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LAB MANUAL

STRENGTH OF
MATERIALS-II

Name of Student:

Registration No.:

Section:

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
Strength of Materials-II covers more detailed analysis of materials. Mainly it includes observations of
materials subjected to biaxial loads and unsymmetrical bending. A few properties e.g., shear center and
principal stresses are also covered under this course.

Following tests are performed under this course.

Experiment # 01: To construct layout of laboratory.


Experiment # 02: To calculate moment of inertia of different sections.
Experiment # 03: To perform tension test on cast iron and mild steel bars and determine principal
stresses using analytical method.
Experiment # 04: To determine principal stresses in axially loaded cast iron and mild steel bars
using graphical solutions.
Experiment # 05: To plot stress trajectories for simply supported rectangular beam and observe
cracks pattern in fractured beam.
Experiment # 06: To determine principal stresses in a loaded beam installed with strain rosettes
using analytical methods.
Experiment # 07: Finding out principal strains and stresses in an instrumented (with strain
rosette) steel beam using graphical solution.
Experiment # 08: To verify that a rectangular cantilever beam with skew loading is linear elastic.

Experiment # 09: To verify linear elastic behavior of an equal angle section beam (with fixed-
fixed end condition) under eccentric loadings.
Experiment # 10: To determine and compare theoretical and experimental deflection of a
rectangular beam undergoing unsymmetrical bending.
Experiment # 11: To find out shear center of the following cross sections;
a) Semi-Circle
b) Channel Section
c) Angle Section
d) Z-Section
Experiment No. 1:
To construct layout of laboratory and write detailed description of list of equipment.
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 3

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 2:
To calculate the moment of inertia of various cross sections of beams.

THEORY: A quantity expressing a body's tendency to resist angular acceleration, which is the sum of
the products of the mass of each particle in the body with the square of its distance from the axis of rotation
is known as moment of inertia.

OR

"Moment of Inertia" is a measure of an object's resistance to change in rotation direction.

I = m x r2

Area moment of inertia: "Area Moment of Inertia" is a property of shape that is used to predict deflection,
bending and stress in beams. Its units are mm4, cm4, m4.

Solid rectangular section: The Moment of Inertia for a solid rectangular


section can be calculated as

𝑏ℎ3
𝐼𝑥 =
12
Fig 2.1: Solid rectangular
3 section
𝑏 ℎ
𝐼𝑦 =
12
Solid Circular Cross Section: The Area Moment of Inertia for a solid
cylindrical section can be calculated as

𝜋𝑟 4 𝜋𝑑 4
𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 = =
4 64
Fig 2.2: Solid Circular
Hollow cylindrical section: The Area Moment of Inertia for a hollow Cross Section
cylindrical section can be calculated as

𝜋(𝑑𝑜 4 − 𝑑𝑖 4 )
𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 =
64
Where; do = cylinder outside diameter & di = cylinder inside diameter

Square cross section: The Area Moments of Inertia for a square section can
be calculated as
Fig 2.3: Hollow cylindrical
𝑎4 section
𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 =
12

Fig 2.4: Square Section


I-shaped cross-section: Area Moment of Inertia for a symmetrical I shaped
section can be calculated as

𝑎ℎ3 𝑏
𝐼𝑥 = + (𝐻 3 − ℎ3 )
12 12
𝑎3 ℎ 𝑏 3
𝐼𝑦 = + (𝐻 − ℎ)
12 12
Fig 2.5: Symmetrical I
section
Hollow rectangular section: The Moment of Inertia for a Hollow
rectangular section can be calculated as

𝐵𝐻 3 𝑏ℎ3
𝐼𝑥 = −
12 12
𝐻𝐵 3 ℎ𝑏 3
𝐼𝑦 = −
12 12 Fig 2.6: Hollow rectangular
section
Channel section: The Moment of Inertia for a Channel section can be
calculated as

𝑏𝑑3 − ℎ3 (𝑏 − 𝑡)
𝐼𝑥 =
12
2
2𝑠𝑏 3 + ℎ𝑡 3 (2𝑏 2 𝑠 + ℎ𝑡 2
𝐼𝑥 = − (2𝑠𝑏 + ℎ𝑡) [ ]
3 2𝑏𝑑 − 2ℎ(𝑏 − 𝑡) Fig 2.7: Channel section

Z-shape cross-section: The Moment of Inertia for a Z-shape cross-section


can be calculated as

𝑎𝑏 3 − 𝑐(𝑏 − 2𝑡)3
𝐼𝑥 =
12
𝑏(𝑎 + 𝑐)3 − 2𝑐 3 𝑑 − 6𝑎2 𝑐𝑑
𝐼𝑦 =
12 Fig 2.8: Z-shape cross-
section

Angle section of equal legs: The Moment of Inertia for an angle section
of equal legs can be calculated as

𝑡(5𝐿2 − 5𝐿𝑡 + 𝑡 2 )(𝐿2 − 𝐿𝑡 + 𝑡 2 )


𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 =
12 (2𝐿 − 𝑡)
Fig 2.9: Angle Section with
equal legs
Apparatus: Vernier Caliper, Measuring Scale
Specimen: Rectangular Sections, Hollow rectangular section, Angle Section, Semi-Circle Section, Z-
Section, & Channel Section.

Procedure:
Following procedure is adopted for performing this experiment:
1. Note down zero error of the Vernier caliper
2. Take one section and measure its width, height and thickness by placing Vernier caliper at three
locations and then taking average of the value.
3. Note the reading properly and calculate moment of inertia about x and y axis.
4. Repeat these steps for all given samples.
Readings & Observations:
Sr. Specimen Ix Iy
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Significance of Experiment:
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Uses equipment Uses equipment Uses equipment with


Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the
(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of
Equipment equipment
accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 3:
To perform tension test on cast iron and mild steel bars and determine principal stresses using
analytical method.

THEORY:
Uniaxial Stress System: Uniaxial Stress System is a stress system in which a member is subjected to load
in only one direction. i.e.

𝜎𝑦 = 0 and 𝜏𝑥𝑦 = 𝜏𝑦𝑥 = 0


𝜎𝑥 𝜎𝑥 𝜎𝑥
𝜎𝑛 = + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 = (1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃)
2 2 2
𝜎𝑛 = 𝜎𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃
1
𝜏𝑠 = − (𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 )𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃
2
𝜎𝑥
𝜏𝑥 = − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃
2
Principal stresses/planes: Principal plane is a plane at which there is maximum and minimum normal stress
and zero shear stress. The stresses occur on that plane are termed as Principal Stresses.
Maximum and minimum stresses/planes: The plane on which maximum normal stress is acting is called
major principal plane and corresponding normal stress is known as maximum principal stress which is
denoted by 𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 , 𝜎∅ , 𝑜𝑟 𝜎1 . The other plane on which minimum normal stress is acting is called minor
principal plane and corresponding normal stress is called minimum principal stress which is denoted by
𝜎𝑚𝑖𝑛 , 𝜎∅+90𝑜 , 𝑜𝑟 𝜎2 .

Apparatus: Universal Testing Machine, Extensometer, Vernier Caliper, & Weighing Balance.
Specimen: Deformed Steel bars, Cast Iron bar
Procedure:
Following procedure is adopted for analytical solution of principal stresses:
1. All the test samples are made into required length (i.e. 22in min. as per recommendation) and their
masses are measured.
2. Total length and diameter of each specimen is measured and area is calculated.
3. Properly mark gauge length on each sample to be tested. Gauge length should be 8in.
4. Place the sample in gripers of the machine and start applying load.
5. Note the load at yielding and ultimate points.
6. Calculate ultimate stress and obtain principal stress and maximum shear stress.
7. Repeat these steps for all given samples.
Readings & Observations:
Length of specimen 1 before experiment = ___________________ mm
Length of specimen 1 after experiment = ____________________ mm
Length of specimen 2 before experiment = ___________________ mm
Length of specimen 2 after experiment = ____________________ mm
Table No. 1: Observations Table for Specimens
Specimen Gauge Weight Unit Dia of Measured Cross- Upper Yield Lower Yield
Length Weight Specimen or Exact sectional Point Point
(Nominal Dia of Area
𝝅
Dia) Specimen 𝑨 = 𝒅𝟐 Stress Strain Stress Strain
𝟒
Mark
Type (m2) Value Value Value Value
No. (m) (kg) (kg/m) (m) (m) (MPa) (m/m) (MPa) (m/m)

Table No. 2: Mechanical Characteristics


Specimen Corresponding to Yield Corresponding to Ultimate Modulus Modulus Modulus
Stress Stress of of of
Elasticity Resilience Toughness
Load Strain Stress Load Strain Stress
Mark Value Value Value Value Value Value
Type
No. (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)
(kN) (m/m) (MPa) (kN) (m/m) (MPa)

Table No. 3: Principal Stress and Maximum Shearing Stress

Specimen Maximum Principal Stress Maximum Shearing Stress


Value Value
Mark
Type 𝝈 = 𝝈𝒙 𝝉 = 𝝈𝒙 /𝟐
No.
(MPa) (MPa)
Graph and Diagram:
Representative figure of stress strain diagram is as under. Paste stress strain curves for different specimens
obtained from machine.

Figure 3.1: Conventional and true stress–strain diagram for ductile material (steel) (not to scale)

Paste stress strain curves for different specimens obtained from machine.

Significance of Testing:
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0
Category Marks Obtained
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 4:
To determine principal stresses in axially loaded cast iron and mild steel bars using graphical
solutions.

THEORY:
Mohr’s Stress Circle: The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in graphical form
by a plot known as Mohr’s circle. This approach is will help to “visualize” how the normal and shear
stress components 𝜎𝑥 ′ and 𝜏𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ vary as the plane on which they act changes its direction Fig. 2-1.
𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦
𝜎𝑥 ′ − = cos 2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 sin 2𝜃
2 2
𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦
𝜏𝑠 − 0 = −( ) sin 2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 cos 2𝜃
2
To eliminate the parameter 2θ, squaring the equations and then adding them:
𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 2 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2
(𝜎𝑛 − ) + (𝜏𝑠 − 0)2 = ( ) (cos 2 2𝜃 + sin2 2𝜃) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2 (cos 2 2𝜃 + sin2 2𝜃)
2 2
𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 2 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2
(𝜎𝑛 − ) + (𝜏𝑠 − 0)2 = ( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2
2 2
This equation can be written in simpler form by using the following notation
𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦
𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 =
2
𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2
𝑅 = √( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2
2
Equation now becomes
2
(𝜎𝑛 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 ) − 𝜏𝑠 = 𝑅 2
which is the equation of a circle in standard algebraic form.
(X-P)2 + (Y-q)2 = R2
By analogy with general equation of circle, the equation can be used to draw the stress circle.

Figure 4.1: Normal and shear stress components 𝝈𝒙 ′ and 𝝉𝒙′ 𝒚′ vary as the plane on which they act changes its
direction.
Figure 4.2: Mohr’s circle representing a circle having a radius R and center on the  axis at point C(avg, 0)

Characteristics of Mohr’s Stress Circle:


1. 𝜎 and 𝜏 arc’s will have the same scale.
2. The center of the stress circle will always be laying on the 𝜎 -axis, having coordinates,
𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦
𝐶 ( , 0)
2
3. Radius will be equal to
𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2
𝑅 = √( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2
2
4. The periphery of stress circle will represent state of stress on all possible planes including the applied
state of stress.
Apparatus: Universal Testing Machine, Graph Paper, Scale, Extensometer, Vernier Caliper,
Geometrical Instruments.
Specimen: Deformed Steel bars, Cast Iron bar
Procedure:
For graphical solution of principal stresses following procedure is adopted. A comparison must be made
between analytical and graphical solutions.
1. Establish a coordinate system such that the x-axis represents normal stress and y-axis represents shear
stress.
2. Plot the center “C” of circle on σ axis using following formula.
𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦
𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 =
2
Plot the reference point A with coordinates A (𝜎𝑥 , 𝜏𝑥𝑦 ).
3. Connect “A” with “C”. This represents radius “R” of the circle.
4. With this “R”, construct a circle.
5. Principal stresses 𝜎1 and 𝜎2 (𝜎1 ≥ 𝜎2 ) are the coordinates of points B and D crossing 𝜎-axis.
6. These stresses act on planes defined by angles 𝜃𝑝1 and 𝜃𝑝2 , represented on circle by 2𝜃𝑝1 and 2𝜃𝑝2
and are measured from the radial reference line CA to lines CB and CD respectively.
7. The average normal stress and maximum in-plane shear stress ate the coordinates of either point E or
point F.
Figure 4.2: Mohr’s Stress Circle Procedure for Analysis

Figure 4.4: Mohr’s Stress Circle Procedure for Analysis


Graph and Diagram:
Plot a Mohr’s circle for all specimens and find out principal stresses.

Readings & Observations:


Table No. 1: Analytical and Graphical Solution Results:
Comparison between
Nominal Analytical Method Graphical Method
Specimen Analytical and
Dia of Results Results
Graphical Methods
Specimen
Max. Max. Max. Max.
Percentage Percentage
Mark Direct Shear Direct Shear
Type diff in diff in
No. Stress Stress Stress Stress
(m) 𝝈𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙
𝝈𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝈𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙
Result:
Maximum Principal Stress value and maximum shearing stress value of various steel bars is shown in
table no. 1. Compare the analytical and graphical calculations by calculating percentage difference of both
values. The formula to calculate %age difference is as under.
σmaxg -σmaxa
%age difference = σmax = x100
σmaxa
τmaxg -τmaxa
%age difference = τmax = x100
τmaxa

Significance of experiment:
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 3

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 5:
To plot stress trajectories for simply supported rectangular beam and observe cracks pattern in
fractured beam.

THEORY:
Flexural Stresses in beam: A beam is a structural member whose length is large compared to its cross-
sectional area which is loaded and supported in the direction transverse to its axis. Lateral loads acting on
the beam cause the beam to bend or flex, thereby deforming the axis of the beam into a curved line.
Stress Trajectory: Stress trajectories are lines in the direction of principal stresses.
In beams, the directions of principal stress vary with intensities of flexural stresses and horizontal shearing
stresses. At extreme fibers of any beam section, shear stresses are zero and flexural stresses are zero at the
neutral axis.

The same concept is used in evaluating the maximum and minimum stresses in a beam and respected
principal stresses are calculated.
Stress Contour: Stress Contour is a curve connecting points of equal Principal Stress.

Apparatus: Universal Testing Machine, Measuring tape


Specimen: Wooden beam, Plain concrete beam
Procedure:
Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:
1. Take each sample and mark its clear span.
2. Divide the clear span in three equal parts for two-point
loading or place load at L/4 from each support.
3. One by one perform the test for two-point loading.
4. Plot Shear force diagram and bending moment diagrams
for maximum load obtained.
5. Calculate the value of maximum bending moment and use
it in further calculations of stresses.
Fig 5.1: (a) Orientation of stresses of simply supported beam under point
loading. (b) Stress Trajectories for Simply supported beam under UDL. (c)
Stress trajectories for cantilever beam

Readings & Observations:


𝑀𝑦
Flexural Stress, 𝜎𝑥 =
𝐼
𝑉𝑄
Shear Stress, 𝜏𝑥𝑦 =
𝐼𝑏
Q = First moment of the cross-sectional area

Q = b (h/2 – y) (y + 0.5(0.5h-y)) = 0.5b (h2/4 – y2)

𝜏𝑥𝑦 = 0.5V/I (h2/4 – y2)

Now calculate principal stresses at each point using

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2
𝜎1,2 = ± √( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2
2 2

And orientation will be calculated using

2𝜏𝑥𝑦
tan 2𝜃𝑝 =
(𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 )

Elements must be placed at these orientations to show stress trajectories.


Table No. 01: Observations and Calculations for Wooden Beam Sample

Point on
Depth to Neutral Moment of Width of Bending Shear Shear Flow, Flexural Stress Shear Stress
beam
Axis, “y” Inertia, “I” Beam, “b” Moment, “M” Force, “V” “Q”
cross-
(in) (in4) (in) (kip.in) (kip) (in3) (ksi) (ksi)
section
a

Table No. 02: Observations and Calculations for Wooden Beam Sample

Points 𝝈𝒙 𝝉𝒙𝒚 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝜽
(ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (degree)

e
Table No. 01: Observations and Calculations for Concrete Beam Sample

Point on
Depth to Neutral Moment of Width of Bending Shear Shear Flow, Flexural Stress Shear Stress
beam
Axis, “y” Inertia, “I” Beam, “b” Moment, “M” Force, “V” “Q”
cross-
(in) (in4) (in) (kip.in) (kip) (in3) (ksi) (ksi)
section
a

Table No. 02: Observations and Calculations for Concrete Beam Sample

Points 𝝈𝒙 𝝉𝒙𝒚 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝜽
(ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (degree)

e
Paste stress trajectories diagram of wooden beam sample

Significance of Experiment:
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 6:
To determine principal stresses in a loaded beam installed with strain rosettes by using analytical
method.

THEORY:
When performing a tension test on a specimen, the normal strain is measured using an electrical resistance
strain gauge, which consists of a wire grid or piece of metal foil bonded to the specimen. For a general
loading on a body, however, the strains at a point on its free surface are determined using a cluster of three
electrical-resistance strain gauges, arranged in a specified pattern. This pattern is referred to as strain
rosette. Once the normal strains on these three gauges are measured, the data can then be transformed to
specify the state of strain at the point.

In general, the axes of three gauges are arranged at the angles 𝜃𝑎 , 𝜃𝑏 , 𝜃𝑐 as shown. Strain rosettes are of
two types depending upon the arrangement of strain gauges. 45o strain rosette is known as rectangular
strain rosette (Fig 6.1-b) and 60o strain rosette is known as delta strain rosette (Fig 6.1-c).

Fig 6.1: Types of strain rosettes

Fig 6.2: Three electrical-resistance strain gages arranged as a 45o strain rosette (magnified view).

If the readings 𝜖𝑎 , 𝜖𝑏 , 𝜖𝑐 are taken, we can determine the strain components 𝜖𝑥 , 𝜖𝑦 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 at the point by
applying the strain-transformation equation.

Apparatus: Universal Testing Machine, Measuring tape, Strain measuring devices, Vernier Caliper,
Screw Gauge

Specimen: Steel I-Section Beam


Procedure: Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:
1. Measure the cross-section dimension of the beam.
2. Place the beam on Universal testing machine.
3. Mark the clear span of the beam.
4. Apply the load at required point.
5. Install rectangular and delta strain gauges on steel
section.
6. Connect these gauges with the display unit
7. Start applying load in defined increment and for each
increment note the value of strain at three gauges.
8. Calculate 𝜖𝑥 , 𝜖𝑦 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 for both arrangements of strain
gauges.

Fig. 6.3: Simply supported I-section beam


subjected to one point load

Readings & Observations:


𝜖𝑎 = 𝜖𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃𝑎 + 𝜖𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃𝑎 + 𝛾𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑎 N.A
𝜖𝑏 = 𝜖𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃𝑏 + 𝜖𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃𝑏 + 𝛾𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑏

𝜖𝑐 = 𝜖𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃𝑐 + 𝜖𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃𝑐 + 𝛾𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑐

The values 𝜖𝑥 , 𝜖𝑦 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 of are determined by solving these three equations Fig. 6.4: Cross-Section of I-Beam
simultaneously. And

𝜖𝑥 + 𝜖𝑦 𝜖𝑥 − 𝜖𝑦 2
𝜖1,2 = ± √( ) + 𝛾𝑥𝑦 2
2 2

And calculate principal stresses using

(ϵ1 + μϵ1 )E
σ1 =
1 − μ2

(ϵ2 + μϵ1 )E
σ2 =
1 − μ2

σx = My/I

𝑉𝑄
𝜏𝑥𝑦 =
𝐼𝑡
For 45o rosette;
a = 0o, b = 45o, c = 90o 𝜖𝑥 = 𝜖𝑎 , 𝜖𝑦 = 𝜖𝑐 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 = 2𝜖𝑏 − (𝜖𝑎 + 𝜖𝑐 )

For 60o rosette;


1 2
a = 0o, b = 60o, c = 120o 𝜖𝑥 = 𝜖𝑎 , 𝜖𝑦 = 3 (2𝜖𝑏 + 2𝜖𝑐 − 𝜖𝑎 ), 𝛾𝑥𝑦 = (𝜖𝑏 − 𝜖𝑐 )
√3

Table No. 01: Values of Principal strains and stresses from experimentally measured strain values
using 45o strain rosette.

Obs. Load 𝛜𝐚 𝛜𝐛 𝛜𝐜 𝛜𝐱 𝛜𝐲 𝛄𝐱𝐲 𝛜𝟏 𝛜𝟐 𝛔𝟏 𝛔𝟐


No. (kN) µ µ µ µ µ rad µ µ MPa MPa

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50

Table No. 2: Values of Principal Strains and stresses from the theoretically measured strains values
using 45o strain rosette.

Obs. Load Shear Moment t Static Shear Y (distance Moment 𝝈𝐱 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐


No. Force of inertia moment Stress from =PL/4
V = P/2 of area τxy Neutral
(N) (N) (m4) (m) Q (m3) (MPa) axis) (N.m) MPa MPa MPa

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50
Table No.3: Values of Principal stresses from the theoretical relations and their comparison with
experimental measure stresses.

Theoretical Values Experimental Values %age Difference


Obs. Load
No. (N) 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐
MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50

Significance of testing:
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Uses equipment Uses equipment Uses equipment with


Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the
(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of
Equipment equipment
accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 7:
Finding out principal strains and stresses in an instrumented (with strain rosette) steel beam using
graphical solution.

THEORY
Strain rosette circle: Graphical solution is possible for any configuration of strain rosette. There are six
possibilities of strain rosette depending upon the components of magnitude of component gauges.

large > intermediate > small


Possibilities:
i. ɛa > ɛb > ɛc
ii. ɛa > ɛc > ɛb
iii. ɛb > ɛa > ɛc
iv. ɛb > ɛc > ɛa
v. ɛc > ɛa > ɛb
vi. ɛc > ɛb > ɛa
Procedure
Following procedure is adopted in lab for the experiment:
1. Set up a vertical axis to represent /2 axis.
2. Decide scale of both  and  axis, keeping in mind the magnitude of strain gauges.
3. Draw three lines parallel to /2 axis at the appropriate distance representing the values a, b, c.
4. Assume intermediate gauge line is vertical.
5. On intermediate gauge line take any point P.
6. Draw angles α and β from point P towards a, c lines separately.
7. Both these lines will cut a, c lines at point Q and R.
8. Lines a, b, c was drawn parallel to /2 axis, depending upon their given values.
9. From the intermediate strain gauge line, select a point P and draw two lines to greater and smaller ɛ
lines at the given angles which was 45o and 90o respectively.
10. Then right bisectors of these two lines were drawn and the intersecting point of these two right
bisectors give us the center of circle.
11. Circle was drawn by opening the compass from center of circle to any point P, Q, and R.
12. All the end, ɛ axis was drawn, passing through the center of circle.
13. ɛ1 and ɛ2 were calculated from the graph
14. Stresses were calculated using
1 + 𝜈2
𝜎1 = E
1 − 𝜈2
2 + 𝜈1
𝜎2 = E
1 − 𝜈2
Graphical Method

Table No. 01 Values of Principal strains from Graph and Analytical solution and their difference.

Obs. Load Experimentally Analytically Graphically %age


No. (kN) measured Strains found principal found principal difference
strains strains
ɛa ɛb ɛc ɛ1 ɛ2 ɛ1 ɛ2 ɛ1 ɛ2
(μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ)

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50
Table No. 2 Values of Principal stresses from Graphical and Analytical solution and their difference.

Obs. No. Load Analytically found Graphically found %age Difference


(kN) Principal Stress Principal Stress
σ1 σ2 σ1 σ2 σ1 σ2
(MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50
Graphs:
Paste Mohr’s circle against each load.

Significance:
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 3

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 8:
To verify that a rectangular cantilever beam with skew loading is linear elastic.

THEORY:
Skew Loading: It is the bending of symmetrical sections about axes other than the axes of symmetry. In
other words, it is the loading which causes bending simultaneously in two planes.
Consider the simple rectangular-section beam shown in Fig. 8.1 which is subjected to a load inclined to
the axes of symmetry. In such cases bending will take place about an inclined axis, i.e. the N.A. will be
inclined at some angle  to the XX axis and deflections will take place perpendicular to the N.A.

b
Z

h 𝑃𝑥 = 𝑃 cos 𝜃
Z Z
Z 

𝑃𝑦 = 𝑃 sin 𝜃

Y P
Fig. 8.1: Skew loading of symmetrical section

In such cases it is convenient to resolve the load P, and hence the applied moment, into its components
parallel with the axes of symmetry and to apply the simple bending theory to the resulting bending about
both axes. It is thus assumed that simple bending takes place simultaneously about both axes of symmetry.
Assumptions of Simple Bending Theory: Following are some of the assumptions of simple bending theory
1. The plane sections of the beam remain plane after bending
2. The material of the beam is homogeneous and linearly elastic.
3. There is no net internal axial force.
Principal Axes: A set of centroidal rectangular axes about which moment of inertia have maximum and
minimum principal values, whereas product moment of inertia is zero is called as principal axis. The
simple bending theory is applicable for bending about principal axes only.
Bi-axial Bending: Biaxial bending is produced in a member when bending moments are applied
simultaneously about both principal axes.

Apparatus: Unsymmetrical Bending Apparatus, Vernier Caliper, Load hanger, Weights


Specimen: Cantilever Rectangular beam
Procedure:
Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:
1. Set the fix end of the cantilever to 45o and dial gauges to 90o. If necessary centralise the dial gauge
plate. This will load the cantilever at 45o to its principal axes, and measure the vertical and horizontal
deflections of the loaded end.
Dial Gauge Plate
135
90o o 180 Dial Gauge
o X
0o
45o 225o 270o
45o
90o 135o
o
270 Dial Gauge
Y

Fig 8.2: Cantilever End Clamp Fig 8.3: Dial Gauge Plate Clamp

2. Apply the load of 40N at the free end in


increments of 5N. Note the dial gauge readings and calculate deflections.
3. Plot the deflection against load on a graph to verify that the system is linearly elastic.
4. Measure the dimensions of the beam for theoretical values of deflections and take modulus of elasticity
as 210 kN/mm2.
5. Find the deflections by theoretically given formula;
𝑃 cos 𝜃 𝐿3
δ𝑍 =
3𝐸𝐼𝑌𝑌
𝑃 sin 𝜃 𝐿3
δ𝑌 =
3𝐸𝐼𝑍𝑍
6. Compute the theoretical deflection and compare with those measured experimentally.

Readings & Observations:


Width of rectangular beam (b) = _________________________ mm

Height of rectangular beam (h) = _________________________ mm

Young’s modulus of the material (E) = _________________________ kN/mm2

Span of cantilever beam (L) = _________________________ mm

Izz = __________________________ mm4

Iyy = __________________________ mm4


Table No. 8.1: Observations for deflections from Experiment

Horizontal
Vertical Dial Vertical Deflection Horizontal Dial
Load Deflection
Gauge reading y = L.C. x y Gauge reading
(N) z = L.C. x z
(y) (mm) (z)
(mm)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

Table No. 8.2: Comparison between Experimental and Theoretical Deflections

Experimental Deflection Theoretical Deflection %age Difference

Vertical Horizontal Vertical Horizontal y (%) z (%)


Deflection Deflection Deflection Deflection
Load y (mm) z (mm) 𝛅𝒀 =
𝑷 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 𝑳𝟑
𝛅𝒁 =
𝑷 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 𝑳𝟑
(N) 𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒁𝒁 𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒀𝒀
(mm) (mm)

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Graph and Diagram:

Plot (the vertical and horizontal) deflections against load and use the graph to verify that the system
is linearly elastic.

Conclusion & Significance:


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Uses equipment Uses equipment Uses equipment with


Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the
(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of
Equipment equipment
accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 9:
To verify linear elastic behavior of an equal angle section beam (with fixed-fixed end condition)
under eccentric loadings.

THEORY:
A body is said to be linear elastic when stresses are directly proportional to strain, and body comes back
to its original position after the removal of load.

Load Deflection Curve is a graph in which increasing flexural loads on a beam are plotted along the
vertical axis, and deflections resulting from these loads are plotted along the horizontal. Deflection is a
linear displacement by the application of load and rotation is an angular displacement by the application
of load.

Apparatus: Shear Centre Apparatus, Vernier Caliper, Load hanger, Weights,

Specimen: Equal Angle Section beam

Procedure:
Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

1. Assemble the given sample of equal angle in shear center apparatus.


2. Apply load from 11N to 41N in 10N increments at two eccentricities of 40 mm in front of the vertical
flange and 100 mm behind it.
3. Record front and rear dial gauge readings in Table 8.1, noting that the load hanger is part of the load.
4. Plot graphs for rotation against load at both eccentricities.
Readings & Observations:
Least count (L.C.) = 0.01 mm

Clock wise readings = positive

Table No. 9.1: Observations & Calculations for eccentricity of 40 mm


Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge
Rotation
Load (N) Displacement Displacement = ΔF - ΔR
Reading Reading
ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z (mm)
(y) (z)
(mm) (mm)
0
11

21

31

41
Table No. 9.2: Observations & Calculations for eccentricity of 100 mm
Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge
Rotation
Displacement Displacement
Load (N) Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR
ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z
(y) (z) (mm)
(mm) (mm)
0
11
21
31
41

Graph and Diagram:

Plot Rotation (for 40 and 100 mm eccentricity) against load and use the graph to verify that there is
linear behavior.

Conclusion & Significance:


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Uses equipment Uses equipment Uses equipment with


Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the
(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of
Equipment equipment
accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 10:
To determine and compare theoretical and experimental deflection of a rectangular beam
undergoing unsymmetrical bending.

THEORY:
The simple theory of bending applies only to bending in the plane of a principal axis of the beam section.
There are two such axes, mutually perpendicular. They are easily located in regular sections since axes of
symmetry must be a principal axis.

If the load acting on a beam is not in the plane of a principal axis, the simplest way of determining its
effect is to resolve it into two components which are in the planes of principal axes. Let the load act at an
angle θ to principal axes. Then the behavior of the beam is described by

N.
Y A
Z

 

 
Z 
 

Y

𝑀 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝐸
=
𝐼𝑥𝑥 𝑅𝑌

𝑀 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝐸
=
𝐼𝑦𝑦 𝑅𝑥

It is frequently the case when sections like angles are used as beams that the load is not applied in the
plane of principal axes.

Apparatus: Unsymmetrical bending Apparatus, Dial gauges, Vernier Caliper, Load hanger & Weights

Specimen: Cantilever rectangular steel beam

Procedure:
Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:
1. Fix the dial gauge plate and fixed end of beam at 45o.
2. Centralize the dial gauge plate
3. Apply the load of 20N.
4. Record horizontal and vertical dial gauge readings before and after applying load.
5. Repeat it for each 15o increment between 45o and 225o, keeping the fixed end and dial gauge
reading always at matching angular readings.
6. Plot a graph of deflection (Y, Z, and R) against orientation.
7. Measure the dimensions of the beam for theoretical values of deflections and take modulus of
elasticity as 210 kN/mm2.
8. Find the deflections by theoretically given formula;
𝑃 cos 𝜃 𝐿3
δ𝑍 =
3𝐸𝐼𝑌𝑌
𝑃 sin 𝜃 𝐿3
δ𝑌 =
3𝐸𝐼𝑍𝑍
9. Compute the theoretical deflection and compare with those measured experimentally.

Readings & Observations:


Width of rectangular beam (b) = _________________________ mm
Height of rectangular beam (h) = _________________________ mm
Young’s modulus of the material (E) = _________________________ kN/mm2
Span of cantilever beam (L) = _________________________ mm
Izz = __________________________ mm4
Iyy = __________________________ mm4

Table No. 10.1: Cantilever loaded at o to the ZZ-axis


Y Dial Gauge Reading Z Dial Gauge Reading
Angle of
Load Deflection Deflection
No load 20N load No load 20N load
(o) Y Z
(0.01mm) (0.01mm) (0.01mm) (0.01mm)
(mm) (mm)
45
60
75
90
105
120
135
150
165
180
195
210
225
Table No. 10.2: Resultant Deflection and Inclination to Vertical
Angle of Load Y Z R 𝜹
 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝜹𝒀 =-
(o) (mm) (mm) 𝒁

50

70

90

110

130

150

170

190

210

 = Inclination of Resultant Deflections to Vertical plane of load

Table No. 10.3: Comparison between Experimental and Theoretical Deflections


Experimental Deflection Theoretical Deflection %age Difference
Angle
of Vertical Horizontal
Vertical Horizontal Deflection Deflection
Load Deflection Deflection 𝑷 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 𝑳𝟑 𝑷 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 𝑳𝟑 y (%) z (%)
(o) Y (mm) Z (mm) 𝛅𝒀 = 𝛅𝒁 =
𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒁𝒁 𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒀𝒀
(mm) (mm)

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165
Plot Deflection (Y, Z, and R) against Orientation ()

Plot Inclination of Resultant Deflections to Vertical plane of load () against Orientation.

Conclusion & Significance:


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Uses equipment Uses equipment Uses equipment with


Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the
(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of
Equipment equipment
accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


Experiment No. 11: To find out shear center of following cross sections;
a) Semi Circle
b) Channel Section
c) Angle Section
d) Z-Section
THEORY:
Shear center of the cross section of a beam is that point through which the lines of load must pass in order
that the beam shall bend without twisting about its longitudinal axis. For beams with two axes of symmetry
the shear center is at the intersection, while for sections with one axis of symmetry the shear center will
lie somewhere on that axes.

Apparatus: Shear Center Apparatus, Loads, Dial gauges, Vernier Caliper


Specimen: Semi Circle, Channel Section, Angle Section, Z-Section
Procedure:
Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

1. Assemble the given sample in shear center apparatus.


2. Apply the load of 40 N for an equal angle and 100N for the other sections, at varying positions marked
on given samples.
3. Record front and rear dial gauge readings.
4. Plot the graph of rotation against position of load.
5. Note the position at which this graph crosses zero rotation. This defines the shear center.
6. Repeat these steps for other sections.
7. Compare theoretical and experimental calculations by applying % difference formula.

Theoretical Calculation for Shear Center:

a) Semi Circle

Fig 11.1: Shear Center of Semicircular Section

𝜃
Shear stresses: 𝑄𝑧 = ∫ 𝑦 𝑑𝐴 = ∫0 𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑠∅ = 𝑟 2 𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
in which φ is the angle to the element of area and t is the thickness of the section. Thus, the shear stress τ
at section bb is
𝑉𝑦 𝑄𝑧 𝑉𝑦 𝑟 2 sin 𝜃
𝜏= =
𝐼𝑧 𝑡 𝐼𝑧
𝝅 𝟑
Substituting 𝑰𝒛 =
𝟐
𝒓 𝒕, we get
2 𝑉𝑦 sin 𝜃
𝜏=
𝜋𝑟𝑡
Location of shear center: The resultant of the shear stresses must be the vertical shear force Vy. Therefore,
the moment Mo of the shear stresses about the center O must equal the moment of the force Vy about that
same point:
𝑀𝑜 = 𝑉𝑦 𝑒
To evaluate Mo, we begin by noting that the shear stress τ acting on the element of area dA (Fig. 10.1. (b)
is
2 𝑉𝑦 sin ∅
𝜏=
𝜋𝑟𝑡
The corresponding force is τ dA, and the moment of this force is
2 𝑉𝑦 sin ∅ 𝑑𝐴 2𝑟𝑉𝑦 sin ∅ 𝑑∅
𝑑𝑀𝑜 = 𝑟 (𝜏𝑑𝐴) = =
𝜋𝑡 𝜋
Therefore, the moment produced by the shear stresses is
𝜋 2𝑟𝑉 sin ∅ 𝑑∅ 4𝑟𝑉𝑦
𝑦
𝑀𝑜 = ∫ 𝑑𝑀𝑜 = ∫ =
0 𝜋 𝜋
𝑴𝒐 𝟒𝒓
𝒆= = ≈ 𝟏. 𝟐𝟕𝒓
𝑽𝒚 𝝅
In other form,
2𝑟 4 𝑡
𝑒=
𝐼

b) Channel Section
Shear-Flow Resultants: A vertical downward shear V applied to the section causes the shear to flow
through the flanges and web as shown in Fig. 10.2b. This causes force resultants Ff and V in the flanges
and web as shown in Fig. 10.2c.We will take moments about point A so that only the force Ff on the lower
flange has to be determined.

Fig 10.2: Shear Center of Channel Section

𝟏 𝒉 𝟐 𝒕𝒉𝟐 𝒉
𝑰= 𝒕𝒉𝟑 + [𝟐𝒃𝒕 ( ) ] = ( + 𝒃)
𝟏𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟔
From Fig. 10.2d, q at the arbitrary position x is

𝑉𝑄 𝑉 ( ) [𝑏 − 𝑥]𝑡 𝑉(𝑏 − 𝑥)
𝑞= = 2 =
𝐼 𝑡ℎ 2 ℎ ℎ
( ) [( ) + 𝑏] ℎ [(6) + 𝑏]
2 6
Hence, the force Ff is
𝑏 𝑏
𝑉 𝑉𝑏 2
𝐹𝑓 = ∫ 𝑞 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ (𝑏 − 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 =
0
ℎ ℎ
ℎ [(6) + 𝑏] 0 2ℎ [(6) + 𝑏]
This same result can also be determined by first finding (qmax)f, Fig. 10.2b, then determining the triangular
area ½ b (qmax)f = Ff.
Shear Center: Summing moments about point A, Fig. 10.2c, we require
𝑉𝑏 2 ℎ
𝑉𝑒 = 𝐹𝑓 ℎ =

