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MINIMUM STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR

FEASIBILITY STUDIES
OF WATER SERVICES PROJECTS

FROM TO
PROBLEM SOLUTION
(NEED) (PROJECT)

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY


Chief Directorate Wayer Services VERSION : 2.2
Directorate Macro Planning & Information Support DATE : Sep 2002
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PREFACE

PREFACE

The South African Water Services Sector is rapidly expanding and changing its make-up. The challenge is
diverse, including basic human and environmental needs, equitable and sustainable water resources
utilization, and support to economic and social development for present and future generations.

This Guide aims to support effective and integrated planning of these development goals and helps to ensure
that future water services are effective, economical and sustainable. Feasibility studies are a key tool for both
implementing agents and regulators to achieve these goals in a proactive and cost-effective manner.

The development and management environment is continuously changing and requires a flexible and
proactive approach. Upfront investigation of the aspects affecting the feasibility and sustainability of water
services provides for improved project selections, proactive stakeholder involvement, management of risk and
preparation of deviation strategies.

This “Minimum Standards and Guide for Feasibility Studies” provides a process that prompts development
planners to consider all the possible aspects that may affect a new development, a scheme extension or
services rehabilitation. Any exclusion of options must be properly motivated and explained to ensure that the
final selection of options complies with the minimum standards and the development goals of Government.

Feasibility Studies are a regulatory requirement and must be conducted before any potential development
option can be approved for implementation. Provision is made within the planning process whereby the IDP
process identifies needs and sets development goals in the Water Services Development Plans (WSDP’s) of
Water Services Authorities, the WSDP lists potential projects to be investigated by Feasibility Studies during
the current financial year, and final recommended solutions resulting from these feasibility studies are listed
as implementation projects in the WSDP of the following financial year.

The recommendations from the Feasibility Study will also advise the budgets of the Municipal Infrastructure
Grant, propose involvement and responsibilities of stakeholders, and give specifications for an
Implementation Business Plan. All of this happens within the IDP and WSDP planning cycle and gives key
management information for effective regulation of water services development.

Preface- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page i Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PREFACE

OVERVIEW OF CONTENTS

This Guide consists of 8 Parts which each have a specific purpose :

§ Part 1 : introduces the definition and understanding of Feasibility Studies


§ Part 2 : describes the key principles and elements of a Feasibility Study
§ Part 3 : demonstrates the linkages between Feasibility Studies and other planning activities
§ Part 4 : identifies the overall goals, macro process and considerations within a Feasibility Study
§ Part 5 : provides a step-by-step guide (road map) how to conduct the Feasibility Study
§ Part 6 : lists some of the available tools and supporting documentation that can be used when
conducting a Feasibility Study
§ Part 7 : lists the questions which make up the minimum standards of a typical Feasibility Study
§ Part 8 : provides user guidance for an electronic capture tool to records answers and recommendations
of a Feasibility Study for consistent reporting and effective evaluation.

It can be concluded from the above that this Guide provides a progressive increase of the level of detail (drill-
down) of the issues to be considered within a feasibility study. Readers will initially read all of the Parts in
sequence to get a common understanding of a Feasibility Study. Repetitive users will primarily use Part 5 to
execute step-by-step actions, sourcing additional supporting information from Parts 6 and 7. Parts 5, 6 and 7
are also the main building blocks of the electronic guide, described in Part 8, which also has build-in
functionality to adapt the scope of the work of each feasibility study to the specific requirements of the study
area.

The following paragraphs list the Contents Lists of each Part of this document :

Contents of Part I : What is a Feasibility Study

1 Definitions............................................................................................................................................. 2
1.1 Definition of a Feasibility Study................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Traditional Understanding of ‘Technical’ Feasibility Studies ...................................................... 2
1.3 Definition of Sustainability ........................................................................................................... 3
1.4 Definition of a Business Plan ........................................................................................................ 3
2 Context.................................................................................................................................................. 5
2.1 Legal Context ................................................................................................................................ 5
2.2 Monitoring & Evaluation.............................................................................................................. 5
2.3 Regulation ..................................................................................................................................... 5
2.4 Cooperative Governance............................................................................................................... 6
2.5 Strategic Compliance .................................................................................................................... 6
3 Level of Detail ...................................................................................................................................... 6

Contents of Part II : Principles and Elements of a Feasibility Study

This section provides a summary description of :


§ the principles of a feasibility study
§ the elements of a feasibility study
§ the feasibility within a project life cycle
§ the key feasibility checks
§ service level scenario planning

Each is described by a diagram showing key linkages and relationships.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PREFACE

Contents List of Part III : Feasibility Study Linkages to other Planning Activities

1 OVERALL PLANNING STRUCTURE ................................................................................................ 2


2 OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS ...................................................................................................... 4
2.1 Integrated Development Planning Process - IDP ............................................................................. 5
2.1.1 Mission of the IDP ................................................................................................................. 5
2.1.2 Sectoral Development Plans ................................................................................................... 5
2.1.3 Integrated Development Strategy ............................................................................................ 6
2.2 Water Services Development Plan - WSDP .................................................................................... 6
2.2.1 Elements Of a Water Services Development Plan ................................................................... 6
2.2.2 Institutional Roles................................................................................................................... 6
2.2.3 Linkage between WSDP and the Feasibility Study .................................................................. 7
3 FEASIBILITY STUDY IN THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE .................................................................... 8

Contents List of Part IV : Macro Process of a Feasibility Study

1 FEASIBILITY STUDY PROCESS................................................................................................................. 2


2 CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY............................................................................... 4
3 TYPICAL SEQUENCE OF FEASIBILITY STUDY ELEMENTS (see diagram)...................................... 4
3.1 Status Quo.................................................................................................................................................. 4
3.1.1 General Information ......................................................................................................................... 4
3.1.2 Set Evaluation Scenarios and Screen for definite Exclusions............................................................ 5
3.1.3 Situation Assessment – Confirm & Update .................................................................................... 5
3.2 GAP Analysis............................................................................................................................................ 6
3.2.1 Goals & Objectives........................................................................................................................... 7
3.2.2 Gap Definition .................................................................................................................................. 7
3.2.3 Adjust GAP against Strategy ........................................................................................................... 7
3.2.4 Refine GAP to ongoing actions ....................................................................................................... 7
3.3 IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS.................................................................................................... 7
3.3.1 Potential Solution.............................................................................................................................. 7
3.3.2 Provision of Free Basic Water ......................................................................................................... 8
3.3.3 Delivery Mechanisms ....................................................................................................................... 8
3.4 EVALUATE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS.............................................................................................. 9
3.4.1 Evaluate Water Resources .................................................................................................................... 9
3.4.2 Evaluate Technical Suitability & Compatibility...............................................................................10
3.4.3 Evaluate Operating and Maintenance Requirements ...................................................................10
3.4.4 Evaluate the Institutional & HR Requirements and Availability ................................................10
3.4.5 Evaluate Social Acceptability, Affordability & Customer Requirements ..................................11
3.4.6 Compliance to Environmental Issues............................................................................................11
3.4.7 Evaluate Life-cycle Costing, Cost Benefit & Financial Viability ...............................................11
3.4.8 Risk Analysis & Potential Deviation Plan....................................................................................12
3.5 SELECT PROJECT & DEFINE MULTI-ANNUAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN ........................13
3.5.1 Prioritisation & Selection Of Projects ...........................................................................................13
3.5.2 Project Definition, Phasing, Cash flow & Funding Plan..............................................................13
3.5.3 Assign / Agree Responsibilities between Role Players................................................................14
4 ALIGNMENT OF PROJECTS BETWEEN SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND
INTEGRATION INTO THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN ...........................................................14
5 NATIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEM ..........................................................................................................14

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PREFACE

Contents of Part V : Road Map to Conduct a Feasibility Study

1 Study Description & Scenarios ............................................................................................................. 4


1.1 Study Description & Location ...................................................................................................... 4
1.2 Define Scenarios & Scope of Work .............................................................................................. 4
1.3 Application & Approval Of Funding (Business Plan) for conducting a Feasibility Study .......... 5
1.4 Repetitive investigation of Scenarios ............................................................................................ 5
2 water users & service levels.................................................................................................................. 5
2.1 Existing Service Levels, Water Use and Effluent ......................................................................... 5
2.2 Planned Service Levels and Water Use ........................................................................................ 6
2.3 Options to provide the Planned Service Level.............................................................................. 6
2.4 Additional Water Requirement (the GAP).................................................................................... 7
3 Water SourceS & Effluent .................................................................................................................... 7
3.1 Existing Water Sources Capacity & Water Quality ...................................................................... 7
3.2 Water Balance ............................................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Options to refurbish / reinstate existing sources ........................................................................... 8
3.4 Water Resource Development Potential & Expected Water Quality............................................ 8
3.5 Options to develop water resources .............................................................................................. 9
4 Infrastructure......................................................................................................................................... 9
5 water resource management requirement............................................................................................ 10
5.1 Existing water resource management & conservation/protection............................................... 10
5.2 Required water resource management & conservation/protection.............................................. 10
5.3 Additional water resource management & conservation options................................................ 10
6 Appropriate Technology ..................................................................................................................... 11
6.1 Existing technology........................................................................................................................... 11
6.2 Required technology ......................................................................................................................... 11
6.3 Technology compatibility & upgradability ....................................................................................... 11
7 operations an management .................................................................................................................. 11
7.1 Existing operations and management............................................................................................... 11
7.2 Required operations and management capacity ................................................................................ 12
7.3 Operations & maintenance capacity building ................................................................................... 12
8 Environmental aspects ........................................................................................................................ 12
8.1 Existing environmental status and management ......................................................................... 12
8.2 Required environmental protection and management................................................................. 12
8.3 Actions required.......................................................................................................................... 12
9 Institutional capacity........................................................................................................................... 13
9.1 Existing institutional capacity, skills & equipment.................................................................... 13
9.2 Required institutional capacity.................................................................................................... 13
9.3 Institutional capacity building requirements ............................................................................... 13
10 Social Aspects ................................................................................................................................. 14
10.1 Existing social perception & expectations.................................................................................. 14
10.2 Required social capacity & support ............................................................................................ 14
10.3 Social awareness and customer service requirements................................................................. 14
11 Financial Aspects ............................................................................................................................ 15
11.1 Existing cost recovery & finances............................................................................................... 15
11.2 Required financial systems & support ........................................................................................ 15
11.3 Additional financial management systems & support................................................................. 16
12 Define Total Project........................................................................................................................ 16
13 Viability checks............................................................................................................................... 16
13.1 Compliance to Regional Strategy................................................................................................ 16
13.2 Compliance to WSDP ................................................................................................................. 16

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13.4 Sustainability Check ................................................................................................................... 17


13.5 Feasibility Check......................................................................................................................... 17
13.6 Acceptability Check.................................................................................................................... 17
13.7 Maintainability Check ................................................................................................................. 17
13.8 Upgradeability Check ................................................................................................................. 17
13.9 Affordability Check .................................................................................................................... 17
13.10 Successfulness Check.............................................................................................................. 17
13.11 Risk Assessment ..................................................................................................................... 17
13.12 Potential Deviation Plan.......................................................................................................... 17
14 Comparison of alternative solutions & Selection of the Best solution............................................ 18
14.1 Ranking of options for this scenario ........................................................................................... 18
14.2 Ranking of options from all scenarios ........................................................................................ 18
14.3 Selection of the best option ......................................................................................................... 18
15 Incorporate project into WSDP ....................................................................................................... 18
16 Develop Implementation Business Plan 18

Contents List of Part VI : Available Tools and Information Sources

1 General Information Sources and Tools ..................................................................................................... 2


2 Tools for Water Users & Requirements...................................................................................................... 3
3 Tools for Water Resources .......................................................................................................................... 4
4 Tools for Infrastructure Planning................................................................................................................ 6
5 Tools for Water Demand and Conservation management.......................................................................... 7
6 Tools for Appropriate Technology Choices................................................................................................ 8
7 Tools for Scheme Operation and management ........................................................................................... 8
8 Tools for Environmental investigations & management............................................................................. 8
9 Tools for institutional aspects .................................................................................................................... 9
10 Tools for Social & Socio-Economic aspects......................................................................................... 10
11 Tools for Financial aspects.................................................................................................................... 11
12 Additional Tools not Listed Above....................................................................................................... 11

Contents List of Part VII : Minimum Standards for a Feasibility Study

This section lists the Minimum Requirements to conduct a feasibility Study.

The questions are listed per theme and indicate what type of answer is expected and if applicable, the unit of
figures to be entered.

The extent of the questions changes during the setting of the scope of work according to :
§ Size of the project (project area)
§ Combination of New and Existing Infrastructure
§ Complexity of the project and project environment

Contents List of Part VIII : Electronic Guide to Conduct a Feasibility Study

1 Opening Screen
2 General Information Capture Form
3 Definition of Scenarios & Scope of Work
4 Typical Answer Capture Form for Questions
5 Viability Evaluation Form
6 Ranking and Selection of Options
7 Reporting

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PART I
What is a Feasibility Study
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART I

Part I : What is a Feasibility Study ?

Contents of Part I : What is a Feasibility Study

1 Definitions .................................................................................................................................. 2
1.1 Definition of a Feasibility Study ........................................................................................... 2
1.2 Traditional Understanding of ‘Technical’ Feasibility Studies .................................................. 2
1.3 Definition of Sustainability................................................................................................... 3
1.4 Definition of a Business Plan................................................................................................ 3
2 Context....................................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Legal Context ...................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Monitoring & Evaluation...................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Regulation ........................................................................................................................... 5
2.4 Cooperative Governance ...................................................................................................... 6
2.5 Strategic Compliance ........................................................................................................... 6
3 Level of Detail ............................................................................................................................ 6

PART I- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 1 of 6 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART I

1 DEFINITIONS

1.1 Definition of a Feasibility Study

A feasibility study is a method to identify suitable solutions for a problem or need.

Existing Future Situation


Situation GAP (Problem) (Goal)
(Status Quo)

The Feasibility Study must find suitable solutions to


address the GAP between the existing situation
(Status Quo) and the proposed development (Goal)

It is a critical evaluation to determine whether the development processes of Water and


Sanitation Services or related issues are feasible, achievable, affordable and sustainable in the
medium and longer term.

Feasibility Studies are a practical mechanism to choose between options

Feasibility Studies must consider all aspects affecting water services delivery and not only the
technical / infrastructure component. A project is only feasible if all aspects are successful,
including :
§ water resource availability and use
§ bulk and reticulation infrastructure
§ environmental protection and diversity
§ institutional and management capacity
§ legal compliance
§ social and political acceptability
§ financial success.

Water Services Provision is a business and must be evaluated as such to ensure suitable and
sustainable delivery. Feasibility Studies must therefore include common business principles and
financial viability in the evaluation process.

A feasibility study is conducted during the early planning stages of a project life cycle, but has to
give guidance to the full project life cycle, including design standards, delivery mechanisms for
project implementation, operating and business management guidelines for project
commissioning and operation. Finally, the feasibility study must ensure successful and
sustainable service delivery to the end user / customer.

1.2 Traditional Understanding of ‘Technical’ Feasibility Studies

Traditionally, projects were nominated and implemented based on physical needs such as a shortfall in
potable water, lack of wastewater treatment, water storage requirement, etc.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART I

Feasibility studies were in most instances more like case studies and investigated a specific viability
aspect (e.g. water resources) rather than the full business and sustainability environment.

In numerous cases it was found that such water services were not sustainable due to other “less obvious”
reasons such as:

• Insufficient capacity to maintain & operate services


• Lack of institutional structures and management skills
• Reluctance to pay for services by unsatisfied customers
• Inadequate financial management, billing systems and revenue collection
• Lack of security and social awareness resulting in systems abuse and vandalism
• Etc.

To change this, Water Services need to be approached as a Business that relies on the success of all
the various aspects to become viable and sustainable. The business must set goals and objectives
for each element and suitable projects or action must be identified, set in the Water Services
Development Plans and implemented.

1.3 Definition of Sustainability

In context, sustainability implies assurance of long term service provision by assuring


sustainability with regard to all supporting elements such as source, technical, maintenance,
operations, institutional, social, health and environmental. This sustainability should be realised
in the broader context of service providers such as transport, housing, health, environmental,
and electricity supply.

Other key elements of sustainable water service provision are:

• Participation
• Training
• Capacity Building
• Cost recovery
• Involvement of women
• Communication with the community
• Monitoring and evaluation
• Support

1.4 Definition of a Business Plan

A Business Plan is the specification of a proposed project to secure finances and to get approval
for implementation. A Feasibility Study and a Business Plan are essentially sequential stages
within the overall project planning process simplified as follows:

Project Application identifies a Need

Feasibility Study investigates


alternative options to resolve the need

Business Plan records the scope of work of the best


option (from FS) and motivates it for implementation

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART I

The following comparison provides further clarification between the definition of a Feasibility
Study and the definition of a Business Plan::

§ The subjects (themes) are similar for both and cover the full scope of aspects related to
water services projects (population, water resources, infrastructure, sanitation,
environment, institutions, finances, legal)

§ The Business Plan describes a single solution and does not investigate and compare
different scenarios or options, which rightly is the duty of the preceding Feasibility Study

§ Due to its function of a “feasibility” assessment, the Feasibility Study may include other
users over and above household use (the specific focus of the project) in order to ensure
that sustainable development and water resource use (water balance) is achieved.

The following water users are typically included in a Feasibility Study :


o Household / domestic water use
o Public Institutions (schools, hospitals, clinics etc.)
o Commercial & business users
o Industry & mining users
o Agricultural users
o Environmental users
o Recreational users

§ Due to its function of a “feasibility” assessment, the Feasibility Study may evaluate
alternative service levels for all of the above water users in order to determine the best
mix of service levels for now and a future phased upgradeability. A Business Plan on
basic services (DWAF projects) will typically only specify the basic services option.

§ Due to its function of “feasibility” assessment, the Feasibility Study Guide evaluates the
social, institutional, environmental and legal requirements for all of the above scenarios
and not of a single requirement only. Scenario planning and comparison is not
described in full detail in the Business Plan.

§ The Business Plan will typically include additional implementation aspects which are not
relevant during the Feasibility Study, such as :
o Nomination of a project steering committee (a feasibility will also require a PSC
but with less involvement and possibly a broader representation)
o Involvement of PDI’s and PDC’s
o Technical skills & training opportunities during implementation
o Employment policy during implementation
o Wages and labor standards
o Consultant information & ToR
o Tender procedures
o Mentorship
o Monitoring & evaluation aspects
o Additional quotations / costs (e.g. cost of business plan)
o More detailed cashflow forecast and funding plan

§ The Business Plan will make more detailed evaluations of the final proposed
implementation option against the norms and standards of DWAF, RDP, MIG and other
national funding criteria.

It can therefore be concluded that a business plan is a detailed specification of the final most
“feasible” development option / project identified by the preceding Feasibility Study.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART I

2 CONTEXT

2.1 Legal Context

The Water Services Act, Act 108 of 1997, specifies :

• The right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation (item 2a of the Act,
Chapter 1).
• Norms & standards for tariffs (item 2b of the Act , Chapter 1).
• Water Service Development Plans to be prepared and adopted by Water Service
Authorities (item 2c of the Act , Chapter 1).
• A regulation framework for Water Service Institutions (item 2d of the Act , Chapter
1).
• Monitoring of Water Services and intervention by the Minister or relevant Province
(item 2f of the Act, Chapter 1).
• Financial Assistance to Water Service Institutions (item 2g of the Act, Chapter 1).
• Gathering of information into a national database (item 2h of the Act , Chapter 1).
• Accountability of Water Service Providers (item 2i of the Act , Chapter 1).
• The promotion of effective water resource management and conservation (item 2j of
the Act , Chapter 1).

These are common elements of a “Feasibility Study” or Business Evaluation. To this end
a Water Services Feasibility Study must address issues demanded by this law. A Water
Services Feasibility Study will therefore assist the local authorities to assure that
projects commence and stay within the law, i.e. the Water Services Act, Act 108 of 1997.

2.2 Monitoring & Evaluation

According to the Act, i.e. Act 108 of 1997, Water Services must be monitored by the
Minister or relevant Province. This Act also allows for intervention and “regulation” as
and when required.

A Water Services Feasibility Study will proactively investigate the potential risks, possible
deviations and likely causes of failure, thereby assisting DWAF to undertake objective
monitoring and evaluation of project performance and recommending constructive and
appropriate mitigation action.

The Feasibility Study therefore sets the baseline for monitoring of projects and provides
critical input into the multi-annual development plan of the WSDP.

2.3 Regulation

Should it be found that the project deviates negatively from the agreed IDP / WSDP, the Minister
or relevant Province will be informed by the Feasibility Study how to intervene to initiate the
most suited deviation plan or mitigation actions.

The Feasibility Study will also assist the Minister to intervene pro-actively based on the
demonstration of risks and deviation analysis. As such, Water Services Feasibility Studies will
also assist in the regulation of Water Service institutions in compliance with the Water Services
Act.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART I

2.4 Cooperative Governance

Cooperative governance is a prerequisite for integrated planning and for sustainable service
delivery. It is therefore important that the Business Evaluation Process helps to facilitate
stakeholder input and interaction between government departments and governance spheres.

Key elements to achieve cooperative governance include :


§ Obtain buy-in from stakeholders
§ Agree on a common Business Evaluation Process between sectors and sectoral plans
§ Align actions and responsibilities between role players
§ Share information and transfer knowledge

2.5 Strategic Compliance

Feasibility of water services projects must be evaluated within the strategic framework of the IDP
(Integrated Development Plan) and the development objectives of the WSDP (Water Services
Development Plan) of the local and district municipality area in which they reside.

Strategic direction for water services feasibility study is also derived from Regional Strategic
Development Plans, Catchment Management Plans and other spatial development programs.

3 LEVEL OF DETAIL

The level of detail and the level of complexity of a feasibility study vary between small and large projects
(e.g. hand pump scheme versus regional bulk scheme) and from situation to situation considering the
specific circumstances and driving forces of the project area.

It is impossible to give fixed standards for the preparation of a feasibility study. Instead, minimum
requirements and a guiding process must be made available to direct planners and decision-makers to the
most appropriate feasibility evaluations for the problem and the type of solutions under consideration.

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PART II
Principles and Elements of a Feasibility Study
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies
PART II

Part II : Principles and Elements of a Feasibility Study

This section provides a summary description of :


§ the principles of a feasibility study
§ the elements of a feasibility study
§ the feasibility within a project life cycle
§ the key feasibility checks
§ service level scenario planning

Each is described by a diagram showing key linkages and relationships.

The detail processes and minimum standards are described in subsequent parts of this
document.

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PRINCIPLES OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY

WHAT IS A services infrastructure that provides factors causing or influencing the


FEASIBILITY basic services to all citizens of the needs.
country.
STUDY ?
TO GIVE GUIDANCE
The long-term operation,
ABOUT THE “PICTURE” Presently planners and consultants
maintenance and replacement
are following there own approach
The arrow shows the purpose of a cannot be funded by Government
when conducting a feasibility study.
Feasibility study – starting from a and it is essential that these
NEED and ending with the most schemes become viable entities that
This Guide aims to provide guidance
suited SOLUTION. are managed like businesses.
HOW to conduct a feasibility study
and to what level of detail.
The central aim is to plan a
BUISINESS that will provide non-stop A FEASIBILITY STUDY IS
CREATE ENABLING
Water Services on a sustainable A METHOD TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENT & PLANNING
basis. SUITABLE SOLUTIONS CULTURE
FOR A PROBLEM OR NEED
Some of the KEY PRINCIPLES are The Guide will also aim to inform and
listed along the arrow and are capacitate stakeholders so as to
discussed briefly in the next create a environment and culture of
SUPPORT effective planning.
paragraphs.
To improve the feasibility of water
BASIC SERVICES NEEDS services businesses in poverty areas, BUILD CAPACITY
Government has recently introduced Local Government is receiving the
There are currently still more than 9
subsidized FREE BASIC WATER. full responsibility for service provision
million people who do not have
access to basic water supply and up and needs to be capacitated.
This must be considered in a
to 19 million without basic sanitation
feasibility study as well as other
facilities. INTEGRATED APPROACH
cross-subsidization methods using a
block tariff structure. Feasibility studies are a Key Tool in
This is due to a lack of infrastructure the integrated development planning
as well as inadequate operation and process (IDP and WSDP).-
FACTORS AFFECTING
maintenance capacity.
To resolve these needs we need to
TO PLAN A BUSINESS look at the problem holistically and
consider the social, economic, To Plan is to Know
Government capital grants are
institutional, financial and physical
interim measures to establish water

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ELEMENTS OF WATER SERVICES

A Feasibility Study must therefore MANAGEMENT


ABOUT THE “DIAGRAM” investigate a number of service level
Infrastructure has to be operated and
mixes.
All starts & ends with the Customer. This managed to deliver the water services.
includes domestic water use and other Many of the existing rural schemes lack
water users. the management capacity to run the
WHAT MAKES water services schemes.
The feasibility of water service provision is WATER SERVICES
not dependent on infrastructure only - The Feasibility Study must therefore
There are many other aspects to be FEASIBLE ? investigate present management capacity
considered. The following paragraphs and consider training programs to make a
introduce them briefly: scheme feasible in the long term.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
CUSTOMERS & OTHER WATER USERS INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES
The NEEDS and aspirations of consumers Water can play a major role in economic & RESOURCES
as well as their capability to pay for higher development. In many instances a Many of the institutional structures of
levels of services are key to the feasibility scheme may become more feasible if it water services are changing. Local
of a scheme. also addresses other users such as Authorities are increasingly assuming the
industry who can afford to cross-subsidize full responsibilities and require support &
the low-end users. training to become feasible.

The other users are tariff payers but FINANCE


generally also create jobs and income for Any business must have a proper financial
households who in turn can afford and pay system that manages income and
for their domestic water use. expenses so as to achieve profit.

WATER SERVICES INFRASTRUCTURE A loss will mean that the business may be
Water services provision is in itself a cycle closed down. A Feasibility Study must
starting from the water resource, water investigate financing and cashflow risks to
Remember that individual households in a ensure that the business survives.
treatment, bulk distribution storage and
community may have varying ambitions reticulation to users. The users in turn
and mostly have a range of income generate grey-water and sewage which LEGAL COMPLIANCE
profiles and affordability levels. needs to be treated before water is returns It is now a legal requirement to provide
as effluent to the resources and Free Basic Water. This and many other
legislation needs to considered to ensure

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that the services comply to approved
industry norms & standards.

FEASIBILITY CHECKS (SECTION 4)

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PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

THE FEASIBILITY STUDY GENERATES A BUSINESS PLAN !


ABOUT THE “DIAGRAM” The Feasibility Study is the most important tool supporting
The business cycle starts with an application or identification of decision-making in the WSDP/IDP process. Not only is
need and goes through a screening process involving the IDP sustainable services considered already at the planning stage but
and WSDP processes before resulting in the launch of a is the output of the feasibility study a specification for long term
Feasibility Study. The results of the Feasibility Study are sustainable services and satisfied customers.
business specifications (business plan) as well as suitable
delivery mechanisms (Implementation Plan) and a operational PROJECT SELECTION
plan and monitoring / regulating system. The potential project list is a combination of all the recommendations
from feasibility studies within a common geographic area.
APPLICATION BY COMMU NITY
A Problem or Need for development can be identified by various Project Selection can only take place with the information provided
stakeholders. In many instances it originates from a complaint by the Feasibility Study.
by communities, but can also be identified during integrated
development planning. BUSINESS PLAN
Following selection, the information of the Feasibility Study is
used to write the detailed business specifications for the business
The WSDP is the vehicle and consultation plan.
platform where Feasibility Studies are
initiated and where the proposed projects IMPLIMENTATION PLAN
resulting from the Feasibility Study are The implementation plan is in essence the recommended
selected and initiated for implementation delivery mechanism, institutional arrangements and
management actions recommended by the Feasibility Study.

SCREENING PROCESS INVOLVING IDP & WSDP OPERATIONAL PLAN


The operational plan is the plan that stipulates in detail the resources,
The application is first evaluated against the overall development
administration , finances and other input to optimally operate and
strategies and priorities of the IDP and WSDP. If the application
maintain water services on the long term. This plan need to take into
is outside the IDP and therefore outside the WSDP’s, such an
account the effect of future developments and as far as possible
application should be referred back to the IDP process for future
anticipated changes and outside influences/forces.
consideration or exclusion. However should the need/
requirement be part of the WSDP, then such a need or
requirement should be nominated for a feasibility study.

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KEY FEASIBILITY EVALUATION CHECKS

ABOUT THE DIAGRAM LEGITIMACY OPERATIONAL CHECKS


This diagram essentially shows the importance Is the identified solution legitimate? Is Can the solution be successfully operated? This
of feasibility checks in acquiring the best every aspect of this solution within the must consider logistics, staffing, maintenance
solution. Feasibility checks start once a law? Matters such as Water rights should and cost recovery.
solution is identified and ends with the be considered.
recommendation of the best solution.
THE KEY FEASIBILITY
ACCEPTABILITY CHECKS ARE :
SITUATION ASSESSMENT
It is important to check whether the
The situation assessment takes stock of the identified solution is acceptable to the end
current state of affairs. This is essential in the users / local government and other ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
whole problem definition process and will also stakeholders. Have environmental aspects been considered?
form the baseline or datum for measuring the
An Environmental Impact Assessment may be
success of possible solutions.
required. Consider also the reserve flow to
RESOURCE AVAILABILITY & maintain ecological use and diversity.
GAP ANALYSIS SUITABILITY
The Gap is the difference between improved It is necessary to compare groundwater to INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY
water services (future scenario) and the current surface water options & to investigate
status. The Gap is influenced by the level of potential use of existing bulk supply in the Does the necessary Institutional capacity exist? If
services. area. The water quality of each source not, what is required and by when? The aspect of
must be suitable for the user training should be investigated and quantified.
requirements. What is the availability and need for institutional
IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS infrastructure (e.g. buildings,)?
Possible solutions are linked inevitably to the
level of service. It is therefore evident that TECHNICAL SUITABILITY
three or more solutions can be identified to & SOCIAL CHECKS
Is the solution technically sound.
satisfy the need(s): Cognizance should be taken of all Have the social aspects been considered ? (e.g.
- Basic Services technical aspects, such as the availability you may need to relocate a church or graveyard)
- Realistic / possible of electricity, the need for pumping,
- Aspired / dream access to spare-parts, skills required
These solutions must effectively bridge the COSTS & FINANCIAL VIABILITY
GAP(s). If this is not the case, the solutions Did you check the solution for cost recovery. Is
need to be adjusted. IMPLEMENTABLE /EXECUTABLE your recommended cost recovery within current
Implementation of the option(s) may be policy? Will the infrastructure and systems
IDENTIFY FUNDING OPTIONS & very cumbersome and costly. Access to support/promote cost recovery?
PAYMENT MECHANISMS very remote rural areas might be such
that a “good” solution might no longer be
Finance is the backbone of any business. If SUSTAINABILITY
considered.
you don’t cover your cost with income and/or This question combines all of the above to
subsidization, such solutions are doomed from conclude long-term operation of the solution. Is
the word go. It is therefore very important to there anything that can threaten sustainability?
identify funding options and payment And how can this be prevented?
mechanisms for every identified solution.

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SERVICE LEVEL SCENARIO PLANNING

WHAT LEVEL OF SERVICE BASIC SERVICES – SCENARIO This will show the way to the best
IS FEASIBLE ? Basic services is the minimum solution and for that matter determine
services that the government the realistic service level.
Each household has it’s own is prepared to establish. That
aspirations on services. However, is Basic Water and Basic PLAN FOR UPGRADABILITY ?
when considering what service level Sanitation. It is important to remember that all
will be feasible, one need to change with time and that
consider all the aspects in the upgrading of services might be an
feasibility evaluation process. TO SERVE option for the future. It is therefore
INDIVIDUAL important to realistically plan for
upgrading.
HOUSEHOLD NEEDS
ABOUT THE “DIAGRAM”
This diagram gives an indication on
ARE MIXED LEVELS OF SERVICE
A MIXED LEVEL OF FEASIBLE ?
the relationship between the
service levels and the water SERVICES Some Communities have enough
services business. The three APPROACH IS diversity within them to warrant
coloured arrows represent the three mixed level of services. For example
NEEDED
different service level scenarios: a certain portion of the community
can afford a higher level of service
• BASIC and expect services to cater for
WHAT THE PEOPLE WANT ? them. This whole issue of mixed
• REALISTIC It is important to determine what levels of service need to be
level of service the people want determined and agreed before
• ASPIRED or aspire. This will help to embarking on “mixed “service levels
determine the Gap in the Gap to avoid problems such as abuse of
It is clear from this picture that all analysis. the system, illegal connections, non
the elements in the feasibility study payment for services and ultimately
are directly influenced by the REALISTIC SERVICE LEVELS unhappy customers.
service levels.
To change from present to future
aspired, it is important to take all
the feasibility checks into account.

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PART III
Feasibility Study Linkages to other Planning Activities
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

Part III : Feasibility Study Linkages to other Planning Activities

Contents List of Part III : Feasibility Study Linkages to other Planning Activities

1 OVERALL PLANNING STRUCTURE.............................................................................................2


2 OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS...................................................................................................4
2.1 Integrated Development Planning Process - IDP ..........................................................................5
2.1.1 Mission of the IDP..............................................................................................................5
2.1.2 Sectoral Development Plans ................................................................................................5
2.1.3 Integrated Development Strategy .........................................................................................6
2.2 Water Services Development Plan - WSDP .................................................................................6
2.2.1 Elements Of a Water Services Development Plan .................................................................6
2.2.2 Institutional Roles...............................................................................................................6
2.2.3 Linkage between WSDP and the Feasibility Study ................................................................7
3 FEASIBILITY STUDY IN THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE ..................................................................8

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

A Feasibility Study is a critical building block in the overall Planning Structure and Planning Cycle.
The following diagrams show where the Feasibility Study fits.

1 OVERALL PLANNING STRUCTURE

National Government Objectives (Cabinet MTO’s)

National Water Sector Strategy

Regional and Sub-regional Strategic Plans

District Municipality level Reference Framework

Checking compliance of WSDP


against the Reference System

District Municipality WSDP / IDP

Local Municipality WSDP / IDP

Implementation Business Plan

Feasibility Study

Situation Assessment & Development Objectives

The overall planning structure has a Top-Down and a Bottom-Up approach, which meet at the
District / Area Planning level.

Top-Down Activities :

§ National Government (Cabinet) has set medium term development objectives for the country, which
have to be followed by all spheres and departments of government.

§ The Water Sector incorporates the national objectives into its Sector Strategy and sets specific goals
and priorities. A National Reference Framework is compiled by DWAF to regulate the sector
activities and monitor performance.

§ Water Services Strategic Plans are developed at Regional (Provincial) and Sub-Regional levels
(e.g. planning area, river catchment area, development nodes)

§ District Level Reference Information is derived from the National Reference Framework to set
development objectives for the development of WSDP’s and to evaluate WSDP submissions.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

Bottom-Up Activities :

§ The development needs at grass-root (population, household and community) levels are identified
through situation assessments and community requests. Such situation assessments form part of case
studies, feasibility studies and the WSDP /IDP development process.

§ Feasibility studies investigate the development need (problem) and find suitable solutions to achieve
the development goals (derived from the WSDP).

§ The best-suited solutions are formulated into Implementation Business Plans for approval within the
project selection process.

§ The approved list of projects is included in the WSDP and submitted for comparison to the District
level Reference Framework.

Compliance Check:

One of the key planning checks takes place at the district / area planning level when a WSDP is submitted for
national approval to the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.

The information contained in the WSDP, including the project list derived from feasibility studies, is
compared to the reference data contained in the District and National Reference Framework and the
development strategies of Regional and Catchment Management Plans.

If required by the auditing process, the detailed information from the Feasibility Study must be available to
proof that proposed development projects are feasible and sustainable. It constitutes on of the key regulatory
functions.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

2 OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS

A Feasibility Study is a tool to identify suitable projects for the development objectives listed in the WSDP
and IDP. The following diagram shows the linkages between these planning elements.

A Feasibility Study is an essential planning tool within the overall planning process. The linkages to the main
planning processes is illustrated above and can be described in the following 4 stages :

1. The overall development vision, mission and goals are described in the IDP

2. The WSDP translates the IDP goals into Water Sector specific goals and objectives.
These are compared to the current situation to define the development GAP for each of the WSDP
themes.

3. The feasibility study finds practical solutions to each of the development gaps and defines a suitable
project(s) to address the GAP (need)

4. The proposed projects are listed in the WSDP and consolidated with related projects in other sectoral
plans to update the integrated development strategies in the IDP, which will set the goals and
objectives for the next planning cycle.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

2.1 Integrated Development Planning Process - IDP

2.1.1 Mission of the IDP

The main aim of the IDP is to integrate, clarify, build capacity and facilitate communication between
all the sectors in the IDP to assure :

a) One integrated Deve lopment Plan.


b) Harmony in planning between the different sectors (Housing, Transport, Water, etc).
c) No conflict of interests / oversights / duplications between the different sectors.
d) Holistic approach.

Each Area should come up with its own Vision and Mission for that area.

(WSDP, Supplementary Guidelines for municipalities, Jul 1999).

Process to
prepare
WSDP
Service
Afforda- Levels
bility Water
WSDP balance
IDP
Vision Plans to Finances Water
and Actualise source and
quality
Mission IDP Vision
and Mission. Institutio
nal and Water
Managem Service
ent s
Demand
Management

2.1.2 Sectoral Development Plans

Several sectoral plans form part /underlie the IDP. They all work toward the same overall goal.
They typically include the following sectors :

a) Water Services
b) Transport
c) Health
d) Housing
e) Electricity
f) Communications

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

g) Agriculture
h) Industry
i) Etc.

This manual addresses the Feasibility Study of the Water Services Sector. The process is however,
generic to some extent and could be adopted by other sectors.

2.1.3 Integrated Development Strategy

The Integrated Development Strategy is the part of the IDP, which describes coordinated means of
achieving the objectives for service provision by local government. It deals with social, economic,
institutional, financial, technical and environmental issues associated with service provision by local
authority / municipality (WRC, 1998:2-4).

It is also a single planning process at local government level, which integrates sectoral requirements
into an umbrella IDP. (WSDP, Supplementary Guidelines for municipalities, Jul 1999).

Once the Vision and Mission have been defined in the IDP, there need to be specific plans to actualise
this, which is where, in terms of water services, the WSDP is relevant. (WSDP, Supplementary
Guidelines for municipalities, Jul 1999).

2.2 Water Services Development Plan - WSDP


2.2.1 Elements Of a Water Services Development Plan

This is a plan describing the development status and development actions (5 year plan) of water
services within a local authority area. It includes both the present and future situation, and thereby
defines the GAP that needs to be bridged by development projects. The main elements of a WSDP
are:

a) Drafting Team
b) Customer Profile
c) Elements (Present vs Future):

§ Service Levels
§ Water Balance
§ Water Source & Quality
§ Water Services Infrastructure
§ Demand Management
§ Institutional & Management
§ Finance
§ Affordability.

(WSDP, Supplementary Guidelines for municipalities, Jul 1999).

2.2.2 Institutional Roles

The Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997; Chapter 3 Section 12, 14, 15 and 16) specifies that each
water service authority (local and/or district municipality) must prepare a draft WSDP as part of the

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

IDP process. The IDP process is a consultative process and must involve a variety of stakeholders in
the compilation of a WSDP.

2.2.3 Linkage between WSDP and the Feasibility Study

The Water Services Feasibility Study is a process to assure that only sustainable water services
development projects are contained in the WSDP. It essentially links the required data, on-going
planning processes and critical involvement processes to enable effective feasibility evaluation and
establishment of sustainable projects.

The process can also be conducted independent of the WSDP and IDP and be a stand-alone report.

But since the development environment is continuously changing, it forms an essential element in the
8-shaped process, which continuously reviews the strategic plan, the remaining development gap and
possible solutions to find the priority projects for the time being. (see 8-shaped process on the
process diagram)

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

3 FEASIBILITY STUDY IN THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

A Feasibility Study must investigate the full project life cycle to ensure that the project is
sustainable and successful in all its phases.

The following diagram illustrates the project life cycle starting at step (a) and ending at step
(I). Step (d) is the Feasibility Study Process, which is in more presented in more detail in
Part IV of this document. Enlarged copies of both diagrams are included in the appendices.

Step (a) to (i ) are briefly described below :

a) Application: An application for water services is lodged by a Local Community or Local


Authority.

b) The Area Planning Forum reviews the validity of the application in consultation of all
stakeholders and by means of a 1st -order comparison to the integrated development
strategies for the area. The application is returned to the applicant if there are
fundamental shortcomings and if the proposal is not viable from the onset.

c) Provisional Screening of the likely project extent, the project size (cost), the complexity
and the required level of detail, will help to identify the appropriate scenarios and the
definite exclusions for the Feasibility Study Process. This will include the provisional
inclusion or exclusion of the basic, realistic and aspired scenarios.

d) This initiates the detailed Feasibility Study that is described in this guide. (See Diagram
: Project Life Cycle2). The “Feasibility Study Business Plan” need to be submitted to
secure funding for the Feasibility itself, before the feasibility study commences.

e) The feasibility Study will be assessed according to an assessment framework. The


findings of the feasibility study and the selected projects are then submitted for

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART III

Approval. If not approved, the Feasibility Study is returned for adjustment and
subsequent re-submission or termination.

f) If approved, a Project Business Plan must be compiled, summarising the selected


projects, describing the implementation plan and confirming that the projects are viable
and sustainable. The Project Business Plan is again submitted for Approval.

g) The approved Project can now be implemented. The Water Services Authority and / or
DWAF will monitor the implementation of the proposed project(s) to ensure that the
targeted viability and sustainability is achieved.

h) The Department of Water Affairs & Forestry has a regulation function to ensure that
Water Services are sustainable.

i) Sustainable Water Services is the ultimate goal of the planning cycle and is the subject
of regulation by DWAF. Mitigating and corrective measures can be identified and fed into
step (a) or (b) for consideration in the next planning cycle.

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PART IV
Macro process of a Feasibility Study
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART IV

Part IV : Macro Process of a Feasibility Study

Contents List of Part IV : Macro Process of a Feasibility Study

1 FEASIBILITY STUDY PROCESS....................................................................................................2


2 CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY......................................................................4
3 TYPICAL SEQUENCE OF FEASIBILITY STUDY ELEMENTS (see diagram) ..................................4
3.1 Status Quo.................................................................................................................................4
3.1.1 General Information............................................................................................................4
3.1.2 Set Evaluation Scenarios and Screen for definite Exclusions .....................................................5
3.1.3 Situation Assessment – Confirm & Update ...........................................................................5
3.2 GAP Analysis............................................................................................................................6
3.2.1 Goals & Objectives.............................................................................................................7
3.2.2 Gap Definition....................................................................................................................7
3.2.3 Adjust GAP against Strategy ...............................................................................................7
3.2.4 Refine GAP to ongoing actions............................................................................................7
3.3 IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS.........................................................................................7
3.3.1 Potential Solution ...............................................................................................................7
3.3.2 Provision of Free Basic Water.............................................................................................8
3.3.3 Delivery Mechanisms .........................................................................................................8
3.4 EVALUATE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS...................................................................................9
3.4.1 Evaluate Water Resources.......................................................................................................9
3.4.2 Evaluate Technical Suitability & Compatibility ......................................................................10
3.4.3 Evaluate Operating and Maintenance Requirements............................................................10
3.4.4 Evaluate the Institutional & HR Requirements and Availability ...........................................10
3.4.5 Evaluate Social Acceptability, Affordability & Customer Requirements...............................11
3.4.6 Compliance to Environmental Issues..................................................................................11
3.4.7 Evaluate Life-cycle Costing, Cost Benefit & Financial Viability..........................................11
3.4.8 Risk Analysis & Potential Deviation Plan...........................................................................12
3.5 SELECT PROJECT & DEFINE MULTI-ANNUAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN......................13
3.5.1 Prioritisation & Selection Of Projects.................................................................................13
3.5.2 Project Definition, Phasing, Cash flow & Funding Plan.......................................................13
3.5.3 Assign / Agree Responsibilities between Role Players.........................................................14
4 ALIGNMENT OF PROJECTS BETWEEN SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND
INTEGRATION INTO THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN ....................................................14
5 NATIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEM ..............................................................................................14

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART IV

1 FEASIBILITY STUDY PROCESS

A Feasibility Study process comprises 5 critical steps :

1. Data gathering and situation assessment


2. Scenario planning and GAP analysis
3. Identification and conceptualisation of possible solutions
4. Viability and sustainability evaluation of potential solutions
5. Selection of suitable projects and definition of multi-annual implementation plan

While each step is essential, the emphasis of a Water Services Feasibility Study lies with step 4
the “viability and sustainability evaluation”.

To achieve this focus, the process must make use of existing information where possible and
link to existing planning processes where they exist :

§ Data, norms and standards can be sourced from the National Reference System and
could be made available through an electronic link to save effort and prevent possible
duplication
§ A recent situation assessment can be sourced from the WSDP, but should be critically
assessed and updated to determine the current development GAP
§ Area planning forums and inter-departmental liaison committees can be used to consult
stakeholders for the identification of possible solutions. Lists of possible projects may
already have been compiled, but should be reviewed critically and must be extended to
ensure that all possibilities are considered
§ Where suitable tools or models exist for the evaluation of the potential solutions, these
should be utilised to promote efficiency and standardisation

Since the Feasibility Study method may differ significantly between project types, project sizes
and project elements, these methods are not embedded in the process, but rather external links
to a variety of existing tools and models that have proven use and reliability.

This process will, through information and planning, assure that the Water Services Business
has the highest percentage of chance to succeed, on the long run. The aim is to take remedial
measures already at the planning stage to avoid a non–sustainable situation beyond project
implementation. The Act (Act 108 of 1997, item 9(1)c of the Act , Chapter 2) in fact prescribes
sustainable and effective water services.

The diagram on the following page illustrates the Feasibility Study Process and how it relates
to the IDP, WSDP, NIS and other supporting tools. An A3 fold-out of the process diagram is
included in Appendix B. The typical steps in the process are numbered from 1 to 5 and are
briefly described in sections after the diagram.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART IV

NEED

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART IV

2 CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY


The critical elements of a Feasibility Study (business evaluation) process include :

§ Status quo or situation assessment


§ Scenario planning and GAP analysis
§ Identification and conceptualisation of possible solutions
§ Viability and sustainability evaluation of potential solutions
§ Selection of suitable projects and definition of multi-annual implementation plan

The following sections describe each step of the Feasibility Study Process as indicated by A
to U on the process diagram.

3 TYPICAL SEQUENCE OF FEASIBILITY STUDY ELEMENTS (SEE DIAGRAM)

3.1 Status Quo

In order to determine a baseline and starting point for the process, it is important to place
the identified need / goal or requirement in to perspective by first establishing the status quo
or current state of affairs. This is also the start to progressive improvement towards
excellence.

Similarly, the Department of Water Affairs & Forestry identified and recognised the need to
improve CWSS Programme Management (Capital Expenditure). For this purpose the
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry introduced a Project & Programme Management
Business Processes and Procedures to improve implementation of Capital projects. It was
identified in this document that project “base lining” / a “well defined starting point” and
“fundamental” is to good project management. (Ref DWAF manual : Business Processes
and Procedures – Project & Programme Management, May 2000).
A
3.1.1 General Information

As above, it is important to compile the basic / general information regarding any need / requirement /
goal as per the relevant WSDP. This will normally consist of basic documentation such as:

a) A suitable map depicting the study area, with :


§ water services infrastructure
§ supporting infrastructure
§ land use, topography
§ villages / settlements (polygons)
§ water sources
§ strategic development ring fencing
§ etc.

b) Reference data and contact details such as :


§ Name of study
§ Water Service Authority
§ Organisation conducting the Feasibility Study

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART IV

§ Contact person and address


§ Date
§ Reference number, etc.

B
3.1.2 Set Evaluation Scenarios and Screen for definite Exclusions

It is important that an accurate scope of work is defined for the Feasibility Study.

A screening process must review all conditions that may affect the level of detail of the
Feasibility Study Process.

The following aspects need to be considered in the screening :


§ The likely project extent (geographic area)
§ The anticipated project size (projected cost range)
§ The expected complexity of the projects
§ The critical subjects / themes to be considered
§ The required level of detail
§ etc.

Based on the provisional assessment of the above considerations, it may be possible to :


§ Identify definite exclusions of steps in the Feasibility Study process
§ Identify which of the basic, realistic and aspired scenarios have to be included
§ Identify suitable tools to assist with the Feasibility Study level of detail.

This will set the scene and the criteria for continuation of the 8-shaped Feasibility Study
Process.

C
3.1.3 Situation Assessment – Confirm & Update

As before, this defines the point of departure. Firstly, information need to be gathered to
determine:

a) Existing / available Water Sources.


b) Existing Water Quality.
c) Existing Infrastructure.
d) Existing supporting infrastructure such as roads, retail centres, service areas, etc.
e) Existing / available disposal of treated effluent.
f) Current legal aspects, e.g. abstraction permits, water registration, etc.
g) Existing Customer profile:
i) Service Levels.
ii) Needs, albeit potable water or associated water needs, sanitation, etc.
h) Existing Water Balance.
i) External Forces – Clusters & Corridors.
j) Economic development – Micro & Macro.
k) Social Situation – Micro (people, observed characteristics) and macro (provincial
views etc)
l) Present environmental situation.
m) Present management situation albeit, Functional, Business, Institutional, Financial,
Demand, etc.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART IV

Once this is known the starting point or baseline should be well defined. There should also be a link
established to the NIS to compare the present situation with reference data and to confirm the
reliability and accuracy of available data.

Where a WSDP has been compiled, such information can be sources from it and reviewed to the
current situation.

3.2 GAP Analysis

By setting the Goals & Objectives and comparing these to the Status the development GAP can be
determined.

Existing Goals for the


GAP
Situation Future

To bridge the GAP, suitable solutions and projects must be identified. If more than one Goal is set,
the Gap will differ for each and alternative solutions need to be found.

In most water services situations, three (3) scenarios and hence three (3) different sets of goals and
objectives and hence three GAPs need to be defined. They are:

Goals for Basic Scenario


GAP 1 “Free Water” Scenario

Existing Goals for Realistic Scenario


GAP 2
Situation ”Perceived to be achievable”

Goals for Aspired Scenario


GAP 3
“What people want / dream”

This is part of the normal WSDP process as required by law (Act 108 of 1997, Chapter 3, item 14 to
18) - WSDP’s are updated annually and are projected 5 years ahead.

From this point onwards, goals and objectives are considered within the three (3) scenarios, Basic
(free water), Realistic (Achievable Within Constraints), Aspired (dream).

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART IV

3.2.1 Goals & Objectives

Goals & objectives are mainly influenced by :

a) The planning period – short, medium or long term.


b) Scenarios under consideration – Basic, Realistic, Aspired.
c) Customer.
d) Associated needs (schools, agriculture, animals, health, environment, mining, etc)
e) Service levels.
f) Water balance.
g) Water source & quality
h) Infrastructure
i) Management - Functional, Business, Institutional, Financial, Demand, etc.
j) Finance.
k) Affordability.
l) Social Issues.
m) Environmental issues.
n) Legal aspects & requirements (e.g. water permits).
o) Health (e.g. Cholera, pollution, etc)
p) Security (e.g. vandalism)

E
3.2.2 Gap Definition

The GAP is the difference between the Current status and the future scenario. This again is done for
three scenarios, i.e. Basic, Realistic and Aspired. It is important to note that this GAP is defined in
terms of existing norms, policy, standards and criteria as part of a National Reference System.

F
3.2.3 Adjust GAP against Strategy

Strategies vary from area to area as part of the integrated planning process. It is therefor important to
make use of this opportunity to enforce area strategies by adjusting the GAP for the three (3)
scenario. For example Water Quality in the Northern Cape might have a much higher priority than in
other provinces with regard to strategies. In this instance an adjustment may be required to the GAP
since all available water might not be acceptable for human consumption.

3.2.4 Refine GAP to ongoing actions G


Since Water Service Development Plans are implemented on a recurrent, annual basis, it might very
well be that certain ongoing actions influence the GAP. It is therefor very important to deduct / add /
change / incorporate such actions to / from / in the GAP(s.

3.3 IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

The aim is to derive at least three (3) possible scenarios (Basic, Realistic, Aspired). For
each scenario there may be more than one possible solution to address the gap / shortfall /
problems identified above.
H
3.3.1 Potential Solution

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Three possible solutions should be defined by taking all information, knowledge and ongoing
actions into account, for:

a) Solution on the Basic water scenario.


b) Solution on the Realistic need scenario.
c) Solution on the Aspirated need scenario.

These three solutions should be quantified in terms of:

a) Water Services Life Cycle Duration.


b) Project Cost.
c) Related cost – Institutional, social, management, O & M, etc.
d) Cash Flow.
e) Deliverables.
f) Implementation Requirements.
g) Success goals in satisfying the Need / Requirement.
h) Pros & Cons.
i) Spin-offs.
j) Etc.

3.3.2 Provision of Free Basic Water I

One of the main objects of the Act (Act 108 of 1997) is to provide for the right of access to basic
water supply and sanitation. To this end, it is very important that the aspect of “Free Water” be tested
against the three (3) derived solutions, to assess the implication for the provision of “Free Water”. As
before, it need to be noted that the Basic Water Scenario is intended to cater for the “Free Water
Scenario”.

“Free Water / Basic Water” is presently defined as 6 kilolitre per month and is
generally only available to the indigent households.

3.3.3 Delivery Mechanisms J

Now that the possibly solutions (what) has been determined, the question is who will do it and how
will it be done?

Delivery Mechanisms are the VEHICLES to reach the destination. They describe the
practicality of implementing the possible solutions. Several Delivery Mechanisms are
available and could include BoTT, PPP, concessions, community projects etc.

To determine the possible delivery mechanisms the following questions could be asked :

• Who is going to do it?


• How is it going to be done?
• What is involved?
• Who else is involved?
• How much does it cost?
• How long will it take?

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The objective of Delivery Mechanisms is to facilitate the implementation of the proposed


solutions. The possible delivery mechanisms will typically be measured against the
following criteria :

i) The Implementation and Delivery is cost effective.


ii) The Delivery Mechanism chosen is in place when required.
iii) The Delivery Mechanisms will assist in helping the Water Services Business to be
sustainable.
iv) Adequate capacity exist.
v) Social and Institutional issues are in place to allow the Delivery Mechanism(s).
vi) The Delivery Mechanism is not in conflict with other sectors, or area strategies, area
policies, et.
vii) The Delivery Mechanism chosen is legal.
viii) Someone is responsible, acceptable and capable to assure delivery.

3.4 EVALUATE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS

Thus far, the possible solutions (for Basic, Realistic and Aspired scenarios) have only been
checked against the available strategic plans and stakeholder opinion. However, several
other factors influence the sustainability, viability and achievability of the possible solutions.

Some can be evaluated using existing “Tools”, while others will rely on expert advise from
specialists. Where standard tools are not available or not suited for the analysis, acceptable
proof must be submitted that all the sustainability criteria were thoroughly considered.

The type of tool used and the level of detail to be provided as proof will obviously differ
according to the type, extent and size of the project under investigation.

3.4.1 Evaluate Water Resources K

a) Water Resources Capacity:

i) Is adequate water available from water sources?


• Surface Water
• Ground Water
• Water from outside bulk water supplier
ii) Are all other consumers considered?
iii) What is the effect of “Free Water”.
iv) etc.

b) Water Resource Quality:

§ What is the water quality and environmental status of the water resources ?
§ What are the agreed water quality objectives for the water resources ?
§ Is water quality compliant to the water quality requirements of users ?
§ How will the water quality be affected by the new use and/or return flows ?
§ etc.

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c) Water Resource Protection & Management:

i) Is the water resources protected against over exploitation?


ii) Is water quality managed within agreed user requirements and resource status ?
iii) Is catchment management exercised satisfactorily?

In essence, how will the chosen solutions be affected by the above? Make a reasonable assessment
based on available information, reasonably projected.

L
3.4.2 Evaluate Technical Suitability & Compatibility

If the solutions do not display reasonable technical suitability & compatibility with the specific set of
circumstances, then these solutions should be reconsidered.

§ Technology must be appropriate to the area (e.g. High-Tech versus Low-tech)


§ The existing infrastructure should be considered in conjunction with chosen solutions.
§ Can the existing infrastructure deliver what is required by the proposed solutions.
§ Is supporting infrastructure in acceptable order.
§ Other factors such as corrosiveness of raw water / soft water
§ Will the solution support cost recovery? (etc, prepaid meters)
§ Consider physical aspects and implications
§ Topography (pressure management)
§ Geology (excavatability)
§ Transport (access to site; access to support services)
§ etc.

Adequate proof, to satisfy DWAF / WSA, must be submitted with the Feasibility Study confirming
that Technical Issues were taken into account.

3.4.3 Evaluate Operating and Maintenance Requirements M

Solutions should conform to what the Operations & Maintenance requirements are and to what O&M
capacity the relevant project area can offer. Typical operations and maintenance criteria include :
§ Is adequate technical expertise available?
§ Is technical training required?
§ Is the communication system in place to support O&M ?
§ Is adequate technical management in place?
§ Is there access to support services and spare-parts ?
§ a management system in place
§ etc.
N

3.4.4 Evaluate the Institutional & HR Requirements and Availability

Solutions can be technically sound, socially acceptable and affordable, but if the solutions are not
institutionally viable, the solutions will not be administered and hence not sustainable from an

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institutional point of view. For instance cost recovery for house connections or yard connections
cannot be viable if the institutional capacity does not exist to read meters on a monthly basis.

Human resources and skills are critical building blocks of an organisation. The right skills profile
must be found for each solution to ensure that there is capability to operate and manage the water
services. The skills profile must also reflect operational efficiency and productivity in support of
financial viability. Where available, suitable guidance will be given by tools and/or benchmarks to
measure the best-suited human resources and skills profile for each solution.

The availability of human resources is often a problem. A Feasibility Study should therefore include
a skills survey to establish the local availability and to investigate the training potential where suitable
skills are not available.
O
3.4.5 Evaluate Social Acceptability, Affordability & Customer Requirements

Solutions are as good as accepted by the people it aims to serve. If solutions aren’t socially
acceptable, it may end up vandalised, with low cost recovery figures, threatening sustainability of
such water services.

On the other hand, solutions can be socially acceptable, technically sound, but if the people cannot
afford it, the sustainability will again be threatened. The level of service as per the chosen solution
will have a major affect on affordability.

It is of utmost importance that the social and institutional issues are taken into account before
confirming solutions as viable. To this end the Water Services Feasibility Study should acquire
adequate proof of customers willingness to pay, ability to pay and social acceptance of the proposed.

3.4.6 Compliance to Environmental Issues P

Some areas are more environmentally sensitive than others. It is therefor important to assess a
solution’s impact on the environment and furthermore to do environme ntal impact assessments before
deciding on a solution.
Environmental sensitivity may imply that additional requirements have to be met and that costs and
/or time delays affect the proposed solutions. In very sensitive areas, it may imply that no
development may take place.

The Environmental Management Act (??) specifies that all development projects require approval of a
permit before such a project can be implemented. Adequate proof must be given that environmental
impact will be insignificant and that suitable mitigation action has been taken. Subject to the
sensitivity of the area, it may be required that a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is
conducted by an environmental specialist.

Adequate proof must be submitted to satisfy DWAF, DEAD and the WSA that environmental issues
have been taken into account and that the environment will not be affected in such a way that the
solution becomes nonviable.

3.4.7 Evaluate Life-cycle Costing, Cost Benefit & Financial Viability Q

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Realistic costs need to be calculated for each potential solution. At the same time, the revenue and
other spin-offs need to be quantified to establish the net benefit.

It is important to account for all costs including :

§ Capital costs
§ Planning, design, procurement and implementation costs
§ Institutional capacity building & infrastructure costs
§ Social awareness and training costs
§ Life-time operation and maintenance costs
§ Provisions for Free Basic Water
§ Replacement cost of infrastructure
§ Insurances and taxes
§ etc.

Solutions can furthermore be influenced by:

§ Availability of funds (grants, loans, cash)


§ Phasing of budgets and donations
§ Rules of funding / donor organisations
§ Local and regional economic development initiatives
§ etc.

There are various financial evaluation tools available, suited for different levels of detail and purpose.
The Feasibility Study manual will give guidance on appropriate use of these tools. Finally, adequate
proof must be provided to satisfy DWAF / WSA of financial viability.

R
3.4.8 Risk Analysis & Potential Deviation Plan

There may be potential factors and/or events that can affect the viability and sustainability of the
solutions. It is important to consider the risk of such events taking place and to develop possible
deviation plans that can compensate for the risks.

Such a risk assessment will :


§ Identify critical areas
§ Possible causes of deviation
§ Assess the probability of occurrence
§ Assess the seriousness of an occurrence
§ Identify preventative action
§ Identify contingent action to minimize effect
§ etc.

A concise written account must be given on risks and potential deviation plans (“plan B”) for each of
the potential solutions.

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3.5 SELECT PROJECT & DEFINE MULTI-ANNUAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

3.5.1 Prioritisation & Selection Of Projects S

The potential solutions have been evaluated and can now be ranked according to agreed criteria for
final prioritization and selection by decision-makers. It is important that a comprehensive set of criteria
be used that reflect all the sustainability aspects and provide measurable means of prioritising the range
of potential solutions.

The range of potential solutions will include :


• Possible Solution No. 1 : Basic water scenario
• Possible Solution No. 2 : Realistic need scenario
• Possible Solution No. 3 : Aspirated need scenario

Subject to circumstances, only one or a mix of the 3 scenarios and solutions may be considered.

Final prioritization and selection should also consider all the potential spin-offs and side-effects of each
solution. The following may be potential spin-offs for consideration:

i) Job creation
ii) Skills Transfer
iii) Empowerment
iv) Training
v) Standard of living
vi) Health

Decision-makers who have the mandate and objectivity should make the final selection. The process
must however be transparent to and may involve direct participation by all stakeholders.

3.5.2 Project Definition, Phasing, Cash flow & Funding Plan T

Once selected, the potential solution becomes a project and can be defined for implementation. State
the deliverables for each project.

Individual projects become part of a 5-year development program and need to be aligned with other
projects to optimize synergy and phasing.

According to the Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) all water services projects must first be
adopted into the WSDP and officially approved before they can be implemented. Adequate proof must
be shown that the projects are compliant to the overall development strategies of the WSDP and the
IDP.

The final all-inclusive cost, must now be defined into a cumulative cash. This should be projected on
a cash flow diagram over at least a 10 year life cycle. Capital expenditure, O& M Cost, ISD cost etc,
should be reflected separately if possible. Time increments should at least be 3 monthly.

Is PHASING a possibility? If so, then quantify the effect of phasing or not phasing in terms
of:

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i) Need / Requirement
ii) Life cycle of relevant Water Services Business
iii) Cash Flow
iv) Funding
v) Social & Institutional
vi) Etc.
U
3.5.3 Assign / Agree Responsibilities between Role Players

Define the project In terms of specific roles to enable effective delegation of responsibilities
to & role players. A typical plit of responsibilities may be for:

i) Technical
ii) ISD
iii) Design
iv) Procure
v) Implement
vi) Operate & Maintain
vii) Manage
viii) Transfer

4 ALIGNMENT OF PROJECT S BETWEEN SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND


INTEGRATION INTO THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Projects are inputs towards reaching goals set in the WSDP’s. It can reasonably be expected that
WSDP’s, due to inputs from projects, will change regularly and will be updated according to the
relevant legislative requirements.

The WSDP, together with other sectoral plans, feeds back into the IDP planning process to update the
integrated development strategies. This requires an alignment of inter-sectoral projects in terms of
their respective physical, spatial, thematic and time -line alignment.

5 NATIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEM

Throughout the Feasibility Study process, there will be a linkage to the NIS to ensure that the latest
data is used for benchmarking accuracy and relevance of new data input.

Following final selection of projects, the new data must be validated and integrated into the NIS.

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PART V
Road Map to conduct a Feasibility Study
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART V

Part V : Road Map to Conduct a Feasibility Study

Contents of Part V : Road Map to Conduct a Feasibility Study

1 Study Description & Scenarios ..................................................................................................... 4


1.1 Study Description & Location............................................................................................... 4
1.2 Define Scenarios & Scope of Work....................................................................................... 4
1.3 Application & Approval Of Funding (Business Pla n) for conducting a Feasibility Study ......... 5
1.4 Repetitive investigation of Scenarios ..................................................................................... 5
2 water users & service levels ......................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Existing Service Levels, Water Use and Effluent ................................................................... 5
2.2 Planned Service Levels and Water Use.................................................................................. 6
2.3 Options to provide the Planned Service Level........................................................................ 6
2.4 Additional Water Requirement (the GAP)............................................................................. 7
3 Water SourceS & Effluent............................................................................................................ 7
3.1 Existing Water Sources Capacity & Water Quality................................................................. 7
3.2 Water Balance..................................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Options to refurbish / reinstate existing sources...................................................................... 8
3.4 Water Resource Development Potential & Expected Water Quality......................................... 8
3.5 Options to develop water resources....................................................................................... 9
4 Infrastructure .............................................................................................................................. 9
5 water resource management requirement..................................................................................... 10
5.1 Existing water resource management & conservation/protection ........................................... 10
5.2 Required water resource management & conservation/protection .......................................... 10
5.3 Additional water resource management & conservation options ............................................ 10
6 Appropriate Technology ............................................................................................................ 11
6.1 Existing technology................................................................................................................. 11
6.2 Required technology................................................................................................................ 11
6.3 Technology compatibility & upgradability ................................................................................ 11
7 operations an management ......................................................................................................... 11
7.1 Existing operations and management ....................................................................................... 11
7.2 Required operations and management capacity.......................................................................... 12
7.3 Operations & maintenance capacity building ............................................................................. 12
8 Environmental aspects............................................................................................................... 12
8.1 Existing environmental status and management ................................................................... 12
8.2 Required environmental protection and management............................................................ 12
8.3 Actions required ................................................................................................................ 12
9 Institutional capacity.................................................................................................................. 13
9.1 Existing institutional capacity, skills & equipment .............................................................. 13
9.2 Required institutional capacity............................................................................................ 13
9.3 Institutional capacity building requirements......................................................................... 13
10 Social Aspects....................................................................................................................... 14
10.1 Existing social perception & expectations ............................................................................ 14
10.2 Required social capacity & support ..................................................................................... 14
10.3 Social awareness and customer service requirements............................................................ 14
11 Financial Aspects .................................................................................................................. 15
11.1 Existing cost recovery & finances....................................................................................... 15
11.2 Required financial systems & support ................................................................................. 15
11.3 Additional financial management systems & support............................................................ 16
12 Define Total Project............................................................................................................... 16
13 Viability checks..................................................................................................................... 16
13.1 Compliance to Regional Strategy ........................................................................................ 16
13.2 Compliance to WSDP ........................................................................................................ 16
13.3 Legal Compliance.............................................................................................................. 17

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13.4 Sustainability Check .......................................................................................................... 17


13.5 Feasibility Check............................................................................................................... 17
13.6 Acceptability Check........................................................................................................... 17
13.7 Maintainability Check........................................................................................................ 17
13.8 Upgradeability Check......................................................................................................... 17
13.9 Affordability Check ........................................................................................................... 17
13.10 Successfulness Check..................................................................................................... 17
13.11 Risk Assessment ............................................................................................................ 17
13.12 Potential Deviation Plan.................................................................................................. 17
14 Comparison of alternative solutions & Selection of the Best solution ........................................ 18
14.1 Ranking of options for this scenario .................................................................................... 18
14.2 Ranking of options from all scenarios.................................................................................. 18
14.3 Selection of the best option................................................................................................. 18
15 Incorporate project into WSDP............................................................................................... 18
16 Develop Implementation Business Plan................................................................................... 18

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The following diagram shows the road map to conduct a feasibility study and subsequent paragraphs
describe each step as numbered in the diagram.
Please NOTE that all written Feasibility Study documents must use the same numbering system.

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1 STUDY DESCRIPTION & SCENARIOS


It is important to start a feasibility study by :
§ Defining the study area
§ Determining the Extent (scope of work) for the study.

If these initial stages are neglegted, important considerations and potential options may be missed.

1.1 Study Description & Location

This will normally consist of basic documentation including:

a) Reference data and contact details such as :


§ Name of study
§ Water Service Authority
§ Organisation conducting the Feasibility Study
§ Contact person and address
§ Date
§ Reference number, etc.

b) A suitable map depicting the study area, with :


§ water services infrastructure
§ supporting infrastructure
§ land use, topography
§ villages / settlements (polygons)
§ water sources
§ strategic development ring fencing
§ etc.

1.2 Define Scenarios & Scope of Work

It is important that an accurate scope of work is defined for the Feasibility Study.

A screening process must review all conditions that may affect the level of detail of the
Feasibility Study Process.

The following aspects need to be considered in the screening :


§ The themes (subjects / aspects) to be included
§ The anticipated project size (projected cost range)
§ The water uses and service levels that could be required
§ The relevance of existing infrastructure & services against new developments
§ The expected complexity of the situation
§ etc.

Based on the provisional assessment of the above considerations, it may be possible to :


§ Identify definite exclusions of aspects from the Feasibility Study
§ Identify which of the basic, realistic and aspired scenarios have to be included
§ Identify suitable tools to assist with the Feasibility Study
§ Identify the level of detail for each of the themes to be investigated.

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1.3 Application & Approval Of Funding (Business Plan) for conducting a Feasibility
Study

A feasibility study and it’s scope of work must first be approved and funds must be secured before
the actual study can commence. The Feasibility Study must be listed in the WSDP. A business plan
has to be compiled to motivate funding for the Feasibility Study and to record the scope of work,
determined under the previous section (1.2).

1.4 Repetitive investigation of Scenarios

The process is repeated for each scenario to generate alternative options for the final selection.

In terms of the Water Services Act all feasibility studies must conduct at least a Basic Services
scenario and must evaluate compliance to Free Basic Services.

In terms of the social expectation, it is good practice to also evaluate the ‘aspired” levels of
services.

Finally, at least one more scenarios must be considered which evaluates a mixed level of services or
a phased development program that can realistically be achieved.

2 WATER USERS & SERVICE LEVELS

2.1 Existing Service Levels, Water Use and Effluent

Determine the existing water use at existing water service levels

Existing Water Use - To quantify the existing water use, all existing water users need to be identified as
a first. These water users applicable to the area under consideration may consist of:

§ Domestic Users.
§ Public Institutions - schools, clinics, hospitals, etc.
§ Commercial and Business Users - shopping centers, offices, dry industry, etc.
§ Industry and Mining Users (by type) – Washing, processing, cooling, etc.
§ Agricultural Users – Vegetable gardens, irrigation, livestock, etc.
§ Environmental Users – Natural reserve, alien vegetation, esthetic, etc.
§ Recreational and Social Users – Water sport, parks, cultural use, etc.

Now that all the existing water users have been identified, the actual existing water use need to be
quantified per user, to serve as a baseline/benchmark.

Service Levels - Further to the above, it is important to note that service levels have a direct influence on
the existing water use. Cognizance should be taken of existing water service levels in terms of the
following (to compare with future / Planned service levels). To this end, the existing service levels to be
recorded for each user:

§ Accessibility
§ Quantity
§ Water quality
§ Reliability

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Process - In short, the combination of the existing water consumption at the existing service level,
determine the existing water use for each identified user, which will be the baseline to compare future
requirements for each identified user.

Thus, the process to determine the existing water use:

§ Determine the current Population (No. of users).


§ Identify the different users.
§ For each existing Water User, determine the existing consumption, at the existing service levels.
§ Repeat this process for each existing user identified.
§ The overall existing water use is the sum of all above water users. Obviously the existing /
current service level for each water user should be recorded to serve as a benchmark for the future
requirement.

Net answer – All identified water users with their current consumption and current service level. The
total present water use to serve as the base date water use, will be the sum of the consumption of all the
water users at the base date.

2.2 Planned Service Levels and Water Use

For each scenario under consideration, i.e. :

§ Survival
§ Basic
§ Aspired

determine the Future / Planned water use as per the following process:

Future/ Planned Water Use - To quantify the future/planned water use, all the future water users need to
be considered. It is important to consider all possible water users, within reason. For instance, if a new
mine is probable, this will have an impact on future water requirements, in that :

§ The mine has a water requirement


§ Enhanced population growth in the mine’s working force, source area
§ Enhanced service levels are probable.

Service Levels - The approach is exactly the same as for 2.1 above except for the fact that it focuses on
future/planned water use. This service level should be determined for each water user, consistent with
the scenario under consideration.

Process - The approach is exactly the same as for 2.1. above except for the fact that it focuses on
future/planned water use.

It is important to realistically forecast service levels and predict realistically all probable water users.

Net answer - All probable water users with their expected consumption at the expected service level,
again consistent with the scenario under consideration. The total future/planned water use / requirement
will be the sum of the consumption of all the water users at the planning horizon, obviously for each
scenario with its related service le vels.

2.3 Options to provide the Planned Service Level

The planned new service levels of users will require additional infrastructure or an upgrading of the
existing infrastructure. This evaluation must be conducted for each user separately and finally can be
consolidated where reticulation infrastructure is shared between users.

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2.4 Additional Water Requirement (the GAP)

The difference between the existing water use (2.1) and the future/planned water use (2.2) is the
Additional Water Requirement.

This Gap should be expressed per water user with its related service level, totaled at the end. In essence,
the Gap will define the additional water requirement per user and also in totals.

The Gap need to be adjusted further to :

§ Take cognizance of Regional water requirements


§ Regional clustering
§ Assure conformance to Regional and National strategies

Cognizance should also be taken of ongoing activities, which might influence the additional water
requirement.

3 WATER SOURCES & EFFLUENT

3.1 Existing Water Sources Capacity & Water Quality

Existing water sources - With the additional water requirement now known, the water sources need to be
investigated to find the shortfall in water availability. The following aspects need to be considered :

§ The capacity of alternative sources


§ The water quality of the sources
§ The type of source
§ The locality of the source
§ The condition of the source

Typical sources to be considered, include :

§ Groundwater
§ Surface water
§ Imported water from neighboring areas (neighboring schemes)
§ Re-cycled water
§ etc.

Other important issues to consider, include :

§ Regional strategies
§ Regional source sharing
§ Ongoing projects and resource activities
§ Economy of scale
§ Source management
§ Effluent & effluent management
§ Other users
§ Water rights
§ Environmental issues
§ etc.

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3.2 Water Balance

From the projected water requirement as per (2c) above, the water requirement/goal was determined.
Therefore the difference (Gap) between the water requirement/goal and the existing water resource
capacity are determined, to derive the water balance.

§ A negative water balance means a shortfall of water which will lead to the investigation to
develop new water resources / extend existing water resources / import water / reduce wastage /
etc.

§ A positive water balance may still require possible refurbishment/ upgrading or reinstatement of
existing water resources / improve service / etc.

3.3 Options to refurbish / reinstate existing sources

Positive Water Balance - If the water balance shows that existing water resources are adequate and able
to fulfill the requirement/goal, the water resource potential does not have to be investigated and quantified
any further. It is still important that the water quality conforms to acceptable norms / standards.

Options – Available on the existing resources might be :

§ Doing nothing
§ Refurbish/Upgrade
§ Improvements in operation
§ Distribution
§ Storage
§ etc.

3.4 Water Resource Development Potential & Expected Water Quality

Negative Water Balance - If the water balance is negative, and existing water sources are not able to
fulfill the requirement/goal, the water resource development potential needs to be investigated and
quantified. It is important to also investigate the quality of potential water at this stage.

The potential additional capacity must be determined for each water resource and be expressed in terms of
the water resource development option for the area under consideration, for :

§ Groundwater
§ Surface water
§ Imported water from neighboring areas (neighboring schemes)
§ Recycled water
§ Combinations
§ etc.

Important considerations – It is important to consider water resource development also in terms of:

§ Regional source sharing


§ Expected water quality
§ Economy of scale
§ Distance
§ Cost
§ Time
§ Ongoing activities

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§ Parallel initiatives by others


§ Etc.

3.5 Options to develop water resources

Development options – State the development options in terms of :

§ Groundwater development target - Bore holes, springs, wells, etc.


§ Surface water development target - Dam, weir, etc.
§ Bulk water supply development target - New scheme to import water.
§ Water re-use development target - Recycling existing effluent to augment existing supply.

4 INFRASTRUCTURE

Once the water resource development options have been identified, the subsequent infrastructure
development or refurbishment options need to be quantified. As before, the status quo of existing
infrastructure need to be determined in order to determine what infrastructure development/refurbishment
need to be done. Special cognizance must be taken of the condition and complement of existing
infrastructure components, such as:

Components:

Water infrastructure
§ Boreholes
§ Dams and weirs
§ Water treatment works
§ Pump stations
§ Pipelines
§ Canals
§ Reservoirs
§ Reticulation networks

Sanitation infrastructure
§ On-site sanitation facilities
§ Collector sewer network
§ Bulk out-fall sewer
§ Sewage pump stations
§ Sewage reticulation
§ Sewage and waste water treatment works

General infrastructure
§ Buildings
§ Electrical supply
§ Access roads
§ Communication
§ etc.

At this point, the full complement of existing infrastructure is known. The Infrastructure Development
Requirement (GAP) can now be determined, per component, and should state both new infrastructure
developments and infrastructure refurbishment/upgrading option(s).

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART V

Once the infrastructure development and refurbishment option have been identified, they need to be
adjusted to regional priorities and economy of scale. Ongoing actions by other role -players may also
affect the final definition of infrastructure requirements.

The final infrastructure package is then evaluated against various related aspects described in the
following paragraphs.

5 WATER RESOURCE MANAG EMENT REQUIREMENT

5.1 Existing water resource management & conservation/protection


The impact of the proposed solution (as determined in all the above steps) needs to be taken into
consideration and tested for viability, sustainability and achievability of the existing water resource
requirements / needs. The following items needs to be addressed:

Water resource protection and management


§ Systems to prevent over exploitation of source
§ User requirements as far as water quality is concerned
§ Water quality regulations (legal requirements – ref Water Act, effluent and return flows)
§ Catchment management regulations
§ Legislation for water abstraction (permits from DWAF)

Water resource Capacity


§ Adequacy of surface and groundwater source
§ Adequacy of outside source (bulk supplier, transfers)
§ Effect of free basic water on source

5.2 Required water resource management & conservation/protection

The impact of the proposed solution needs to be taken into consideration and tested for viability,
sustainability and achievability of the new water resource requirements / needs. The items to be taken
into consideration are the same as for the existing water resource plus the following:

New developed resource


§ Additional management structures and special training where required.
§ Impact of upgrade or additional development on source
§ Additional legislation requirements

The Gap – is the difference between the existing and the future requirement for each scenario.

5.3 Additional water resource management & conservation options

Options – Additional possibilities / aspects / options which must be considered before new development
takes place may include:

§ Do nothing
§ Improvements in management or conservation practices

The above should be done in line with environmental considerations, improved sanitation practices,
control of surface water runoff etc

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6 APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY

6.1 Existing technology

General – Technology influences water services.

Present situation / Status Quo – As baseline for comparison, the existing technology needs to be
determined :

§ Type of technology utilized


§ Level of technology
§ Type of materials used, e.g. uPVC
§ etc.

6.2 Required technology

Determine the Future / Planned technology requirement per infrastructure component. For instance, the
type of water treatment, type of pipe utilized, etc.

The Gap – is the difference between the existing and the future requirement for each infrastructure
component.

6.3 Technology compatibility & upgradability

It is important to consider :

§ Is the technology appropriate to the situation.


§ Is the technology appropriate to site and area conditions.
§ Spare parts available
§ Availability of consumables to the area
§ Effect of a breakdown
§ etc.

As can be seen, new technology can not be considered without considering the existing technology.
Therefore the chosen technology must be :

§ Compatible with the existing


§ Maintained by the exiting maintenance component save for say additional staff members.
§ Appropriate to governing conditions
§ etc

7 OPERATIONS AN MANAGEMENT

7.1 Existing operations and management

Present situation / Status Quo – As baseline for comparison, the existing operations and management
practices need to be determined. This will typically include :

§ Operations and maintenance staff compliment


§ O & M arrangement
§ O & M capability
§ External support

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7.2 Required operations and management capacity

Determine the Future / Planned operations and maintenance requirement per infrastructure
component. For instance, the type of water treatment, type of pipe utilized, the operations and
maintenance arrangement, etc.

The Gap – is the difference between the existing and the future requirement.

7.3 Operations & maintenance capacity building

For chosen infrastructure and technology options, draw up requirements for:

§ O & M arrangements
§ O & M staffing
§ Skills training
§ Spare part provisions
§ Materials handling & storage
§ etc.

As can be seen O & M aspects have a major effect on chosen infrastructure and technology options.

8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

8.1 Existing environmental status and management

Environmental protection and conservation management influences availability and quality of water.

Present situation / Status Quo – The existing environmental conservation status needs to be determined
and typically includes :

§ Ecological status
§ Environmental water reserve
§ Fauna requirement
§ Flora requirement
§ Legal implications

8.2 Required environmental protection and management

Determine the Future / Planned conservation status and the environmental management requirements for
the type of project under consideration. This will include :
§ Mitigating measures to protect the current environmental status
§ Management measures to maintain environmental conservation

The Gap – the Gap would be the difference between the existing situation and the future requirements
and determines the additional actions and interventions required due to the proposed water project.

8.3 Actions required

Determine actions required to manage the environmental status during and after the implementation of the
water project can include:
§ Environmental Impact assessment (if required).
§ Additional infrastructure requirements (e.g. fish ladder)
§ Management of down-stream effects

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART V

9 INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY

9.1 Existing institutional capacity, skills & equipment

General – To have sustainable water service delivery, institutions responsible for the water services must
have the capacity, skills and equipment to deliver the said water services. To this end, a check must be
built into the feasibility study to determine the capacity of the responsible institution(s) to deliver.

Present situation / Status Quo - The following aspects need to be considered in order to determine
existing capacity. :

§ Which institutions are involved


§ What are their skills and capacity
§ What management systems are currently in use
§ What institutional equipment are in use (e.g. computer systems, manual records )
§ etc.

The following are typical institutions to be included in the investigations:

§ The water service authority (WSA)


§ The water service provider (WSP)
§ Funding institution
§ Local authorities other than the WSA
§ The ‘customer’ (community representation)
§ User associations (domestic, agriculture, industry, etc.)
§ Catchment management agency (CMA)
§ etc.

9.2 Required institutional capacity

Determine the required institutional capacity, skills & equipment for the proposed new infrastructure
and service levels planned for the area. The following aspects need consideration :

§ Capacity, skills and equipment to operate and maintain the extended infrastructure
§ Capacity, skills and equipment to manage and administer the larger scheme and customer base
§ etc.

The Gap – is the difference between existing personnel, skills and equipment in use and the requirements
for the extended scheme and new infrastructure. This shortfall must be addressed by targeted capacity
building and support programs.

9.3 Institutional capacity building requirements

Bridging the GAP – Suitable action must be identified to address the shortfall in capacity and equipment.
Typical actions to be considered include :

§ training and /or retraining of existing personnel


§ employment of additional personnel
§ outsourcing of certain duties
§ productivity enhancement programs and incentive schemes

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§ additional or alternative equipment (vehicles, offices, workshops, computers, telephones, tools,


etc.)
§ support programs
§ outsourcing of duties (e.g. supply contracts, maintenance contracts, etc)
§ etc.

10 SOCIAL ASPECTS

10.1 Existing social perception & expectations

General – This is often a critical and much neglected requirement of sustainable service delivery.
Customer service and customer satisfaction should receive adequate attention in order to achieve payment
for services, ownership and care of the infrastructure, support of local economic development and
upliftment of living standards.

Present situation / Status Quo - It is important to determine the present social perception and
expectations from the ‘customer’ / community. These should be evaluated by the feasibility study and
their feasibility must be communicated back to the customer (water users) in order to manage their
expectations if these are unrealistic.

The following social information must be included in the assessment :


§ Number of people served
§ Number of households currently served at different service levels
§ Aspired service levels per household
§ Customer perceptions on current services (quality, affordability, etc.)
§ Income profile and expenditure patterns of the households
§ Level of indigence and reliance on government subsidy (equitable share)
§ Affordability of households to pay for alternative service levels
§ Willingness to pay for alternative service levels
§ Level of support and “ownership” of scheme

10.2 Required social capacity & support

The planned service levels and related infrastructure extensions require certain levels of social support and
affordability to be acceptable and sustainable.

This includes the social perception and acceptability of :


§ proposed service levels
§ proposed technology to be used
§ proposed location and type of new infrastructure components
§ required institutional capacity, management system and customer services for the planned scheme

The Gap – The Gap is the difference between the existing social perception, affordability and willingness
to pay and the required social satisfaction, acceptability and social support to succeed with the planned
project.

10.3 Social awareness and customer service requirements

Bridging the GAP – To bridge the Gap, suitable actions need to be identified to ensure that customers will
accept the new development, will be satisfied with service levels and delivery standards, can afford the
services and are aware of the social responsibilities to succeed with the new developments.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART V

Typical actions include :


§ Social awareness programs
§ Establishment of suitable customer services (e.g. complaints system, information sharing, regular
and effective communication, user forums, etc.)
§ Social support programs (e.g. equitable share, subsidies)
§ Cost recovery promotions and incentives
§ Regular information sessions, demonstration of best practices and marketing actions to obtain
acceptability of best sultions
§ etc.

11 FINANCIAL ASPECTS

11.1 Existing cost recovery & finances

General – Except for free basic water, water services have to be paid for and cost recovery should be
practiced by the relevant authorities.

Present situation / Status Quo - It is important to determine what cost recovery system is currently in
use, review compliance to financial legislation, and assess the performance of current financial
management systems.

Typical aspects to be considered include:

Billing System
§ What billing system is in use
§ What percentage of water is metered
§ Are accounts issued
§ What percentage of accounts issued are paid
§ Is there follow-up action on non-payment
§ What financial management system is in use
§ Are financial records audited

Financial support
§ How many households are indigent and qualify for equitable share
§ How much subsidies and financial support is currently available and required for water services
provision
§ What financial legislation (national policy and local bylaws) need to be considered
§ etc.

11.2 Required financial systems & support

Determine which financial management system, cost recovery and financial support is required to succeed
with the new developments (extended scheme). Consider similar aspects as listed above (11.1) and
consider compatibility with current systems in use.

Typical issues to be considered include :


§ Estimated capital cost for new infrastructure
§ Estimated refurbishment costs for existing infrastructure
§ Estimated planning, design and implementation management costs
§ Estimated cost for all other management, operational and social related requirements and
interventions (see steps 5.3 to 11.3)
§ Life-time operation and maintenance costs

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§ Long-term replacement costs


§ Required insurance costs
§ Provisions for taxes (e.g. VAT, CMA levy)
§ etc.

The Gap – What additional cost recovery, changes to the existing financial support (e.g. subsidies), or
improved financial management systems are required to make the proposed developments financially
viable.

11.3 Additional financial management systems & support

Bridging the GAP – Financial viability is one of the critical success factors. Determine all the
requirements that will make the new developments financially viable considering amongst others :
§ Suitable cost recovery systems and realistic cost recovery targets
§ Social programs to achieve the required ability and willingness to pay of customers
§ Availability of additional subsidies or alternative financing options
§ Suitable financial management systems, considering compatibility to existing systems of the
WSA

It is also important to discuss the possible options with customers to avoid later unhappiness and
subsequent unwillingness to pay. If problems are foreseen appropriate steps or programs such as
awareness programs need to be suggested to avoid the said problems.

12 DEFINE TOTAL PROJECT

The required actions from steps 4 and 5.3 to 11.3 need to be packaged and integrated into one project
definition. This defines the full scope of work of the proposed solution and is the entity that will be
considered for implementation.

13 VIABILITY CHECKS

Most of the considerations will have been part of steps 5 to 11. The final viability checks will consider
the total package of proposed actions that form part of the potential solution (as defined in 12).

Each check needs to be quantified by applying a rating of 1 to 5 where :


§ 1 is not viable
§ 2 is below average or “poor” viability
§ 3 is average viability (50% success chance)
§ 4 is above average viability
§ 5 is good viability.

The following viability checks need to be performed and a rating of 1 to 5 needs to be recorded for each.

13.1 Compliance to Regional Strategy


The solution (package of required actions) must be compared with development objectives and priorities
defined in the Regional Development Strategies and DWAF’s Reference Framework for the area under
consideration. Deviations must be well motivated or adjusted to ensure compliance.

13.2 Compliance to WSDP


In conjunction with the above, the solution must be compared to the specific development objectives
described in the WSDP for the project area. Deviations must be well motivated or adjusted to ensure
compliance.

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13.3 Legal Compliance


The proposed solution(s) must comply to government legislation, including amongst others the National
Water Act(No.36 of 1998), the Water Services Act(No.108 of 1997) and municipal bylaws. Compliance
to Environmental legislation must also be confirmed under this step an step 8.3

13.4 Sustainability Check


The solution (package of required actions) must be rated according to its prospects to be operational and
to provide effective services over the longer term. It is essentially an overall (combined) check on the
success of all the requirements identified in steps 4 and 5.3 to 11.3.

13.5 Feasibility Check


The solution (package of required actions) must be rated on its implementability and must consider the
practicality and realism of the proposed solution.

13.6 Acceptability Check


The solution (package of required actions) must be rated according to its acceptability by the communities
that it will serve. This will primarily be concluded from the assessments under steps 10.1 10.2 and 10.3

13.7 Maintainability Check


The solution (package of required actions) must be rated according to the suitability and ease of
maintenance. This willprimaily be derived from the proposed technology in use (6.2 and 6.3) and the
level of skills expected after the proposed training and capacity building proposed under 9.3

13.8 Upgradeability Check


The solution (package of required actions) must be rated according to the compatibility of the new
infrastructure (from steps 6.2 and 6.3) and associated requirements against the existing infrastructure and
institutional capacity.

13.9 Affordability Check


The solution (package of required actions) must be rated according to their affordability to the community
and funding agencies considering existing access to subsidies and capital grants.

13.10 Successfulness Check


The solution (package of required actions) must be rated according to its general chance of success. This
will primarily be a calculated judgement considering all of the above viability checks (13.1 to 13.8)

13.11 Risk Assessment


Similar to 13.9 the risk of success is a calculated judgement considering all of the above viability checks
(13.1 to 13.8).

13.12 Potential Deviation Plan


This check determines if there are alternative measures to intervene (a plan B) should the solution, as
defined under 12, fail in achieving the planned success. Potential solutions, which have such deviation
plans available, thus have a means of managing the risk identified under 13.10

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART V

14 COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS & SELECTION OF THE BEST


SOLUTION

14.1 Ranking of options for this scenario


From step 13, combine the ratings of all viability checks to derive an overall ranking for the solution /
scenario under consideration. This result must be recorded for subsequent comparison to other scenarios.

14.2 Ranking of options from all scenarios


After completion of the repetitive analyses of the alternative scenarios (see 1.4), the resulting options and
their individual ratings (from 14.1) can be compared and placed in order of suitability (ranking).

In terms of the Water Services Act all feasibility studies must at least conclude a Basic Services scenario
and must evaluate compliance to Free Basic Services. In most instances there will also be different
combinations of mixed levels of services that have to be considered.

14.3 Selection of the best option


Based on the rankings of the alternative options, it is now possible to select the best-suited options for the
situation at hand. It could be that the project environment calls for a risk-overt solution even if this is not
the “best”-suited in terms of overall ranking. If this is the case, a special motivation must accompany the
final recommendation.

15 INCORPORATE PROJECT INTO WSDP

The final option must be proposed for acceptance by the WSA and incorporation into the WSDP for
future implementation. Only projects that have proven feasibility and have received the necessary
acceptance of stakeholders will be funded and implemented.

16 DEVELOP IMPLEMENTATION BUSINESS PLAN

As is common practice, the proposed project needs an Implementation Business Plan, which describes the
scope of the project and motivates the funding requirements. This document is in many ways an
executive summary of the final solution identified by the feasibility study and is a direct result
(deliverable) from the feasibility study process.

This brief description concludes the step-by-step process or roadmap to conduct a feasibility study.
Subsequent chapters of the guideline document provide lists of minimum standards, proforma
questionnaires and reference to typical tools and support systems that can be utilized during a feasibility
study.

PART V- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 18 of 18 Printed: 2002/10/17
PART VI
Available Tools and Information Sources
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

Part VI : Available Tools and Information Sources

Contents List of Part VI : Available Tools and Information Sources

1 General Information Sources and Tools ..............................................................................................2


2 Tools for Water Users & Requirements...............................................................................................3
3 Tools for Water Resources.................................................................................................................4
4 Tools for Infrastructure Planning........................................................................................................6
5 Tools for Water Demand and Conservation management .....................................................................7
6 Tools for Appropriate Technology Choices.........................................................................................8
7 Tools for Scheme Operation and management.....................................................................................8
8 Tools for Environmental investigations & management .......................................................................8
9 Tools for institutional aspects............................................................................................................9
10 Tools for Social & Socio-Economic aspects..................................................................................10
11 Tools for Financial aspects...........................................................................................................11
12 Additional Tools not Listed Above ...............................................................................................11

PART VI- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 1 of 11 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

A Feasibility Study can use many different tools. This section provides an overview of some of the available
tools.

1 GENERAL INFORMATION SOURCES AND TOOLS


The list of water services related publications is huge and may not all be useful in conducting a Feasibility
Study. The General Information can typically be classified into :
§ Policy
§ Legislation
§ Strategies
§ Promotion material (e.g. posters, brochures, videos)

The following list includes examples of such information that is currently included in the Feasibility Study
Guide.

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Transfer – Question and Answer (Booklet 1) DWAF Transfer 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
(Summary of Policy)
guide WSDP Edition 2001 Guideline DWAF Regional WSDP Co - 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
ordinator
legislation Model Bylaws DWAF Dir: Intervention and 012-3367500 www.dw af.gov.za
Operations Support
legislation National Water Act DWAF DWAF Library 012-336 8412/ www.dwaf.gov.za
14/15
legislation Policy for the Transfer of Government Water DWAF Transfer 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Services Works
legislation Policy for the Transfer of Personnel (DWAF) to DWAF Transfer 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Other Institutions
legislation Regulation 2834 of 1985 of National Water Act DWAF DWAF Library 012-336 www.dwaf.gov.za
(Act 54 of 1956). 8412/14/15
legislation Regulation 991 of 1984 of National Water Act DWAF DWAF Library 012-336 www.dwaf.gov.za
(Act 54 of 1956) – Government Gazette, 18 May 8412/14/15
1984 No 9225.
legislation Section 10(1) Regulations DWAF Dir: Intervention and 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Operations Support
legislation Section 19(5) Regulations DWAF Dir: Intervention and 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Operations Support
legislation Section 9(1) Regulations DWAF Dir: Intervention and www.dwaf.gov.za
Operations Support 012-336-6567
legislation Water Services Act DWAF DWAF Library 012-336 www.dwaf.gov.za
8412/14/15
publication First Order Strategy DWAF Dir :Water Services 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za

publication National Water Audit DWAF Dir :Water Services; 012-3366509 www.dwaf.gov.za
Directorate; Intervention
and Operational Support
publication Water policy WRC WRC 012-3300340
publication White paper on basic households sanitation WRC WRC 012-3300340

tool Data Capture Programme for WSDP DWAF Regional WSDP Co - 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
ordinator

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

2 TOOLS FOR WATER USERS & REQUIREMENTS


Various tools and supporting documentation is available. These should be categorized per water user type to
enable quick referencing during the planning of service levels for each of the water users, including :

§ Domestic Water Use

§ Public Institutions

§ Commercial & Business Use

§ Industry & Mining Use

§ Agricultural Use

§ Environmental Use

§ Recreation & Social Uses

Not all of the tools and documents have been identified to date and additional literature reviews are required
to build a comprehensive database for all water users. The following table illustrates the type of tools and
supporting documentation that will help planners in conducting a feasibility study :

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and CSIR CSIR/Department of 012-841-2911/ www.dwaf.gov.za
Design (Red Book) Housing 012-421-1311
guide Water Supply Service Levels: A Guide for Local DWAF DWAF Library 012-336 8412/ www.dwaf.gov.za
Authorities. November 2000 14/15
guide Management Guidelines for Water Service Water Research WRC 012-3300340
Institutions (Urban), Palmer Development Group. Ref Commission
TT 98/98: Module 3 : Consumer Profile and Demand
for Services
publication Census 1996 Statistics South Head Office, Pretoria 012 310-8911 info@statssa.pwv.
Africa gov.za
publication Evaluation of water supply to developing urban Water Research WRC 012-3300340
communities in South Africa Commission
publication Economic Growth Figures for Regions WEFA 012-6655420
tool Muniwater Module/ Supply, Use and Disposal DWAF Dir: Strategic 012-336-8768 www.dwaf.gov.za
Module. Planning
tool PC- Muniwater System DWAF Dir :Strategic 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Planning

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3 TOOLS FOR WATER RESOURCES


Tools will typically differ per water resources type, including :
§ Ground water
§ Surface water
§ Water Re-use / Cascading

Not all of the tools and documents have been identified to date and additional literature reviews are required
to build a comprehensive database for all water resources tools and documentation. The following table
illustrates the type of tools and supporting documentation that will help planners in conducting a feasibility
study :

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Managing the Water Quality, Effects of Settlement; DWAF Dir :Water Quality Management 012-3367500 w w w .dwaf.gov.za
Vol. 2, Guideline for Implementation, June 1999.
guide Minimum Requirements for Handling, Classification DWAF Dir :Water Quality Management 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
and Disposal of Hazardous Waste, Second Edition,
1998.
guide Minimum Requirements for the Water Monitoring at DWAF Dir :Water Quality Management 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Waste Management Facilities, Second Edition,
1998.
guide Minimum Requirements for Waste Disposal by DWAF Dir :Water Quality Management 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Landfill, Second Edition, 1998
guide South African Water Quality Guidelines. Vol 1-6. DWAF Dir :Water Quality Management 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Second Edition, 1996
guide A protocol to manage the potential of groundwater NASCO NaSCO Resource Center
contamination from on site sanitation
guide SABS Ref: 241 – 2001 Specification Drinking SABS Head Office 012-4286925
Water: Guide to correct testing of Water Quality.
guide How to save water (handbook for households) WRC WRC 012-3300340
guide Quality of domestic water supply Vol. 1 WRC WRC 012-3300340
guide The development of procedures for the control of WRC WRC 012-3300340
unaccounted for water in water distribution
systems and for the reduction of water loss.

map Ground Water Harvesting Potential Map DWAF Dir :Geohydrology 012-3367849www.dwaf.gov.za
map Hydrological Map Series of the RSA DWAF Head Office 012-3367500www.dw af.gov.za
publication A Protocol to Manage the Potential of Ground DWAF Geohydrology Library 012-3367849 www.dwaf.gov.za
Water Contamination for On Site Sanitation, First
Edition, 1997
publication Managing the Water Quality Effects of Settlement; DWAF Head Office 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
The National Strategy, First Edition, April 1999.
publication Water Conservation and Water Demand DWAF Dir : Water Use and 012-3368086 www.dwaf.gov.za
Management Strategy for the Water Services Conservation
Sector: 2000
publication Water Quality Management Services, Policy and DWAF Geohydrology Library 012-3367849 www.dwaf.gov.za
Strategy for Ground Water Quality Management in
the Republic of South Africa, First Edition, DWAF
2000
publication Your Choice; Prevention or Cure? A Guidelines for DWAF Geohydrology Library 012-3367849 www.dwaf.gov.za
Your Community and its Agents for the Sustainable
Ground Water Resources, 1996,
publication On-site sanitation and groundwater: the art of NASCO NaSCO Resource Center
balancing unknown risks
publication SABS Ref: 306 – 1999 The Management of SABS Head Office 012-4286925
Potable Water in Distribution Systems.
publication The economy of groundwater usage: the WRC WRC 012-3300340
importance of intrinsic management as a basis for
sustainable management

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


publication Water consumption and possible water savings in WRC WRC 012-3300340
apartment buildings
tool Water Balance Model DWAF Water Resources Planning 012-3367500 www.dwaf .gov.za
tool Water Resources Yield Model (WRYM) DWAF Dir : Water Resources Planning 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
tool WISH (operational tool for geo-hydrology) DWAF Dir : Water Resources Planning 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za

PART VI- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 5 of 11 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

4 TOOLS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING

Many of the tools and supporting documentation are developed for a specific infrastructure component. It is
therefore ideal to categorize them accordingly :
§ Borehole equipment
§ Dam, weir and run-of-river abstraction works
§ Water treatment works
§ Water pump stations
§ Bulk pipelines and canals
§ Reservoirs
§ Water reticulation
§ Grey-water collection system
§ On-site sanitation facilities
§ Sewer collection network
§ Bulk outfall sewers
§ Sewer pump stations
§ Sewer treatment works
§ Other

Not all of the tools and documents have been identified to date and additional literature reviews are required
to build a comprehensive database for all water infrastructure components. The following table illustrates the
type of tools and supporting documentation that will help planners in conducting a feasibility study :

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Prepaid Meter Guideline DWAF Dir : Interventionan and 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Operation Support
guide Building Schools VIPs: Guidelines for the design NASCO NaSCO Resource Centre
and construction of domestic ventilated improved pit
toilets and associated facilities for schools
guide Building VIPs: guidelines for the design and NASCO NaSCO Resource Centre,
construction of domestic ventilated improved pit
toilets
012-336-6519/ 20
guide How to build the Archloo: An Ancient structure as NASCO NaSCO Resource Centre
the basis for a low-cost sanitation solution
guide The applicability of shallow sewer systems in South NASCO NaSCO Resource Centre
Africa
guide Guideline for the upgrading of existing small water WRC WRC 012-3300340
treatment plants
guide Handbook to Guide Communities in the Choice of WRC WRC 012-3300340
Sanitation Systems. Ref TT104. 1998

legislation Policy document for the classification of water care DWAF DWAF Library 012-336 8412/ www.dwaf.gov.za
works and process controllers (related to Regulation 14/15
2834 in terms of section 12 A of the Water Act, 1956
(Act 54 of 1956)).

publication Permissible utilisation and disposal of sewage, Department DOH Library 012-312 0809/7
Sewage Sludge, 1997 of Health
publication National Business Plan – SPATIAL Development DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Initiatives – Infrastructure Programme for water and Support
sanitation 1999 – 2002
publication Permissible Utilisation and Disposal of Sewage WRC WRC 012-3300340
Sludge, Edition 1, 1997
DWAF Water Services : Macro Planning 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
tool DWAF Costing Model for Community Water Supply & Information Support

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

5 TOOLS FOR WATER DEMAND AND CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT

These tools go hand in hand with the Water Resources information and focus specifically on management
aspects, which are not related to development of new resources. They are typically classified as :

§ Management of the water demand (user related)


§ Management of water conservation (losses)

The following table lists some of the typical tools and supporting documentation. Additional literature
reviews are required to build a comprehensive database.

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Quality of Domestic Water Supplies (Vol 1-5) Water WRC 012-3300340
Assessment and sampling guides (Guidelines on Research
appropriate quality of domestic water supplies.) Commission
publication Catchments management in South Africa Water WRC 012-3300340
Research
Commission
publication Integrated drought management conference Water WRC 012-3300340
Research
Commission
publication Integrated Water Resource management Water WRC 012-3300340
Research
Commission
publication Procedures to assess effluent discharge impacts, Water WRC 012-3300340
WRC Report No TT 64/94, first Edition 1995. Research
Commission
publication Water quality management Water WRC 012-3300340
Research
Commission

PART VI- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 7 of 11 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

6 TOOLS FOR APPROPRIAT E TECHNOLOGY CHOICES

Tools and supporting documentation on technology options are closely related to each infrastructure
component discussed under section 4.

Currently, a full list of these references is not available. Future updates of the Feasibility Study Guide will
provide additional information

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Prepaid Meter Guideline DWAF Dir : Interventionan and 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Operation Support
guide Water Supply Service Levels: A Guide for Local DWAF DWAF Library 012-336 8412/ www.dwaf.gov.za
Authorities. November 2000 14/15
guide The applicability of shallow sewer systems in South NASCO NaSCO Resource Centre
Africa
guide Handbook to Guide Communities in the Choice of WRC WRC 012-3300340
Sanitation Systems. Ref TT104. 1998
publication A user friendly booklet on a site evaluation of DWAF Dir: Interventions and 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
prepayment water meters and management systems Operations Support

7 TOOLS FOR SCHEME OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT

Tools and supporting documentation on scheme operation and management are closely related to
infrastructure and institutional arrangements. The extent of the scheme, the remoteness of its location and the
available institutional capacity will all affect the selection of a suitable operation method and management
system.

Currently, a full list of these references is not available. Future updates of the Feasibility Study Guide will
provide additional information

8 TOOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS & MANAGEMENT

Tools and supporting documentation on environmental aspects will typically be categorized according to :
§ Legislation
§ Environmental Status
§ Environmental Impact Assessments
§ Environmental Management

Currently, a full list of these references is not available. Future updates of the Feasibility Study Guide will
provide additional information

PART VI- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 8 of 11 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

9 TOOLS FOR INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS

Tools and supporting documentation will typically be categorized according to type of institution, including
amongst others :
§ WSA
§ WSP
§ Water Boards
§ Community Based Organizations (CBO’s)
§ Private Sector Partnerships

Currently, a full list of these references is not available . Some of the currently available information sources
are briefly listed below :

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Municipal Service Options: A Guideline for Local DPL&G Head Office, Pretoria 012-3340600 www.local.gov.za
Authorities
guide Community Development Officers Manual DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Support
guide Framework for establishing Water Services Providers in DWAF ISD Package; Part 5 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
rural areas (condensed version) Regional Offices
guide Guidelines for CBOs as Water Services Providers DWAF Dir: Intervention and 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Operations Support
guide Guidelines for District councils relating to the provision DWAF ISD Package; Part 5 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
of water services: Guideline 1: Overall roles and Regional Offices
responsibilities of District councils
guide Guidelines for Preparing a Partnership Undertaking DWAF Transfer 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za

guide Guidelines on the drafting of Water Boards policy DWAF Dir: Local Institutional www.dwaf.gov.za
statements and business plans Development Support 012-336-6563
guide Institutional and social development package for water DWAF Dir. Project Development www.dwaf.gov.za
supply (ISD Package) Support 012-336-8595
guide M&E System Manual DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Support
guide Model Contracts: Pro Forma Contracts between WSA DWAF Dir: Intervention and 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
and WSP. Operations Support
guide Management Guidelines for Water Service Institutions WRC WRC 012-3300340
(Urban), Palmer Development Group. Ref TT 98/98:
Module 1: Introduction to Organisational Arrangements.
guide Management Guidelines for Water Service Institutions WRC WRC 012-3300340
(Urban), Palmer Development Group. Ref TT 98/98:
Modules 6 and 7 : Reporting Procedures for Water and
Sanitation Services

poster Poster: Institutional Arrangements for Water Services DWAF Dir: Intervention and 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Provision Operations Support
poster Poster: Project Steering Committee DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Support
poster Poster: Sustainable Water Services – Essential DWAF Dir: Intervention and 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Components Providing Water Services – Who does Operations Support
What?

publication Building Local Government Community Partnerships DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Support
publication Framework for Establishing WSPs in Rural Areas (ISD DWAF 012-3367500w w w . d w af.gov.za
Package, Part 5)

PART VI- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 9 of 11 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


publication Rapid capacity building for water and waste Water WRC 012-3300340
management at local authority and district level Research
Commission
support Technical Assistance Consultancy for the Community DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500www.dwaf.gov.za
Water Supply and Sanitation Capital Programme Support

video DBSA Video’s to address issues around municipal DBSA Head Office - 011-3133580
services: Johannesburg

10 TOOLS FOR SOCIAL & SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

Tools and supporting documentation will typically be focussing on social assessment tools and documentation
on social behaviour, which can further be categorized into :

§ Social awareness
§ Social perceptions & expectations
§ Socio-economics & Affordability
§ Community participation and management
§ Community Based Organizations (CBO’s)
§ Etc.

Currently, a full list of these references is not available. Some of the currently available information sources
are briefly listed below :

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide The PHAST initiative: Participatory Hygiene And NASCO NaSCO Resource
Sanitation Transformation Centre
guide Participatory development management : an Water WRC 012-3300340
integrated and empowering development approachResearch
Commission
publication Poverty Alleviation Infrastructure Programme for DWAF Dir. Project 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Water and Sanitation – National Business Plan Development Support
1999 - 2002
publication Sanitaiton Question and Answer Booklet DWAF Dir. Local Institutional www.dwaf.gov.za
Development Support
/ NaSCO
012-336-6563
publication Developing communities Water Supply and Water WRC 012-3300340
Sanitation Research
Commission
publication Strategies for empowering women in water supply Water WRC 012-3300340
and sanitation projects Research
Commission

publication The socio-economic effects of water restrictions on Water WRC 012-3300340


Local Authorities, selected industrial and Research
commercial establishments and other private Commission
agencies

publication Water and Sanitation handbook for community Water WRC 012-3300340
leaders (urban and peri-urban) Research
Commission

PART VI- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 10 of 11 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VI

11 TOOLS FOR FINANCIAL ASPECTS

Tools and supporting documentation will typically be focussing on the following financial aspects :

§ Calculation of Capital Costs


§ WSA / WSP Finances (financial viability modeling)
§ Financing models (e.g. bank loans)
§ Tariffing and Cost Recovery
§ Etc.

Currently, a full list of these references is not available. Some of the currently available information sources
are briefly listed below :

FORMAT DESCRIPTION OWNER Contact Details TEL EMail_Web


guide Municipal Tariff Guidelines DPL&G Head Office, Pretoria 012-3340600 www.local.gov.za

guide Water Services Capital Programme Guidelines for DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Implementing the Division of Revenue Act. Support
guide Management Guidelines for Water Service Institutions WRC WRC 012-3300340
(Urban), Palmer Development Group. Ref TT
98/98:Modules 4 and 5 : Tariff Setting
legislation Policy and Strategy Guidelines for the implementation DWAF Dir. Project Development 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
of community water supply and sanitation capital Support
programme of the Government RDP

publication Cost Recovery Case Studies DWAF Dir: Interventions and 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Operations Support
publication Free Basic Water Question and Answer booklet DWAF Dir: Interventions and 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
Operations Support
publication An econometric and institutional economic analysis of WRC WRC 012-3300340
water usage in the crocodile river catchments
Mpumalanga province South Africa
publication Water and sanitation in urban areas: financial and WRC WRC 012-3300340
institutional
DWAF Water Services : Macro 012-3367500 www.dwaf.gov.za
tool DWAF Costing Model for Community Water Supply Planning & Information Support

12 ADDITIONAL TOOLS NOT LISTED ABOVE

As mentioned above, the lists of tools and supporting documentation is incomplete. The electronic Guide to
conduct Feasibility Studies can therefore also capture additional tools not included in the database (above
tables). Through this facility a comprehensive database and references will be collated over time.

PART VI- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 11 of 11 Printed: 2002/10/17
PART VII
Minimum Standards of a typical Feasibility Study
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VII

VII : Minimum Standards for a Feasibility Study

This section lists the Minimum Requirements to conduct a feasibility Study.

The questions are listed per theme and indicate what type of answer is expected and if applicable, the unit of
figures to be entered.

The extent of the questions changes during the setting of the scope of work according to :
§ Size of the project (project area)
§ Combination of New and Existing Infrastructure
§ Complexity of the project and project environment

PART VII- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 1 of 2 Printed: 2002/10/17
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VII

PART VII- Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies Page 2 of 2 Printed: 2002/10/17
MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

MINIMUM STANDARDS : TYPICAL QUESTION LIST FOR FEASIBILITY STUDIES


T
Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
2.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS
2 - WATER USE QUO) 2.1.1 - GENERAL INFORMATION 2.1.1.1 - What is the base date population ? No.
2.1.1.2 - What is the net population growth rate per annum? %/a
2.1.1.3 - On what is the population and population growth rate based ? Text
2.1.1.4 - List the villages under consideration with current population? Name & Pop.

2.1.1.5 - What percentage of water is falling within acceptable QUALITY NORMS ? %


2.1.1.6 - Service level - Average (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.1.7 - Total Water Use m³/d
2.1.2 - DOMESTIC 2.1.2.1 - What percentage of the population has HOUSE CONNECTIONS ? %
2.1.2.2 - What percentage of the population has YARD CONNECTIONS ? %
2.1.2.3 - What percentage of the population has STREET CONNECTIONS ? %
2.1.2.4 - Total use : HOUSE CONNECTIONS ? m³/d
2.1.2.5 - Total use : YARD CONNECTIONS ? m³/d
2.1.2.6 - Total use : STREET CONNECTIONS ? m³/d
2.1.2.7 - What is the average distance to STREET TAPS? m
2.1.2.8 - Unaccounted for water : LOSSES m³/d
2.1.2.9 - Unnaccounted for water : ILEGAL CONNECTIONS m³/d
2.1.2.10 - Influence from ongoing actions : DOMESTIC Describe(if any)
2.1.2.11 - Total domestic water use m³/d
2.1.3 - SCHOOLS 2.1.3.1 - School name Name
2.1.3.2 - Village name in which the school is situated Name
2.1.3.3 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.3.4 - Total Use at school m³/d
2.1.3.5 - Influence from ongoing actions : SCHOOLS Describe(if any)
2.1.3.6 - Total use at all schools m³/d
2.1.4 - CLINICS 2.1.4.1 - Clinic name Name
2.1.4.2 - Village name in which the clinic is situated Name
2.1.4.3 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.4.4 - Total Use at clinic m³/d
2.1.4.5 - Influence from ongoing actions :CLINICS Describe(if any)
2.1.4.6 - Total use at all clinics m³/d
2.1.5 - HOSPITALS 2.1.5.1 - Hospital name Name
2.1.5.2 - Village name in which the hospital is situated Name
2.1.5.3 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.5.4 - Total Use at hospital m³/d
2.1.5.5 - Influence from ongoing actions :HOSPITALS Describe(if any)
2.1.5.6 - Total use at all hospitals m³/d
2.1.6 - COMMERCIAL &
BUSINESS 2.1.6.1 - Commercial business name Name
2.1.6.2 - Village name in which the business is situated Name
2.1.6.3 - Type of business Desribe
2.1.6.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.6.5 - Total Use at business m³/d
2.1.6.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :COMMERCIAL & BUSINESS Describe(if any)
2.1.6.7 - Total use of all Businesses m³/d
2.1.7 - INDUSTRY 2.1.7.1 - Industry name Name
2.1.7.2 - Village name in which the Industry is situated Name
2.1.7.3 - Type of Industry Desribe
2.1.7.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.7.5 - Total Use at Industry m³/d
2.1.7.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :INDUSTRY Describe(if any)
2.1.7.7 - Total use of all industries m³/d
2.1.8 - MINING 2.1.8.1 - Mine name Name
2.1.8.2 - Village name where the mine is situated Name
2.1.8.3 - Type of mine Desribe
2.1.8.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.8.5 - Total Use at Mine m³/d
2.1.8.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :MINING Describe(if any)
2.1.8.7 - Total use of all mines m³/d
2.1.9 - AGRICULTURE 2.1.9.1 - Name Name
2.1.9.2 - Village name where the agricultural activity is situated Name
2.1.9.3 - Type of agriculture Desribe
2.1.9.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.1.9.5 - Total Use for agricultural activity m³/d
2.1.9.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :AGRICULTURE Describe(if any)
2.1.9.7 - Total use of all agricultural activities m³/d
2.1.10 - LIVE STOCK 2.1.10.1 - Total large stoch units Name
2.1.10.2 - Total small stock units Name
2.1.10.3 - Consumption : Equiv. Large stock unit l/unit/d
2.1.10.4 - Influence from ongoing actions :LIVE STOCK Describe(if any)
2.1.10.5 - Total Use of all live stock m³/d
2.1.11 - ENVIRONMENT 2.1.11.1 - Total water RESERVE of the natural environment m³/a
2.1.11.2 - Total consumption from the NATURAL ENVIRONMENT m³/a
2.1.11.3 - Other (List) m³/a
2.1.11.4 - Influence from ongoing actions :ENVIRONMENT Describe(if any)
2.1.11.5 - Total use of the Environment m³/d
2.1.12 - RECREATION & SOCIAL 2.1.12.1 - Parks m³/a
2.1.12.2 - Sports facilities m³/a
2.1.12.3 - Cultural m³/a
2.1.12.4 - Influence from ongoing actions :RECREATIONAL & SOCIAL Describe(if any)
2.1.12.5 - Total use of all recreational and social activities m³/d
2.2 - PLANNED
SITUATION (GOAL) 2.2.1 - GENERAL INFORMATION 2.2.2.1 - What is the design /projection horizon ? Year
2.2.2.2 - What is the future or planned population ? No.
2.2.2.3 - What is the projected population growth rate per annum? %/a
2.2.2.4 - On what is the population and population growth rate based ? Text
2.2.2.5 - List the villages under consideration with projected population? Name & Pop.
2.2.2.6 - What is the average daily demand (ADD)? l/c/d
2.2.2.7 - Service level - Average(1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.2.8 - Total Planned / Projected Water demand m³/d
2.2.2.9 - What percentage of water will be falling within acceptable QUALITY NORMS
? %
2.2.2.10 - Compliance with regional strategy Yes / No, Comment Y/N; Comment
2.2.2.11 - Compliance with national strategy Yes / No, Comment Y/N; Comment
2.2.2 - DOMESTIC 2.2.2.1 - What percentage of the population with HOUSE CONNECTIONS ? %
2.2.2.2 - What percentage of the population with YARD CONNECTIONS ? %
2.2.2.3 - What percentage of the population with STREET CONNECTIONS ? %

FS_Guide_DataMatrix_Edited-2002-09-25 Page 1 of 9 Printed : 2002/10/17


MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

T
Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
2 - WATER USE 2.2 - PLANNED 2.2.2 - DOMESTIC 2.2.2.4 - Total demand : HOdemand CONNECTIONS ? m³/d
2.2.2.5 - Total demand : YARD CONNECTIONS ? m³/d
2.2.2.6 - Total demand : STREET CONNECTIONS ? m³/d
2.2.2.7 - What is the planned average distance to STREET TAPS? m
2.2.2.8 - Unaccounted for water projected: LOSSES m³/a
2.2.2.9 - Unnaccounted for water projected : ILEGAL CONNECTIONS m³/a
2.2.2.10 - Influence from ongoing actions : DOMESTIC Describe(if any)
2.2.2.11 - Total domestic water demand m³/d
2.2.3 - SCHOOLS 2.2.3.1 - School name Name
2.2.3.2 - Village name in which the school is situated Name
2.2.3.3 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.3.4 - Total demand at school m³/d
2.2.3.5 - Influence from ongoing actions : SCHOOLS Describe(if any)
2.2.3.6 - Total demand at all schools m³/d
2.2.4 - CLINICS 2.2.4.1 - Clinic name Name
2.2.4.2 - Village name in which the clinic is situated Name
2.2.4.3 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.4.4 - Total demand at clinic m³/d
2.2.4.5 - Influence from ongoing actions :CLINICS Describe(if any)
2.2.4.6 - Total demand at all clinics m³/d
2.2.5 - HOSPITALS 2.2.5.1 - Hospital name Name
2.2.5.2 - Village name in which the hospital is situated Name
2.2.5.3 - Average occupation of beds %
2.2.5.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.5.5 - Total demand at hospital m³/d
2.2.5.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :HOSPITALS Describe(if any)
2.2.5.7 - Total demand at all hospitals m³/d
2.2.6 - COMMERCIAL &
BUSINESS 2.2.6.1 - Commercial business name Name
2.2.6.2 - Village name in which the business is situated Name
2.2.6.3 - Type of business Desribe
2.2.6.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.6.5 - Total demand at business m³/d
2.2.6.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :COMMERCIAL & BUSINESS Describe(if any)
2.2.6.7 - Total demand of all Businesses m³/d
2.2.7 - INDUSTRY 2.2.7.1 - Industry name Name
2.2.7.2 - Village name in which the Industry is situated Name
2.2.7.3 - Type of Industry Desribe
2.2.7.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.7.5 - Total demand at Industry m³/d
2.2.7.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :INDUSTRY Describe(if any)
2.2.7.7 - Total demand of all industries m³/d
2.2.8 - MINING 2.2.8.1 - Mine name Name
2.2.8.2 - Village name where the mine is situated Name
2.2.8.3 - Type of mine Desribe
2.2.8.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.8.5 - Total demand at Mine m³/d
2.2.8.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :MINING Describe(if any)
2.2.8.7 - Total demand of all mines m³/d
2.2.9 - AGRICULTURE 2.2.9.1 - Name Name
2.2.9.2 - Village name where the agricultural activity is situated Name
2.2.9.3 - Type of agriculture Desribe
2.2.9.4 - Service level (1 - 5) 1=Low, 5 = High Choose
2.2.9.5 - Total demand for agricultural activity m³/d
2.2.9.6 - Influence from ongoing actions :AGRICULTURE Describe(if any)
2.2.9.7 - Total demand of all agricultural activities m³/d
2.2.10 - LIVE STOCK 2.2.10.1 - Total large stoch units Name
2.2.10.2 - Total small stock units Name
2.2.10.3 - Consumption : Equiv. Large stock unit l/unit/d
2.2.10.4 - Influence from ongoing actions :LIVE STOCK Describe(if any)
2.2.10.5 - Total demand of all live stock m³/d
2.2.11 - ENVIRONMENT 2.2.11.1 - Total water RESERVE of the natural environment m³/a
2.2.11.2 - Total consumption from the NATURAL ENVIRONMENT m³/a
2.2.11.3 - Other (List) m³/a
2.2.11.4 - Influence from ongoing actions :ENVIRONMENT Describe(if any)
2.2.11.5 - Total demand of the Environment m³/d
2.2.12 - RECREATION & SOCIAL 2.2.12.1 - Parks m³/a
2.2.12.2 - Sports facilities m³/a
2.2.12.3 - Cultural m³/a
2.2.12.4 - Influence from ongoing actions :RECREATIONAL & SOCIAL Describe(if any)
2.2.12.5 - Total demand of all recreational and social activities m³/d
2.3 - POSSIBLE 2.3.1 - OPTIONS TO PROVIDE 2.3.1.1 - Name the alternative options to develop new (greenfield) service level
SOLUTION PLANNED SERVICE LEVELS infrastructure text
2.3.2 - OPTIONS TO PROVIDE 2.3.2.1 - Name the alternative options to upgrade the existing service level
PLANNED SERVICE LEVELS infrastructure text
2.4.1 - ADDITIONAL WATER 2.4.1.1 - What is the Additional Water Requirement (Total Planned minus Total
2.4 - GAP (DIFFERENCE) REQUIREMENTS Existing) ? m³/d
3.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS
3 - WATER SOURCES QUO) 3.1.1 - CLIMATE 3.1.1.1 - What is the average annual rainfall/presepitation mm/a
3.1.1.2 - What is the average annual evaporation mm/a
3.1.1.3 - what is the average summer temperature °C
3.1.1.4 - what is the average winter temperature °C
3.1.2 - GROUNDWATER 3.1.2.1 - Name / Number Name
3.1.2.2 - Village name where the ground water source is situated Name
3.1.2.3 - Type : Borehole/ spring / well/ specify Specify
3.1.2.4 - Condition (1 - 5) : 1=Poor, 5=Good Choose
3.1.2.5 - Quality : Within acceptable norms, Yes / No, qualify Y / N; Qualify
3.1.2.6 - Reliability (1 - 5) : 1=Poor, 5=Good Choose
3.1.2.7 - Potential daily production m³/d
3.1.2.8 - Actual daily production m³/d
3.1.2.9 - Equiped, Yes / No Yes / No
3.1.2.10 - Type of equipment Describe
3.1.2.11 - Operational Yes / No Yes / No
3.1.2.12 - Pump house Describe
3.1.2.13 - Linked to distribution system Yes / No, describe Y / N; Describe
3.1.2.14 - Distance from customer / distribution pipework km
3.1.2.15 - Total daily production of all groundwater sources m³/d
3.1.2.16 - Accessibility to customer - Describe? Describe
3.1.2.17 - Total influence from ongoing actions Describe
3.1.2.18 - Total daily net contribution m³/d

FS_Guide_DataMatrix_Edited-2002-09-25 Page 2 of 9 Printed : 2002/10/17


MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

T
Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
3 - WATER SOURCES 3.1 - EXISTING 3.1.3 - SURFACE WATER 3.1.3.1 - Name Name
3.1.3.2 - Village name where the surface water source is situated Name
3.1.3.3 - Type : Dam, River, Specify Specify
3.1.3.4 - Condition (1 - 5) : 1=Poor, 5=Good Choose
3.1.3.5 - Quality : Within acceptable norms, Yes / No, qualify Y / N; Qualify
3.1.3.6 - Reliability1=Poor, 5=Good Choose
3.1.3.7 - Total capacity Ml/a
3.1.3.8 - Potential primary allocation (also state the % assurance) Ml/a; % Ass.
3.1.3.9 - Maximum quantity able to abstract m³/d
3.1.3.10 - Operational Yes / No Yes / No
3.1.3.11 - Linked to distribution system Yes / No Yes / No
3.1.3.12 - Distance from distribution pipework km
3.1.3.13 - Total daily production of all surface water sources m³/d
3.1.3.14 - Accessibility to customer - Describe Describe
3.1.3.15 - Total influence from ongoing actions Describe
3.1.3.16 - Total daily net contribution m³/d
3.1.4 - EXTERNAL SOURCES 3.1.4.1 - Name Name
3.1.4.2 - Position Describe
3.1.4.3 - Type : canal / bulk pipe / etc. Specify
3.1.4.4 - Condition (1 - 5) : 1=Poor, 5=Good Choose
3.1.4.5 - Quality : Within acceptable norms, Yes / No, qualify Y / N; Qualify
3.1.4.6 - Reliability1=Poor, 5=Good Choose
3.1.4.7 - Total capacity available m³/d
3.1.4.8 - Operational Yes / No Choose
3.1.4.9 - Linked to distribution system Yes / No Yes / No
3.1.4.10 - Distance from distribution pipework km
3.1.4.11 - Total available from external water sources m³/d
3.1.4.12 - Accessibility to customer - Describe Describe
3.1.4.13 - Total influence from ongoing actions Describe
3.1.4.14 - Total daily net contribution m³/d
3.1.5 - EXISTING WATER
AVAILABILITY FROM SOURCES 3.1.5.1 - Total daily production of all groundwater sources m³/d
3.1.5.2 - Total daily production of all surface water sources m³/d
3.1.5.3 - Total available from external water sources m³/d
3.1.5.4 - Accessibility to customer - Describe Describe
3.1.5.5 - Total influence from ongoing actions Describe
3.1.5.6 - Total daily net contribution - all sources m³/d
Describe &
3.1.5.7 - Important aspects to note regarding each source Quantify
3.2.1.1 - What is the water balance, I.e. future demand minus actual availability at base
3.2 - GAP (DIFFERENCE) 3.2.1 - SURPLUS OR SHORTAGE date? m³/d
3.2.1.2 - Important matters when considering the water balance State
3.2.1.3 - Remarks Text
3.3 - POSSIBLE 3.3.1 - REFURBISH EXISTING
SOLUTION SOURCE 3.3.1.1 - Name Option & Prioritize Name; Prioritize
3.3.1.3 - What is the refurbishment extent ? Describe
3.3.1.4 - Pro's & Con's Describe
3.3.1.5 - Estimated cost R
3.3.1.6 - Effect of ongoing & future actions m³/d; Describe
3.3.1.7 - Outside influence reasonably expected m³/d; Describe
3.3.1.8 - Projected contribution m³/a
3.3.1.9 - Remarks Text
3.3.1.10 - Total cost of water refurbishment R
3.3.1.11 - Total projected contribution of refurbishment m³/d
3.3.1.2 - What is the refurbishment potential ? m³/d
3.3.2 - RECYCLE EXISTING
WATER 3.3.2.1 - Name Option & Prioritize Name; Prioritize
3.3.2.2 - Extent Describe
3.3.2.3 - Pro's & Con's Describe
3.3.2.4 - Estimated cost R
3.3.2.5 - Effect of ongoing & future actions m³/a; Describe
3.3.2.6 - Outside influence reasonably expected m³/d; Describe
3.3.2.7 - Projected contribution m³/d
3.3.2.8 - Remarks Text
3.3.2.9 - Total cost of water recycling R
3.3.2.10 - Total projected contribution of water recycling m³/d
3.3.3 - ADDITIONAL WATER
FROM REFURBISHMENT &
REUSE 3.3.3.1 - Name Option(s) Name; Prioritize
3.3.3.2 - Extent Describe
3.3.3.3 - Pro's & Con's Describe
3.3.3.4 - Estimated cost R
3.3.3.5 - Total projected ADDITIONAL contribution of water m³/d
3.3.3.6 - Remarks Text
3.4 - PLANNED
SITUATION (GOAL) 3.4.1 - NEW DEVELOPMENT 3.4.1.1 - Name Option & Prioritize
3.4.1.2 - What is the development potential - projected contribution?
3.4.1.3 - What is the development extent ?
3.4.1.4 - Pro's & Con's
3.4.1.5 - Effect of ongoing & future actions
3.4.1.6 - Outside influence reasonably expected
3.4.1.7 - Estimted cost for water resource development
3.4.1.8 - Remarks
3.4.2 - NEW IMPORT 3.4.2.1 - Name Option & Prioritize
3.4.2.2 - What is the import potential - projected contribution?
3.4.2.3 - What is the import extent ?
3.4.2.4 - Pro's & Con's
3.4.2.5 - Estimated cost
3.4.2.6 - Effect of ongoing & future actions
3.4.2.7 - Outside influence reasonably expected
3.4.2.8 - Estimted cost for water import
3.4.2.9 - Remarks
3.4.3 - UPGRADE EXISTING
SOURCE 3.4.3.1 - Name Option & Prioritize
3.4.3.2 - What is the upgrade potential - projected contribution?
3.4.3.3 - What is the upgrade extent ?
3.4.3.4 - Pro's & Con's
3.4.3.5 - Estimated cost
3.4.3.6 - Effect of ongoing & future actions
3.4.3.7 - Outside influence reasonably expected
3.4.3.8 - Remarks

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MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

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Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits

3.4 - PLANNED 3.4.4 - ADDITIONAL WATER


3 - WATER SOURCES SITUATION (GOAL) FROM DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS 3.4.4.1 - Name Option(s)
3.4.4.2 - Extent
3.4.4.3 - Pro's & Con's
3.4.4.4 - Estimated cost
3.4.4.5 - Total projected ADDITIONAL contribution of water
3.4.4.6 - Effect of ongoing & future actions
3.4.4.7 - Remarks
3.5 - POSSIBLE 3.5.1 - NEW WATER
SOLUTION DEVELOPMENT 3.5.1.1 - What are the potential new water resource developments ? List & Quantify
3.5.1.2 - What is the potential for water import ? List & Quantify
3.5.1.3 - What is the potential for water resource upgrade ? List & Quantify
3.5.1.4 - Compliance with regional strategy Yes / No, Comment
3.5.1.5 - Compliance with national strategy Yes / No, Comment
4.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS
4 - INFRASTRUCTURE QUO) 4.1.1 - IDENTIFICATION 4.1.1.1 - SCHEME NAME (Enter : Scheme name) Text
4.1.1.2 - NAME OF INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT (Enter the name) Text
4.1.1.3 - CURRENT INFRASTRUCTURE OWNER (Enter : DWAF/ Local Authority/
Tribal Authotity/ Trust/ State/ Private) Choose
4.1.1.4 - CURRENT OPERATOR (Enter: DWAF/ Local Auth./ Water Service Provider/
Community/ State/ Priv./ Describe) Choose
4.1.1.5 - RESPONSIBLE MAINTENANCE DEPOT (Enter name of resonsible
maintenance depot) Name & Town
4.1.1.6 - DISTANCE FROM MAINTENANCE DEPOT (Enter distance from resonsible
maintenance depot) km
4.1.1 - LINKED
INFRASTRUCTURE 4.1.1.10 - ELECTRICITY (Describe Supply & Capacity) Describe
4.1.1.11 - RAILWAY (Enter name of closest station & distance to) Name & km
4.1.1.12 - COMMUNICATIONS (T=Telephone, R= 2 way radio, C=Cell.phone,
TM=Telemetry, N=None) Choose
4.1.1.7 - LINKED INFRASTRUCTURE (Describe CWSS infrastructure linked)
4.1.1.8 - LARGE TOWN NAME & DISTANCE (Enter : Name of closest large town &
give distance)
4.1.1.9 - ROADS (Describe main & Secondry access roads with distance to said
Infrastructure)
4.1.2 - DAM / WEIR 4.1.2.1 - DAM / WEIR (D=Dam, W=Weir) Choose

