You are on page 1of 12

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS.........................................................................................1

Assignment 1 [Part A] : HIRARC Program............................................................3

The Case................................................................................................3

Risk Assessment Table...........................................................................4

HIRARC Table.......................................................................................5

Assignment 1 [Part B] : Accident Causation Model via Domino’s Theory............7

Accident Causation Model....................................................................7

The Domino’s Theory............................................................................7

Accident Causation Model via Domino’s Theory.................................7

The Case................................................................................................8
Introduction........................................................................8

Lack of Control .................................................................8

Basic Cause........................................................................8

Immediate Cause................................................................9

Incident...............................................................................9

Loss....................................................................................9

Act and Regulation.............................................................9

Recommendation.................................................................................10

Conclusion.............................................................................................................11

References..............................................................................................................11
Attachments...........................................................................................................12

2
Assignment 1 [Part A] : HIRARC Program

Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by taking
steps and action to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate
events while maximizing the productivity. Risks can come from uncertain events in financial
markets, project failures, legal liabilities, credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters as
well as deliberate attacks from an adversary. Methods, definitions and goals are different
according to whether the risk management method is in the context of project management,
security, engineering, industrial processes, financial portfolios, actuarial assessments, or public
health and safety.

The strategies to manage risk include transferring the risk to another party, avoiding the risk,
reducing the negative effect of the risk, and accepting some or all of the consequences of a
particular risk.

The Case
HIRARC for prevention of working in an iron stamping factory as such, these are some of
the possible cases that might be occurred in such factory:

1) Working with CNC milling machine

2) Working in welding area

3) Working with stamping machine

4) Working in night shift

5) Working with metal cutting machine

3
Risk Assessment Table

Risk assessments are based on 2 key factors:


The likely severity of any injury/illness resulting from the hazard and the probability that the
injury/illness will actually occur.

| H - high risk | M - medium risk | L - low risk |

Proba
bility
1 2 3 4
Severity

1 L L M M

2 L M M H

3 M M H H

4 M H H H

4
HIRARC Table
HAZARDOUS IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK CONTROL FOR THE PREVENTION OF
WORKING IN AN IRON STAMPING FACTORY

These methods consist of the following elements in order to manage the risk, performed, more or less, in the following order;

1) identify, characterize, and assess threats


2) assess the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats
3) determine the risk (i.e. the expected consequences of specific types of attacks on specific assets)
4) identify ways to reduce those risks
5) prioritize risk reduction measures based on a strategy

HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT RISK


Ste LEVEL OF
SEQUENCE EFFEC CONTROL
p TYPE IDENTIFIC Probabil Severit COMPLIAN
no. OF JOB STEP TS Score Level (Recommendat CE
ATION ity y
ions)
Working with
Routin Serious Safety
1. CNC milling Eye injury 3 4 12 HIGH YES
e injury goggles
machine
Working in Routin Skin Minor MEDIU
2. 2 3 6 Face mask YES
welding area e burning injury M
Working with Body crushed/
Serious MEDIU Exchange
3. stamping Shift pressured by 1 4 4 YES
machines Injury M shift
machine
Proper
Lack of
Working in sleeping hours/
4. Shift focus/ Minor 2 4 8 HIGH YES
night shift caffeine
drowsiness consumption

5
Possible
Working with
Routin deaf from MEDIU
5. metal cutting Minor 3 2 6 M
Ear protector YES
e the cutting
machine
noise

6
Assignment 1 [Part B] : Accident Causation Model via
Domino’s Theory

Accident Causation Model


The Accident causation model, better known as the Swiss cheese model, is a theoretical model
that illustrates how human error at all levels in the organization may lead to accidents.

The Accident causation model is well suited to complex production systems, where a
hierarchical organizational structure tends to exist (managers, front-line personnel, physical and
operational barriers, etc).

The Domino’s Theory


Heinrich’s Domino Theory states that accidents result from a chain of sequential events,
metaphorically like a line of dominoes falling over. When one of the dominoes falls, it triggers
the next one, and the next; but by removing a key factor (such as an unsafe condition or an
unsafe act) it can at least prevents the start of the chain reaction.

Accident Causation Model via Domino’s Theory


Theory developed in 1931 by H. W. Heinrich; states that an accident is only one of a series of
factors, each of which depends on a previous factor in the following manner:

1) Accident causes an injury.


