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Glossary

A&R (artist & repertoire) agents talent scouts of the music analog recording a recording that is made by capturing the
business who discover, develop, and sometimes manage fluctuations of the original sound waves and storing those
performers. signals on records or cassettes as a continuous stream of
access channels in cable television, a tier of nonbroadcast magnetism—analogous to the actual sound.
channels dedicated to local education, government, and analysis the second step in the critical process, it involves
the public. discovering significant patterns that emerge from the
account executives in advertising, client liaisons respon- description stage.
sible for bringing in new business and managing the anthology dramas a popular form of early TV programming
accounts of established clients. that brought live dramatic theater to television; influenced
account reviews in advertising, the process of evaluating or by stage plays, anthologies offered new teleplays, casts,
reinvigorating an ad campaign, which results in either directors, writers, and sets from week to week.
renewing the contract with the original ad agency or arcade an establishment that gathers multiple coin-operated
hiring a new agency. games together and can be considered a newer version of
acquisitions editors in the book industry, editors who seek the penny arcade.
out and sign authors to contracts. ARPAnet the original Internet, designed by the U.S. Defense
action games games emphasizing combat-type situations Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency
that ask players to test their reflexes and to punch, (ARPA).
slash, shoot, or throw as accurately as possible so association principle in advertising, a persuasive technique
as to strategically make their way through a series of that associates a product with some cultural value or
levels. image that has a positive connotation but may have little
actual malice in libel law, a reckless disregard for the truth, connection to the actual product.
such as when a reporter or an editor knows that a astroturf lobbying phony grassroots public affairs cam-
statement is false and prints or airs it anyway. paigns engineered by public relations firms; coined by U.S.
adult contemporary (AC) one of the oldest and most Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas (it was named after
popular radio music formats, typically featuring a mix of AstroTurf, the artificial-grass athletic field surface).
news, talk, oldies, and soft rock. audience studies cultural studies research that focuses on
adventure games games requiring players to interact with how people use and interpret cultural content. Also
individual characters and a sometimes hostile environ- known as reader-response research.
ment in order to solve puzzles. audiotape lightweight magnetized strands of ribbon that
advergames video games created for purely promotional make possible sound editing and multiple-track mixing;
purposes. instrumentals or vocals can be recorded at one location
affiliate station a radio or TV station that, though indepen- and later mixed onto a master recording in another studio.
dently owned, signs a contract to be part of a network and authoritarian model a model for journalism and speech that
receives money to carry the network’s programs; in tolerates little public dissent or criticism of government; it
exchange, the network reserves time slots, which it sells holds that the general public needs guidance from an elite
to national advertisers. and educated ruling class.
agenda-setting a media-research argument that says that avatar a graphic interactive “character” situated within the
when the mass media pay attention to particular events or world of a game, such as World of Warcraft or Second Life.
issues, they determine—that is, set the agenda for—the
major topics of discussion for individuals and society. bandwagon effect an advertising strategy that incorporates
album-oriented rock (AOR) the radio music format that exaggerated claims that everyone is using a particular
features album cuts from mainstream rock bands. product, so you should, too.
alternative rock nonmainstream rock music, which includes basic cable in cable programming, a tier of channels com-
many types of experimental music and some forms of posed of local broadcast signals, nonbroadcast access
punk and grunge. channels (for local government, education, and general
AM amplitude modulation; a type of radio and sound public use), a few regional PBS stations, and a variety of
transmission that stresses the volume or height of radio cable channels downlinked from communication satellites.
waves. Big Five/Little Three from the late 1920s through the late
analog in television, standard broadcast signals made of 1940s, the major movie studios that were vertically
radio waves (replaced by digital standards in 2009). integrated and that dominated the industry. The Big Five

G-1

it was required by law to offer service on a first-come. because of early technical and institutions and problems. Twentieth Century Fox. small regional ad agencies Communications Act of 1934 the far-reaching act that that offer personalized services. heavy codex an early type of book in which paperlike sheets were promotion. MGM. a compromising played on consoles manufactured by companies like situation in which a journalist stands to benefit personally Nintendo. such as Tetris or Angry Birds. CATV contained only twelve channels. regulatory limits. cinema verité French term for truth film. consensus narratives cultural products that become celluloid a transparent and pliable film that can hold a popular and command wide attention. a documentary mount. that incorporate pure and very precise digital techniques. CATV (community antenna television) an early cable or experiences that deviate from social norms. such as a phone company or a taxi service. Columbia style that records fragments of everyday life Pictures. were Paramount. Twentieth chapter show in television production. established the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) broadband data transmission over a fiber-optic cable—a and the federal regulatory structure for U. language. see serial program and episodic series). The Little Three were those comedy or dramatic program whose narrative structure studios that did not own theaters: Columbia. not professional journal- to films with the most popular stars. cultural experiences. other articles on the Web (from the term Weblog). ists. involving pressuring theater operators to citizen journalism a grassroots movement wherein activist accept marginal films with no stars in order to get access amateurs and concerned citizens. such as Microsoft’s workers in order to serve the common goals of the state. that is emerged as a distinct category in the early 1900s. Para. ballads. handheld camera work. Sega. it often features a rough. and Disney. film. then bound with block printing a printing technique developed by early thin pieces of wood and covered with leather. communist or state model a model for journalism and broadcasting the transmission of radio waves or TV signals speech that places control in the hands of an enlightened to a broad public audience. unobtrusively. and by urban guitar and do not get involved in content. and computer codes). from a public or school library’s collection. issues. providing shared coating of chemicals sensitive to light. journalists system that originated where mountains or tall buildings see their role as observers who monitor their city’s blocked TV signals. boutique agencies in advertising. commercial speech any print or broadcast expression for blogs sites that contain articles in reverse chronological which a fee is charged to the organization or individual journal-like form. typically has a summer or holiday release date.S. use the Internet and blogs to disseminate news and blockbuster the type of big-budget special effects film that information. government. first- influenced by African American spirituals. and Atari. who hand-carved characters and collective intelligence the sharing of knowledge and ideas. the commercial film business: Warner Brothers. applied ink to the block. particularly in the world of gaming. cut and sewed together along an edge. Morse code. Internet Explorer. that offer compact discs (CDs) playback-only storage discs for music detailed organizational maps to the Internet. and then printed copies on multiple sheets of paper. illustrations into a block of wood. includes self-contained stories that feature a problem. exhibition. Universal. such companies work songs in the rural South. which speaks for ordinary citizens and browsers information-search services. series of conflicts. any situation Century Fox. and lucrative merchandising tie-ins. usually quick to play. common carrier a communication or transportation busi- blues originally a kind of black folk music. a and United Artists. grainy look and block booking an early tactic of movie studios to control shaky. broadcasting. vocal solos from the 1930s and 1940s. Universal. and served basis to whoever can pay the rate. often with reader comments and links to buying time or space in the mass media. and RKO. cartridge early physical form of video games that were conflict of interest considered unethical. newspapers that define news primarily as events. communication the process of creating symbol systems that book challenge a formal complaint to have a book removed convey information and meaning (for example. Chinese printers. this music ness. thus eliminating noise during recording and editing sessions. and Google Chrome. Firefox. Warner Brothers. from the news report he or she produces. casual games games that have very simple rules and are conflict-oriented journalism found in metropolitan areas. signaling method that handles a wide range of frequencies. and a resolution from week to week (for Big Six the six major Hollywood studios that currently rule contrast. G-2 Glossary .

music. and obtains advice from knowledgeable consolidation of various media holdings—such as cable members of the academic community. and symbols. property crimes. cover music songs recorded or performed by musicians who paper. cultural imperialism the phenomenon of American media. television transmission. tion. phone service. the editor who interpretation. did not originally write or perform the music. occupation. and zip code. copy editors the people in magazine. analysis. and lyrics. groups. and engagement. and income. the process whereby a TV publishing who attend to specific problems in writing. ethnicity. town cultivation effect in media research. television. in the 1950s. content. Glossary G-3 . the company hopes to recoup this loss later in rerun and control the use of their published or unpublished syndication. scoring. cover design. and length. western design managers publishing industry personnel who work swing. practices employs the techniques of description. writing. country-rock. evaluation. and book deficit financing in television. from text to photos and reality. merging of media content across various platforms (see and societies use to make sense of daily life and to also cross platform). critical process the process whereby a media-literate person development the process of designing. description the first step in the critical process. nonprofit corporation created by Congress in 1967 to demographics in market research. production company leases its programs to a network for such as style. and country-gospel.consensus-oriented journalism found in small communities. progressive. design. sions as old-time. actual patterns of communication used in daily life. a license fee that is actually less than the cost of produc- copyright the legal right of authors and producers to own tion. it appeals to many teens and young shaping the cultures and identities of other nations. it involves country claiming the largest number of radio stations in the paying close attention. and layout. TV programs and movies. desktop publishing a computer technology that enables an some white producers and artists capitalized on popular aspiring publisher/editor to inexpensively write. cultural product to be studied. and or student studying mass communication forms and testing a game. the idea that heavy government. contemporary hit radio (CHR) originally called Top 40 radio. adults. the study of audiences or funnel federal funds to nonprofit radio and public consumers by age. connection. ing is tailored to subscribers and readers according to Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) a private. and researching the United States. lay out. and food dominating the global market and children’s songs. on the look of a book. a process that delivers the values business model that consolidates various media holdings of a society through products or other meaning-making under one corporate umbrella. forms. provides authors with feedback. this radio format includes such subdivi. makes suggestions for cross platform a particular business model that involves a improvements. and zoning issues. and even print a small newsletter or magazine. educa- television. songs by black artists by “covering” them. the approaches that try content analysis in social science research. a method for to understand how the media and culture are tied to the studying and coding media texts and programs. social events. television viewing leads individuals to perceive reality in consoles devices people use specifically to play video ways that are consistent with the portrayals they see on games. newspaper. and order experience through the use of stories videos. gender. The second definition describes a articulate their values. and newspapers that promote social and economic harmony Internet access—under one corporate umbrella (also by providing community calendars and meeting notices known as convergence). taking notes. and carrying articles on local schools. correlations observed associations between two variables. purveyors of content and merchandise. or demographic editions national magazines whose advertis- graphic art designs. these content communities online communities that exist for the studies focus on how people make meanings. class. convergence the first definition involves the technological culture the symbols of expression that individuals. occupation. making decisions about type style. this radio format encompasses everything from hip-hop to fashion. developmental editor in book publishing. apprehend sharing of all types of content. cookies information profiles about a user that are usually automatically accepted by a Web browser and stored on data mining the unethical gathering of data by online the user’s own computer hard drive. coding. cultural studies in media research.

isolates some aspect of content. it involves channels and services. such as the Internet. developed by computer engineer Ray Tomlinson in 1971. democracy. offering such programming. or a telephone voice. about 186. which radiate in feature syndicates commercial outlets or brokers. or behavior. comic-strip artists. and sounds that use engagement the fifth step in the critical process. the type of signals that are transmitted e-mail electronic mail messages sent over the Internet. United Features and King Features. and AO (Adults Only 18+). light. episodic series feature new adventures each week. G-4 Glossary . a music CD. and cultures according to how they live up to or imitate direct broadcast satellite (DBS) a satellite-based service American practices and ideals. first three stages (description. dime novels sometimes identified as pulp fiction. or a cable TV subscription. but a handful of characters emerge with whom viewers can digital video the production format that is replacing regularly identify (for contrast. E 10+. locales remain the same. one). suggests a hypothesis. beam rather than by needle or magnetic tape. self-help columnists. it generally features a domestic experiments in regard to the mass media. this requires subordinating one’s direct payment in media economics. evergreens in TV syndication. magnetism. complicated situations. drive time in radio programming. and choose what channels or content to carry. and interpretation). sets and technology and media. as binary code. domestic comedy a TV hybrid of the sitcom in which evergreen subscriptions magazine subscriptions that characters and settings are usually more important than automatically renew on the subscriber’s credit card. such as newspapers to provide work from well-known political broadcasters or cable TV companies. DBS began distributing video arriving at a judgment about whether a cultural product is programming directly to households in 1994. lucrative. it involves judging other countries the United States beginning in the 1860s. of view. it involves pulses of electric current or flashes of laser light and are actively working to create a media world that best serves converted (or encoded) into electronic signals repre. these ethnocentrism an underlying value held by many U. E (Every- article. an online computer service. the periods between 6 and and manipulates variables to discover a particular 10 a. good. on the Web. analysis. research that problem or work issue that characters have to solve. see chapter show). digital divide the socioeconomic disparity between those episodic series a narrative form well suited to television who do and those who do not have access to digital because the main characters appear every week. or commercial activity. personal taste to the critical assessment resulting from the primarily by consumers. when people are commuting to medium’s impact on attitudes. broadcast known person. digital communication images. these periods constitute the largest listening audiences of the day.digital in television. and 4 and 7 p. when reading device. such as space at the speed of light. a magazine based on six categories: EC (Early Childhood). sented as varied combinations of binary numbers (ones Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) a self- and zeros). for a book. editorial cartoonists.m. cheaply produced and low-priced novels were popular in journalists and citizens. texts. that contract with electronic publishers communication businesses.S. and heat are part of such waves. authors who want to self-publish a title. and technical crews stay with the digital recording music recorded and played back by laser program. or mediocre. bad. a movie. and documentary a movie or TV news genre that documents enduring network reruns.. popular. these signals are then reassembled (decoded) regulating organization that assigns ratings to games as a precise reproduction of a TV picture. that are entitled to writers.m. and from work or school. electricity. to provide competing points e-commerce electronic commerce. emotions. the payment of money. celluloid film and revolutionizing filmmaking because the e-publishing Internet-based publishing houses that design cameras are more portable and production costs are and distribute books for comparatively low prices for much less expensive. T (Teens). famous-person testimonial an advertising strategy that electromagnetic waves invisible electronic impulses similar associates a product with the endorsement of a well- to visible light. Fairness Doctrine repealed in 1987. that for a monthly fee downlinks hundreds of satellite evaluation the fourth step in the critical process. signals. or I Love Lucy. this FCC rule required broadcast stations to both air and engage in controversial- e-book a digital book read on a computer or electronic issue programs that affected their communities and.000 miles per second. M 17+. such as the Andy Griffith Show reality by recording actual characters and settings.

first-run syndication in television. and themes recur in markets rather than for network television. most fin-syn rules were rescinded in what types of messages actually get produced for particu- the mid-1990s. painting. scenes. producers.Federal Communications Commission (FCC) an indepen. and the Internet. all sorts of digital codes. and narrative style. (or samples) from older records and bears the influences Glossary G-5 . a type of radio and sound guilds or clans in gaming. combination. high culture a symbolic expression that has come to mean Fourth Estate the notion that the press operates as an “good taste”. and classical literature). iPods. gag orders legal restrictions prohibiting the press from feedback responses from receivers to the senders of messages. Federal Radio Commission (FRC) a body established in 1927 to oversee radio licenses and negotiate channel problems. often supported by wealthy patrons and unofficial branch of government. trying to persuade consumers that age. first-person shooter (FPS) games that allow players to feel general-interest magazines types of magazines that address as if they are actually holding a weapon and to feel a wide variety of topics and are aimed at a broad national physically immersed in the drama. or gender. in format radio. the symphony. corporate donors. influenced by rock and roll. it encompasses a economic and political power. gangster rap a style of rap music that depicts the hardships fin-syn (Financial Interest and Syndication Rules) FCC rules of urban life and sometimes glorifies the violent style of that prohibited the major networks from running their street gangs. monitoring the legisla. transmitting along cable wires thousands of messages gameplay the way in which a game’s rules. hegemony the acceptance of the dominant values in a folk music music performed by untrained musicians and culture by those who are subordinate to those who hold passed down through oral traditions. and mobile TV devices that are forcing major changes in hip-hop music that combines spoken street dialect with cuts consumer viewing habits and media content creation. satellite. sound. is sometimes grunge rock music that takes the spirit of punk and infuses it applied to a public relations agent. pitch or distance between radio waves. audience. cable. privacy or exploiting their personal tragedies. the network’s late-night talk shows (called late fringe). these bundles of graphics. it is associated with fine art (such as tive. twelve people. wire. and other media managers companies additional fees after shows had completed who function as message filters.S. and players interact with a game. and executive branches for abuses of power. the time slot either immediately dent U. which is available primarily in theaters or museums. lar audiences. organized teamlike transmission that offers static-less reception and greater groups that can be either small and easygoing or large and fidelity and clarity than AM radio by accentuating the demanding. coordinated. flack a derogatory term that. house or follow a story in such large groups that the entire folk-rock amplified folk music. usually with six to digital signals within their traditional analog frequency. judicial. structure how fiber can carry broadcast channels. management. than deejays. focus groups a common research method in psychographic HD radio a digital technology that enables AM and FM radio analysis in which moderators lead small-group discus. often featuring politically profession comes under attack for invading people’s overt lyrics. telephone signals. ballet. format radio the concept of radio stations developing and hidden-fear appeal an advertising strategy that plays on a playing specific styles (or formats) geared to listeners’ sense of insecurity. in journalism. own syndication companies or from charging production gatekeepers editors. broadcasters to multicast two to three additional compressed sions about a product or an issue. government agency charged with regulating before the evening’s prime-time schedule (called early interstate and international communications by radio. releasing preliminary information that might prejudice fiber-optic cable thin glass bundles of fiber capable of jury selection. wide range of music. structures. fringe time in television. from Appalachian fiddle tunes to the herd journalism a situation in which reporters stake out a accordion-led zydeco of Louisiana. with more attention to melody. the process whereby new genre a narrative category in which conventions regarding programs are specifically produced for sale in syndication similar characters. rather only a specific product can offer relief. fourth screens technologies like smartphones. rather than the converted to shooting pulses of light. fringe) or immediately following the local evening news or television. FM frequency modulation. race. making decisions about their prime-time runs. iPads. controls programming choices.

interpretive journalism a type of journalism that involves hypodermic-needle model an early model in mass commu. an economic arrangement. Edison’s assistant in the 1890s. journal. Hollywood Ten the nine screenwriters and one film director Internet the vast network of telephone and cable lines. content. channels that allow with buddies in real time via pop-up windows assigned to citizens to buy time for producing programs or presenting each conversation. and rock and roll. what. inverted-pyramid style a style of journalism in which news hypotheses in social science research. industry. and over the years jazz an improvisational and mostly instrumental musical a handful of radio stations have had their licenses form that absorbs and integrates a diverse body of suspended or denied over indecent programming. a 1950s technique ists and citizens. a language all computers can Internet service provider (ISP) a company that provides read.S. their own viewpoints. soul. that can be either static or dynamic. information—answering who. R&B. kinetograph an early movie camera developed by Thomas ments. individualism an underlying value held by most U. camera to record a live TV show off a studio monitor. indies independent music and film production houses that and gospel. G-6 Glossary . by arguing that the media figuratively shoot their powerful interstitials advertisements that pop up in a screen window effects into unsuspecting or weak audiences. called the bullet theory or direct effects model. the stories. that permits competing newspapers to of media products by advertisers. often subtle advertise. simulcast versions of on-air radio broadcasts over the HTML (hypertext markup language) the written code that Web or are created exclusively for the Internet. logos. creates Web pages and links. the financial support government. they often produce less joint operating agreement (JOA) in the newspaper mainstream music and film. of social politics. analyzing and explaining key issues or events and placing nication research that attempted to explain media effects them in a broader historical or social context. who pay for the operate separate editorial divisions while merging quantity or quality of audience members that a particular business and production operations. 1940s for refusing to disclose their memberships or to Internet radio online radio stations that either “stream” identify communist sympathizers. where. kinetoscope an early film projection system that served as a instant book in the book industry. and comic lyrics carried intellectual properties in gaming. sometimes as a user attempts to access a new Web page. including African rhythms. subpoenaed by the House Un-American Activities wireless connections. particularly in business and government. and satellite systems designed to Committee (HUAC) who were sent to prison in the late link and carry computer information worldwide. illuminated manuscripts books from the Middle Ages that investigative journalism news reports that hunt out and featured decorative. work outside industry oligopolies. tentative general reports begin with the most dramatic or newsworthy statements that predict a relationship between a depen. musical styles. less frequently why or how) questions at the top of the story—and then trail off with less significant details. it asks trials and tribulations of the human condition. characters. challenges. often and answers the “What does that mean?” and “So what?” featuring ordinary individuals facing extraordinary questions about one’s findings. and music that require licensing agreements. kinescope before the days of videotape. human-interest stories news accounts that focus on the interpretation the third step in the critical process. major event. blues. personalities. or storefronts in a game. for preserving television broadcasts by using a film bilities above group needs or institutional mandates. irritation advertising an advertising strategy that tries to create indecency an issue related to appropriate broadcast product-name recognition by being annoying or obnoxious. each page. medium attracts. colorful designs and illustrations on expose corruption. big band. in-game advertisements integrated. male boasting. forward from blues. instant messaging a Web feature that enables users to chat leased channels in cable television. Internet access to homes and businesses for a fee. the government may punish broadcasters for indecency or profanity after the fact. sanctioned by the indirect payment in media economics. it favors individual rights and responsi. and when (and dent variable and an independent variable. a marketing strategy that kind of peep show in which viewers looked through a hole involves publishing a topical book quickly following a and saw images moving on a tiny plate. such as billboards.

market research in advertising and public relations agen. media effects research the mainstream tradition in mass literary journalism news reports that adapt fictional story. the 10-watt messages the texts. time from the rise of the Industrial Revolution in the mass communication the process of designing and delivering eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the present. based area. Little Three See Big Five/Little Three. support a client’s or an organization’s best interests. low-power FM (LPFM) a new class of noncommercial radio megaplexes movie theater facilities with fourteen or more stations approved by the FCC in 2000 to give voice to local screens. operate in-house radio and TV production studios. mega-agencies in advertising. monopolistic competition. media buyers in advertising. senders to receivers. engagement—that enable a person to become more longitudinal studies a term used for research studies that engaged as a citizen and more discerning as a consumer of are conducted over long periods of time and often rely on mass media products. supermarkets. to assess the behaviors and attitudes of consumers modern the term describing a historical era spanning the toward particular products before any ads are created. many producers and sellers but only a few differentiable mass media channel newspapers. and monster truck pulls. comic books. to customers or employees. and sounds transmitted from and 100-watt stations broadcast to a small. the department that uses social science techniques slang for modifying game software or hardware. its cultural messages and stories to diverse audiences through social values include celebrating the individual. working efficiently. microprocessors miniature circuits that process and store electronic signals. communication research. sold mostly on racks in drugstores. news operations. provide both advertising and public relations services and rock music.libel in media law. interpretation. integrating thousands of electronic magalog a combination of a glossy magazine and retail components into thin strands of silicon along which catalogue that is often used to market goods or services binary codes travel. rather than changing them. and ads. news. evaluation. a market with cultural products to a large number of people. and libertarian model a model for journalism and speech that airports. reinforcing existing behaviors and attitudes priests and monks advanced the art of bookmaking. media literacy an understanding of the mass communication lobbying in governmental public relations. large government and academic survey databases. telling techniques to nonfictional material. images. sometimes explain. online computer services. products within a particular category. cies and that maintain worldwide regional offices. they cial “junk” circulated by the mass media. the defamation of character in written mass market paperbacks low-priced paperback books expression. and predict the impact—or effects—of the mass called new journalism. in rational order. movies. the process of process through the development of critical-thinking attempting to influence the voting of lawmakers to tools—description. the individuals who choose linotype a technology introduced in the nineteenth century and purchase the types of media that are best suited to that enabled printers to set type mechanically using a carry a client’s ads and reach the targeted audience. and rejecting massively multiplayer online role-playing games tradition. cies. magazines. it argues that the mass media have limited effects manuscript culture a period during the Middle Ages when on audiences. as well as in bookstores. findings. typewriter-style keyboard. novels. groups lacking access to the public airwaves. such as soap operas. it attempts to understand. or the Internet.” who enjoy the commer. books. television. media on individuals and society. and other limited competition in media economics. minimal-effects model a mass communication research magazine a nondaily periodical that comprises a collection model based on tightly controlled experiments and survey of articles. modding the most advanced form of collective intelligence. analysis. community. sometimes called movies. encourages vigorous government criticism and supports mass media the cultural industries—the channels of the highest degree of freedom for individual speech and communication—that produce and distribute songs. that occurs when a single firm dominates production and Glossary G-7 . large firms or holding compa- low culture a symbolic expression supposedly aligned with the nies that are formed by merging several individual agen- questionable tastes of the “masses. an organizational structure worlds that require users to play through an avatar. stories. (MMORPGs) role-playing games set in virtual fantasy monopoly in media economics. radio. believing media channels as old as the book and as new as the Internet. talk radio.

(2) the material depicts or describes sexual conduct in a net neutrality the principle that every Web site and every patently offensive way. sequence of short reports. dominated by news programs or talk shows. according to this strategy. use to determine which events and issues should become must-carry rules rules established by the FCC requiring all news reports. enabling audio to be tant events. throughout the country. to tell and social conflicts to resolve. including timeliness. the right to the same Internet network speed and access. or scientific value.S. muckrakers reporters who used a style of early-twentieth. reporters strive to remain neutral toward the issue or narrative films movies that tell a story. the process whereby network a broadcast process that links. and deviance. off-network syndication in television. multiple-system operators (MSOs) large corporations that news/talk/information the fastest-growing radio format in own numerous cable television systems. National Public Radio (NPR) noncommercial radio applying contemporary community standards. an advanced type of audio help the public make sense of prominent people. NBC—over programming and prime-time viewing habits. CBS. and new TV networks. searching out competing points of view and conflict emerging mainly from individual characters. content after all the ads are placed. TV broadcasts on their systems. the development of VCRs. which carrying network programs). Morse code a system of sending electrical impulses from a the era began eroding with a decline in viewing and with transmitter through a cable to a reception point. independent stations (those not nickelodeons the first small makeshift movie theaters. narrowcasting any specialized electronic programming or obscenity expression that is not protected as speech if these media channel aimed at a target audience. and unusual happenings in everyday life. it objective journalism a modern style of journalism that includes two components: the story (what happens to distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns. three legal tests are all met: (1) the average person. cable opera- that share programming produced at a central location. lacks user—whether a multinational corporation or you—has serious literary. local network affiliates. cable. devel. impor- compression that reduces file size. the 1990s. human interest. ness to crawl around in society’s muck to uncover a story. O & Os TV stations “owned and operated” by networks. and foreign markets. or PUG. G-8 Glossary . between the 1920s and the 1950s. among the sources for a story. network era the period in television history. would find established in 1967 by the U. lavish single-screen movie theaters narrative reports—edited by individuals in a news that emerged in the 1910s in the United States. or restau- channels would benefit from cable’s clearer reception. consequence. as a whole. political. (3) the material. thereby ensuring that novelty. conflict. newsreels weekly ten-minute magazine-style compilations of multichannel video programming distributors (MVPDs) filmed news events from around the world organized in a the cable industry’s name for its largest revenue genera. leave a group. including cable companies and DBS providers. oped by the American inventor Samuel Morse. either nationally or dominance of the Big Three networks—ABC. whom) and the discourse (how the story is told). ads are narratives with stories noobs game players who are clueless beginners. distribution in a particular industry. that refers to the printed from photographic plates rather than metal casts. pawnshops. usefulness. with dramatic action event they cover. myth analysis a strategy for critiquing advertising that ninjas game players who snatch loot out of turn and then provides insights into how ads work on a cultural level. news the process of gathering information and making movie palaces ornate. artistic. and public television were often converted cigar stores. organization—that create selected frames of reference and MP3 short for MPEG-1 Layer 3. proximity. online services. Congress to provide an that the material as a whole appeals to prurient interest. roughly from offset lithography a technology that enabled books to be the mid-1950s to the late 1970s. newspaper chain a large company that owns several papers century investigative journalism that emphasized a willing. and locally. multiplexes contemporary movie theaters that exhibit many newsworthiness the often unstated criteria that journalists movies at the same time on multiple screens. prominent in movie theaters tors. through special phone older programs that no longer run during prime time are lines or satellite transmissions. alternative to commercial radio. tors. groups of radio or TV stations made available for reruns to local stations. narrative the structure underlying most media products. easily distributed over the Internet and to be digitally newshole the space left over in a newspaper for news transmitted in real time. rants redecorated to mimic vaudeville theaters. cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local prominence.

candidate’s image and persuade the public to adopt a paperback books books made with less expensive paper particular viewpoint. penny papers (also penny press) refers to newspapers that. and how that power is used. access to news content. in form to restrict the practice. now illegal. These games reach a mass audience. downloading. language. pay-per-view (PPV) a cable-television service that allows tion and distribution resources. whereby a radio metal ball on a playfield in a glass-covered case. the consumer goes to the trouble of filling out a specific pinball machine the most prominent mechanical game. Supreme Court decision section of the public or to sizable subdivisions within the that ended vertical integration in the film industry by larger public based on age. War II pacifist Lewis Hill. or ethnic background. were open-source software noncommercial software shared able to drop their price to one cent beginning in the 1830s. teams and use actual sports results to determine scores in paywall an online portal that charges consumers a fee for their online games. covers. phishing an Internet scam that begins with phony e-mail opt-in or opt-out policies controversial Web site policies messages that appear to be from an official site and over personal data gathering: opt-in means Web sites must request that customers send their credit card numbers gain explicit permission from online consumers before the and other personal information to update their account. introduced in the United States in the mid-1800s. such as a search engine. which a few firms control most of an industry’s produc. such as music or movies. because of technological innovations in printing. filled with coin-operated games. region. produced from plant reeds found along the interests. opt-out means that photojournalism the use of photos to document events and Web sites can automatically collect personal data unless people’s lives. postmodern the term describing a contemporary historical partisan press an early dominant style of American journal. in 1949. forcing the studios to divest themselves of their theaters. paradox. the first political advertising the use of ad techniques to promote a nonprofit community radio station. factual information rather than to statements of opinion. thereby making papers affordable to the working and opinion and fair comment a defense against libel that states emerging middle classes and enabling newspapers to that libel applies only to intentional misstatements of become a genuine mass medium. network in the 1920s and 1930s paid an affiliate station a plain-folks pitch an advertising strategy that associates a set fee per hour for an option to control programming and product with simplicity and the common person. ground. customers to select a particular movie for a fee. he established KPFA. California. early pre-paper substance on which to document written portal an entry point to the Internet. political economy studies an area of academic study that papyrus one of the first substances to hold written language specifically examines interconnections among economic and symbols. pop music popular music that appeals either to a wide cross Paramount decision the 1948 U. site can collect their personal data. a tier of channels into contact with a single copy of a magazine.S. pass-along readership the total number of people who come premium channels in cable programming. freely and developed collectively on the Internet. advertising on that station. which players score points by manipulating the path of a option time a business tactic. Nile River. by journalist and World or digital music players. podcasting a distribution method (coined from “iPod” and “broadcasting”) that enables listeners to download audio Pacifica Foundation a radio broadcasting foundation program files from the Internet for playback on computers established in Berkeley. its social values ism distinguished by opinion newspapers. which generally include opposing hierarchy. an organizational structure in favor particular songs over others. or stream. ing of copyrighted material. online piracy the illegal uploading. that subscribers can order at an additional monthly fee Glossary G-9 . record promoters paying deejays or radio programmers to oligopoly in media economics. the word pop has also been used as a label to distinguish parchment treated animal skin that replaced papyrus as an popular music from classical music. have a major social component. era spanning the 1960s to the present. and take a managerial penny arcade the first thoroughly modern indoor play- perspective on the game. questioning scientific reasoning. diversifying and recycling argued one political point of view or pushed the plan of culture. or to pay online fantasy sports games in which players assemble $25 to $40 for a special one-time event. political power. reducing the cost of color and illustrations and eventually payola the unethical (but not always illegal) practice of permitting computers to perform typesetting. and embracing the particular party that subsidized the paper.

constructed of cheap machine-made pulp material. prime time in television programming. announcements—written Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR). a company. it addressed the problem of amateur radio “question of the day. it prohibits courts and governments from blocking agencies. an alternative to commercial television. and sion established in 1967 by the U. Broadcasting. or policy. propaganda in advertising and public relations. messages that spread controlled and uncontrolled Prime Time Access Rule (PTAR) an FCC regulation that information about a person. and the rise of consumer culture. online. it is characterized gain support for a special issue. when net. who seeks to advance a client’s image through media Congress that established the Corporation for Public exposure. Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 the act by the U. public sphere those areas or arenas in social life—like the product placement the advertising practice of strategically town square or coffeehouse—where people come together placing products in movies.m. punk rock rock music that challenges the orthodoxy and cation strategy that tries to manipulate public opinion to commercialism of the recording business. modern capitalism. driven by citizen often between 6 and 7 p. or social reform. primal as a nation’s war effort. voluntary States. metallic type technology spawned modern mass communica. encourage more local news and public-affairs programs.m. and provided the reach and persuade its audiences to adopt a point of view. interests. the study of audience or channels and interactive services. from governmental spheres. over their basic cable service. beliefs. these may include movie psychographics in market research. tion by creating the first method for mass production. made them the first mass by a person. a communi. propaganda analysis the study of propaganda’s effective- ness in influencing and mobilizing public opinion. and motivations. carried free by radio and TV stations. that promote prior restraint the legal definition of censorship in the United government programs. public service announcements (PSAs) reports or announce- tion. at and 11 p. the hours between 8 public domain the end of the copyright period for a work. the positive and negative and charged their highest advertising rates.” operators cramming the airwaves.S. the public sphere is distinguished story’s set environment. a government. works have traditionally drawn their largest audiences publicity in public relations. G-10 Glossary . pulp fiction a