You are on page 1of 12


OBJECTIVE: At the end of the lesson, you should be able to use a brainstorming list for selecting and
organizing information.

How do you select the information you will include in your writing? What technique do you do to organize
the information?
How do you go about brainstorming ideas?

Organizing information is necessary in the prewriting stage. It helps you narrow down the topics for your
paper. You can use several techniques for selecting and organizing information. Making a brainstorming
list is one of those techniques.

Brainstorming helps you generate topics and narrow them down to one. It improves your creative
thinking skills and deepens your understanding of a possible topic. On a brainstorming list you simply jot
down all the words or ideas that come to mind about a topic. You can make the list when you have many
ideas; you can cross out some of them as you limit the topic. Also, you can refer to the list later on when
your mind goes blank as you write.

Below are the benefits of making or having a brainstorming list.

 It allows you to generate ideas quickly.
 It helps you recall information about a topic.

To make a brainstorming list, start by writing down a general topic. Then, write all the words or phrases
that you can think of in relation to the topic. You can mark these by using bullet points. Do not feel
pressured to come up with a coherent piece of writing yet. Simply allow yourself to generate as many ideas
as you can about the topic.
General Topic: College Course

 my interests  course requirements
 my skills  financial status
 long-term plan  practicality
 school prestige  demand
 cost of schooling  parents' approval

All the items listed are ideas related to the general topic. These ideas can help you come up with an
interesting and specific topic.
You can also make a brainstorming list based on a thesis statement. The thesis statement is the main idea,
argument, or purpose of your paper. After writing your thesis statement, list any word, phrase, or statement
that you can think of that is related to the topic. Do not restrict yourself to the sequence of ideas.

Example 1:|Your teacher asked you to write a persuasive essay about this issue: Should parents choose
the course or career for their children, or should their children make the choice themselves?
Thesis statement: Children and not their parents should choose their course or career.

 They know themselves best.
 They know their strengths and weaknesses.
 They will be more willing to learn if they are doing what they want to do.
 They are more likely to succeed if they pursue their dream.
 They will look forward to their daily classes or work.
 Gain more confidence
 Personal happiness

These related ideas generated through brainstorming can serve as guide in developing the
body of your paper.
Example 2:
In a college entrance exam, you are asked to respond to this quote:
"Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you
believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do."

Then you add branches of major ideas related to the central idea.-Steve Jobs Thesis statement: Love whatever you choose to do. solving problems. Making a brainstorming list is a technique for selecting and organizing information. you will learn about the following graphic organizers and their uses:  mind map  Venn diagram  flowchart A mind map is used to represent knowledge of a concept or idea.” This graphic organizer is useful in brainstorming and exploring topics or ideas. “Ideas for a Dance Presentation. Keep in mind that you need not write in complete sentences.  Respect your work. practice. you begin with an image or a word that represents the central idea. you will be able to differentiate between the types of graphic organizers. In this lesson. that is. practice.  Practice. A Venn diagram is used to show the similarities and differences between two or more objects or ideas. ============================================= ORGANIZING INFORMATION THROUGH GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS At the end of the lesson.  Choose a job wherein you can use your skills. the ideas that come to mind in relation to the given thesis statements are listed in no particular order. To create it. summarizing information. and writing compositions. It uses overlapping circles to represent different objects or ideas that share similar . In Examples 1 and 2.  Know your strengths and weaknesses. a tool that uses visual displays to express relationships between or among ideas.  Do what you are good at. Simply generate as many ideas as you can about the topic. Why are graphic organizers useful for selecting and organizing information? Why is it important for you to know the different uses of graphic organizers? Organizing information is especially helpful in taking notes.  Pursue a dream. You can further expand those ideas by adding more branches.  Give it your best shot.  Love your work even if it is not your first choice. On this list you put any word or phrase you can think of that is related to your topic. These ideas can be used as supporting details to develop the thesis statement.  Always find new ways of loving your work. The example shows a mind map that brings together major ideas and sub-ideas associated with a central idea. Explanation: These related ideas generated through brainstorming can serve as your guide in developing the body of your paper. One way to do this is through a graphic organizer.

The example is a flowchart showing how to use a software application. SUMMARY: There are different graphic organizers that you can use to illustrate ideas. Use a graphic organizer that best fits your purpose. too.  A mind map is used to represent knowledge of a concept or idea.characteristics in some way. and summarize details. The intersection or the area where the circles overlap shows the characteristic that is common between or among the objects or ideas. The two basic types of outline are the topic outline and the sentence outline. therefore. ============ OUTLINING What makes an essay or article easy to read? When ideas flow smoothly from one paragraph to another. One of the common ways to do this is through an outline. it is done before you write your piece. classify information. A flowchart is used to show the different steps in a process. Usually. while a sentence outline uses complete sentences to define the subject matter. You can outline the ideas of a piece of work to better understand it. It contains information on stages of a process that must be completed in order. All ideas. must be organized properly. understanding is easier to achieve. while the last box signals its completion. It is a tool for reading.  A Venn diagram is used to present similarities and differences between two or more ideas.  A flowchart is used to show the steps in a process. How to Write a Topic Outline . The first box illustrates the first step of the process. It serves as a guide in organizing your ideas. The steps in between should be followed in sequential order to accomplish the task successfully. An outline is the skeleton of any written text. A topic outline uses words and phrases to list ideas.

Color 1. Origin Stories A. Height II. Example: Below is the basic format of a topic outline: Chocolate Hills I. In choosing the headings of your outline. C…) to present the subheadings. Use capital letters (e. Roman numerals (e. Then you gather information to support the main idea. the author does the following:  Identifies two main ideas about a topic  Writes two or three supporting ideas after each main idea  Gives two specific details under one supporting idea In this lesson. 2.  A topic outline is a tool that makes comprehension and writing of ideas easy. get the supporting ideas that further explain the main ideas. Two giants hurling rocks B. After determining the audience and purpose. Leaf green in rainy days C. B. use short words or key phrases only. Love story of Arogo and Aloya Explanation: Based on the example. General Description A. make sure to use short words and phrases.A topic outline is divided into three levels: the headings. .. For subheadings. Based on these you decide on the details to include and the language to use in your writing. Also.  In writing a topic outline. However. 1. ============= At the end of the lesson. you make the thesis statement. sub-subheadings are only given when necessary. you make an outline. II. look for the main ideas in the passage or text. what information will you include in your writing? How will you structure your ideas in your writing?Which ideas should you present first when you begin writing? You begin the process of writing by generating topics.. a list of the most important parts of your writing. you have learned the following concepts:  An outline is a summary that gives the essential features of a text. Brown in sunny days 2. Later on. Once you have chosen your topic and made a thesis statement.. One way of generating topics is brainstorming where you think of any topic and jot down as many ideas about it as you can. a sentence that tells the main idea of your writing.g.g. Once you have chosen the topic for writing. Total number (count) B. A. do not forget to indent the subheadings and the sub-subheadings. Sub-subheadings are the specific details or concrete examples of the supporting ideas. III…) are used to identify the headings. the subheadings. you narrow the topic down and select the main idea that you can develop in your writing.g. 3…) are used for sub-subheadings. you determine the audience and purpose. To select and organize the information that you gather. and the sub-subheadings. Arabic numbers (e. In writing a topic outline. you will be able to identify the purpose of a sentence outline and to analyze its basic structure. I.

a sentence outline consists of headings and subheadings. Stated in full sentences. and the third on how people’s commitment to save the environment can eradicate pollution.) followed by a period. 2. c). unlike a topic outline which consists of words. The levels or divisions under the subheadings are called sub-subheadings. Sub-Subheadings An outline for a long piece of writing like a research paper can have more than two levels or divisions. For example. II.. They are usually designated by Roman numerals (I. Explanation: The sentence outline shows two supporting ideas (subheadings) for each main point. Like the main points. the second on environment-friendly technologies that can reduce pollution. Also. namely. The first point focuses on destructive technologies that cause pollution.Sentence Outline A way of selecting and organizing information is through a sentence outline. Explanation: The sentence outline shows the sequence in which the writer will tackle the topic. A sentence outline is particularly useful when you are discussing a complex topic because it gives a clearer idea of exactly what each paragraph or section will contain. or fragments. Headings The headings of a sentence outline are the main points that support your thesis statement. Like a topic outline. 3) and lowercase letters (a. the supporting ideas of the first main point mention the destructive technologies that cause pollution. the motor vehicles and the factories. it develops your critical thinking as it allows you to think through ideas completely in order to write them in full sentences. Example: . These are usually marked by Hindu-Arabic numerals (1. These are the supporting details of your main points. However. b. they should be stated in complete sentences in a sentence outline. The subheadings are usually marked by the uppercase or capital letters (followed by a period) arranged in sequence and relative importance. and the ideas are specific and concrete. III. a sentence outline presents the main and supporting ideas in complete sentences.. Subheadings Under the headings are the subheadings. phrases. the headings tell what your paragraphs will be about. The thesis statement will be supported by three main points (the headings).

there are at least two subheadings under each heading or two sub-subheadings under each subheading. It consists of headings.. What kinds of academic writing assignments do your professors require you to do?What are some of the differences you have noticed in the writing assignments your teachers give?Do you use the same writing conventions (e. vocabulary. case studies. style. Typically. while the subheadings are marked by uppercase or capital letters. Introduction to Writing Across Disciplines Version At the end of the lesson. A sentence outline presents the main ideas and minor details of a piece of writing in complete sentences. you will be able to identify the characteristics of texts across different academic disciplines. Equally. In writing.g. the main points that support the thesis statement. genre refers to any category of written text that has a particular set of rules or conventions. The headings are usually designated by Roman numerals. Some examples of writing genres are critical reports. organization) for all your academic papers? As a student. and research proposals. The following are the three general disciplines that require academic writing: . and subheadings. the supporting details of the main points. The sentence outline for a longer piece of writing can have sub- subheadings. They are usually marked by Arabic numerals and lowercase letters. you will be asked to write different kinds of academic texts by your professors. book or film reviews. It is important that you know the basic text types or genres in various disciplines. Such knowledge can help you prepare for the typical writing tasks that you will face in your chosen field or discipline. essays. the levels or divisions under the subheading. reflective diaries. you need to understand the writing conventions that are common across disciplines.

Therefore. adapted the graphic novel of the same title by Frank Miller and Lynn Varley. social sciences. literary analyses. research papers. art. I think it was imaginative. history. All information must be well supported by evidence and reliable sources. Some of the specific disciplines under the humanities are literature. Example: The size of microbe A increased by 1. essays. which positively correlated with the increased pH level of solution T-90. Observe the subjective nature of the text through the use of the first person pronoun “I.  Sciences  Humanities  Business Sciences Sciences are generally divided into four main branches: natural sciences.g. opinions. Writing in the humanities usually requires you to analyze works or texts and to draw conclusions and make your own interpretations about them. Explanation: The example is an excerpt from a review of the movie 300. the information you will present must be based on verifiable data gathered through research or experimentation. Personally. critical reviews. Zack Snyder. book reports. music. Humanities This discipline deals with the study of the human culture and experience.2 mm. The common writing genres in the humanities include literature reviews. increased by 1. facts about the movie are given. positively correlated) to present the information. and clarity. The following table shows some specific disciplines that fall under each main branch: Academic writing in the sciences is mainly done to inform the readers or to persuade them (by supporting a claim). Notice that it uses precise words (e. formal sciences. and applied sciences. simple and direct language. . attitudes. the movie with its stunning visuals retells the Battle of Thermopylae. For whatever reason. Example: The movie 300 has received a lot of criticisms for its historical inaccuracy and overuse of visual effects.2 mm. and theology." Also. Explanation: The example is a scientific report that gives the result of an experiment. Faithful to the novel. Perhaps those critics should see the movie as it is—pure entertainment. and journal articles. philosophy. and argumentative papers. the director of the film and one of the writers of the screenplay. the famous battle between the Greeks and the Persians. Some examples of writing genres in the sciences are laboratory reports. languages. the use of a more alkaline solution at pH level 8 is effective in stimulating microbial growth by 21%. and feelings on the topic is typical in this discipline. Using a subjective tone in writing which reveals your thoughts. Writing in the sciences requires precision in the use of terminology. objectivity..

Business Business writing is often audience-centered and action-oriented. description. The common writing genres in the humanities include literature reviews. claim letters). résumés. research papers. Explanation: The example shows the first paragraph of a scholarship application letter. memos. After two minutes. Raymundo. or to define a concept?What do you think are the differences between narration. school application essays.g. Writing in business includes documents (e. I served as captain of our debate team. narration. Sciences The sciences deal with information that is based on verifiable data gathered through research or experimentation. simple and direct language. academic writing is usually done by analyzing works or texts. essays.  Academic writing in the sciences requires precision in the use of terminology. I was the president of our student council. or event. economic research papers. and journal articles. namely. How do you tell a story?In what subjects are you usually asked to describe a particular person.. it uses straightforward statements. Also.  Writing in business requires you to have a specific purpose and target audience in mind. book reports. across disciplines.  In humanities. Example: Dear Mr. Then place them on a hot plate. economic research papers. I came to hear about it through an advertisement on campus. critical reviews. and I was the editor in chief of our school paper. scholarship application letters. and definition? Academic text types or writing genres have certain conventions depending on the discipline. . drawing conclusions. Keypoints:  Different disciplines require certain writing genres and writing conventions. The letter has a clear purpose and target audience in mind. and clarity. objectivity. and business proposals. The common writing genres in business include memos. business papers are structured or formatted for proper organization and optimal readability. The common writing genres in this discipline are laboratory reports. I am writing this letter to apply for the University of Manila Scholarship. measure the temperature of the water in each beaker using an alcohol thermometer. résumés. and business proposals. and argumentative papers. I graduated with honors from Ramon Magsaysay High School. As a student. you will be able to differentiate the uses of the patterns of development in writing. thing. It uses straightforward and concise sentences to deliver the message quickly and clearly. I actively participated in various school activities. Example: Fill a beaker with 100 mL of tap water and another beaker with seawater of the same amount. scholarship application letters. Patterns of Development: Narration. Scientific writing requires precision in the use of terminology. and then making interpretations about them. literary analyses. and definition. school application essays. and clarity. Business papers aim to motivate a specific audience to perform an action. Definition At the end of the lesson. Writing in business requires you to have a specific purpose and target audience in mind. The sender aims to convince the addressee why the scholarship should be granted to him or her. simple and direct language. Description. description. objectivity. and I believe that I am qualified for it. Usually.

opinions. Description Description gives information of what a person. or a situation is like. The following are some transition words used to signal time or sequence order:  First. The next day. simultaneously  Suddenly. momentarily. an object. a short time later  During. and feelings on a topic. Example: Last night. soon  Meanwhile. Explanation:The narrative paragraph tells a part of a story in the first person. Momentarily. lab reports. instantly. where. action verbs like was walking. It uses straightforward and concise sentences that are structured or formatted for optimal readability. it makes the reader see. or feel the subject. suddenly. He offered to walk me home. Business Writing in business aims a specific audience to perform an action. descriptive essays. etc. I fell into a paddle of water. Example: I am writing to request a four-day leave of absence. I recognized him. Not seeing where I was going. It relates an incident or a series of events that leads to a conclusion or ending. I forgot that I was soaking wet and that I was very cold. It shows a sequence of events connected by transition words like then. I was walking on my way home when it suddenly rained. and what happened. In a writing class. and research papers are some examples of writing genres that use descriptive paragraphs. I intend to go on vacation from March 1 to March 4. attitudes. ultimately Narration is usually used in the humanities. following. A descriptive paragraph has concrete and specific details. Example:The Little Prince is truly a masterpiece! It centers around the protagonist’s quest for the meaning of life. you can write about a particular event or situation. Literary analyses. Also. At last. It tells the readers when. we talked like old friends. It appeals to the reader’s senses. A narrative paragraph contains action verbs and transition words that indicate time or sequence. smell. I forgot to bring my umbrella.  After. hear. ran. This lesson will focus on the following patterns of development:  narration  description  definition Narration Narration tells a story. When I looked up. thereafter  In the end. a place. for instance. business plans. so I ran to avoid getting completely soaked in the rain. and fell are used to indicate movement. and I just nodded. Then a guy helped me stand up. which are carefully chosen by a writer to paint a picture in the mind of the reader. There are different ways to develop your ideas in writing. finally. 2016. Writing in this discipline uses a subjective tone which reveals the writer’s thoughts. he and I saw each other at school. then. at the same time. eventually. momentarily  The next day.Humanities Humanities usually deals with analyses and interpretations of works or texts. second. next. taste. and the next day. .