2) Individual's negligent act or omission, or a faulty machine, causes an accident.
3) Personal shortcomings cause negligent acts or omissions.
4) Hereditary and environment cause personal shortcomings.

7
The Case
WORKING IN A CONSTRUCTION SITE, WITH THE RISK OF FALLING
FROM A HIGH PLACE.

Introduction
This incident happened at Pavilion Kuala Lumpur in Jalan Bukit Bintang, 10 January 2007,
Wednesday. The developer was Pavillion Kuala Lumpur Sdn Bhd. Contractor company was
Putra Perdana Construction Sdn Bhd. Main factor was the scaffoldings was broken because not
patch the extra weight.

Lack of Control
There are some factors that may arise;

1. Employer didn’t take any precaution steps to avoid the incident.


2. Weakness of management system of the construction company.
3. Unsupervised working procedures.

Basic Cause
Some of the basic causes that leads to the incidents:-

1. The worker maybe too tired and careless during working.


2. The employer eager to finish project in hurry – to save time and money.
3. The scaffolding unable to withstand the weight of the concrete, slabs and the workers that
cause scaffolding to break and collapse.
4. The company didn’t take action when the same incidents happen last time, this is second
same incident.
5. Too many workers passing through scaffolding.

8
Immediate Cause
1. Employer does not emphasize the safety precaution to the employee.
2. Overload of construction materials on the scaffolding.
3. Unstable conditions of scaffoldings.

Incident
1. The case is classified as sudden death and major injuries.
2. Two people died because material fell onto their heads after they landed on the ground

Loss
1. 2 died - Liew Wan Chew, 52, (Malaysian) and Hram Uk a.k.a Boi Nei Tang, 25,
(Myanmar).
2. 11 injured - Balraj Singh,21, Pretap Singh,22, Arjan Singh 22, Aman Singh,23,
Gurbachan Singh,24, Salam Khan,25, Subash Kumar,26, Gurnam Singh,30, Jamuna
Prasad,33, Rampal Singh,37, Kashmeer Singh,40, (10 Indian and 1 Pakistan)
3. Construction materials, metal scaffoldings, several slabs of granite.

Act and Regulation


In accordance to the case of working in high places, these are forms of Acts that can be
taken caution which if found guilty the following penalty will be apply by the
government;

ACT/Regulation PENALTY

any person who contravenes any


Factories and Machinery provisions of these regulations
1 (Building Operations and Works of
. Engineering Construction)
shall be guilty of an offense and
(Safety Regulations 1986) shall, on conviction, be liable to a
fine not exceeding RM2000.
any person who commits an
offense against these regulations
2 Factories and Machinery
for which no corresponding penalty
(Safety, Health and Welfare
. is provided by the act, shall on
Regulations 1970)
conviction be liable to a fine not
exceedingRM1000.

9
Recommendation
(Substitute, Administration Control and Personal Protection Equipment)

1) Place a sensor and weight measuring to make sure the weight passing is not overloaded.

2) Each employee should be given a special shoes only during working time than can grip
at any surface.

3) Employer should cover all the building with safety net to ensure no falling of materials
or human.

4) Build a new stronger bridge or scaffolding.

5) Employer manages a regular class for safety and health education at workplace for
employees.

6) OSHA officer must ensure the construction site always in a safe condition.

7) Only legal employees with recognized certificate by CIDB or other safety organizations
were allowed to enter the construction sites.

8) Do not allow meddling around working area.

9) Implement a thorough training program for the use of PPE.

10
Conclusion

Its primary responsibility is to ensure safety and health of work lies with those who create the
risks and those who work with the risks. It’s also important to understand different types of
hazards that presence in the workplace. The employer and employee should learn how to
effectively identify hazards in the workplace. We must understand the main occupational hazard
groups and the health risks that certain workplace hazard pose. If there’s an incident occurs,
evaluate the risks associated with the identified hazards and we should make recommendations
on eliminating or reducing the risks of these hazards. Employer should determine the appropriate
hazards control measures and assess the effectiveness of the control measures taken. Either
employer or employee, they should appreciate the importance of hazards identification process
as a means to avoid accidents in the workplace.

References

http://www.osh.net/articles/archive/osh_basics_2001_june27.html

http://wikiofscience.wikidot.com/science:accident-causation-model

http://www.asec.com.my/occupationalsafetyandhealth/hirarc

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/20132216/HIRARC

11
Attachments

Examples of working in construction site with the risk of falling from a high place.

12