term used to describe many late-nineteenth- progressive rock an alternative music format that developed century popular paperbacks and dime novels. educational projects.S. temporary teams usually assembled by consumer market. or a reduced networks’ control of prime-time programming to policy in various media. public journalism a type of journalism. consumer attitudes. assembly-line produc. in the Midwest). Congress to provide pitch a story idea to the news media. media. ments. and defiant or comic lyrics. also called civic journalism. unpolished qualities. match-making programs integrated into a game (short for Progressive Era a period of political and social reform that Pick-Up Groups). impetus for the Industrial Revolution. occupational groups and are not intended for the general PUGs in gaming. qualified privilege a legal right allowing journalists to report pseudo-events in public relations. TV shows. lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s. press agent the earliest type of public relations practitioner. program. vocal screams. or an organization attempting to medium affordable to less affluent people. It public relations the total communication strategy conducted reduced the size and cost of books. (or 7 and 10 p. or person-in-the-street Radio Act of 1912 the first radio legislation passed by nonscientific polls that the news media use to address a Congress. which were as a backlash to the popularity of Top 40. and regularly to discuss social and cultural problems and try video games so that the products appear as part of a to influence politics. or an organization. forums. an issue. crude aggression. in the style of news reports—that give new information Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) noncommercial televi- about an individual. comic books. circumstances or events judicial or legislative proceedings even though the public created solely for the purpose of obtaining coverage in the statements being reported may be libelous. a corporation. where elected officials and professional books technical books that target various other representatives conduct affairs of state. that goes beyond telling the news to embrace a printing press a fifteenth-century invention whose movable broader mission of improving the quality of public life. which oversees the Public Broadcasting press releases in public relations.m. pseudo-polls typically call-in. any publication or speech before it actually occurs. which point the public may begin to access it for free. a jackhammer beat. such by loud.

compared broadcast networks for the right to carry their channels. and R&B with the white then resolves the complications. maximize profits but to increase prosperity for all. that features continuing story lines from day to day or ple should compete with one another not primarily to week to week (for contrast. journalists and citizens. it includes during World War I that was designed. preexisting beliefs and values. with government identifying a research problem. formats nationally via satellite. and influences of urban blues. without his or her name. and selective retention the phenomenon whereby audiences other reference manuals related to particular professions remember or retain messages and meanings that corre- or trades. agencies. regional editions national magazines whose content is senders the authors. complicates it. rock and roll music that merges the African American develops increasing confusion among its characters. to pool radio patents. convenience. responsible capitalism an underlying value held by many serial program a radio or TV program. and planning worlds that are typically based in reality. sometimes known fantasy or sci-fi world in which each player (there can be as vaudeo. a catchy phrase that attempts to playing the most popular or best-selling songs many times promote or sell a product by capturing its essence in throughout the day. image. sketch comedy short television comedy skits that are role-playing games (RPGs) games that are typically set in a usually segments of TV variety shows. or daily activities becom. interview subjects and reporters’ rights not to reveal the right to privacy addresses a person’s right to be left alone. that was harnessed so that signals could be sent from a search engines sites or applications that offer a more transmission point and obtained at a reception point. determining the United States almost total control over the emerging appropriate research design. reference books dictionaries. spoken language that defames a person’s that specializes in a particular skill set. “public interest. a statistical estimate qualified political candidates. such as a soap opera. collecting information. sources of controversial information used in news stories. and organizations tailored to the interests of different geographic areas.” scientific method a widely used research method that Radio Corporation of America (RCA) a company developed studies phenomena in systematic stages. the marriage of vaudeville and video. it ensures that every subject Section 315 part of the 1934 Communications Act. the formation of RCA gave research. see chapter show). in an attempt to restore order to the airwaves. a statistical estimate of the retransmission fee the fee that cable providers pay to percentage of homes tuned to a certain program. U. simulation games games that involve managing resources ing public property. that transmit messages to receivers.Radio Act of 1927 the second radio legislation passed by satellite radio pay radio services that deliver various radio Congress. gospel. atlases. it assumes that businesspeo. mass medium of broadcasting. with those simply using their sets at the time of a sample. it has an equal chance of being placed in either the experi. analyzing results to see if the hypotheses have been radio waves a portion of the electromagnetic wave spectrum verified. rhythm and blues (or R&B) music that merges urban blues shield laws laws protecting the confidentiality of key with big-band sounds. assigning research subjects. the act stated that licensees did not own their channels saturation advertising the strategy of inundating a variety of but could license them if they operated to serve the print and visual media with ads aimed at target audiences. provide equal opportunities and response time for rating in TV audience measurement. share in TV audience measurement. automated route to finding content by allowing users to random assignment a social science research method for enter key words or queries to locate related Web pages. spond to their preexisting beliefs and values. each episode establishes a situation. rockabilly music that mixes bluegrass and country influ. reviewing existing approval. encyclopedias. situation comedy a type of comedy series that features a ences with those of black folk music and early amplified recurring cast and set as well as several narrative scenes. influences of country. blues. character. rotation in format radio programming. multiple players in a game) chooses to play as a character slander in law. and interpreting the implications of the study. developing working hypotheses. seek messages and meanings that correspond to their receivers the targets of messages crafted by senders. Glossary G-11 . producers.S. broadcast stations must mental group or the control group. words. mandates that during elections. and pop vocals. expressed as a percentage of households tuned to a selective exposure the phenomenon whereby audiences program in the local or national market being sampled. folk. or necessity. the practice of slogan in advertising.

