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STRUCTURAL STEEL

BEAM DESIGN

ECS338 – STRUCTURAL CONCRETE AND STEEL DESIGN


Course Outcomes
1.  Identify and apply knowledge on structural analysis in
designing of structures.

2.  Design reinforced concrete structures in accordance to


relevant standards.

3.  Design steel structures in accordance to relevant


standards and its implementation in real practice.

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Programme Outcomes
PO3 - Ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering
problems using thinking skills and engineering
reasoning.

PO6 - Acquiring the capacity to undertake lifelong learning


and having the knowledge of contemporary issues.

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Learning Outcomes
At the end of this topic students should be able to:

1.  Be able to describe the behaviour of restrained beams


(CO3-PO6).

2.  Be able to analyse and design restrained beams (CO1/


CO3-PO3).

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Steel beam
•  The primary function of a beam is to transfer the vertical
load to adjacent structural elements such that the load
can continue its path through the structure to the
foundation.

•  Uses of beams:
i.  To support floors and columns.
ii.  To carry roof sheeting as purlins and side cladding as
sheeting rails.

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•  Beams may be a uniform or a non‐uniform section.

•  Sections may be strengthened in regions of maximum


moment by adding cover plates or haunches.

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Types of steel beam

- Open section

- Close section

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Failures in steel beam

Buckling Corrosion

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Actions on steel beam
•  Types of beam action are:
i.  Concentrated actions from secondary beams and columns.
ii.  Distributed actions from self weight and floor slabs.

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Laterally restrained beam
•  Laterally restrained beam are beams that does not fail by
lateral torsional buckling (LTB).

•  Full lateral restraint is provided by:


i.  cast in-situ or precast concrete slab support directly on
top flange.
ii.  steel plate floor welded or bolted to the flange.
iii.  timber floors and beams fixed to the flange by cleats,
bolts or similar method.

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Full Lateral Support Intermittent Lateral Support

•  Laterally restrained beams can fail due to:


i.  Local buckling of flange and web due to bending moment
ii.  Yielding due to bending moment
iii.  Yielding due to shear force
iv.  Web buckling due to shear force
v.  Combined effect of shear force and bending moment
vi.  Web bearing and web buckling due to concentrated loads

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Design procedure
1.  Determination of design shear force, VEd and design
bending moment, MEd at critical points.
2.  Selection of section (if size is not given).
3.  Classification of section.
4.  Resistance of cross-section to bending and shear (ULS).
5.  Resistance to shear buckling (ULS).
6.  Resistance to flange induced buckling (ULS).
7.  Resistance of web to transverse forces (web buckling)
(ULS).
8.  Deflection (SLS).

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1. Design shear force and bending moment
•  Design shear force, VEd from ultimate design
•  Design bending moment, MEd load

•  Usually (not necessarily) maximum shear force, VEd occurs at


supports and maximum bending moment, MEd occurs at mid
span or support.

•  Beam section provided is adequate when:

i.  Design shear force, VEd < Design plastic shear resistance,
Vpl,Rd
ii.  Design bending moment, MEd < Design plastic moment
resistance Mpl,Rd
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2. Selection of section
•  A trial section should be chosen by obtaining the required
plastic modulus, Wply :

fy = assumed yield strength of the steel


γM = partial safety factors (cl. 6.1)

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cl. 3, EC3-1-1

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cl. 6, EC3-1-1

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3. Classification of section
Class 1
•  σ = fy at whole cross section
(full plastic moment develop)
•  No local buckling occurring
•  Structure fails when enough
number of plastic hinges
developed

Class 2
•  σ = fy at whole cross section
(full plastic moment develop)
•  Local buckling occurs before
enough rotation to permit
redistribution of moment.
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Class 3
•  σ = fy at extreme fibre
•  Local buckling occurs
before full plastic moment
develop
•  Elastic moment design

Class 4
•  σ < fy
•  Local buckling occurs
before steel yields

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cl. 5.5, EC3-1-1

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4. Resistance of cross-section to bending (ULS)
cl. 6.2.5, EC3-1-1
When shear force is absent or low value, the design value of
the bending moment MEd at each section should satisfy the
following:

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4. Resistance of cross-section to shear (ULS)
•  Due to excessive shear forces (usually adjacent to
supports) the beam may fail in shear.

•  The beam web, which resist shear forces, may fail as steel
yields in tension and compression. The formation of plastic
hinges in the flanges accompanies this process.

•  If the web is too thin it will fail by buckling in the shear


zone.

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cl. 6.2.6, EC3-1-1

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Shear strength check
•  Coincident shear force, VEd < 50% of shear capacity, Vpl,Rd
No reduction in moment capacity is required
•  Coincident shear force, VEd > 50% of shear capacity, Vpl,Rd
Reduction in moment capacity is required

Coincident shear = 0 kN
(no shear force at point of
maximum moment that
will influence moment
capacity of the section)

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Coincident shear = 5 kN
(shear force = 5 kN at point of
maximum moment that will
influence moment capacity of
the section)

Coincident shear = 22.14 kN


(shear force = 22.14 kN at point
load that will influence moment
capacity of the section). The
moment capacity based on this
shear force should be
compared with 64.29 kNm

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Coincident shear = 30 kN
(shear force = 30 kN at point of
maximum moment that will
influence moment capacity of
the section).

Coincident shear = 0 kN at
point of maximum sagging
moment.
Coincident shear = 29 kN at
point of maximum hogging
moment

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4. Resistance of cross-section to bending
and shear (ULS)
cl. 6.2.8, EC3-1-1

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5. Shear buckling
cl. 6.2.6, EC3-1-1

cl. 5.2, EC3-1-5

Note: For standard rolled beams and columns this check is rarely necessary

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6. Flange induced buckling
cl. 8, EC3-1-5

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Web bearing and web buckling
•  Due to high vertical stresses directly over a support or under
a concentrated load, the beam web may actually crush or
buckle as a result of these stresses.

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•  The web buckles at the center if the flanges are restrained,
otherwise sideways movement or rotation of one flange
relative to the other occurs.

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7. Resistance of the web to transverse forces
cl. 6, EC3-1-5

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8. Deflection
cl. 2.2.4, NA EC3

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