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Cardiovascular diseases are any abnormal conditions that involve dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels. There are many forms of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, arteriosclerosis etc. Arteriosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease in which the walls of the arteries thicken, harden, and lose their elasticity. The heart must work harder than normal to deliver blood and in advanced cases, it becomes impossible for the heart to supply sufficient blood and thus the heart fails. Atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis. It causes a reduction of blood flow through the arteries mainly due to deposits of plaque in the arteries. Blood flow is also reduced by formation of blood clots (Thrombosis). This usually forms where the arteries have been roughened by plaque. Reduction of blood flow can cause organ disorders. If the brain arteries are blocked, then stroke is the result. If the coronary artery is blocked, then a heart attack is the result.
Atherosclerotic Aorta This cross section of a human aorta affected by atherosclerosis shows a narrowing of the artery due to atherosclerotic plaques²deposits of fatty substances including cholesterol. Plaques narrow the arteries and obstruct the flow of blood. Coronary artery disease is a disease in which the coronary arteries (vessels which supply oxygenated blood to the heart) become narrower. Since the vessels are narrower, they aren¶t able to carry enough blood to the heart. Thus the heart pumps harder, wearing the cardiac muscles and weakening the heart. Coronary arteries often get blocked by the deposition of plaque (composed of cholesterol, fibrous proteins, calcium deposits, platelets, and debris from dead cells.) Coronary heart diseases may lead to either severe chest pains or heart attacks (angina pectoris).
controllable and uncontrollable.167 413 389 307 301 222 206 170 2. brain stroke.000 population.260 1. 1) Data for persons aged 35-74. sex etc. It usually occurs when the heart is being forced to pump harder than normal due to the arteries becoming narrower.Urban (1999) United States (2003) England/Wales (2002) Canada (2001) Australia (2001) Japan (2002) Women 1 1. or kidney impairment. Plaque Total Country Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Deaths* Deaths Men1 Russian Federation (1998) China .502 1.Urban (1999) England/Wales (2002) Canada (2001) Australia (2001) Japan (2002) * Death rate per 100.003 943 811 757 679 692 Russian Federation (1998) China .001 799 663 509 455 396 308 Reasons for cardiovascular diseases are divided into 2 categories. The uncontrollable factors include age. 540 279 273 138 97 92 71 1.Another cardiovascular disease is hypertension or high blood pressure.Rural (1999) China . Women develop these diseases later than men because their sex hormone . the risk of developing coronary heart disease increases with age as the cardiac muscles become weaker and so are more prone to such disorders. Hypertension may lead the victim to face heart failure.Rural (1999) China .
a variety of different methods have been developed to diagnose cardiovascular diseases. . The controllable factors include cigarette smoking. In exercise stress tests. Blood tests can detect the presence of secretions by injured heart muscles. a sedentary lifestyle. hastening the progression of atherosclerosis. When excess cholesterol circulates in the blood. An ECG indicates the condition of blood supply and it can detect damage from a previous heart attack. The ECG has its limitations as it often gives false results and it can only be done for a short period of time (not continuous monitoring). As the intensity of exercise increases. An electrocardiogram (ECG) provides graphical picture of the different phases of the heartbeat. and hypertension (high blood pressure). which is another uncontrollable factor. doctors look for changes in the ECG that indicate heart problems. Blood cholesterol also depends on the amount of animal fats eaten by the person. it deposits in the wall of the arteries. DEATH RATES(a) FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (millions) Thanks to science. obesity. an ECG is recorded while a patient is performing physical activity. The most important controllable risk factor is high blood cholesterol.estrogen helps protect them against atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular diseases are also known to be hereditary. diabetes mellitus.
A long.An Electrocardiogram Stress test Coronary angiogram of the heart Cardiac catheterization is a modern method to diagnose cardiovascular diseases. . thin. Coronary angiography is a test in which a dye that is visible on X-rays is injected through the catheter into the coronary arteries. Moving and still X-ray pictures of the heart enable doctors to diagnose narrowed or obstructed arteries. Information about the heart¶s function is collected by means of a device attached to the catheter. flexible tube called a catheter is threaded through an artery or vein to the patient¶s heart.
headache. Most. but not all. exercise regularly. a blockage may return resulting in restenosis (repeated artery narrowing) and this is the obvious limitation of PTCA. Bypass surgery PTCA or balloon angioplasty is an alternative to bypass surgery.Nuclear Scan ± SPECT is a test in which trace amounts of radioactive material. Patients may undergo coronary artery bypass surgery to help relieve their symptoms. Special cameras show the flow of blood through the heart and lungs and can indicate where there are abnormalities. Echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the patient's heart. A hand-held device (transducer) bounces sound waves off the heart. The patient may be given drugs such as nitroglycerin and beta blockers. Patients are also encouraged to quit smoking. doctors recommend that heart patients eat a low-fat diet and keep their blood cholesterol low. Although these are helpful. Some patients are treated with drugs that dissolve blood clots. In this procedure a catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is threaded through to the site of a blockage. This surgery has only shown promising results in elderly patients. For primary treatment. The surgery creates a medium for blood which bypasses the area narrowed by atherosclerosis. . Substantial calcium build-up in and around the coronary arteries can indicate coronary artery disease. and control high blood pressure through diet. they all have their side-effects such as constipation. and then he attaches one end of the blood vessel to the aorta and the other end to the coronary artery downstream of the blockage. are injected into the patient's bloodstream. The limitation of SPECT is that patients with small hearts get pictures of very less clarity and resolution. structure and motion. A surgeon removes a length of blood vessel from elsewhere in the patient¶s body. plaques contain calcium. and dizziness. The echocardiogram is limited to patients who aren¶t obese because sound waves lose their ability to penetrate as the distance increases. such as streptokinase. The waves are reflected back to produce videos of the heart's size. fluid retention. diarrhea. Electron-Beam Computed Tomography (EBCT) is a test that can detect calcium within plaques. However. The balloon is then inflated to crush the atherosclerotic plaque. which decrease the heart¶s oxygen demand and limit the amount of tissue damaged. nausea. such as thallium.
There are people of some cultures who are prone to cardiovascular diseases. Now it¶s becoming a known issue. second highest amount is being spent on cardiovascular diseases. . The stent in the artery helps keep the artery open. For example. Cholesterol is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases and these milk products contain a lot of it. Although there are so many ways to diagnose and treat cardiovascular disorders. the patient may benefit from brachytherapy. In cases of restenosis. That is why cultures have to be modified to decrease risk of cardiovascular diseases. With better treatment. Even with latest technology such as ECG¶s and angioplasty. These operations are related to the heart and if they go wrong. the cost is also increasing and so many people are being deprived of these services. Cardiovascular diseases have also changed the ethics of people.Expandable metal scaffolding called a stent can be used to help prevent restenosis. the people of the Indian culture eat a lot of butter and buttermilk. These diseases have a major economic impact on their patients. For medical treatment. there is still no 100% cure for the problem. The treatment can only halt the symptoms at the most. the effects may also be fatal. there¶s still a long way to go. But on a global scale. Many seem to know that they shouldn¶t eat high cholesterol foods and are trying to change their dietary habits. there is no guarantee of a full success. In this procedure. the coronary artery segment is reopened during angioplasty and exposed to radiation.
htm#Coronary%20Heart%2 0Disease%20Treatment. 144-08 µCardiovascular diseases¶. All rights reserved.html.mayoclinic.org/coronary-arterydisease/treatment. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation.html¶. 15-4-08 Graph http //www. http://www.com/coronary_heart_disease/page6_em. http://www. http://www.mayoclinic. 15-4-08 µTreatment of arteriosclerosis¶.emedicinehealth.htm. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. http://www. 14-4-08 µTreatment of cardiovascular diseases¶.gov/research/womheart.caringmedical.com/condition_details/Arteriosclerosis. 16-4-08 All pictures: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. All rights reserved.ahrq. µCauses of Cardiovascular diseases¶. .Bibliography µDiagnosis of Cardiovascular diseases¶.org/cardiovascular_disease/.