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CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW

1.THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENT-SAWDUST MORTARS, PLAIN AND WITH

VARIOUS ADMIXTURES by S. H. GRAF and R. H. JOHNSON Bulletin Sen , No. 3

September, 1930

Engineering Experiment Station Oregon State Agricultural College, Corvallis. available

by authority of State Board of Higher Education This examination covers the possibility of using

sawdust in Portland cement mortar (PCM) and include the effect of incorporate sand and the

certain other materials into the mixtures. From a consideration of the uses for which this material

may be employed, the more important properties are the compressive and tensile strengths and

the thermal conductivity. Tests were made on these points and also on the resistance of the

material toward certain corrosive agents.

2.PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY SAW DUST ASH IN CONCRETE A

SUSTAINABLE APPROACH by Mohammad Iqbal Malik, Syed Rumysa Jan, Junaid

Ahmad Peer, Syed Azhar Nazir, Khubbab Fa Mohammad Assistant Professor, Department

of Civil Engineering, IUST, Awantipora, Civil Engineering Graduate Student, IUST,

Awantipora.

Concrete industry is a large scale industry of consuming the natural resource due to

which the sustainability of the concrete industry is under risk. The ecological and economic

concern is the biggest challenge concrete industry is facing. the issue of ecological and economic

concern are deal with the use of saw dust ash as partial replacement of the cement in concrete.

Cement was replace by Saw Dust Ash as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight designed for
M-25 mix. The concrete specimens were tested for compressive strength, durability (water

absorption) and density at 28 days of age and the results obtained were compared with those of

normal concrete. The results concluded the permissibility of using Saw Dust Ash as partial

replacement of cement up to 10% by weight for particle size of range 90micron.

3. THE INCORPORATION OF WOOD WASTE ASH AS A PARTIAL CEMENT

REPLACEMENT MATERIAL FOR MAKING STRUCTURAL GRADE CONCRETE by

Swaptik Chowdhury *, Mihir Mishra, Om Suganya

The Increasing of the industrialization, the industrial by-product (wastes) being accumulated to

the large amount, leading to ecological and economic concerns associated to their dumping (land

filling). Wood ash is the scum produced from the incineration of wood and its products (chips,

saw dust, bark) uses for the power generation or other use. Cement is an energy broad industrial

service and lead to the production of a huge amount of greenhouse gases, forcing researchers to

come across for an alternative, such as a sustainable building practice. This paper presents the

work and studies done on the incorporation of wood ash as partial replacement of cement in

concrete from the year 1991 to 2012. The properties of wood ash such as its physical, chemical

and fundamental characteristics and control of wood ash properties such a water absorption,

split tensile test, workability, chloride permeability, compressive strength, concentration and acid

conflict of the concrete is specify.

4. SAW DUST ASH AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN THE

PRODUCTION OF SANDCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS by A. A. Raheem, B. S.

Olasunkanmi, C. S. Folorunso
This study considered the use of saw dust ash as pozzolan in the production of concrete.

the study investigated the physical properties and chemical composition of saw dust ash (SDA)

as well as the workability, and compressive strength properties of the concrete produced by

replacing 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of ordinary Portland cement with SDA.

compressive strength test on hardened concrete and compacting factors and slump taste be

carried out on the fresh concrete. The concrete cubes were tested at the ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and

90 days. The results showed that SDA is a good pozzolan with combined SiO2, Al2O3 and

Fe2O3 of 73.07%. The compacting factor and slump factor get reduced as the SDA increases

signifies that concrete become less workable as the SDA content increase. The compressive

strength decreased with increasing SDA replacement. The compressive strength of concrete with

SDA was lower at early stages but improves significantly up to 90 days. An optimum value of

23.26N/mm2 at 90 days was obtained for concrete with 5% SDA replacement. It was concluded

that 5% SDA substitution is adequate to enjoy maximum benefit of strength gain.

5. A COMPARISON STUDY OF THE FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF

NORMAL WEIGHT AND LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETES

This study compares the engineering properties of normal weight concrete with those

ofconcrete with two types of lightweight aggregates, namely, oil-palm-boiler-clinker (OPC)

concrete and lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LWC) concrete. OPC is a porous solid waste
from the palm oil industry, while LWC is an artificial and impenetrable material. The

conventional concrete in a high-strength normal weight concrete were replaced by each of these

lightweight aggregates, and the effect of such replacement on the fresh and hardened properties

of the concrete was studied. The test results revealed that the OPC concrete outperforms the

LWC concrete in terms of workability, mechanical properties, and specific strength. The LWC

concrete achieved its maximum strength in 7 days, while the OPC concrete still had strength gain

by time. The LWC concrete demonstrated a greater drying shrinkage than both the normal

weight and OPC lightweight concretes between 14 days and 90 days. The use of OPC must

therefore be promoted to produce a cleaner and greener concrete that can benefit the construction

and agricultural industries.

Keyword: Lightweight aggregate; Lightweight aggregate concrete; Mechanical properties;

Specific strength; Ceiling strength, Drying shrinkage

6. EFFECT OF SAWDUST AS FINE AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE MIXTURE FOR

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

It is represented to develop an suitable concrete mix with saw-dust as an alternative as fine

aggregate that used for building construction mainly in residential class concrete partition wall

and study the result of saw-dust concrete mixture in terms of adhesion of aggregates workability,

surface quality and thermic insulation. it also represent the aims to observe the factors affecting
the performance of saw-dust concrete mixture in terms of strength design a sawdust concrete

mixture as an another fine aggregates for inhabited class concrete slab and wall they will meet

the (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) necessities to help contribution to the

industry in economy of the environment, to provide new ideas to the contractors and developers

as how they get better the construction industry methodology and services by using sawdust

concrete mixture, and sustain good product performance. A conventional concrete product was

compared to sawdust concrete mixture with recycled bottles of the same proportion in terms of

economic performance. Observations from the tests performed were conducted in the laboratory

where specific data were gathered and completely attained.

Keywords: Building construction, fine aggregate, sand, sawdust concrete mixture

7. INVESTIGATION OF PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE USING SAWDUST AS

PARTIALREPLACEMENT FOR SAND

The concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4. was prepared using W/C of 0.65 with 0%, 25%, 50%,

75% and 100% saw-dust as partial replacement as fine aggregate. The coefficient of uniformity

and coefficient of curvature ofthe sand used in this study was 1.049 and 1.324 respectively which

shows that the sand is a well graded sand asit does not exceed the range of 1 and 3 for ; and

maximum of 6 for specified by the British standard. The aggregate crushing value (ACV)
obtained is 43.75 which is within the specified value of 45 as specified by the British standard

(BS 812-110 1992).and the values of 40mm, 9mm and 5mm respectively was obtain as

workability at 0%, 25% and 50% in addition of aggregate using the saw-dust as partial

replacement for sand as aggregate, while 14.15 N/mm2, 12.96N/mm2 and 11.93 N/mm2, were

obtained for compressive strength with 25%, 75% and 100% sawdust as partial replacement. The

Compressive strength values obtained were found not to be conventional to the smallest amount

required of 17N/mm2 for light weight concrete (LWC). Using saw-dust in a fraction greater than

25% replacement of sand ishowever detrimental to strength and density properties of concrete.

Keywords: Sawdust, Concrete, Workability, Aggregate Crushing value, Compressive strength.