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# ECE 330

## POWER CIRCUITS AND ELECTROMECHANICS

LECTURE 18
FORCES OF ELECTRIC ORIGIN – ENERGY
APPROACH(2)

Acknowledgment-These handouts and lecture notes given in class are based on material from Prof. Peter
Sauer’s ECE 330 lecture notes. Some slides are taken from Ali Bazi’s presentations

Disclaimer- These handouts only provide highlights and should not be used to replace the course textbook.

10/24/2017
Copyright © 2017 Hassan Sowidan
ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY
e
the force of electric origin f derived from either energy
or co-energy expressions is identical. Depending on the
system description, one or the other may be used

## In electrically linear system the energy and co-energy are

numerically equal.

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ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY
Suppose  (i , x )  L (x ) i which is electrically linear, then

 (i , x )
i 
L (x )

W m ( , x ) =  i (ˆ, x ) d ˆ
0 x const .

W m (i , x ) =   (iˆ, x ) diˆ
i

0 x const .

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ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY
Since  (i , x )  L (x ) i , W m and W m are equivalent
For a given value of x, the relationship between λ and i is
linear

Area A=  i ( , x)d  is the ``energy 
o

i
Area B =   (i, x)di is the ``co  energy 
o

## for linear system W m  W m

And note
 i W m W m
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ENERGY AND CO-ENERGY
If  (i , x ) is a nonlinear function as shown, then area
A ≠ B and W m W m but still  i W m W m

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MULTI-PORT SYSTEMS
For the case of multi-port system, we have the flux linkages as

1 = L11 (x )i 1  L12 (x )i 2
2 = L 21 (x )i 1  L 22 (x )i 2
Path from 0  i 1 , 0  i 2 , x 0  x

## Must be path independent (L12  L 21 for linear system )

Choose path x first while i1 and i2 are zero
i1 next while x = constant , i2 = 0
i2 next while x = constant , i1 = i1
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MULTI-PORT SYSTEMS
Computation of W m

i1 i2 x
W m (i 1 ,i 2 , x ) =  1 di 1   2 di 2   f e
dx
0 0 0
i 2 0 i1 i1 i1  0
x const . x const . i 2 0

W m (i 1 ,i 2 , x ) = L11 (x )i 1  L 21 (x )i 1 i 2  L 22 (x )i 2
2 2

e W m (i 1 , i 2 , x )
f (i 1 , i 2 , x ) =
x
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EXAMPLE
A certain multiple-port rotational system has the following
flux-current relations, where θ is a rotational variable
s = Ls i s  M cos  i r
r = M cos  i s  L r i r
Compute the co-energy W m and the torque of electrical
origin 1 1
W m (i 1 ,i 2 , x ) = L s i s  M cos  i r  L r i r2
2

2 2
W m (i s , i r ,  )
T (i s , i r ,  ) =
e
 M cos  i s i r

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ENERGY CONVERSION BETWEEN TWO POINTS
In the   i plane, to go from a to b
b xb
Wm (b , xb )  Wm (a , xa ) =  id    f e dx
a xa

=  id     f e dx 

b xb

a  xa 

a b

## Where EFE stands for “energy from electrical” and EFM

stands for “energy from mechanical.” To evaluate EFE and
EFM, we need to specify a particular path.
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ENERGY CONVERSION OVER A CYCLE
Energy balance dW m = id   f dx e

## Over complete cycle

dW m = 0 (system returns to original state )

0=  i d    f e dx

 i d   (   f dx )e
=

## id  = Energy from electrical (EFE )

f e dx = Energy from mechanical (EFM )
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ENERGY CONVERSION OVER A CYCLE
Over complete cycle
 EFE   EFM = 0 or EFE |cycle  EFM |cycle = 0

## Because there is no net change in stored energy, one can

compute either EFE |cycle or EFM |cycle . If EFE |cycle > 0 ,

## and EFE |cycle < 0 .

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EXAMPLE
An electric machine has the relation as shown in the figure
below. The relations are

1 = L11i 1  M cos  i 2

2 = M cos  i 1  L 22i 2

## The machine is operated over the cycle ABCD while i 1  I 0.

Find the energy converted from electrical to mechanical
form for each cycle. Is this a motor or a generator?
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EXAMPLE
Torque of electric origin W  = 1 L i 2  M cos  i i  1 L i 2
m 11 1 1 2 22 2
2 2
W m
e
T = = Mi 1i 2 sin 

2
Since it is the   i plane, we compute  T de
1

2  2
EFM |cycle =   T d =   T d   T d 
e  e e
0  0  
A B C D
=  T d    T d    T d    T e d 
e e e
0 A B C
C 2
cycle =  T d  =  MI 02 sin  d    2M I 02
e
EFM
B

## since EFM |cycle < 0 , it is motor

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