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Original Title: Lecture 9

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Lecture 9

force of electric origin

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LECTURE 18

FORCES OF ELECTRIC ORIGIN – ENERGY

APPROACH(2)

Acknowledgment-These handouts and lecture notes given in class are based on material from Prof. Peter

Sauer’s ECE 330 lecture notes. Some slides are taken from Ali Bazi’s presentations

Disclaimer- These handouts only provide highlights and should not be used to replace the course textbook.

10/24/2017

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY

e

the force of electric origin f derived from either energy

or co-energy expressions is identical. Depending on the

system description, one or the other may be used

numerically equal.

10/24/2017 2

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY

Suppose (i , x ) L (x ) i which is electrically linear, then

(i , x )

i

L (x )

W m ( , x ) = i (ˆ, x ) d ˆ

0 x const .

W m (i , x ) = (iˆ, x ) diˆ

i

0 x const .

10/24/2017 3

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY

Since (i , x ) L (x ) i , W m and W m are equivalent

For a given value of x, the relationship between λ and i is

linear

Area A= i ( , x)d is the ``energy

o

i

Area B = (i, x)di is the ``co energy

o

And note

i W m W m

10/24/2017 4

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY

If (i , x ) is a nonlinear function as shown, then area

A ≠ B and W m W m but still i W m W m

10/24/2017 5

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

MULTI-PORT SYSTEMS

For the case of multi-port system, we have the flux linkages as

1 = L11 (x )i 1 L12 (x )i 2

2 = L 21 (x )i 1 L 22 (x )i 2

Path from 0 i 1 , 0 i 2 , x 0 x

Choose path x first while i1 and i2 are zero

i1 next while x = constant , i2 = 0

i2 next while x = constant , i1 = i1

10/24/2017 6

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

MULTI-PORT SYSTEMS

Computation of W m

i1 i2 x

W m (i 1 ,i 2 , x ) = 1 di 1 2 di 2 f e

dx

0 0 0

i 2 0 i1 i1 i1 0

x const . x const . i 2 0

W m (i 1 ,i 2 , x ) = L11 (x )i 1 L 21 (x )i 1 i 2 L 22 (x )i 2

2 2

e W m (i 1 , i 2 , x )

f (i 1 , i 2 , x ) =

x

10/24/2017 7

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

EXAMPLE

A certain multiple-port rotational system has the following

flux-current relations, where θ is a rotational variable

s = Ls i s M cos i r

r = M cos i s L r i r

Compute the co-energy W m and the torque of electrical

origin 1 1

W m (i 1 ,i 2 , x ) = L s i s M cos i r L r i r2

2

2 2

W m (i s , i r , )

T (i s , i r , ) =

e

M cos i s i r

10/24/2017 8

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

ENERGY CONVERSION BETWEEN TWO POINTS

In the i plane, to go from a to b

b xb

Wm (b , xb ) Wm (a , xa ) = id f e dx

a xa

= id f e dx

b xb

a xa

a b

stands for “energy from mechanical.” To evaluate EFE and

EFM, we need to specify a particular path.

10/24/2017 9

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

ENERGY CONVERSION OVER A CYCLE

Energy balance dW m = id f dx e

dW m = 0 (system returns to original state )

0= i d f e dx

i d ( f dx )e

=

f e dx = Energy from mechanical (EFM )

10/24/2017 10

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

ENERGY CONVERSION OVER A CYCLE

Over complete cycle

EFE EFM = 0 or EFE |cycle EFM |cycle = 0

compute either EFE |cycle or EFM |cycle . If EFE |cycle > 0 ,

10/24/2017 11

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

EXAMPLE

An electric machine has the relation as shown in the figure

below. The relations are

1 = L11i 1 M cos i 2

2 = M cos i 1 L 22i 2

Find the energy converted from electrical to mechanical

form for each cycle. Is this a motor or a generator?

10/24/2017 12

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

EXAMPLE

Torque of electric origin W = 1 L i 2 M cos i i 1 L i 2

m 11 1 1 2 22 2

2 2

W m

e

T = = Mi 1i 2 sin

2

Since it is the i plane, we compute T de

1

2 2

EFM |cycle = T d = T d T d

e e e

0 0

A B C D

= T d T d T d T e d

e e e

0 A B C

C 2

cycle = T d = MI 02 sin d 2M I 02

e

EFM

B

10/24/2017 13

Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan

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