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Name​​: Dion Figueroa

Course:​​ ECI 306

Date:​​ 3/29/18
Lesson Title: ​Becoming a Better Digital Citizen using CRAAP

Context: ​This lesson is designed to be implemented any time throughout the year, but is intended to be
used before students undertake any research-based activity.

For the purpose of our ECI 306 class this specific lesson is designed for a 7th Grade Social Studies

The achievement level of the students in this specific class would primarily be an average achievement level
classroom, and aimed at students who may have light trouble with reading comprehension and reading with

Rationale: ​The purpose of this lesson is to educate students on how to find valid and reliable sources on the
internet that can be used in a research-based essay. It is also designed to teach students how to identify a
written piece’s context, objective, and intended audience, to help students determine a writer or piece’s
potential bias.

A secondary purpose of this lesson is to show students how to accurately and fairly present two sides, or
multiple perspectives, of an argument or issue. A group-based activity in a follow-up lesson would be
centered around the Creative Debate strategy forcing students to take a position on a non-controversial
topic, and support that side even if they disagree with it.

In my classroom I plan on using current event based activities as warm ups, and the occasional homework
assignment, so it is very important for my students to be able to analyze the news sources they are pulling
from the internet, and media, and to be able to determine possible bias, as well as to correctly identify the
intended message of the piece if there is any.

Essential Questions: ​In what ways do your cultural, religious or personal beliefs influence your
perspectives on issues that are prevalent in our society?

Learning Objectives:

SWBAT… analyze news articles for objective of the article, possible bias, and the intended audience of the

SWBAT… determine what constitutes a reliable source.

SWBAT… research a position they do not necessarily agree with, but be able to make a fair and competent
argument for their position.

Standards Addressed:
NC History Standards
7.H.1 Use historical thinking to analyze various modern societies.
7.H.1.3 Use primary and secondary sources to interpret various historical perspectives.

NC Civics and Government Standards

7.C&G.1 Understand the development of government in modern societies and regions.
7.C&G.1.1 Summarize the ideas that have shaped political thought in various societies and regions.
7.C&G.1.2 Evaluate how the Western concept of democracy has influenced the political ideas of
modern societies.

NC Culture Standards
7.C.1 Understand how cultural values influence relationships between individuals, groups and political
entities in modern societies and regions.
7.C.1.1 Explain how culture unites and divides modern societies and regions.

Materials/Technology Resources Required: ​Printed articles provided by instructor. Class computer with
internet access for videos.

For the main assignment students will either need internet access via laptops, ipads, computer labs, or
B.Y.O.D. However, if the classroom is without any internet resources and the students do not have their own
devices, newspaper articles can be used as a substitute. is a great resource for finding age
and language appropriate news articles for any reading level.

Time:​​ 50 minutes

Time Description

Before Write vocabulary words on the board to be filled in as the terms come up through the
Class lesson:

Bias: A judgement based on a personal point of view.

Claim: A statement put forth as true; in an argument, a statement of position on an
Exaggeration: An overstatement or stretching of the truth.
Reason: A general statement that offers support for a claim.
Evidence: Facts, statistics, examples, and other information used to support

1-3 Quick-Write/Warmup: ​“Identify the last time that you had to convince a friend or family to
Minutes do something that you wanted to do but they didn't. How did you do this? Did you have to
exaggerate at all (tell half-truths or maybe a white lie)? Were you successful?”

7-10 As a class:​​ Share answers and discuss reasoning behind attempting to sway someone’s
Minutes opinion.
While facilitating the discussion you should be asking students to elaborate if their answers
are too simple, as well as to try to steer the discussion toward recognizing their personal
motivation​​ for swaying the person’s opinion. Rather than accept answers such as,
“because I wanted to do it” you should aim at statements like “I wanted to convince them to
think this, so they would do this.”

The vocab words should also be defined throughout the course of the discussion.
● This can be done by asking leading questions, after a student response, or by
interjecting when students identify aspects of the Vocabulary words in their
○ For example:
Student:​​ “A time that I had to convince someone of something was when my
brother wanted to go to Taco Bell for lunch, but I really don’t like Taco Bell,
so I told him he would get sick.”
Educator Response:​​ “So you based your family’s food choice solely on your
Student: ​“Yes.”
Educator Response: ​“Well student X, that is a perfectly example of what we
would call individual bias.” Then proceed to help the class define the word

5 Minutes As a class: ​Mini-discussion. Questions to be answered:

● What is it that you (the class) know about unconscious bias?

