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INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, NIRMA UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD – 382 481, 09-11 DECEMBER, 2010 1

tensioned flat slabs

Boskey Bahoria1 , Prof.R. S. Deotale2 ,Dr D K Parbat3

M. Tech (Structure),

1

Lecturer, NYSSCER, Wanadongri, Nagpur, India, boskey_bahoria@yahoo.co.in

2

Professor, Department of Civil Engg. YCCE, Wanadongri, Nagpur,(MS) India

3

Lecturer( Selection Grade),Civil Engg, Government Polytechnic, Nagpur ( MS) Email-

dkparbat@indiatimes.com

Abstract- The post-tensioning method is now a days as follows -

increasing widely, due to its application. By using the post- • By comparison with reinforced concrete, a considerable

tensioning method one can design the most economic and the safe saving in concrete and steel since, due to the working of

design. But while using this method more precautions has to be the entire concrete cross-section more slender designs are

made for the shear and the deflection criteria for the slabs. The

possible.

design of the post-tension flat slab can be done by using load

balancing and equivalent frame method. Among of both the • Smaller deflections compared to with steel and reinforced

equivalent frame method is widely used. In the load balancing concrete structures.

method the 65 to 80% of the dead load is carried by the tendon • Good crack behavior and therefore permanent protection of

itself. So that there is an upward deflection due to tendon profile the steel against corrosion.

resulting the reduction in overall deflection. In the present study • Almost unchanged serviceability even after considerable

the design of the post-tensioned flat slab is done by using both overload, since temporary cracks close again after the

methods, load balancing method and equivalent frame method. overload has disappeared.

As the shear and deflection check is the most important for the

• High fatigue strength, since the amplitude of the stress

post-tensioned slabs the detail design for the shear and

deflections (short term deflection and long term deflections due

changes in the prestressing steel under alternating loads

to creep and shrinkage) is carried out. The parametric study of are quite small.

the post-tensioned flat slab by varying the span by 0.5m interval • If a significant part of the load is resisted by post-tensioning

is done and results of the different parameters such as thickness the non-prestressed reinforcement can be simplified and

of slab, grade of concrete, loss due to stress, normal standardized to a large degree. Furthermore, material

reinforcement, reinforcement for the shear, number of tendons, handling is reduced since the total tonnage of steel (non-

stressing force per tendon and deflection etc. are presented in the prestressed + prestressed) and concrete is less than for a

graphical form. Continuing to this a design of post-tensioned Reinforced Concrete floor.

beam is also done. For the study of post-tensioned slab and

• Assembling of precast elements by post-tensioning avoids

beams a case study of a multistory office building (G+4) is taken

and it is designed by four cases, the post-tensioned flat slab, post-

complicated reinforcing bar connections with insitu

tensioned beams and the R.C.C. slab, only R.C.C. flat slab and closure pours, or welded steel connectors, and thus can

the R.C.C. slab and beams. After the design of these four cases significantly reduce erection time.

the comparative study with respect to the economy is carried • Usually the permanent floor load is largely balanced by

out. draped post-tensioning tendons so that only the weight of the

Key words: rcc, , prestressed , post-tensioned ,flat slab ,sesmic wet concrete of the floor above induces flexural stresses.

analysis, equivalent frame method, load balancing method, strud These are often of the same order as the design live load

,staad-pro.

stresses. Hence back-propping of one floor below is usually

sufficient.

I. INTRODUCTION

The P/A stress provided by post-tensioning may prevent

tensile stresses causing the floor to crack.

A s the floor system plays an important role in the For the above reasons post-tensioned construction has also

come to be used in many situations in buildings. In addition to

overall cost of a building, a post-tensioned floor system is the above mentioned general features of post-tensioned

invented which reduces the time for the construction and construction systems, the following advantages of post-

finally the cost of the structure. In some countries, including tensioned slabs over reinforced concrete slabs are listed as

the U.S., Australia, South Africa, Thailand and India, a great follows :

number of large buildings have been successfully constructed • More economical structures resulting from the use of

using post-tensioned floors. The reason for this lies in its prestressing steels with a very high tensile strength

decisive technical and economical advantages. The most instead of normal reinforcing steels.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CURRENT TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGY, „NUiCONE – 2010‟ 2

• Larger spans and greater slenderness, which results in describe the load-deflection relationship of a section of a

reduced dead load, which also has a beneficial effect member

upon the columns and foundations and reduces the

overall height of buildings or enables additional floors to

be incorporated in buildings of a given height.

Traditional R.C.C. design PT slab design

From the load deflection curve it will be noted that under

Fig. 1 Height comparison of R.C.C. & PT slab design static loadings, there are several critical points, as follows

1.The point of no deflection which usually indicates a

rectangular stress block across all sections of a beam.

II. DESIGN METHODOLOGY 2. The point of no tension indicates a

triangular stress block with zero stress at either the top or the

bottom fiber.

The design of post-tensioned slab is done by two

3. The point of cracking which generally occurs when the

methods, load balancing method and the equivalent frame

extreme fiber is stressed to the modulus of rupture.

method. The load balancing method introduced by T. Y. Lin

4. The point of yielding at which the steel is stressed beyond

is most suitable for the indeterminate structures rather than

its yield point so that complete recovery will not be obtained.

the determinate structures. In this method the 65 to 80% of

5. The ultimate load which represents the load carried by the

dead load is balanced by the tendons so that the flexural

member at failure

member will not be subjected to bending stress under a given

On the left of fig.2 are shown the various loading conditions

load conditions. On the other hand the equivalent frame

to which the beam is subjected to are as follows

method is widely use for the design of post-tensioned slabs.

1. Girder load GL

Here load balancing method and equivalent frame method are

2. Total dead load DL

discussed in the following section.

3.the working load, made up of dead load plus live load

1) Load-balancing method DL+LL

The concept of load balancing is introduced for 4. A safety factor k1 applied to the working load to obtain the

prestressed concrete structures, as a third approach after the yield point load k1 (DL + LL)

elastic stress and the ultimate strength method of design and 5.another safety factor K2 applied to obtain the yield point

analysis. It is first applied to simple beams and cantilevers load

and then to continuous beams and rigid frames. This load-

balancing method represents the simplest approach to III. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR POST-TENSIONED SLABS

prestressed design and analysis, its advantage over the elastic

stress and ultimate strength methods is not significant for

statically determinate structures. When dealing with statically As stated earlier the design of post-tensioned slab can be done

indeterminate systems including flat slabs and certain thin by two methods, the design procedure for both the methods

shells, load-balancing method offers tremendous advantage are described here along with the process in which design

both in calculating and visualizing. According to load- progresses. The steps involved in the design of the post-

balancing method, prestressing balances a certain portion of tensioned slabs are as follows.

the gravity loads so that flexural members, such as slabs, A) Design steps for the post-tensioned slab by

beams, and girders, will not be subjected to bending stresses equivalent frame method

under a given load condition. Thus a structure carrying 1. Select the slab thickness (according to IS code).

transverse loads is subjected only to axial stresses. 2. Load calculation – calculate the dead load, live load, floor

. finish and the superimposed dead load. Also calculate

2) Life History of Prestressed Concrete Member the service load and ultimate load.

3. Select the strand diameter, area of strand, ultimate strength

under Flexure

of strand and average effective stress in strand.

To properly compare the load-balancing method with the

4. Select the system for the strands i.e. bonded or unbonded.

elastic stress or the ultimate strength method, it will be

5. Choose the cable/tendon profile.

desirable that one should know about the history of a

6. Calculate the losses due to stressing of tendons.

prestressed concrete member under flexure. is intended to

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, NIRMA UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD – 382 481, 09-11 DECEMBER, 2010 3

7. Find out the effective force per tendons Superimposed dead load - 1 KN/m2

8. Calculate the section properties i.e. area, section modulus Analysis and design is done by using following methods

and moment of inertia. Load balancing method

9. Calculate the load balanced by the tendons and the net load Equivalent frame method

causing bending for the span. For the application of design procedure a office building is

10. Determine the section properties such as area, section consider as a case study. The plan of the office building

modulus and the moment of inertia. (G+4) is considered. This building is designed by considering

11. Calculate equivalent frame properties i.e. determine four cases with different floor systems. The different floor

column stiffness, equivalent column stiffness, slab systems used for these four cases are as follows

stiffness and distribution factor at each interior and Case 1: Post-tensioned flat slab

exterior joint. Case 2: Reinforced concrete flat slab

12. Determine the stresses at faces of the support and at the Case 3: Post-tensioned slab with reinforced concrete beams

midspan. Case 4: Reinforced concrete slab with reinforced concrete

13. Check for the ultimate flexural capacity. beams

14. Determine the flexural strength. For the above four cases the quantities of reinforcing steel,

15. Calculate the shear, locate the critical section for shear prestressing steel, concrete required for the slab, beam and

and determine shear at critical section. column is calculated and are presented in the tabular form.

16. Check the shear at exterior, interior and edge column. Along with this a total cost of the building per square meter is

17. Determine the deflection of span considered and check it found and the comparison of all the four cases with respect to

with allowable deflection. cost is given here.

balancing method

1. Select the preliminary thickness of slab. (According to IS

Code).

2. Determine the dead load, live load, floor finish and

Superimposed dead load.

3. Select the strand diameter, area of strand, ultimate strength

of strand and average effective stress in strand.

4. Select the system for the strands i.e. bonded or unbonded.

5. Choose the cable/tendon profile.

Fig.3 Plan of Slab with Drop and Without Drop

6. Calculate the losses due to stressing of tendons.

7. Determine the section properties such as area, section

modulus and the moment of inertia.

8. Calculate allowable stresses at the time of jacking and at

the service load.

9. Select target load to be balance by tendons (only DL). 10.

Calculate the actual load balance for each span.

11. Determine the moment for each span for dead load, live

load and balance load separately.

12. Check the slab stresses immediately after jacking (dead

load + BL) and service load (dead load + Live load + BL).

For the exterior and interior span. (Both at midspan and

support).

13. Check for the ultimate moment. Fig.4. Tendon profile for the slab without drop

14. Calculate minimum bonded reinforcement.

15. Check the shear at exterior, interior and edge column

16. Determine the deflection of span considered and check it

with allowable deflection

IV . PARAMETRIC STUDY

slab the slabs with and without drop varying from 7m to 12m

at an interval of 0.5m are considered.

Load considered

Dead load –self weight Fig .5 Tendon profile for the slab with drop

Live load – 2 KN/m2

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CURRENT TRENDS IN TECHNOLOGY, „NUiCONE – 2010‟ 4

IV. ESTIMATING AND COSTING The design and the estimation of the office building for the

From the analysis and design results of the office building the four different floor systems is done and finally the rate per

total estimation for the quantities for a typical floor is square meter for the construction of this building is found out.

calculated. The quantities of concrete, reinforcing steel, The fig 6 shows the variation of the rate per square meter for

prestressing steel and the formwork and their cost according these four different cases. The observation made from the

to the current rate excluding the labour charges for all the four above work is as follows:

cases are given in the table .3..The rate per square meter for a

typical floor (which includes slab, beam and column) of a 1. From the economic point of view the post-tensioned flat

building in each case is according to the values calculated slab is the most economical among all four floor systems and

form the detail estimation. the reinforced concrete slab with reinforced concrete beam is

the costlier one for this span.

2. If we consider the post-tensioned flat slab and reinforced

TABLE 1 concrete flat slab, the thickness of reinforced concrete flat

. RATE ANALYSIS FOR THE CASES CONSIDERED slab is 12.5% greater and its cost is 27% greater than the post-

tensioned flat slab.

3. From both post-tensioned floor system building the post-

Reinforc Prestressin

Concrete Form Rate tensioned flat slab is more economical than the post-tensioned

ing steel g steel

Item (m3) work per slab with reinforced concrete beams.

(Kg) (Kg)

sqm

4. The quantity of prestressing steel is 4 Kg/m2 for post-

tensioned flat slab and 3.2 Kg/m2 for post-tensioned slab with

PT

31659.5 Rs. reinforced concrete beams i.e. the prestressing steel required

flat 507.52 8400 2100 for the post-tensioned flat slab is greater.

6 2800/-

slab

RCC

5. The reinforcing steel required for the post-tensioned flat

85550.7 Rs. slab and post- tensioned slab with reinforced concrete beam is

flat 549.69 ----- 2100

8 3600/-

slab 15 Kg/m2 and 20.15 Kg/m2 respectively.

PT 6. The reinforcing steel is more in case of post-tensioned slab

slab

Rs. with reinforced concrete beams because the slab transfers the

with 641.33 42271 6720 2100

3200/- load on the beam and more loads is taken by the beams itself.

RCC

beam 7.The reinforcing steel for the reinforced concrete flat slab is

RCC 41 Kg/m2 while for the reinforced concrete slab and beam it is

slab Rs. 40 Kg/m2.

626.31 86701.2 ---- 2100

with 3800/-

beam 8. The amount of concrete required for a floor is more in case

( Rate of concrete=4400/-per m3, Rate of steel=50/-per kg, of post-tensioned slab with reinforced concrete beams while it

Rate of form work=400 /- ), Rate of prestressing steel=130/- is least for the post-tensioned flat slab floor system.

per kg) 9. The floor to floor height available in case of post-

V . RESULTS AND CONCLUSION tensioned flat and reinforced concrete flat slab is 2.65m while

The analysis, design and the estimation of the office in case of post-tensioned slab with reinforced concrete beams

building for the four different floor systems is done and and reinforced concrete slab and beams is 2.4m.

finally the rate per square meter for the construction of this 10. If we consider the period of construction for a floor it is

building is found out. The fig .6 shows the variation of the less in case of post- tensioned flat slab than the other three

rate per square meter for these four different cases. The cases as the post-tensioning allows the earlier removal of the

observation made from the above work is as follows: formwork. In case of post-tensioned slab with reinforced

concrete beams the formwork of slab can be removed earlier

but the formwork for the reinforced concrete beams cannot be

removed earlier.

11. While estimating the cost of the each building the labour

charges are not considered, as the time period reduce the

labour charges will reduce in case of post-tensioned flat slab.

12. The wall load is considered on all over the floor (KN/m2)

for the post-tensioned building While analysis. So there is

flexibility to the user to construct a wall wherever required in

case of post-tensioning..

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, NIRMA UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD – 382 481, 09-11 DECEMBER, 2010 5

VI. REFERENCE

Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd 1995, ISBN 0 7506 1681 4.

[2] [2] BIS, Indian Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE IS: 1343 – 1980, Indian Standard Institution, New Delhi.

[3] [3] BIS, Indian standard PLAIN & REINFORCED CONCRETE

CODE OF PRACTICE IS: 456 - 2000, Indian Standard Institution,

New Delhi.

[4] [4] Lin, T.Y., “Load balancing for design and analysis of prestressed

concrete structures;” Journal of American Concrete Institute, Vol. 60,

N0. 6, June 1963.

[5] [5] Scordelis,A.C.; Lin, T.Y., and Itaya,R., “ Behavior of continuous

slab prestressed in both direction,” Journal of American Concrete

Institute, Vol. 40, N0.3, December 1959.

[6] [6] Duran, A. J., Mau, S.T., Abouhashish, A.A.(1993). “Earthquake

response of flat-slab buildings.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.

120, No.3, March, 1994.

[7] [7] Park,h., Kim,E.H. (1999). “RC Flat Plate under Combined in-Plane

& Out-Of-Plane Loads” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 125,

No. 10, October, 1999.

[8] [8] Chow, H. L. and Selna, L. G., (1995). “Seismic Response of

Nonductile Flat Plate Buildings”, Journal of Structural Engineering,

ASCE, Vol.121, No.1, pp. 115-123.

[9] [9] Luo, Y. H., Durrani, A., (1995) “Equivalent Beam Model for Flat-

Slab Buildings: Interior Connections”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.92,

No.1, pp. 115-124.

[10] [10] Luo, Y. H., Durrani, A., (1995). “Equivalent Beam Model for

Flat-Slab Buildings: Exterior Connections”, ACI Structural Journal,

Vol.92, No.2, pp. 250-257.

[11] [11] Luo, Y. H., Durrani, A., Conte, J., (1995). “Seismic Reliability

Assessment of Existing R/C Flatslab Buildings”, Journal of Structural

Engineering, ASCE, Vol.121, No.10, pp. 1522-1530.

[12] [12] Pan, A. and Moehle, J. P., (1989). “Lateral Displacement Ductility

of R/C Flat Plates”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.86, No.3, pp. 250-258.

[13] [13] Agidi Gbado, “Development and Testing of Sugarcane Juice

Extractor”, National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi PMB 8, Bida,

Nigeria, Vol. 4 : 103-107, 2002.

[14] [14] Mannering, F.L.; Kilareski, W.P. and Washburn, S.S. (2005).

Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, Third

Edition). Chapter 2

[15] [15] American Association of State Highway and Transportation

Officals (AASHTO). (2001). A Policy on Geometric Design of

Highways and Streets, Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C.

[16] [16] Palm Beach County Fire Rescue, Driver Operator Manual,

Chapter 3, Fireground Hydraulics, Revised 12/2004.

[17] [17] Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar, Indian

Institute of Technology Madras, Design of Steel Structures

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