4.1.2.2 - TYPE (Earthfill / Rock Wall / Concrete Gravity / concrete arch / Describe) Choose
4.1.2.3 - POSITION (Enter the position of the dam wall ( Lat & Long)) Lat, Long
4.1.2.4 - FLOOD DISCHARGE RATE (Enter the maximum flood discharge rate) Mm³/s
4.1.2.5 - NOMINAL DAM HEIGHT (Enter the nominal dam height) m
4.1.2.6 - INLET ARRANGEMENT (Describe Inlet Arrangement) Text
4.1.2.7 - SPILLWAY ARRANGEMENT (Describe Spillway arrangement) Text
4.1.2.8 - SPILLWAY WIDTH (Enter the spillway width) m
4.1.2.9 - MEASURING STRUCTURES (Describe the measuring structures, comment
on condition and position) Text
4.1.2.10 - STORAGE CAPACITY:GROSS (Enter the gross storage capacity.) Mm³
4.1.2.11 - STORAGE CAPACITY: NET (Enter the net storage capacity.) Mm³
4.1.2.12 - DEAD WATER (Enter : Dead water capacity at present) Mm³

4.1.2.13 - SUPPLY (Enter the primary/ irrigation/ other/ primary reserve, for each %) Choose + Mm³/a
4.1.2.14 - ASSURED YIELD (Enter the assured yield ) Choose + Mm³/a
4.1.2.15 - SOURCE (Enter the source for the dam : river name, canal, etc) Text
4.1.2.16 - DESIGN FLOOD (Enter the design flood) Mm³/a
4.1.2.17 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Text + Number
4.1.2.18 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
& Quantify) y
4.1.3.1 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES IN SCHEME (Enter the number of boreholes in
4.1.3 - BOREHOLE the scheme) Number
4.1.3.2 - NUMBER OF WORKING BOREHOLES IN SCHEME (Enter the number of
Working boreholes in the scheme) Number
4.1.3.3 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES EQUIPPED (Enter Total Number of boreholes
equiped) Number
4.1.3.4 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES EQUIPPED WITH HAND PUMPS (Enter
Number of boreholes eqquiped with Hand Pumps) Number
4.1.3.5 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES EQUIPPED DIESEL ENGINES (Enter Number
of boreholes eqquiped with Diesel Engines) Number
4.1.3.6 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES EQUIPPED WITH ELECTRIC MOTORS (Enter
Number of boreholes eqquiped with Electric Motors) Number
4.1.3.7 - AVERAGE REPRESENTATIVE COMMISSIONING DATE (Enter date (Year),
ie completion date) Year
4.1.3.8 - LIFE EXPECTANCY (State the remaining average life expectancy) Years
4.1.3.9 - COMBINED BOREHOLE YIELD (Enter : Combinerd yield of relevant
boreholes) m³/day
4.1.3.10 - AVERAGE BOREHOLE DEPTH (Enter the average depth of borehole) m

4.1.3.11 - AVERAGE WORKING HOURS (Enter the average working hours per day.) Hours
4.1.3.12 - TYPICAL PUMP UNIT EQUIPMENT (Enter the typical pump unit equipment -
pump type) Text
4.1.3.13 - SUPER STRUCTURE (Describe typical super structures : Cladded/ Cage/ Choose/+Describ
Brick/ Concrete/ Sump/ None) e
4.1.3.14 - NUMBER OF OPERATIONAL BOREHOLES PROPOSED (Enter number of
operational boreholes proposed) Number
4.1.3.15 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES PROPOSED TO BE EQUIPPED (Enter Total
Number of boreholes proposed to be equiped) Number
4.1.3.16 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES TO BE EQUIPPED WITH HAND PUMPS
(Enter No. of boreholes to be eqquiped with Hand Pumps) Number
4.1.3.17 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES TO BE EQUIPPED DIESEL ENGINES (Enter
No. of boreholes to be eqquiped with Diesel Engines) Number
4.1.3.18 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES TO BE EQUIPPED WITH ELECTRIC
MOTORS (Enter No. of boreholes to be eqquiped with Electric Motors) Number
4.1.3.19 - NUMBER OF BOREHOLES PROPOSED TO BE REFURBISHED (Enter
total No. of boreholes to be refurbished) Number
4.1.3.20 - COMBINED BOREHOLE YIELD (Enter : Combinerd yield of relevant
boreholes) m³/day
4.1.3.21 - AVERAGE BOREHOLE DEPTH (Enter the average depth of borehole) m

4.1.3.22 - AVERAGE WORKING HOURS (Enter the average working hours per day.) Hours

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MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

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Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
4.1 - EXISTING 4.1.3.23 - TYPICAL PUMP UNIT EQUIPMENT (Enter the typical pump unit equipment -
4 - INFRASTRUCTURE SITUATION (STATUS 4.1.3 - BOREHOLE pump type) Text
4.1.3.24 - SUPER STRUCTURE (Describe typical super structures : Cladded/ Cage/ Choose/+Describ
Brick/ Concrete/ Sump/ None) e
4.1.3.25 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
& Quantify) y
4.1.4 - W.PUMP STATION 4.1.4.1 - PUMP STATION : TYPE (Enter : Raw Water / Clear Water / Booster) Choose
4.1.4.2 - PUMPING UNITS (Number of Pumping Units) Number
4.1.4.3 - STANDBY PUMPSETS (Number of Standby Units) Number
4.1.4.4 - SUPER STRUCTURE (Describe typical super structures : Cladded/ Cage/
Brick/ Concrete/ Sump/ None) Choose
4.1.4.5 - TOTAL CAPACITY (Enter the Total Capacity of the pump station) m³/s
4.1.4.6 - % CAPACITY IN USE (Enter the % capacity in use) %
4.1.4.7 - HEAD (Provide the average pressure head at point of duty.) m
4.1.4.8 - AGE OF PUMPING STATION (Enter : Age of the pumping station) Years
4.1.4.9 - PUMP FROM (State the origin) Text
4.1.4.10 - PUMP TO (State the destination ) Text

4.1.4.11 - POWER SOURCE (State the type of power source: D = Diesel, E = Electric) Choose
4.1.4.12 - EXTENTION POTENTIAL (Describe the extention potential) Text
4.1.4.13 - TELEMETRY (Enter : Yes / No) Choose
4.1.4.14 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Describe & km
4.1.4.15 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
& Quantify) y
4.1.5.1 - SOURCE OF TREATMENT WORKS (Enter : Source of water at the inlet of
4.1.5 - W.TREATMENT WORKS the treatment works) Text
4.1.5.2 - TREATMENT TYPE (Enter: Home treatm./ Package P/ Conv./ Advanced
treatment/ Slow sand filter) Choose
4.1.5.3 - CAPACITY (Enter : Design capacity.) ML/day
4.1.5.4 - PROCESS STAGES IN USE (Enter: Chem dosing, Flocc., Settling tanks,
Filters, Advanced, Disinfection) Choose
4.1.5.5 - EXTENTION POTENTIAL (Describe the extention potential) Describe
4.1.5.6 - SUPER STRUCTURE (Describe typical super structures : Cladded/ Cage/
Brick/ Concrete/ Sump/ None) Choose
4.1.5.7 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Text & km
4.1.5.8 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
& Quantify) y
4.1.6 - BULK PIPELINE 4.1.6.1 - GRAVITY / PUMP MAIN (G=Gravity, P=Pump Main) Choose

4.1.6.2 - PIPE LINE MATERIAL (Enter : AC, HDPE, uPVC, Steel, GRP, Concrete) Choose
4.1.6.3 - TOTAL LENGTH (Enter total length in KM's) km
4.1.6.4 - PIPE LINE START FROM (State the Origin point of the pipe line.) Text
4.1.6.5 - PIPELINE TERMINATE AT (State the termination point of the pipe line.) Text
4.1.6.6 - REPRESENTATIVE DIAMETER (Enter : Most Representative Diameter over
total length of pipeline) Ø mm
4.1.6.7 - TYPE OF WATER CONVEYED (Enter : Raw Warter, Clear Water) Choose
4.1.6.8 - DESIGN CAPACITY IN L/s (Enter : Design capacity.) L/s
4.1.6.9 - CATHODIC PROTECTION (Enter : Yes / No) Choose
4.1.6.10 - ROAD CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of road crossings) km
4.1.6.11 - FLOW CONTROL VALVES (Enter : FC =Flow Control, Number +/ PC
=Pressure Control, Number) Choose & Number
4.1.6.12 - WATER COURSE CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of water course
crossings) km

4.1.6.13 - BULK WATER METERS (Describe the position & comment on condition) Text
4.1.6.14 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Text & km
4.1.7.1 - GROUND RESERVOIR OR ELEVATED TANK (Enter : Ground / Elevated
4.1.7 - RESERVOIR Tank) Choose
4.1.7.2 - CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL (Enter : Earth / Steel/ Brick/ Concrete/
Synthetic) Choose
4.1.7.3 - RESERVOIR CAPACITY (Enter : Full Supply Capacity) ML
4.1.7.4 - CONTROL MECHANISM (Describe Control Mechanism) Text
4.1.7.5 - TELEMETRY (Enter : Yes / No) Choose
4.1.7.6 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Text & km
4.1.7.7 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
& Quantify) y
4.1.8.1 - WATER SOURCE (State the Source : Local Reservoir / Regional reservoir /
4.1.8 - RETICULATION Regional Pipe/ Describe) Choose / Describe
4.1.8.2 - PIPE LINE MATERIAL : AVERAGE (Enter : AC, HDPE, uPVC, Steel, GRP,
Concrete) Choose
4.1.8.3 - TOTAL LENGTH (Enter total length in KM's) km
4.1.8.4 - REPRESENTATIVE DIAMETER (Enter : Most Representative Diameter over
total length of pipeline) Ø mm
4.1.8.5 - REPRESENTATIVE PIPE CLASS (Enter : Most Representative Pipe Class
over total length of pipeline) Number
4.1.8.6 - DESIGN CAPACITY IN L/s (Enter : Design capacity.) L/s
4.1.8.7 - WATER POINTS (Enter total number of water points (communal &yard &
house, etc)) Number
4.1.8.8 - PREPAID METERING (Comment on extent, condition, operational status,
etc) Text
4.1.8.9 - COMMUNAL TAPS (Enter : Total number of communal taps) Number
4.1.8.10 - YARD CONNECTIONS (Enter : Total number of yard connections) Number
4.1.8.11 - HOUSE CONNECTIONS (Enter : Total number of house connections) Number
4.1.8.12 - YARD TANKS (Enter : Total number of yard tanks) Number
4.1.8.13 - PROVISION FOR STOCK WATER (Enter : Total number of communal taps
with provision for stock watering) Number
4.1.8.14 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
the physical attributes in general terms & Quantify) y
4.1.9.1 - WATER SOURCE (State the Source : Dam/ River/ Pipe Line, Other Choose &
4.1.9 - CANALS (Describe)) Describe
4.1.9.2 - CANAL LINING : AVERAGE (Enter : Earth, Rock, Concrete, Other Choose &
(Describe)) Describe
4.1.9.3 - CANAL PROFILE (Enter : Circular/ Rectangular/ Triangular/ Trapezoidal,
Other ) Choose
4.1.9.4 - TOTAL LENGTH (Enter total length in KM's) km
4.1.9.5 - CANAL START FROM (State the Origin point of the Canal.) Text
4.1.9.6 - CANAL TERMINATE AT (State the termination point of the Canal.) Text
4.1.9.7 - DESIGN CAPACITY IN L/s (Enter : Design capacity.) m³/s
4.1.9.8 - MAX CAPACITY IN L/s : AVERAGE (Enter : Max Capacity) m³/s
4.1.9.9 - ROAD CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of road crossings) km

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MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

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Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
4.1 - EXISTING 4.1.9.10 - WATER COURSE CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of water course
4 - INFRASTRUCTURE SITUATION (STATUS 4.1.9 - CANALS crossings) km
4.1.9.11 - BALANCING DAM (Enter balancing dam's name & capacity in m³) m³
4.1.9.12 - HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES : SYPHON (Enter Total Number, Total Length, Number & m &
Average diameter) Øm

4.1.9.13 - HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES : FARM TURN OUTS (Enter Total Number) Number
4.1.9.14 - HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES : MEASURING STATIONS (Enter Total
Number) Number

4.1.9.15 - HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES : ABSTRACTION SUMP (Enter Total Number) Number


4.1.9.16 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
the physical attributes in general terms & Quantify) y
4.2 - PLANNED 4.2.1.1 - TYPE OF SEWAGE SYSTEM (Enter : Small Bore solid free / shallow sewer
SITUATION (GOAL) 4.2.1 - SEW.PIPE NETWORK system/ Full Bore system) Choose
4.2.1.2 - PIPE LINE MATERIAL : AVERAGE (Enter : HDPE, uPVC, Steel, GRP,
Concrete, PVC, Clay, Other (Describe)) Choose
4.2.1.3 - TOTAL LENGTH (Enter total length in KM's) km
4.2.1.4 - REPRESENTATIVE DIAMETER (Enter : Most Representative Diameter over
total length of pipeline) Ø mm
4.2.1.5 - DESIGN CAPACITY IN L/s (Enter : Design capacity.) L/s
4.2.1.6 - ROAD CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of road crossings) km
4.2.1.7 - WATER COURSE CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of water course
crossings) km
4.2.1.8 - YARD CONNECTIONS (Enter : Total number of yard connections) Number
4.2.1.9 - HOUSE CONNECTIONS (Enter : Total number of house connections) Number
4.2.1.10 - YARD TANKS (Enter : Total number of yard tanks) Number
4.2.1.11 - % COVERAGE (Enter % of village Covered) %
4.2.1.12 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
the physical attributes in general terms & Quantify) y
4.2.2.1 - SOURCE OF TREATMENT WORKS (State the source : Number of Towns No.(towns),
4.2.2 - S.TREATMENT WORKS and Number of Villages) No.(Vil)
4.2.2.2 - TREATMENT PROCESS (Enter: Biofilter/ Activated Sludge/ Oxidation Ponds/
Maturation Ponds/ Describe) Choose
4.2.2.3 - COMPONENTS (Enter : Type, Number & Size of components in the
process.) Type,No.,Size
4.2.2.4 - CAPACITY (Enter : design capacity.) ML/day
4.2.2.5 - EXTENTION POTENTIAL (Describe the extention potential) Text
4.2.2.6 - SUPERSTRUCTURE (Describe typical super structures : Cladded/ Cage/
Brick/ Concrete/ Sump/ None) Choose
4.2.2.7 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Text & km
4.2.2.8 - TREATED SLUDGE : DESTINATION (Describe) Text
4.2.2.9 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
the physical attributes in general terms & Quantify) y

4.2.3 - BULK PIPELINE - SEWER 4.2.3.1 - GRAVITY / PUMP MAIN (G=Gravity, P=Pump Main) Choose
4.2.3.2 - PIPE LINE MATERIAL (EnteR : HDPE, uPVC, Steel, GRP, Concrete, Clay, Choose &
Other (Describe)) Describe
4.2.3.3 - TOTAL LENGTH (Enter total length in KM's) km
4.2.3.4 - PIPE LINE START FROM (State the Origin point of the pipe line.) Text
4.2.3.5 - PIPELINE TERMINATE AT (State the termination point of the pipe line.) Text
4.2.3.6 - REPRESENTATIVE DIAMETER (Enter : Most Representative Diameter over
total length of pipeline) Ø mm
4.2.3.7 - REPRESENTATIVE PIPE CLASS (Enter : Most Representative Pipe Class
over total length of pipeline) km
4.2.3.8 - DESIGN CAPACITY IN L/s (Enter : Design capacity.) L/s
4.2.3.9 - CATHODIC PROTECTION (Enter : Yes / No) Choose
4.2.3.10 - ROAD CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of road crossings) km
4.2.3.11 - WATER COURSE CROSSINGS (Enter the total km's of water course
crossings) km
4.2.3.12 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Describe & km
4.2.3.13 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
the physical attributes in general terms & Quantify) y
4.2.4.1 - TYPE OF SANITATION SYSTEM (Enter: VIP, Chem. Toilet, Septic Choose &
4.2.4 - ON SITE SANITATION Tank&Soak Away, Aquaprivy tanker, Other(Describe)) Describe
4.2.4.2 - TOTAL ON SITE SANITATION UNITS (Enter : Total Number of of on site
units) Number
4.2.4.3 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
the physical attributes in general terms & Quantify) y
4.2.5 - S. PUMP STATION 4.2.5.1 - PUMPING UNITS (Number of Pumping Units) Number
4.2.5.2 - STANDBY PUMPSETS (Number of Standby Units) Number
4.2.5.3 - PUMP MECHANISM (Enter : Centrifugal/ Multistage/ Pos Displacement/
Turbine/ Other (Describe)) Choose
4.2.5.4 - SUPER STRUCTURE (Describe typical super structures : Cladded/ Cage/
Brick/ Concrete/ Sump/ None) Choose
4.2.5.5 - TOTAL CAPACITY (Enter the Total Capacity of the pump station) m³/s
4.2.5.6 - % CAPACITY IN USE (Enter the % capacity in use) %
4.2.5.7 - HEAD (Provide the average pressure head at point of duty.) m
4.2.5.8 - AGE OF PUMPING STATION (Enter : Age of the pumping station) Years
4.2.5.9 - PUMP FROM (State the origin of inlet) Text
4.2.5.10 - PUMP TO (State the destination ) Text
4.2.5.12 - EXTENTION POTENTIAL (Describe the extention potential) Text

4.2.5.11 - POWER SOURCE (State the type of power source: D = Diesel, E = Electric)
4.2.5.13 - TELEMETRY (Enter : Yes / No) Choose
4.2.5.14 - ACCESS (Describe access road & give length in km) Describe & km
4.2.5.15 - DESCRIBE THE PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN GENERAL TERMS (Describe Describe&Quantif
the physical attributes in general terms & Quantify) y
4.3 - POSSIBLE 4.3.1 - DEFINE
SOLUTION INFRASTRUCTURE PACKAGE 4.3.1.1 - Define the total infrastructure package (in general terms) Describe
4.3.1.2 - How will the Project solve the problem / need Describe
4.3.1.3 - List Components involved List
4.3.1.4 - Quantify components (also provide a map on suitable backdrop) Describe
4.3.2 - COMPLEXITY OF
INFRASTRUCTURE PACKAGE 4.3.2.1 - What is the extent of the Infrastructure components Describe
4.3.2.2 - What is the Complexity of the opted arrangement Describe
4.3.2.3 - What is the influence / effect of ongoing &/ fututure &/ outside actions Comment
4.3.2.4 - Effect of time to complete Comment
4.3.2.5 - Water meters : Prepaid, etc - Describe Describe
4.3.2.6 - Street taps %, Yard connections %, house connections %, etc Quantify
4.3.2.7 - Effect on Operations & Maintenance Quantify

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MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

T
Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
4 - INFRASTRUCTURE 4.3 - POSSIBLE 4.3.2 - COMPLEXITY OF 4.3.2.8 - Remarks Text
4.3.2.9 - Life expectancy Yrs
4.3.3 - ASSOCIATED
REQUIREMENTS FOR
INFRASTRUCTURE OPTION 4.3.3.1 - Personnel - List & Quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.2 - Transport - List & Quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.3 - Accomodation - List & quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.4 - Buildings - List & Quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.5 - Specialist support - List & quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.6 - Access - List & quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.7 - Electricity - Quantify Quantify
4.3.3.8 - Communication - Quantify Quantify
4.3.3.9 - Training - List & Quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.10 - Logistical requirements - List & Quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.11 - Metering - Describe the effect / impact of opted metering Describe
4.3.3.12 - Quantify risks List & Quantify
4.3.3.13 - Safety requirements - List & Quantify List & Quantify
4.3.3.14 - Threats - comment on threats : e.g. vandalism, illegal connections, etc. Comment
4.3.3.15 - Long term considerations Discuss
4.3.3.16 - External influences Comment
4.3.4 - REFURBISHMENT
REQUIREMENT OF
INFRASTRUCTURE OPTION 4.3.4.1 - List Components List
4.3.4.2 - Quantify components Quantify
4.3.4.3 - Extent Describe
4.3.4.4 - Complexity Describe
4.3.5 - SUMMARY 4.3.5.1 - Global effect of timing of delivery Comment
4.3.5.2 - Compliance with regional strategy Comment
4.3.5.3 - Cost : Total project cost (Include for all components) = CAPITAL COST R
4.3.5.4 - Cost : Estimate medium to long term implications & state relevant
considerations R: Discuss
5.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS 5.1.1 - CATCHMENT
5 - MANAGEMENT QUO) MANAGEMENT AGENCY 5.1.1.1 - Catchment Management Agency - Yes / No, if Yes - Name Y/N; Name
5.1.1.2 - Comment on the CMA's capacity to manage Comment
5.1.1.3 - What is the CMA's area of jurisdiction ? Describe
5.1.1.4 - Is there a monitoring system in place ? Yes / No; Describe Y/N; Describe

5.1.1.5 - Is there a public participation process in place - Yes / No, if Yes - Describe Y/N; Describe
5.1.1.6 - Ongoing actions to take into account Describe
5.1.1.7 - Restrictions and or opportunities List & Describe
5.1.2 - WATER USER 5.1.2.1 - Is there a WUA in place - Yes / No, if Yes - Name / Comment & state
ASSOCIATION relevance Y/N; Describe
5.1.2.2 - Composition of the WUA Describe
5.1.2.3 - What is the purpose of the WUA ? Describe
5.1.2.4 - Liaison with WSP - Describe Describe
5.2 - PLANNED 5.2.1 - CATCHMENT
SITUATION (GOAL) MANAGEMENT AGENCY 5.2.1.1 - CMA's capacity to manage - what is required ? Describe
5.2.1.2 - Name required role players? Name
5.2.1.3 - Monitoring system to be in place ? Describe Describe
5.2.1.4 - Public participation process to be in place - Describe Describe
5.2.1.5 - Future actions to take into account Describe
5.2.1.6 - The Project :Conform to Regional or National Strategies with regard to CMA
objectives? Confirm
5.2.2 - WATER USER
ASSOCIATION 5.2.2.1 - WUA to be in place - Name & Describe & State role players Recommend
5.2.2.2 - What should the objectives of the WUA be? Recommend
5.3 - POSSIBLE 5.3.1 - ASPECTS TO BE
SOLUTION ADDRESSED 5.3.1.1 - With regard to the CMA Y/N; Describe
5.3.1.2 - With regard to the WUA 0
5.3.1.3 - Monitoring system Describe
5.3.1.4 - Public participation & Role Players Describe
5.3.1.5 - Allowance for future &/ ongoing &/ outside actions actions Describe
6.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS
6 - MANAGEMENT QUO) 6.1.1 - TECHNOLOGY 6.1.1.1 - Describe the technology used (where relevant) ? Comment
6.1.1.2 - Infrastructure components assessed for compatibility ? Comment
6.1.1.3 - Infrastructure components assessed for upgradability ? Comment

6.1.1.4 - Infrastructure assessed for compatibility to the evironment in which it is used? Comment
6.1.2 - OPERATIONS & 6.1.2.1 - Check if the technology operation is compatible to the evironment in which it
MAINTENANCE is used? Comment
6.1.2.2 - Are spare parts readily available ? Comment
6.1.2.3 - Assess whether extraordinary O&M are due to technology used ? Comment
6.1.2.4 - Check if backup is readily available for technology used Comment
6.2 - PLANNED
SITUATION (GOAL) 6.2.1 - TECHNOLOGY 6.2.1.1 - What technology is most appropriate (where relevant) ? Text
6.2.1.2 - Assure that recommended infrastructure (new & exist.)components are
compatible ? Confirm;Text
6.2.1.3 - Assure that infrastructure components are upgradable ? Confirm;Text
6.2.1.4 - Assure that the infrastruct. opted are compatible to the evironm. in which it is
intended? Confirm;Text
6.2.2 - OPERATIONS & 6.2.2.1 - Assure that the technology intended are compatible to the evironment in
MAINTENANCE which it is used? Text
6.2.2.2 - Assurance that spare parts are readily available ? Text
6.2.2.3 - Assure that O&M are able to handle technology intended ? Text
6.2.2.4 - Assure that backup is readily available for technology intended Text
6.3 - POSSIBLE 6.3.1 - ASPECTS TO BE
SOLUTION ADDRESSED 6.3.1.1 - Check : Compatability, recommend what is needed. Recommend
6.3.1.2 - Check : Appropriateness to environment , recommend what is needed. Recommend
6.3.1.3 - Check : Upgradability, recommend what is needed. Recommend
6.3.1.4 - Check : Maintainability, recommend what is needed. Recommend
6.3.1.5 - Check : Backup & support, recommend what is needed. Recommend
7.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS 7.1.1 - OPERATIONS &
7 - MANAGEMENT QUO) MAINTENANCE 7.1.1.1 - Who is responsible ? Name
7.1.1.2 - What is the present status - Describe Describe
7.1.1.3 - Give the present structure Describe
7.1.1.4 - Is the staff compliment adequate ? Comment
7.1.1.5 - Is the sector adequately supported ? Comment
7.1.1.6 - Adequacy of trained staff Comment

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MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

T
Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
7 - MANAGEMENT 7.1 - EXISTING 7.1.1 - OPERATIONS & 7.1.1.7 - Shortfalls (other) - Describe Describe
7.1.1.8 - Effect of ongoing actions Describe
7.2 - PLANNED 7.2.1 - OPERATIONS &
SITUATION (GOAL) MAINTENANCE 7.2.1 - Who should be responsible ? Name
7.2.2 - What should be done to improve the status - Describe Describe
7.2.3 - What should the structure be ? Describe
7.2.4 - What should the staff compliment be ? Describe Comment
7.2.5 - What support is required ? Comment
7.2.6 - Additional training requirement Comment
7.2.7 - What is required to relieve the shortfalls (other) - Describe Describe
7.2.8 - Effect of future actions Describe
7.3 - POSSIBLE 7.3.1 - OPERATIONS &
SOLUTION MAINTENANCE 7.3.1 - State & quantify staff compliment required Quantify; state
7.3.2 - Recommendations on improvements required Recommend
7.3.3 - Recommendations on support required - also quantify Recommend
7.3.4 - Recommendations on training required - also quantify Recommend
7.3.5 - Recommendations on actions to eliminate shortfalls Recommend
7.3.6 - Actions to conform to Regional strategies and external activities Recommend
8.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS
8 - ENVIRONMENTAL QUO) 8.1.1 - STATUS 8.1.1.1 - What is the CMA doing to protect the water resources? Describe
8.1.1.2 - What is DWAF doing to protect the environment ? Describe
8.1.1.3 - Other roleplayers(if any) - List & describe their roles. List & Describe
8.1.1.4 - Environmental problems - Describe Describe
8.1.1.5 - Status of the fauna & flora & soil & nature sensitivity? Comment
8.1.1.6 - Endangered plants or animals - Descriibe Describe
8.1.1.7 - Environmental 'watchdog' organizations active - List & comment. List & Comment
8.1.1.8 - Ongoing conservation actions - Describe Describe
8.1.1.9 - Is there any environmental awareness? Comment
8.1.1.10 - Is there a monitoring system in place ? Y/N; Describe
8.1.1.11 - Regional strategy - comment Confirm
8.1.1.12 - Restriction & Opportunities Describe
8.2 - PLANNED
SITUATION (GOAL) 8.2.1 - REQUIRED 8.2.1.1 - What will the CMA's role & impact be ? Describe
8.2.1.2 - What will DWAF's role & impact be ? Describe
8.2.1.3 - Other roleplayers required (if any) - List & describe their roles. List & Describe
8.2.1.4 - Environmental problems created / foreseen - Describe. Describe
8.2.1.5 - Impact on status of the fauna & flora & soil & nature ? Comment
8.2.1.6 - Impact on - endangered plants or animals. Describe
8.2.1.7 - Environmental 'watchdog' organizations - List & comment on their role &
impact. List & Comment
8.2.1.8 - Ongoing conservation actions required- Describe Describe
8.2.1.9 - Is there a need for environmental awareness? Comment
8.2.1.10 - Will there be a monitoring system in place ? Y/N; Describe
8.2.1.11 - Regional strategy - comment on conformance. Confirm
8.2.1.12 - Restriction & Opportunities Describe
8.3 - POSSIBLE 8.3.1 - ASPECTS TO BE
SOLUTION ADDRESSED 8.3.1.1 - Requirements from the CMA Describe
8.3.1.2 - Requirements from DWAF Describe
8.3.1.3 - Requirements from 'watch dog' organizations Describe
8.3.1.4 - What additional role players to consult are required and what should their
purpose be List & Describe
8.3.1.5 - What conservation actions are required - Describe Describe
8.3.1.6 - What awareness program is required, if any ? Describe Describe
8.3.1.7 - Special environmental requirements - endangered species, soil cons., etc.?
Describe List & Describe
8.3.1.8 - What control / monitoring systems are required? Describe
9.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS 9.1.1 - WATER SERVICES
9 - INSTITUTIONAL QUO) AUTHORITY 9.1.1.1 - Water Service Authority - Name Name
9.1.1.2 - Name of the municipality Name
9.1.1.3 - Capacity & relevant responsibilities of the WSA Describe
9.1.1.4 - Describe the support to the WSA. Describe
9.1.2 - WATER SERVICES
PROVIDER 9.1.2.1 - Is there a WSDP in place? Comment
9.1.2.2 - Ongoing actions to take into account Describe
9.1.2.3 - Water Service Provider - Name Name
9.1.2.4 - Is the WSP able to provide efficient and effective water services to the
consumer ? Y/N Y/N; Describe
9.1.2.5 - Relevant responsibilities of the WSP. Describe
9.1.2.6 - Is there a cost recovery strategy in place or has one been considered ? Y/N; Describe
9.1.2.7 - Existing cost recovery systems Y/N; Describe
9.1.2.8 - Describe the support to the WSP. Describe
9.1.2.9 - Describe the relationship with the Bulk WSP (if any) Describe
9.1.2.10 - Ongoing & external actions to take into account. Comment
9.1.3 - WATER BOARDS 9.1.3.1 - Bulk Water Service Provider - Name (if any) Name
9.1.3.2 - Is the BWSP able to provide efficient and effective water services to the
consumer ? Y/N; Describe
9.1.4 - IMPLEMENTING AGENTS 9.1.4.1 - Implementing Agent - Name Name
9.1.4.2 - Capacity of IA Describe
9.1.4.3 - Relevant responsibilities of IA Describe

9.1.5 - CBO'S AND NGO'S 9.1.5.1 - Name community structures and describe roles Name & Describe

9.1.5.2 - Name NGO's and describe roles Name & Describe


9.2 - PLANNED 9.2.1 - WATER SERVICES
SITUATION (GOAL) AUTHORITY 9.2.1.1 - What is required from the WSA? Comment
9.2.1.2 - Functions to be contracted out by the WSA Recommend
9.2.1.3 - Required support to the WSA. Recommend
9.2.1.4 - Future actions to take into account Recommend
9.2.1.5 - WSDP requirements Describe
9.2.2 - WATER SERVICES
PROVIDER 9.2.2.1 - What is required from the WSP? Comment
9.2.2.2 - Additional capacity required by the WSP Recommend
9.2.2.3 - Functions to be contracted out by the WSP Recommend
9.2.2.4 - Cost recovery strategy requirements Recommend
9.2.2.5 - Required support to the WSP. Recommend
9.2.2.6 - Future & external actions to take into account Recommend
9.2.2.7 - Required cost recovery systems Recommend
9.2.3 - WATER BOARDS 9.2.3.1 - Additional requirement by BWSP Comment
9.2.4 - IMPLEMENTING AGENTS 9.2.4.1 - Additional requirement by IA Comment

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MINIMUM STANDARDS : QUESTION LIST

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Theme_1 Theme_2 Theme_3 Question oUnits
9 - INSTITUTIONAL 9.2 - PLANNED 9.2.5 - CBO'S AND NGO'S 9.2.5.1 - Additional requirement by community structures and NGO's Comment
9.3 - POSSIBLE 9.3.1 - WATER SERVICES
SOLUTION AUTHORITY 9.3.1.1 - WSA requirements Describe
9.3.1.2 - WSA capacity & support required Describe
9.3.1.3 - WSDP requirements Describe
9.3.2 - WATER SERVICES
PROVIDER 9.3.2.1 - WSP requirements Describe
9.3.2.2 - WSP capacity & support required Recommend
9.3.2.3 - Functions to be contracted out by the WSP Recommend
9.3.2.4 - Required cost recovery systems - Quantify Recommend
9.3.3 - WATER BOARDS 9.3.3.1 - BWSP requirements Comment
9.3.4 - IMPLEMENTING AGENTS 9.3.4.1 - IA requirements Comment
9.3.5 - CBO'S AND NGO'S 9.3.5.1 - Recommend additional liaison with community and NGO's Comment
10.1 - EXISTING
SITUATION (STATUS
10 - SOCIAL QUO) 10.1.1 - SOCIAL PROFILE 10.1.1.1 - Settlement type (Average) - % Metro., %Urban, %Rural % Each
10.1.1.2 - Settlement density (Average) - Very dense to vey scattered State
10.1.1.3 - Settlement size (Average) Population
10.1.1.4 - Household - Average size No.
10.1.1.5 - People - Average age Age
10.1.1.6 - Migration patterns - comment Comment
10.1.1.7 - Perception towards free basic water Comment
10.1.1.8 - Perception towards services - satisfied, not satisfied Comment
10.1.1.9 - Aspirations towards services : house connections, yard connections, street
taps. Comment
10.1.1.10 - Comments on health - Aids, etc Comment
10.1.1.11 - Ongoing actions : social awareness programme etc. Describe
10.1.1.12 - Communication with Service provider - forum, recurrent meetings Comment
10.1.1.13 - Comment on community involvemet Comment
10.1.2 - SOCIO-ECONOMIC
ASPECTS 10.1.2.1 - Empolyment sector - state the predominant emplyment sector Name
10.1.2.2 - Income - Average income per household R
10.1.2.3 - Employment - Estimated percentage of unemployment %
10.1.2.4 - Willingness to pay for services (1 - 5) 1=Unwilling, 5=Willing Choose
10.1.2.5 - Ability to pay for services (1 - 5) 1=Able, 5=Unable Choose
10.2 - PLANNED
SITUATION (GOAL) 10.2.1 - SOCIAL REQUIREMENTS 10.2.1.1 - Is a social awareness programme required ? Describe Describe
10.2.1.2 - Is a health awareness programme required ? Describe Describe

10.2.1.3 - Is additional communication required with the service provider - describe Describe
10.2.1.4 - What improvement to services are possible Describe
10.2.1.5 - What community involvement is required Describe
10.2.1.6 - What service will be acceptable to the customers Describe
10.2.2 - SOCIO-ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT 10.2.2.1 - Employment sector - changes foreseen, describe impact Describe
10.2.2.2 - Employment - Estimated percentage of unemployment -changes foreseen,
describe impact Comment
10.2.2.3 - Projected willingness to pay for services improve / decline (1 - 5)
1=Unwilling, 5=Willing Choose
10.2.2.4 - Projected ability to pay for services improvement / decline(1 - 5) 1=Able,
5=Unable Choose
10.3 - POSSIBLE 10.3.1 - ASPECTS TO BE
SOLUTION ADDRESSED 10.3.1.1 - Recommended social awareness programme Recommend
10.3.1.2 - Recommended health awareness programme Recommend
10.3.1.3 - Recommended communication forum/arrangement Recommend
10.3.1.4 - Recommended level of service Recommend
10.3.1.5 - Recommended community involvement program Recommend
10.3.1.6 - Recommendations on job creation through the project Recommend
10.3.1.7 - Recommended training programme Recommend
11.1 - EXISTING
11 - LEGAL & SITUATION (STATUS
FINANCES QUO) 11.1.1 - AVAILABLE FUNDING 11.1.1.1 - What sources of funding are received ? State State
11.1.1.2 - Can services be provided without outside funding ? Yes / No Y/N
11.1.1.3 - Effect of free basic water Describe
11.1.2 - COST RECOVERY 11.1.2.1 - Is cost recovery being done? Yes / No Y/N
11.1.2.2 - On what is cost recovery based ? Flat rate, individual metering, etc. Describe
11.1.2.3 - Estimate the success rate of cost recovery ? Est. %
11.1.2.4 - What level of service are being delivered ? E.g. 90% street taps, 0% house
connections, etc. Describe
11.1.2.5 - Effect of ongoing actions ? Describe
11.2 - PLANNED
SITUATION (GOAL) 11.2.1 - REQUIRED FUNDING 11.2.1.1 - What funding is required to succeed - NB Regional strategy considerations? Describe; R
11.2.2 - COST RECOVERY 11.2.2.1 - Cost recovery recommended ? Describe
11.2.2.2 - Cost recovery target ? %
11.2.2.3 - Level of service targeted ? Describe
11.2.2.4 - Effect of future actions actions ? Describe
11.3 - POSSIBLE
SOLUTION 11.3.1 - FUNDING 11.3.1.1 - Estimate : Capital cost (see - item 4) R
11.3.1.2 - Estimate : Additional to capital cost - support, risk safety, time etc.(see - item
4) R

11.3.1.3 - Estimate : Additional cost for design life on Water resource management R
11.3.1.4 - Estimate : Additional cost for design life on Technology R
11.3.1.5 - Estimate : Additional cost for design life on O&M R
11.3.1.6 - Estimate : Additional cost for design life on Environmental & Conservation
issues R

11.3.1.7 - Estimate : Additional cost for design life on Institutional & Legal issues R
11.3.1.8 - Estimate : Additional cost for design life on Social issues R

11.3.1.9 - Estimate : Additional cost for design life on Cost Recovery & Finance issues R
11.3.1.10 - Budget requirement - multi year R/(Fin years)
11.3.1.11 - Possible sources of funding - prioritize List; Prioritize
11.3.2 - COST RECOVERY 11.3.2.1 - Describe what is necessary to effect cost recovery Describe
11.3.2.2 - Describe future actions & programmes required Describe

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PART VIII
Electronic Guide to assist with Feasibility Studies
Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VIII

Part VIII : Electronic Guide to assist with Feasibility Study

An electronic version has been developed to assist planners in applying the Feasibility Study Guide. It is
based on the same process and step-by-step road map described in this document.

Key features of the Electronic Guide are :


§ Help function links directly to the text of the Feasibility Guide document
§ The question list is automatically generated and tailor-made to fit the requirements of each individual
study (e.g. it generates an appropria te scope of work)
§ The sequence of questions and the methodology are according to the same steps of the road map and
thus prompt the user to consider each of the relevant aspects in the Feasibility Study
§ Available support documentation and tools are shown for each question and the user must indicate
which of the tools have been used in answering the question. This provides additional supporting
information to DWAF during the evaluation of the answers and their confidence level.
§ Answers are stored per scenario and can easily be reviewed or updated
§ The tool prompts the user to provide motivations and explanations for each assumption, answer and
non-answering. This is stored in the database and can be reviewed by DWAF during evaluation of
the Feasibility Study.
§ A report can be printed for distribution to readers. Future versions may include an export facility to
enable additional editing and formatting (if required).
§ The report uses the same numbering as the process described in this guide thus ensuring consistency
and conformity between different feasibility studies
§ The final report can be submitted electronically, as a database, enabling DWAF to run specific
evaluation queries on all feasibility studies.

The following sections and pages provide screen-prints from the Electronic Guide with brief descriptions
around their use:

1 OPENING SCREEN

The program starts with the following screen showing any previous studies captured by the program.
The user can start a new Feasibility Study by entering the name of the study next to the astrix (*) .

Additional buttons will enable deletion of previously captured studies and may possibly also activate e-
mail procedures to forward a completed study to DWAF’s national database.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VIII

2 GENERAL INFORMATION CAPTURE FORM

Once the study has been named, the following capture form must be completed with general information.

3 DEFINITION OF SCENARIOS & SCOPE OF WORK

Each study must first define the scenarios to be undertaken. The following form enables this.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VIII

The user must then define the scope of work for each scenario. This may typically be done in consultation
with DWAF officials during the appointment of the Feasibility Study consultant.

The above form asks the user to select the themes (left hand column) that form part of the specific Feasibility
Study. The user must enter a motivation for each selection and must give an explanation for each theme,
which is omitted.

For each selected theme, the user must define the scope of work by selecting the rating under each of the
following determining factors :

§ level of detail: is the study investigating a small, medium or large area (economy of scale) ?

§ new or existing : does the study investigate the development of new scheme or existing scheme ?

§ level of complexity: are there any complexities (e.g. security problems, environmental sensitivity) ?

The user must explain each of the above selections so that DWAF can review the appropriateness of the
scope of work.

By selecting the Filter (bottom right) button, the software generates a suitable questionnaire according to the
selected scope of work.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VIII

4 TYPICAL ANSWER CAPTURE FORM FOR QUESTIONS

The following capture form shows the question and prompts the user for an answer.

The answer may be different types, such as numeric, text, multiple -choice, Yes/No, or predefined options.

The form also shows the possible tools and supporting information that can assist the user in answering this
question. The window can only display one at the time (e.g. Tools, Info Sources or Support). The user must
indicate which of the tools, info sources or support were used to answer the question. The user can also add
additional tools, info sources or support, if it is not listed in the preview. These selections will help DWAF to
evaluate the confidence level and validity of the answer.

The Answer Capture Form shows the theme, sub-theme and sections where the question belongs within the
feasibility assessment process. The user can view the full process diagram by selecting the “Road Map”
button at the top right. The step number within the overall assessment process is shown at the top 2nd from
right.

The user can also find help for the specific step by selecting the “Help” button 2nd from the top on the right
hand side of the form.

By selecting the cross-reference button, the user can view previous questions and answers that relate to this
question.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VIII

By selecting the buttons at the bottom-left of the screen, the user can print a draft report, save answers or exit
the capture program.

The user must select one of the arrow buttons at the bottom-right of the form to continue to the next question
or to revert back to the previous question.

5 VIABILITY EVALUATION FORM

After completing the full question list the user will be asked to conduct the viability checks. Specific tools
may be used for each viability check and must be described after the Yes/No answer.

The following form shows each viability check separately.

Finally, the user can compare the viability checks of the different scenarios and rank them for final selection.

6 RANKING AND SELECTION OF OPTIONS

The following form shows the total score for each scenario. The user can now compare the scenarios and
options to make a final selection.

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Minimum Standards & Guide for Feasibility Studies PART VIII

The user must also enter a motivation / reason for the selected option and for each of the discarded options.
This will form part of the final recommendations of the report.

7 REPORTING

The application can generate a standard report for the Feasibility Study comprising:
§ Cover / Title Page
§ Contents List
§ General Information
§ Scope of Work
§ Questions & Answers
§ Comparison of Options
§ Final Recommendation

The numbering of the contents will be the same as the step-numbers of the process described in the
Feasibility Guide. This will ensure that reports are consistent and comparable, and will support the evaluation
process by DWAF.

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