method(s) of instruction  Evaluation methods to be used .

21–38. Training Methods Methods Percent Instructor-led Classroom Programs 91 Self-Study. Non-computer-based 25 Self-Study. Non-computer-based 23 Virtual Classroom. Training. Web-based 44 Job-based Performance Support 44 Public Seminars 42 Case Studies 40 Role Plays 35 Games or Simulations. Computer-based 10 Experiential Programs 6 Virtual Reality Programs 3 Media Workbooks/Manuals 79 Internet/Intranet/Extranet 63 CD-ROM/DVD/Diskettes 55 Videotapes 52 Teleconferencing 24 Videoconferencing 23 Satellite/Broadcast TV 12 Audiocassettes 4 SOURCE: From 2003 Industry Report (2003). 40(9). with Instructor 21 Games or Simulations. .

Training 90 Problem Solving/Decision Making 75 Communications Skills 89 Time Management 74 Sexual Harassment 88 Train-the-Trainer 74 Supervisory Skills 88 Diversity/Cultural Awareness 72 Leadership 85 Hiring/Interviewing 71 New Equipment Operation 85 Strategic Planning 69 Performance Management/Appraisal 85 Customer Education 68 Team Building 82 Quality/Process Improvement 65 Customer Service 81 Public Speaking/Presentation Skills 62 Product Knowledge 79 Basic Life/Work Skills 62 Executive Development 78 Ethics 61 Safety 77 Sales 55 Wellness 54 . Types of Training Computer Applications 96 Computer Programming 76 New Hire Orientation 96 Personal Growth 76 Non-Executive Management 91 Managing Change 75 Tech.

Selecting Training Methods Consider the following:  Program objectives  Time and money available  Resources availability  Trainee characteristics and preferences .

. consumables. etc. Training Materials  Program announcements  Program outlines  Training manuals and textbooks  Training aids.

Scheduling Training Must be done in conjunction with:  Production schedulers  Shift supervisors  Work supervisors/managers  Trainees .

Training During Normal Working Hours Issues to consider:  Day of week preferred  Time of day  Peak work hours  Staff meeting times  Required travel .

Training After Working Hours  Are workers/trainees getting paid? If so. by whom?  What about personal commitments?  What do you do for shift workers? .

and where does one register?  Who is responsible for logistics?  Travel  Lodging  Meals  Etc. Registration and Enrollment Issues  How.  How do one cancel/reschedule? . when.

Implementing HRD Programs Chapter 6 .

The Implementation Stage .

The Learning Pyramid

By Permission: Yin (2004)

Training Delivery Methods

Three basic categories:
 On-the-Job Training
 Classroom Training
 Self-Paced Training
Note: Computer-based training can be in a classroom,
or individual/self-paced.

On-the-Job Training (OJT)

 Job instruction training (JIT)
 Job rotation
 Coaching
 Mentoring

Characteristics of OJT  Training at one’s regular workstation  Most common form of training  Strengths:  Realism  Applicability  Weaknesses:  No formal structure  Can perpetuate mistakes .

More on OJT  Facilitates training transfer to the job  Reduced training costs. since classroom is not needed  Noise and production needs may reduce training effectiveness  Quality and safety may be impacted .

Job Instruction Training (JIT)  Prepare the worker  Present the task  Practice the task  Follow-up .

JIT Process  Observe work processes  Brainstorm improvements  Analyze options  Implement improvements  Evaluate results and make adjustments .

Job Rotation  Train on different tasks/positions  Often used to train entry-level managers  Also used to provide back-up in production positions .

Coaching and Mentoring  Coaching – between worker and supervisor  Can provide specific performance improvement and correction  Mentoring – senior employee paired with a junior employee (“protégé”)  Helps to learn the ropes  Prepares protégé for future advancement .

Classroom Training Approaches Five basic types:  Lecture  Discussion  Audiovisual Media  Experimental Methods  Self-Paced or Computer-Based Training .

Lecture  Oral presentation of material  Some visual aids can be added  Remains a very popular training method  Transfers lots of information quickly  Interesting lectures can work well  Good to supplement with other materials .

Problems with Lecture Method  One-way form of communication  Trainees must be motivated to listen  Often lacks idea sharing  People don’t always like listening to lectures .