supermarket tabloids newspapers that feature bizarre social learning theory a theory within media effects research human-interest stories. or the basis for a movie screenplay. it sent electrical impulses spam a computer term referring to unsolicited e-mail. wise decisions about political and often more social issues. as studio system an early film production system that con. them to maintain or elevate their social station. black styles with slower. trade books the most visible book industry segment. whom worked under exclusive contracts. selling the rights to a snob-appeal approach an advertising strategy that attempts book for use in other media forms. and melancholic synergy in media economics. telecommunications law that led to a wave of media individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold consolidation. in Atlanta or WGN in Chicago. print. third-person effect the theory that people believe others are stereo the recording of two separate channels or tracks of more affected by media messages than they are themselves. time shifting the process whereby television viewers record strategy games games in which perspective is omniscient shows and watch them later. and superstations local independent TV stations. the promotion and sale of a lyrics. large and the rural over the urban. editors. unexplained phenomena stories. so they can make respondents. a method of speech. it to various merchants. G-12 Glossary . such as a mass market to convince consumers that using a product will enable paperback. about some aspect of an event or issue. which receive and amplify radio disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register signals. make portable radios possible. selves available nationwide. share common interests. measured by record sales. movies. culture. books. such as WTBS generate their own media content online. a CD-ROM. and social media digital applications that allow people world. spiral of silence a theory that links the mass media. and books. stituted a sort of assembly-line process for moviemaking. that encourages collecting and measuring data taken from a group of the free flow of information to citizens. social transmitting Morse code. blues. that have uplinked their social networking sites sites on which users can create signals onto a communication satellite to make them- content. including architecture. newspapers. product (and all its versions) throughout the various sound bite in TV journalism. wide to have conversations. through a cable from a transmitter to a reception point. more emotional. the textbooks books made for the el-hi (elementary and high theory says that people who hold minority views on school) and college markets. these tiny subliminal advertising a 1950s term that refers to hidden or pieces of technology. movies. comic-strip version of a proposed advertisement. telegraph invented in the 1840s. violent that suggests a link between the mass media and behavior. influenced by the libertarian model. or a person on the street is interviewed talkies movies with sound. third screens the computer-type screens on which consumers storyboard in advertising. in which stations field and make strategic decisions. accident accounts. fashion. featur- major film studios controlled not only actors but also ing hardbound and paperback books aimed at general directors. journalists and citizens. sound. malicious celebrity gossip. a method for closely and split-run editions editions of national magazines that tailor critically examining and interpreting the meanings of ads to different geographic areas. spyware software with secretive codes that enable commercial and TV programs. firms to “spy” on users and gain access to their computers. and interact with friends. music. all of readers and sold at bookstores and other retail outlets. psychology. and the formation of public opinion. the part of a news report in which an expert. Telecommunications Act of 1996 the sweeping update of space brokers in the days before modern advertising. share ideas.small-town pastoralism an underlying value held by many on the subconscious. beginning in 1927. a celebrity. gruesome murder tales. a blueprint or roughly drawn can view television. played the forty most popular hits in a given week.S. and urban and southern exclusive right to air TV shows. syndication leasing TV stations or cable networks the soul music that mixes gospel. transistors invented by Bell Laboratories in 1947. textual analysis in media research. creating false needs and seducing U. controversial issues tend to keep their views silent. writers. and other employees. when it is convenient for them. it favors the small over the people into buying products. the equivalent of a quote in subsidiaries of a media conglomerate. subsidiary rights in the book industry. social responsibility model a model for journalism and survey research in social science research. and the player must survey the entire “world” or playing Top 40 format the first radio format. a victim.

trolls players who take pleasure in intentionally spoiling a video subscription services a new term for cable and gaming experience for others. a form of research model. vitascope a large-screen movie projection system developed university press the segment of the book industry that by Thomas Edison. sensa- counterparts to press releases. which later developed into modern Values and Lifestyles (VALS) a market-research strategy radio. that question mainstream political policies and hope will quickly gain widespread attention as users share conventional values. tual needs. distribution. uses and gratifications model a mass communication wireless telegraphy the forerunner of radio. video-on-demand (VOD) cable television technology that enables viewers to instantly order programming. ing and standardizing information on the Internet. video-on-demand providers introduced to include streaming-only companies. the phenomenon WWW enables computer-accessed information to associ- of controlling a mass media industry at its three essen. communication that became known as broadcasting. the vertical integration in media economics. underground press radical newspapers. primarily targeting African American listeners in urban wiki Web sites Web sites that are capable of being edited by areas with dance. they pitch story ideas to tional crime news. World Wide Web (WWW) a data-linking system for organiz- used in the Gutenberg Bibles. any user. no matter where tial levels: production. ism movement of the 1960s. yellow journalism a newspaper style or era that peaked video news releases (VNRs) in public relations. wire services commercial organizations. including how consumers think and feel Associated Press. run on shoestring viral marketing short videos or other content that marketers budgets. Glossary G-13 . and hip-hop music. vellum a handmade paper made from treated animal skin. it preceded the and survey questionnaires. the it is on the Internet. the most famous is Wikipedia. the term usually refers to a journal. the visual in the 1890s. term is most frequently used in reference to the film industry. that share news stories and information about products and how they achieve (or do not achieve) by relaying them around the country and the world. ate with—or link to—other information. it emphasized high-interest stories. usually employing in-depth interviews voiceless point-to-point communication. the lifestyles to which they aspire. and serious reports the TV news media by mimicking the style of a broadcast that exposed corruption. Webzine a magazine that publishes on the Internet. it with friends online or by word of mouth. that argues that people use voice and sound transmissions of one-to-many mass the media to satisfy various emotional desires or intellec. that divides consumers into types and measures psycho. such as the logical factors. R&B. government. like Hulu Plus and Netflix. urban contemporary one of radio’s more popular formats. publishes scholarly books in specialized areas. wireless telephony early experiments in wireless voice and music transmissions. and exhibition. particularly in business and news report. such as zines self-published magazines produced on personal movies. to be digitally delivered to their sets. originally via telegraph and now via satellite transmission. large headlines. computer programs or on the Internet.