nitrous oxide. things.Example: The tarsier has soft. This pattern of development is commonly used in the sciences. and (3) the characteristics that differentiate it from the other members of its class. term. TIPS:  You can develop your paragraphs in any pattern that suits your writing purpose. and business. With concrete and specific details. concept. It consists of three parts: (1) the term. as  similarly  in the same way  equally important  likewise .  Use narration to relate an incident or a series of events. and the ozone absorb and emit that energy. It is clearly explained through the details on how the process occurs. Explanation:The descriptive paragraph tells the unique features and characteristics of a tarsier. Remember to use transition words that indicate time and sequence.  Use description to tell what someone or something is like. the description creates a picture of what a tarsier looks like as well as how it lives and moves. You need to identify the points of comparison and make a list of similar characteristics or qualities for each point of comparison. It only stands about 100 millimeters. (2) the general class to which it belongs. grayish fur. it is capable of turning its head 180 degrees and jumping backward with accuracy. Definition Definition explains a concept. The following are words that signal similarities:  also  like  both  as. or subject to be defined. As a result. you will be able to identify and use comparison and contrast as a pattern of development in writing. the process keeps Earth warm. Then the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere like water vapor. frogs. rat-like tail. humanities. or subject. or ideas is to show how they are alike. beetles. or subject. too. What is the difference between the words comparison and contrast?In what ways can two or more things be similar? How can they be different?In what subjects are you usually asked to show the similarities and differences between things? Comparison To compare persons.  Use definition to explain a concept. As the sun shines. Also. like lizards. Earth absorbs some of its energy. Explanation:The term greenhouse effect is defined in the paragraph. term. and on small animals. situations. It has bat-like ears and a long. places. Its main purpose is to tell what something is. and termites. Remember to give specific characteristics of what you are defining. Remember to use concrete and specific details. events. carbon dioxide. and small birds... ================================================== Comparison and Contrast At the end of the lesson. Example: The greenhouse effect is a natural process. methane. This energy warms the atmosphere as well as the Earth’s surface. It feeds on insects like crickets.

lost 2. On the other hand. things. hair growth. or ideas is to show how they are different. events. and a novel product. they each had a distinct style. and marketing campaigns. which signals a contrast between the two subjects. they mastered techniques that made them superior to their contemporaries. two types of start-up companies are contrasted. Each point of comparison (i. Michelangelo preferred his works to be masculine and dark. both mice lost weight. mouse A. Explanation: In the text. progress reports.4 g. places. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are regarded as two of the greatest artists from the Renaissance. weight loss. busts fail to reach their minimum funding goal. To do so. . various kinds of essays. Contrast To contrast persons. have a low market interest. Both were geniuses. Also. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are compared and contrasted for the purpose of showing both their greatness and individuality as artists. situations. Within 7 days. and energy level) is drawn. The mouse treated with MAC. Also.  To compare subjects is to show the similarities between them. Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast paragraphs are common in writing in many academic disciplines like the humanities. mouse B. sociology. and business. Also. while mouse B became lethargic on day 5. political science.” Unicorns have a valuation of over $1 billion. book and film reviews. and have a mediocre product. Explanation:In the text. and historical papers. there was no increase in hair growth on both subjects. a high market interest. Their different characteristics are stated in two separate sentences connected by the phrase on the other hand.2 grams (g). Their similarities were mentioned first and then their differences.The old formulation of the drug (MAC) and the new formulation (MAC-II) have similar effects on the test mice.  Comparison and contrast can both be used in the development of a text or paragraph depending on your purpose. the words both and similarly are used to signal comparison. A paragraph developed by comparison and contrast has a unifying idea or purpose. lab reports. sciences. Also. while the mouse given with MAC-II. Such paragraphs can be found in character analyses. The following are some words that signal contrast:  but  however  though  on the other hand  in contrast In the venture capital industry. Explanation: In the text..e. Lastly. lost 2. while to contrast them is to point out their differences. Mouse A started to become lethargic on day 4. However. On the other hand. two mice are compared. Da Vinci developed a style that was feminine and full of light. a start-up company can either be a “unicorn” or a “bust. the mice similarly exhibited low energy levels. you need to make a list of the characteristics or qualities of the subjects and then identify the differences between them. they were similarly interested in anatomy. which helped them produce highly realistic works. it must be balanced in such a way that there is an equal amount of information for each subject to avoid bias.