Discussion Method  Two-way communication  Use questions to control lesson  Direct: produce narrow responses  Reflective: mirror what was said  Open-Ended: challenge learners – to increase understanding .

Challenges of Using the Discussion Method  Maintaining control in larger classes  Needs a skilled facilitator  Needs more time than lecture  Trainees must prepare for the lesson by reading assignments. . etc.

along with audio senses (hearing)  Types:  Static Media  Dynamic Media  Telecommunications . Audiovisual Media  Brings visual senses (seeing) into play.

Static Media  Printed materials  Lecture notes  Work aids  Handouts  Slides – e.. PowerPoint  Overhead transparencies .g.

Dynamic Media  Audio cassettes  CDs  Film  Videotape  Video disc .

Telecommunications  Instructional TV  Teleconferencing  Videoconferencing .

Experiential Training  Case studies  Business game simulations  Role Playing  Behavior Modeling  Outdoor training .

Case Study Considerations  Specific instructional objectives  Case approach objectives  Attributes of particular case  Learner characteristics  Instructional timing  Training environment  Facilitator’s characteristics .

Business Game Simulations  Computerized versus manual  Operational  Financial  Resource bound  In-basket exercise  Setting priorities  Time-driven decision making .

use of interpersonal skills a plus  Some trainees are better actors  Transfer to job can be difficult . Role Plays  Self discovery.

among other media) . Behavior Modeling  Used mainly for interpersonal skills training  Practice target behavior  Get immediate feedback (video.

Outdoor Education  Ropes courses. problem solving  Often good for team building  Fun – but is it effective training? . etc.  Can facilitate teamwork  Focus on group problem identification.

Self-Paced Training  Hard-copy  Correspondence courses  Programmed instruction  Computer-Based Training (CBT)  Computer-aided instruction  Internet/intranet training .

but increasingly being replaced by CBT . Self- Paced Computer-Based Training)  Good for remote locations without Internet access  Individual follows text at own pace  Correct/incorrect answers determine progress  Trainee works alone without instructor interface  Still used. Hard-Copy Self-Paced (i.e..

Computer-Based Training (CBT)  Interactive with user  Training when and where user wants it  Trainee has greater control over progress  CBT can provide progress reports and be tailored to specific instructional objectives  Trainee works on own with minimal facilitation by instructor who is elsewhere .

Types of CBT  Computer-Aided Instruction  Internet & Intranet-Based Training (e- learning)  Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction .

. for each trainee . etc. Computer-Based Training (Classroom-Based)  Group-based  Instructor is present and facilitates computer- based learning  Trainees are collocate and can help each other  Requires computer.

Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)  Drill-and-practice approach  Read-only presentation of a “classic” training program  Multimedia courses  Interactive multimedia training  Simulations .

Advantages of CAI  Interactive with each student  Student is self-paced  Logistics –  Increasingly available over the Internet (or via an organization’s intranet)  Updates are easily distributed  Instructional Management & Reporting  CAN be cost-effective… .

E-learning  Intranet  Internal to site/organization  Internet  General communications  Online reference  Needs assessment. administration. testing  Distribution of CBT  Delivery of multimedia .

and other rubrics  Can provide real-time simulation and stimulation . Intelligent CAI  Uses computer’s capabilities to provide tailored instruction  Can use expert systems. fuzzy logic.

Implementing Training  Depends on:  Objectives  Resources  Trainee characteristics .

Other Considerations Concerning Implementation  Physical environment:  Seating  Comfort level  Physical distractions .

Evaluating HRD Programs Chapter 7 .

Effectiveness  The degree to which a training (or other HRD program) achieves its intended purpose  Measures are relative to some starting point  Measures how well the desired goal is achieved .

Evaluation .

HRD Evaluation Textbook definition: “The systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection. value.” . adoption. and modification of various instructional activities.

In Other Words… Are we training:  the right people  the right “stuff”  the right way  with the right materials  at the right time? .

Evaluation Needs  Descriptive and judgmental information needed  Objective and subjective data  Information gathered according to a plan and in a desired format  Gathered to provide decision making information .

Purposes of Evaluation  Determine whether the program is meeting the intended objectives  Identify strengths and weaknesses  Determine cost-benefit ratio  Identify who benefited most or least  Determine future participants  Provide information for improving HRD programs .

Purposes of Evaluation – 2  Reinforce major points to be made  Gather marketing information  Determine if training program is appropriate  Establish management database .

Evaluation Bottom Line  Is HRD a revenue contributor or a revenue user?  Is HRD credible to line and upper-level managers?  Are benefits of HRD readily evident to all? .

How Often are HRD Evaluations Conducted?  Not often enough!!!  Frequently. only end-of-course participant reactions are collected  Transfer to the workplace is evaluated less frequently .

Why HRD Evaluations are Rare  Reluctance to having HRD programs evaluated  Evaluation needs expertise and resources  Factors other than HRD cause performance improvements – e.. . etc.  Economy  Equipment  Policies.g.

Need for HRD Evaluation  Shows the value of HRD  Provides metrics for HRD efficiency  Demonstrates value-added approach for HRD  Demonstrates accountability for HRD activities  Everyone else has it… why not HRD? .

”  Who says it’s:  Appropriate?  Effective?  Timely?  Transferable to the workplace? . therefore it is good.”  “Since it’s good. I don’t need to post-test. Make or Buy Evaluation  “I bought it.

Anecdotal approach – talk to other users 2. as well as individual training . Holistic approach – look at overall HRD process. Try before buy – borrow and use samples 3. Analytical approach – match research data to training needs 4. Evolution of Evaluation Efforts 1.

Models and Frameworks of Evaluation  Table 7-1 lists six frameworks for evaluation  The most popular is that of D. Kirkpatrick:  Reaction  Learning  Job Behavior  Results .

Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels  Reaction  Focus on trainee’s reactions  Learning  Did they learn what they were supposed to?  Job Behavior  Was it used on job?  Results  Did it improve the organization’s effectiveness? .

Issues Concerning Kirkpatrick’s Framework  Most organizations don’t evaluate at all four levels  Focuses only on post-training  Doesn’t treat inter-stage improvements  WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS? .

A Suggested Framework – 1  Reaction  Did trainees like the training?  Did the training seem useful?  Learning  How much did they learn?  Behavior  What behavior change occurred? .

Suggested Framework – 2  Results  What were the tangible outcomes?  What was the return on investment (ROI)?  What was the contribution to the organization? .

Data Collection for HRD Evaluation Possible methods:  Interviews  Questionnaires  Direct observation  Written tests  Simulation/Performance tests  Archival performance information .

Advantages: Limitations:
 Flexible  High reactive effects
 Opportunity for  High cost
clarification  Face-to-face threat
 Depth possible potential
 Personal contact  Labor intensive
 Trained observers

Advantages: Limitations:
 Low cost to administer  Possible inaccurate data
 Honesty increased  Response conditions not
 Anonymity possible
 Respondents set varying
 Respondent sets the paces
pace  Uncontrolled return rate
 Variety of options

Direct Observation
Advantages: Limitations:
 Nonthreatening  Possibly disruptive
 Excellent way to  Reactive effects are
measure behavior possible
change  May be unreliable
 Need trained observers

Written Tests Advantages: Limitations:  Low purchase cost  May be threatening  Readily scored  Possibly no relation to job performance  Quickly processed  Measures only cognitive  Easily administered learning  Wide sampling possible  Relies on norms  Concern for racial/ ethnic bias .

development and use psychomotor and affective domains . Simulation/Performance Tests Advantages: Limitations:  Reliable  Time consuming  Objective  Simulations often  Close relation to job difficult to create performance  High costs to  Includes cognitive.

Archival Performance Data Advantages: Limitations:  Reliable  Criteria for keeping/ discarding records  Objective  Information system  Job-based discrepancies  Easy to review  Indirect  Minimal reactive effects  Not always usable  Records prepared for other purposes .

and freedom from collection method bias and error  Validity  Does the device measure what we want to measure?  Practicality  Does it make sense in terms of the resources used to get the data? . Choosing Data Collection Methods  Reliability  Consistency of results.

Type of Data Used/Needed  Individual performance  Systemwide performance  Economic .

Individual Performance Data

 Individual knowledge
 Individual behaviors
 Examples:
 Test scores
 Performance quantity, quality, and timeliness
 Attendance records
 Attitudes

Systemwide Performance Data

 Productivity
 Scrap/rework rates
 Customer satisfaction levels
 On-time performance levels
 Quality rates and improvement rates

Economic Data

 Profits
 Product liability claims
 Avoidance of penalties
 Market share
 Competitive position
 Return on investment (ROI)
 Financial utility calculations

Use of Self-Report Data  Most common method  Pre-training and post-training data  Problems:  Mono-method bias  Desire to be consistent between tests  Socially desirable responses  Response Shift Bias:  Trainees adjust expectations to training .

Research Design Specifies in advance:  the expected results of the study  the methods of data collection to be used  how the data will be analyzed .

Research Design Issues  Pretest and Posttest  Shows trainee what training has accomplished  Helps eliminate pretest knowledge bias  Control Group  Compares performance of group with training against the performance of a similar group without training .

Recommended Research Design  Pretest and posttest with control group  Whenever possible:  Randomly assign individuals to the test group and the control group to minimize bias  Use “time-series” approach to data collection to verify performance improvement is due to training .

Ethical Issues Concerning Evaluation Research  Confidentiality  Informed consent  Withholding training from control groups  Use of deception  Pressure to produce positive results .

Assessing the Impact of HRD  Money is the language of business. posttest control group data.  You MUST talk dollars.  No one (except maybe you) cares about “the effectiveness of training interventions as measured by and analysis of formal pretest.” . not HRD jargon.

HRD Program Assessment  HRD programs and training are investments  Line managers often see HR and HRD as costs – i.. not revenue producers  You must prove your worth to the organization  Or you’ll have to find another organization… .e. revenue users.

reduction in employee sick-days. etc. Evaluation of Training Costs  Cost-benefit analysis  Compares cost of training to benefits gained such as attitudes. .  Cost-effectiveness analysis  Focuses on increases in quality. etc. reduction in accidents. productivity. reduction in scrap/rework.

Return on Investment  Return on investment = Results/Costs .

43(8). Training and Development Journal.800 per day per day per year Housekeeping Visual 10 defects 2 defects 8 defects Not measur- inspection (average) (average) able in $ using 20-item checklist Preventable Number of 24 per year 16 per year 8 per year accidents accidents Direct cost $144.440 panels 1.5% $720 per day 1.000 $48.800 = 6. G.000 $96.080 panels 360 panels $172. Training for impact.000 per of each per year year year accident Return Total savings: $220. Calculating Training Return On Investment Results Results Operational How Before After Differences Expressed Results Area Measured Training Training (+ or –) in $ Quality of panels % rejected 2% rejected 1.8 $32.000 per $48. Robinson (1989). Printed by permission. Robinson & J. .800.5% rejected .564 SOURCE: From D.00 ROI = Operational Results = Investment Training Costs = $220. 41.

Types of Training Costs  Direct costs  Indirect costs  Development costs  Overhead costs  Compensation for participants .

Direct Costs  Instructor  Base pay  Fringe benefits  Travel and per diem  Materials  Classroom and audiovisual equipment  Travel  Food and refreshments .

 Pre. etc. Indirect Costs  Training management  Clerical/Administrative  Postal/shipping. telephone.and post-learning materials  Other overhead costs . computers.

Development Costs  Fee to purchase program  Costs to tailor program to organization  Instructor training costs .

such as HRM . Overhead Costs  General organization support  Top management participation  Utilities. facilities  General and administrative costs.

and per-diem costs . lodging. Compensation for Participants  Participants’ salary and benefits for time away from job  Travel.

Measuring Benefits  Change in quality per unit measured in dollars  Reduction in scrap/rework measured in dollar cost of labor and materials  Reduction in preventable accidents measured in dollars  ROI = Benefits/Training costs .

Utility Analysis  Uses a statistical approach to support claims of training effectiveness:  N = Number of trainees  T = Length of time benefits are expected to last  dt = True performance difference resulting from training  SDy = Dollar value of untrained job performance (in standard deviation units)  C = Cost of training  U = (N)(T)(dt)(Sdy) – C .

Develop criterion measures/instruments to measure results. 4. . 6. Plan and execute evaluation strategy. Insist on specific and measurable training objectives. HRD Evaluation Steps 1. 3. Determine explicit evaluation strategy. 2. Obtain participant reactions. Analyze needs. 5.

Thank you .