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Shown on this slide is the general

architecture of an AC induction motor. The rotor revolves within the Stator, a


fixed electromagnetic
housed inside a metal frame. A drive shaft supported by bearings is
fixed to the rotor, supplying torque and speed to an external mechanism. A cooling
fan conducts heat from
the Stator coil magnets out the rear of the motor. The conduit box holds the
electric
wires from the line power, and distributes them to the linings. The Stator consists
of a series of
flat-steel discs laminated together. They're aligned directionally to form
channels for the Stator windings. These windings consist of
layers of copper wire, which when passed through the channels
create loops to form an electromagnet. The pattern of coil windings in the Stator
determines the number of poles for the motor,
an even number usually between 2 and 12. The rotor channels consist of
solid bars of copper, or aluminum. These bars are connected
to rings at the front, and back of the rotor which creates
a continuous high current conducting loop. In smaller motors the bars, and end
rings are cast as a solid steel
cylinder known as a squirrel cage. Aluminum, or copper conductors are
embedded in the surface of the cylinder. The rotor is inserted in the stator with
air gap of roughly 20,000th of an inch, which is half a millimeter. Any more of an
air gap will significantly
reduce the ability of the stator to induce current flow in the rotor. Let's go over
some basic
electromagnetic principles. No no no please no. Didn't you guys study
electromagnetic
principles in freshman physics? Why do you think your school
forced you to learn it? Because they knew that some day
maybe in the distant future you were going to study
actuators in a Coursera class. Of course, Coursera didn't even
exist before the year 2012. In the old days professors
like me looked out on a vast gallery of
comatose students [SOUND]. When we lectured, and
that's if they showed up at all. Now, we get to stare
right into that camera, only imagining what our
students think of us. But on second hand,
it's probably better for us not to know what's going
on out there on the web. Okay, where was I yes? Recall that when an iron rod is
suspended freely in a magnetic field it will align itself with the field. If that
field is rotating, the iron
rod will rotate with the field, so as to maintain alignment with it. You can create
a rotating magnetic
field from fixed stator poles by driving each pole-pair from a different
phase of the alternating current supply. With three phase AC power you
create a three phase AC motor. The stator windings induced current in
the rotor windings avoiding the need for a direct electrical connection from
the power source to the rotor. Let's go through how torque
is applied to the rotor. The stator carries the primary windings,
and its windings are directly
connected to the power source. The three field windings are out of
phase by 120 degrees with each other. As current applied to pole pair A,
in other words phase 1, passes its peak, and begins to fall, the magnetic
flux induced in winding A weakens. Current in the the winding of pole pair B,
in other words phase 2, rises, along with its
induced magnetic flux. Current through the winding of pole
pair C, in other words phase three, is negative, but it is tending
positive along with its magnetic flux. As a result,
a magnetic flux wave is set up. The flux created by the stator poles
rotate from one pole to the next. The flux wave appears to
the stator as the north, and south poles of a magnet
rotating around the stator. The magnitude of the rotating flux wave
is proportional to the applied voltage. There are no external
connections to the roter, which carries the secondary windings. The 3-Phase AC
power inputs are connected
directly to the stator pole pairs. All three phases of the AC power input
have the same amplitude, and frequency. They differ only in being 120 degrees
out of phase with each other. The rotor windings are shorted together, a large
electrical conductor
rotating within a magnetic field. The AC induction motor gets its name
by the fact, that current is induced in the rotor windings by the magnetic
field rotating around the stator. Torque is induced in
the rotor by the reaction between the induced rotor current,
and the rotating magnetic flux. Recall what I said a half
a dozen slides ago. If an iron rod is suspended freely in
a magnetic field it will align itself with the field. If that field is rotating,
the iron will rotate with the field. In an AC induction motor,
the rotor is analogous to the iron rod. Recap, now you know how a three
phase AC induction motor works. In the next video, we will define
various specifications of that motor, so you will know how to shop for one.