2ℎ [(6) + 𝑏]
Thus,
𝒃𝟐
𝒆 = 𝑭𝒇 𝒉 =
𝒉
[(𝟑) + 𝟐𝒃]
In other form,
𝑏 2 ℎ2 𝑡
𝑒=
4𝐼

c) Angle Section

Fig 10.3: Shear Center of Angle Section

When a vertical downward shear V is applied at the section, the shear flow and shear-flow resultants are
directed as shown in Fig. 10.3b and 10.3c, respectively. Note that the force F in each leg must be equal,
since for equilibrium the sum of their horizontal components must be equal to zero. Also, the lines of
action of both forces intersect point O; therefore, this point must be the shear center since the sum of
the moments of these forces and V about O is zero, Fig. 10.3c.
1 𝑠 1 𝑠
𝑄 = 𝐴𝑦 ′ = ((𝑏 − 𝑠) + ) 𝑡𝑠 = (𝑏 − ) 𝑡𝑠
√2 2 √2 2
The moment of inertia of the angle, about the neutral axis, must be determined from “first principles,”
since the legs are inclined with respect to the neutral axis. For the area element dA = t ds, Fig. 10.3e,
2
2
𝑏
𝑠 1 2 2
1 3 𝑏 𝑡𝑏 3
𝐼 = ∫ 𝑦 𝑑𝐴 = 2 ∫ [ (𝑏 − ) 𝑡𝑠] 𝑡 𝑑𝑠 = [𝑡 (𝑏 𝑠 − 𝑏𝑠 + 𝑠 )] =
0 √2 2 3 0 3
Thus, the shear flow is
𝑉𝑄 𝑉 1 𝑠 3𝑉 𝑠
𝑞= = 3 [ (𝑏 − ) 𝑡𝑠] = 𝑠(𝑏 − )
𝐼 𝑡𝑏 2 √2𝑏 3 2
( 3 ) √2
The variation of q is parabolic, and it reaches a maximum value when s = b as shown in Fig. 10.3. b.The
force F is therefore
𝑏 𝑏
3𝑉 𝑠
𝐹 = ∫ 𝑞 𝑑𝑠 = ∫ 𝑠 (𝑏 − ) 𝑑𝑠
0 √2𝑏 3 0 2
𝑏
3𝑉 𝑠2 1
= [(𝑏 − 𝑠 3 )]
√2𝑏 3 2 6 0
1
𝐹 = 𝑉
√2
d) Z-Section

Shear Flow Resultant:


The shear force flows through as Indicated by F1, F2, and F3 on FBD (b). Hence, the horizontal force
equilibrium is not satisfied. To satisfy this equilibrium requirement. F1 and F2 must be equal to zero.

Shear Center: Summing moments about point A.


Pe = F2 (0) e=0
Also, the shear flows through the section as indicated by F1, F2, F3. However, ∑ Fx ≠ 0. To satisfy this
equation, the section must tip so that the resultant of F1 + F2 + F3 = P
Also, due to the geometry, for calculating F1 and F3, we require F1 = F3. Hence, e = 0.

b F F
F F
P P 1 1
h/2 e 1 P
e 3
O F F F
h/2 2 F
2 2
2
t
F
b F F F 1
3 3 3
Readings & Observations:

Table No. 11.1: Shear Centre Calculation for Semi-Circle Section


Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge
Rotation
Position of Displacement Displacement
Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR
Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z
(y) (z) (mm)
(mm) (mm)
100
80
60
40
20

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
Table No. 11.2: Shear Centre Calculation for Channel Section
Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge
Rotation
Position of Displacement Displacement
Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR
Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z
(y) (z) (mm)
(mm) (mm)
100
80
60
40
20

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100

Table No. 11.3: Shear Centre Calculation for Angle Section


Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge
Rotation
Position of Displacement Displacement
Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR
Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z
(y) (z) (mm)
(mm) (mm)
100
80
60
40
20

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
Table No. 11.4: Shear Centre Calculation for Z-Section
Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge
Rotation
Position of Displacement Displacement
Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR
Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z
(y) (z) (mm)
(mm) (mm)
100
80
60
40
20

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100

Graph and Diagram:

Plot Rotation against Load (for all 4 sections on different graph papers) and the point at which this
graph crosses zero rotation. This defines the shear center.

Conclusion & Significance:


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II
(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks
Category
No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-1: Perform experiments related to advanced mechanics of materials. [PLO-9, P-2]

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and
(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate
confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Uses equipment Uses equipment Uses equipment with


Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the
(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of
Equipment equipment
accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

25% of solution About half of the


All calculations are All solution is
(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not
accurate. incorrect
error correct

TOTAL 9

Instructor Signature: __________________________________


APPENDIX A
Beam Deflections and Slopes
LAB EVALUATION SUMMARY

Exp No. CLO-1 [PLO-9, P-2] CLO-2 [PLO-2, C-3]

1. - /3
2. /6 /3
3. /3 /3
4. - /3
5. /3 /3
6. /6 /3
7. - /3
8. /6 /3
9. /6 /3
10. /6 /3
11. /6 /3

TOTAL MARKS OF LAB ASSESSMENTS

CLO-1 [PLO-9, P-2] CLO-2 [PLO-2, C-3]

Obtained Marks

Total Marks 42 33

Instructor’s Signature: _________________________________