3-5 As a class: ​Watch video on “Understanding unconscious bias” by The Royal Society
Minutes (​​)

5 Minutes As a class:​​ Continue discussion on bias.

● How does bias affect our everyday lives?
● Are your biases something that can be taken advantage of?
○ Interject and introduce idea of confirmation bias.
■ “There is an article out there that can confirm any opinion we have.”
■ “To maintain as little bias as possible we should be looking to
disprove our opinions, rather than only reaffirming.”
● Can add examples of “fake news” and how they are targeted
at certain demographics.
○ Make certain to pull articles from all sides of the
political spectrum not only to be fair, but to also show
that exploitation of bias is a bipartisan issue.

5 Minutes Individually:
Minutes Introduce some low-level analysis using the example article “Chocolate is Good For You”
provided by Pennsylvania Standards Aligned System ​​ . (Article included
and modeled below.)
● Before beginning tell students to read the article with an analytical mindset, and to
identify vocabulary throughout the article.
○ Highlight/Underline/Circle - Claims made, evidence given, exaggerated
statements, and reasons given. [Modeled in appendix]

Students should read independently, with the intention of sharing with the class.
● After students have finished as a class, call on students to identify the parts of the
article that correspond to the vocabulary words, and ask for their reasoning or
evidence as to why it corresponds with that term.

5 Minutes As a class: ​Go through the article, and have students share which portions they identified.
Make sure to highlight the following key ideas while going through the article:
● Claims without evidence. “Chemicals introduced by eating chocolate to make you
○ Which chemicals?
○ Why?
● Exaggeration for confirmation. “Chocolate lovers can now enjoy a piece of chocolate
without guilt.”
○ Is cholesterol the only reason to be worried about eating lots of chocolate?
○ Other side effects?
● Providing evidence does not always mean a claim is true. “There is evidence that
eating 100 grams of dark chocolate per day can lower your blood pressure.”
○ How can we verify the evidence?
○ Are there maybe other reasons besides blood pressure to not eat too much
○ “How would you go about verifying this claim?”
■ Talk about identifying credible sources (Handout included below.)

5 Minutes As a class: ​Introduce assignment “Evaluating Sources Using the CRAAP test.”

CRAAP stands for:

● Currency
● Relevancy
● Authority
● Accuracy
● Purpose

Objective of this assignment is for students to find two articles using or other
sources, and to analyze them using CRAAP to demonstrate competent content area

To be done for homework and turned in/discussed at the beginning of the next class.

10 Minutes Individually:​​ Students will use the rest of the class time to begin working on their CRAAP

This time can be used by the instructor to float around the classroom offering individual
scaffolding, or to allow students to ask for help with aspects that need further clarification.

For instructors in classrooms that do not allow electronic devices, or do not have
internet capable resources available (i.e. laptops, ipads, etc.) Old newspapers can be
bought wholesale at times for very cheap, and can be reused for future classes or
activities. Whether or not students will have the necessary technology to finish the
assignment at home is under the discretion of the instructor. The next class period
can also be used as in-class work time to finish.

Evaluation/Assessment: ​CRAAP Test

Accomodations: ​The corresponding reading levels of the articles chosen can be varied. For an average or
higher achievement class news articles should suffice, however in a classroom with lower achieving students
fictional stories can also be created by the instructor or found online that model the same types of strategies. is a great source that adapts news articles to the corresponding reading level of the student.

Appendix: ​“Is Chocolate Good For You?”

Corresponding highlights:
Claim​ ​Exaggeration​ ​Reason​ ​Evidence

Chocolate Is Good for You!

It is official: ​Chocolate is good for you!​ ​People all over the world have been waiting to hear these five simple
words.​ ​Chocolate lovers can now enjoy a piece of chocolate without guilt.
Dark chocolate has large amounts of antioxidants. These are chemicals that help your body stay healthy. This
delicious treat also has substances that help keep your cholesterol levels down. Lowering cholesterol levels helps to
keep your blood flowing well.
There is evidence that eating 100 grams of dark chocolate per day can lower your blood pressure. This will help
to reduce your risk of a heart attack or stroke.
Not only is chocolate good for your body, it makes you feel good. ​Chemicals in your brain that are produced
when you eat chocolate make you feel happier.
Chocolate lovers can rejoice, knowing that eating chocolate is doing good things for them!

What This Article Doesn’t Tell You

While chocolate does have some benefits, it also has some risks:
Chocolate is high in calories. Eating too much chocolate can cause weight gain.

Usually, chocolate contains lots of sugar. Too much sugar is not good for you.

The sugar in chocolate can cause mood swings and tooth decay.
Chocolate does have some good qualities, but it should be eaten only once in a while and in small amounts.
Credible Sources Handout:

CRAAP Worksheet [Modeled]:

CRAAP Worksheet Student Response Sheet and Sample: