You are on page 1of 5

Available online at www.sciencedirect.


Energy Procedia 17 (2012) 1092 – 1096

2012 International Conference on Future Electrical Power and Energy Systems

Thermal Efficiency Calculation of Composite Air-cooling

System in Variable Conditions
Shenglong Wanga, Hengxing Shanga, ,Zhuang Wanga,Zhidong Kangb
Northeast Dianli University,Jilin City, China
Inner Mongolia WuDa Thermoelectricity ,Co. LTD.,WuHai Inner Mongolia, China


Based on the steam, ammonia parametric, This paper programs to get the energy efficiency ratio of composite
air-cooling system in variable conditions .Through the control variable method, it optimizes turbine back pressure ,
gets the relationship between efficiency and environmental temperature. Thus this method provides theoretical basis
for Composite air-cooling system optimization.

© 2012
2011 Published
Selectionand/or peer-review
and/or under
peer-review responsibility
under of Hainan
responsibility University.
of [name organizer]
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Keywords:Composite air-cooling system; back pressure; economical efficiency


To the existing defect of the direct air cooling system, the literature[1]puts forward the air-cooling
system by steam power cycle coupled with the positive and negative sequence refrigerating
cycle(composite air-cooling system). The system uses ammonia vapor compression refrigeration cycle
cooling turbine exhaust, that is an effective way to crack three technology problems (coal, environment
pollution and high adaptability) of direct air-cooling system. Similar system in foreign countries had be
reported [2]. But the study limits to its feasibility analysis, evaluation indexes and rough calculation of
economy, lack of system analysis and mature calculation method.
In the turbine running, the change of load, temperature and condenser operation condition such factors
can lead to back-pressure deviation design values. Operation personnel determine to the influence of
initial parameter and final parameters on its thermal efficiency by the management of small targets, then
adjust turbine operating parameters to improve efficiency. With the operation parameters of the steam
turbine, the impact of back pressure changes on steam turbine thermal economic is relatively larger.
Therefore, dsign and operating personnel widely concern the problem that accurately determine that back
pressure changes impact on steam turbine thermal efficiency. Due to the largest difference between air
cooling unit and conventional unit is the cold end system, the study of the cold end system becomes the
important significance especially in variable conditions. Using matlab software ,we obtain a set of

1876-6102 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Hainan University.
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2012.02.212
Shenglong Wang et al. / Energy Procedia 17 (2012) 1092 – 1096 1093

calculation method for the relationship between thermal efficiency of composite air-cooling system and
back pressure and temperature environment.

1. Phase transformation heat, 2. Compressors, 3. Air cooled condenser, 4. Air cooling fan, 5. Liquid storage tank, 6. Booster pumps,
7,9. Throttle, 8. Motor, 10. Steam - ammonia heater, 11. Prime motor, 12. Generator, 13-17. Valve
Figure 1. Combined cycle air-cooling system principles of thermal system map

2.Performance Evaluation

The coefficient of performance of refrigeration equipment was commonly used to evaluate that the
performance of combined cycle air-cooled system is advantages or disadvantages.

COP= benefits / costs

Q s t  Q a t ҏҞңҗ
Q ac  Q ap

Formula(1): Qst is yearly total electricity due to Turbine back pressure lower,kw.h; Q at is
yearly ammonia steam turbine power generation under different pressure in the low temperature period,
kw.h; Qap is yearly ammonia pump power consumption under different pressure in the low temperature
period , kw.h; Qac is Under different back pressure ,calculate ammonia compressor power
consumption at high temperature , kw.h.

3.Composite Air-Cooling System Matlab Calcaculation Model in Variable Working Condition

Water and steam thermodynamic properties must be used, when working on calculation. To avoid the
arduous work checking figure look-up table, especially application of steam table that must be used
multiple interpolation ,and accuracy is not high, this work use water and steam thermal properties
calculation program. According to a large number of calculations, the value of the program and the value
in literature[6] are the same, so the software is reliable and accurate. For the thermal properties of ammonia,
use the formula programming in literature[7].
1094 Shenglong Wang et al. / Energy Procedia 17 (2012) 1092 – 1096

Figure 2. Matlab calculation chart

4.An example Analysis and Discussion

600 MW supercritical direct cooling unit in MengDong area , this work through matlab calculation
model obtain the feasibility evaluation index of composite air-cooling circulation system.
Back pressure range is 4kpa~15kpa and ambient temperature range is -33ć~35ć. Heat transfer
temperature difference is 20ć in dual phase heat exchanger, to ensure that the maximum ammonia liquid
transform into ammonia vapors. In condenser heat transfer temperature difference usually is 15ć.

4.1.Temperature - hour distribution

The curve shows MengDong region typical temperature - hour distribution in figure 3.
total number of hours in the year
total number of hours in the year (hour)



-30 0 30
ambient temperature (centigrade)

Figure 3. MengDong region typical temperature - hour distribution

Shenglong Wang et al. / Energy Procedia 17 (2012) 1092 – 1096 1095

4.2.The performance curves invariable conditions

cop in high temperature time


cop in high temperature time




5 10 15
backpressure (kpa)

Figure 4. coefficient of performance curves With the back pressure during high temperature period

cop in low temperature time

cop in low temperature time


5 10 15
backpressure (kpa)

Figure 5. coefficient of performance curves With the back pressure during low temperature period

When turbine exhaust weight certain, cueves in figure4, figure5, respectively express the influence of
back pressure on the coefficient of performance in high temperature and low temperature. With the
increase of the pressure, and coefficient of performance reduced, coefficient of performance in high
temperature less than 1, so during high temperature air-cooled turbogenerator using refrigeration cycle is
not economical. Low temperature coefficient of performance more than 1, Using inverse cooling cycle is


Pc(kpa) 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00
6.20 6.40 6.60 6.80 7.00 7.20 7.40 7.60 7.80 8.00 8.20
8.40 8.60 8.80 9.00 9.20 9.40 9.60 9.80 10.00 10.20 10.40
10.60 10.80 11.00 11.20 11.40 11.60 11.80 12.00 12.20 12.40 12.60
12.80 13.00 13.20 13.40 13.60 13.80 14.00 14.20 14.40 14.60 14.80
cop 1.491 1.493 1.497 1.499 1.503 1.496 1.497 1.498 1.487 1.490 1.489
1.476 1.475 1.459 1.458 1.458 1.440 1.438 1.418 1.417 1.396 1.397
1.373 1.350 1.348 1.322 1.321 1.293 1.293 1.263 1.234 1.228 1.196
1.164 1.161 1.127 1.133 1.096 1.060 1.059 1.020 0.982 0.987 0.946
0.905 0.906 0.862 0.818 0.774 0.774 0.727 0.680 0.672 0.622 0.572
1096 Shenglong Wang et al. / Energy Procedia 17 (2012) 1092 – 1096

cop throughout the year

cop throughout the year


5 10 15
backpressure (kpa)

Figure 6. coefficient of performance curves With the back pressure throughout the year

Figure6 shows the influence of back pressure on coefficient of performance throughout the year. When
back pressure more than 5kpa, COP more than 1. From the economy, composite air-cooling system is
feasible. pc=12.5kpa, COP is maximum; even COP=1, considering composite air-cooling system
environmental benefits and reliability improved more than direct
air-cooling, as long as the one-time investment is reasonable, composite air-cooling system is still feasible.
As to the COP < 1, taking into consideration economic and technical , it also have a certain feasibility


This paper provides a rapid and effective calculation model for the COP of composite air-cooling
system in variable conditions, and prove the economic feasibility of this system. 12.5kpa is the optimal


[1] Shanrang Yang , Zhiming Xu, Gong Wang. A new air cooling systemby steam power cycle coupled with the
positive and Negativesequence refrigerating cycle[J]. Proceedings of the CSEE㧘2006㧘26(23): 61-66.
[2] Michael Otis Surface. System designs for dry cooling towers [J]. Power Engineering, 1977, 9.
[3] LI Xiu-yun,YAN Jun-jie,LIN Wan-chao.Effect of exhaust pressure determination based on equivalent enthalpy drop
method on unit economy[J]. Journal of Engineering for Thermal Energy and Power, 1999, 14(5): 353-355.
[4] Stojakovic M, Vasiljavic, N. Steam power plant efficiency enhancement by means of “cold end” optimization during
exploitation [C]. Chicago: American Power Conference 57th Annual Meeting, 1995, 57: 560-565.
[5] Chen Lijun㧘Yang Shanrang㧘Wang Shenglong㧘etal㧚A new indirect air cooling system in power plant[J]㧚Journal
of Jilin University㧦Engineering and Technology Edition㧘2009㧘39(s1): 146-149(in Chinese).
[6] WangnerW, Alfred Kruse. Properties of Water and Steam[M]. Springer-verlag, Berlin, 1998.
[7] Hui Liu, A group of Quick Computation Ammonia Thermal Properties Equation[J]. Refrigeration Technology,2000,1: