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STRENGTH OF

MATERIALS-II

Name of Student:

Registration No.:

Section:

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Strength of Materials-II covers more detailed analysis of materials. Mainly it includes observations of

materials subjected to biaxial loads and unsymmetrical bending. A few properties e.g., shear center and

principal stresses are also covered under this course.

Experiment # 02: To calculate moment of inertia of different sections.

Experiment # 03: To perform tension test on cast iron and mild steel bars and determine principal

stresses using analytical method.

Experiment # 04: To determine principal stresses in axially loaded cast iron and mild steel bars

using graphical solutions.

Experiment # 05: To plot stress trajectories for simply supported rectangular beam and observe

cracks pattern in fractured beam.

Experiment # 06: To determine principal stresses in a loaded beam installed with strain rosettes

using analytical methods.

Experiment # 07: Finding out principal strains and stresses in an instrumented (with strain

rosette) steel beam using graphical solution.

Experiment # 08: To verify that a rectangular cantilever beam with skew loading is linear elastic.

Experiment # 09: To verify linear elastic behavior of an equal angle section beam (with fixed-

fixed end condition) under eccentric loadings.

Experiment # 10: To determine and compare theoretical and experimental deflection of a

rectangular beam undergoing unsymmetrical bending.

Experiment # 11: To find out shear center of the following cross sections;

a) Semi-Circle

b) Channel Section

c) Angle Section

d) Z-Section

Experiment No. 1:

To construct layout of laboratory and write detailed description of list of equipment.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 3

Experiment No. 2:

To calculate the moment of inertia of various cross sections of beams.

THEORY: A quantity expressing a body's tendency to resist angular acceleration, which is the sum of

the products of the mass of each particle in the body with the square of its distance from the axis of rotation

is known as moment of inertia.

OR

I = m x r2

Area moment of inertia: "Area Moment of Inertia" is a property of shape that is used to predict deflection,

bending and stress in beams. Its units are mm4, cm4, m4.

section can be calculated as

𝑏ℎ3

𝐼𝑥 =

12

Fig 2.1: Solid rectangular

3 section

𝑏 ℎ

𝐼𝑦 =

12

Solid Circular Cross Section: The Area Moment of Inertia for a solid

cylindrical section can be calculated as

𝜋𝑟 4 𝜋𝑑 4

𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 = =

4 64

Fig 2.2: Solid Circular

Hollow cylindrical section: The Area Moment of Inertia for a hollow Cross Section

cylindrical section can be calculated as

𝜋(𝑑𝑜 4 − 𝑑𝑖 4 )

𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 =

64

Where; do = cylinder outside diameter & di = cylinder inside diameter

Square cross section: The Area Moments of Inertia for a square section can

be calculated as

Fig 2.3: Hollow cylindrical

𝑎4 section

𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 =

12

I-shaped cross-section: Area Moment of Inertia for a symmetrical I shaped

section can be calculated as

𝑎ℎ3 𝑏

𝐼𝑥 = + (𝐻 3 − ℎ3 )

12 12

𝑎3 ℎ 𝑏 3

𝐼𝑦 = + (𝐻 − ℎ)

12 12

Fig 2.5: Symmetrical I

section

Hollow rectangular section: The Moment of Inertia for a Hollow

rectangular section can be calculated as

𝐵𝐻 3 𝑏ℎ3

𝐼𝑥 = −

12 12

𝐻𝐵 3 ℎ𝑏 3

𝐼𝑦 = −

12 12 Fig 2.6: Hollow rectangular

section

Channel section: The Moment of Inertia for a Channel section can be

calculated as

𝑏𝑑3 − ℎ3 (𝑏 − 𝑡)

𝐼𝑥 =

12

2

2𝑠𝑏 3 + ℎ𝑡 3 (2𝑏 2 𝑠 + ℎ𝑡 2

𝐼𝑥 = − (2𝑠𝑏 + ℎ𝑡) [ ]

3 2𝑏𝑑 − 2ℎ(𝑏 − 𝑡) Fig 2.7: Channel section

can be calculated as

𝑎𝑏 3 − 𝑐(𝑏 − 2𝑡)3

𝐼𝑥 =

12

𝑏(𝑎 + 𝑐)3 − 2𝑐 3 𝑑 − 6𝑎2 𝑐𝑑

𝐼𝑦 =

12 Fig 2.8: Z-shape cross-

section

Angle section of equal legs: The Moment of Inertia for an angle section

of equal legs can be calculated as

𝐼𝑥 = 𝐼𝑦 =

12 (2𝐿 − 𝑡)

Fig 2.9: Angle Section with

equal legs

Apparatus: Vernier Caliper, Measuring Scale

Specimen: Rectangular Sections, Hollow rectangular section, Angle Section, Semi-Circle Section, Z-

Section, & Channel Section.

Procedure:

Following procedure is adopted for performing this experiment:

1. Note down zero error of the Vernier caliper

2. Take one section and measure its width, height and thickness by placing Vernier caliper at three

locations and then taking average of the value.

3. Note the reading properly and calculate moment of inertia about x and y axis.

4. Repeat these steps for all given samples.

Readings & Observations:

Sr. Specimen Ix Iy

No.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Significance of Experiment:

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the

(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of

Equipment equipment

accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

Experiment No. 3:

To perform tension test on cast iron and mild steel bars and determine principal stresses using

analytical method.

THEORY:

Uniaxial Stress System: Uniaxial Stress System is a stress system in which a member is subjected to load

in only one direction. i.e.

𝜎𝑥 𝜎𝑥 𝜎𝑥

𝜎𝑛 = + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 = (1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃)

2 2 2

𝜎𝑛 = 𝜎𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃

1

𝜏𝑠 = − (𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 )𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2

𝜎𝑥

𝜏𝑥 = − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

2

Principal stresses/planes: Principal plane is a plane at which there is maximum and minimum normal stress

and zero shear stress. The stresses occur on that plane are termed as Principal Stresses.

Maximum and minimum stresses/planes: The plane on which maximum normal stress is acting is called

major principal plane and corresponding normal stress is known as maximum principal stress which is

denoted by 𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 , 𝜎∅ , 𝑜𝑟 𝜎1 . The other plane on which minimum normal stress is acting is called minor

principal plane and corresponding normal stress is called minimum principal stress which is denoted by

𝜎𝑚𝑖𝑛 , 𝜎∅+90𝑜 , 𝑜𝑟 𝜎2 .

Apparatus: Universal Testing Machine, Extensometer, Vernier Caliper, & Weighing Balance.

Specimen: Deformed Steel bars, Cast Iron bar

Procedure:

Following procedure is adopted for analytical solution of principal stresses:

1. All the test samples are made into required length (i.e. 22in min. as per recommendation) and their

masses are measured.

2. Total length and diameter of each specimen is measured and area is calculated.

3. Properly mark gauge length on each sample to be tested. Gauge length should be 8in.

4. Place the sample in gripers of the machine and start applying load.

5. Note the load at yielding and ultimate points.

6. Calculate ultimate stress and obtain principal stress and maximum shear stress.

7. Repeat these steps for all given samples.

Readings & Observations:

Length of specimen 1 before experiment = ___________________ mm

Length of specimen 1 after experiment = ____________________ mm

Length of specimen 2 before experiment = ___________________ mm

Length of specimen 2 after experiment = ____________________ mm

Table No. 1: Observations Table for Specimens

Specimen Gauge Weight Unit Dia of Measured Cross- Upper Yield Lower Yield

Length Weight Specimen or Exact sectional Point Point

(Nominal Dia of Area

𝝅

Dia) Specimen 𝑨 = 𝒅𝟐 Stress Strain Stress Strain

𝟒

Mark

Type (m2) Value Value Value Value

No. (m) (kg) (kg/m) (m) (m) (MPa) (m/m) (MPa) (m/m)

Specimen Corresponding to Yield Corresponding to Ultimate Modulus Modulus Modulus

Stress Stress of of of

Elasticity Resilience Toughness

Load Strain Stress Load Strain Stress

Mark Value Value Value Value Value Value

Type

No. (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

(kN) (m/m) (MPa) (kN) (m/m) (MPa)

Value Value

Mark

Type 𝝈 = 𝝈𝒙 𝝉 = 𝝈𝒙 /𝟐

No.

(MPa) (MPa)

Graph and Diagram:

Representative figure of stress strain diagram is as under. Paste stress strain curves for different specimens

obtained from machine.

Figure 3.1: Conventional and true stress–strain diagram for ductile material (steel) (not to scale)

Paste stress strain curves for different specimens obtained from machine.

Significance of Testing:

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0

Category Marks Obtained

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

Experiment No. 4:

To determine principal stresses in axially loaded cast iron and mild steel bars using graphical

solutions.

THEORY:

Mohr’s Stress Circle: The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in graphical form

by a plot known as Mohr’s circle. This approach is will help to “visualize” how the normal and shear

stress components 𝜎𝑥 ′ and 𝜏𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ vary as the plane on which they act changes its direction Fig. 2-1.

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦

𝜎𝑥 ′ − = cos 2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 sin 2𝜃

2 2

𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦

𝜏𝑠 − 0 = −( ) sin 2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 cos 2𝜃

2

To eliminate the parameter 2θ, squaring the equations and then adding them:

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 2 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2

(𝜎𝑛 − ) + (𝜏𝑠 − 0)2 = ( ) (cos 2 2𝜃 + sin2 2𝜃) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2 (cos 2 2𝜃 + sin2 2𝜃)

2 2

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 2 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2

(𝜎𝑛 − ) + (𝜏𝑠 − 0)2 = ( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2

2 2

This equation can be written in simpler form by using the following notation

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦

𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 =

2

𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2

𝑅 = √( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2

2

Equation now becomes

2

(𝜎𝑛 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 ) − 𝜏𝑠 = 𝑅 2

which is the equation of a circle in standard algebraic form.

(X-P)2 + (Y-q)2 = R2

By analogy with general equation of circle, the equation can be used to draw the stress circle.

Figure 4.1: Normal and shear stress components 𝝈𝒙 ′ and 𝝉𝒙′ 𝒚′ vary as the plane on which they act changes its

direction.

Figure 4.2: Mohr’s circle representing a circle having a radius R and center on the axis at point C(avg, 0)

1. 𝜎 and 𝜏 arc’s will have the same scale.

2. The center of the stress circle will always be laying on the 𝜎 -axis, having coordinates,

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦

𝐶 ( , 0)

2

3. Radius will be equal to

𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2

𝑅 = √( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2

2

4. The periphery of stress circle will represent state of stress on all possible planes including the applied

state of stress.

Apparatus: Universal Testing Machine, Graph Paper, Scale, Extensometer, Vernier Caliper,

Geometrical Instruments.

Specimen: Deformed Steel bars, Cast Iron bar

Procedure:

For graphical solution of principal stresses following procedure is adopted. A comparison must be made

between analytical and graphical solutions.

1. Establish a coordinate system such that the x-axis represents normal stress and y-axis represents shear

stress.

2. Plot the center “C” of circle on σ axis using following formula.

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦

𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 =

2

Plot the reference point A with coordinates A (𝜎𝑥 , 𝜏𝑥𝑦 ).

3. Connect “A” with “C”. This represents radius “R” of the circle.

4. With this “R”, construct a circle.

5. Principal stresses 𝜎1 and 𝜎2 (𝜎1 ≥ 𝜎2 ) are the coordinates of points B and D crossing 𝜎-axis.

6. These stresses act on planes defined by angles 𝜃𝑝1 and 𝜃𝑝2 , represented on circle by 2𝜃𝑝1 and 2𝜃𝑝2

and are measured from the radial reference line CA to lines CB and CD respectively.

7. The average normal stress and maximum in-plane shear stress ate the coordinates of either point E or

point F.

Figure 4.2: Mohr’s Stress Circle Procedure for Analysis

Graph and Diagram:

Plot a Mohr’s circle for all specimens and find out principal stresses.

Table No. 1: Analytical and Graphical Solution Results:

Comparison between

Nominal Analytical Method Graphical Method

Specimen Analytical and

Dia of Results Results

Graphical Methods

Specimen

Max. Max. Max. Max.

Percentage Percentage

Mark Direct Shear Direct Shear

Type diff in diff in

No. Stress Stress Stress Stress

(m) 𝝈𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙

𝝈𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝈𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙

Result:

Maximum Principal Stress value and maximum shearing stress value of various steel bars is shown in

table no. 1. Compare the analytical and graphical calculations by calculating percentage difference of both

values. The formula to calculate %age difference is as under.

σmaxg -σmaxa

%age difference = σmax = x100

σmaxa

τmaxg -τmaxa

%age difference = τmax = x100

τmaxa

Significance of experiment:

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 3

Experiment No. 5:

To plot stress trajectories for simply supported rectangular beam and observe cracks pattern in

fractured beam.

THEORY:

Flexural Stresses in beam: A beam is a structural member whose length is large compared to its cross-

sectional area which is loaded and supported in the direction transverse to its axis. Lateral loads acting on

the beam cause the beam to bend or flex, thereby deforming the axis of the beam into a curved line.

Stress Trajectory: Stress trajectories are lines in the direction of principal stresses.

In beams, the directions of principal stress vary with intensities of flexural stresses and horizontal shearing

stresses. At extreme fibers of any beam section, shear stresses are zero and flexural stresses are zero at the

neutral axis.

The same concept is used in evaluating the maximum and minimum stresses in a beam and respected

principal stresses are calculated.

Stress Contour: Stress Contour is a curve connecting points of equal Principal Stress.

Specimen: Wooden beam, Plain concrete beam

Procedure:

Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

1. Take each sample and mark its clear span.

2. Divide the clear span in three equal parts for two-point

loading or place load at L/4 from each support.

3. One by one perform the test for two-point loading.

4. Plot Shear force diagram and bending moment diagrams

for maximum load obtained.

5. Calculate the value of maximum bending moment and use

it in further calculations of stresses.

Fig 5.1: (a) Orientation of stresses of simply supported beam under point

loading. (b) Stress Trajectories for Simply supported beam under UDL. (c)

Stress trajectories for cantilever beam

𝑀𝑦

Flexural Stress, 𝜎𝑥 =

𝐼

𝑉𝑄

Shear Stress, 𝜏𝑥𝑦 =

𝐼𝑏

Q = First moment of the cross-sectional area

𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2

𝜎1,2 = ± √( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2

2 2

2𝜏𝑥𝑦

tan 2𝜃𝑝 =

(𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 )

Table No. 01: Observations and Calculations for Wooden Beam Sample

Point on

Depth to Neutral Moment of Width of Bending Shear Shear Flow, Flexural Stress Shear Stress

beam

Axis, “y” Inertia, “I” Beam, “b” Moment, “M” Force, “V” “Q”

cross-

(in) (in4) (in) (kip.in) (kip) (in3) (ksi) (ksi)

section

a

Table No. 02: Observations and Calculations for Wooden Beam Sample

Points 𝝈𝒙 𝝉𝒙𝒚 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝜽

(ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (degree)

e

Table No. 01: Observations and Calculations for Concrete Beam Sample

Point on

Depth to Neutral Moment of Width of Bending Shear Shear Flow, Flexural Stress Shear Stress

beam

Axis, “y” Inertia, “I” Beam, “b” Moment, “M” Force, “V” “Q”

cross-

(in) (in4) (in) (kip.in) (kip) (in3) (ksi) (ksi)

section

a

Table No. 02: Observations and Calculations for Concrete Beam Sample

Points 𝝈𝒙 𝝉𝒙𝒚 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝜽

(ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (ksi) (degree)

e

Paste stress trajectories diagram of wooden beam sample

Significance of Experiment:

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

Learns desired skills Learns adequate Learns skills and Fails to learn and

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

Experiment No. 6:

To determine principal stresses in a loaded beam installed with strain rosettes by using analytical

method.

THEORY:

When performing a tension test on a specimen, the normal strain is measured using an electrical resistance

strain gauge, which consists of a wire grid or piece of metal foil bonded to the specimen. For a general

loading on a body, however, the strains at a point on its free surface are determined using a cluster of three

electrical-resistance strain gauges, arranged in a specified pattern. This pattern is referred to as strain

rosette. Once the normal strains on these three gauges are measured, the data can then be transformed to

specify the state of strain at the point.

In general, the axes of three gauges are arranged at the angles 𝜃𝑎 , 𝜃𝑏 , 𝜃𝑐 as shown. Strain rosettes are of

two types depending upon the arrangement of strain gauges. 45o strain rosette is known as rectangular

strain rosette (Fig 6.1-b) and 60o strain rosette is known as delta strain rosette (Fig 6.1-c).

Fig 6.2: Three electrical-resistance strain gages arranged as a 45o strain rosette (magnified view).

If the readings 𝜖𝑎 , 𝜖𝑏 , 𝜖𝑐 are taken, we can determine the strain components 𝜖𝑥 , 𝜖𝑦 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 at the point by

applying the strain-transformation equation.

Apparatus: Universal Testing Machine, Measuring tape, Strain measuring devices, Vernier Caliper,

Screw Gauge

Procedure: Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

1. Measure the cross-section dimension of the beam.

2. Place the beam on Universal testing machine.

3. Mark the clear span of the beam.

4. Apply the load at required point.

5. Install rectangular and delta strain gauges on steel

section.

6. Connect these gauges with the display unit

7. Start applying load in defined increment and for each

increment note the value of strain at three gauges.

8. Calculate 𝜖𝑥 , 𝜖𝑦 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 for both arrangements of strain

gauges.

subjected to one point load

𝜖𝑎 = 𝜖𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃𝑎 + 𝜖𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃𝑎 + 𝛾𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑎 N.A

𝜖𝑏 = 𝜖𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜃𝑏 + 𝜖𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃𝑏 + 𝛾𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑏

The values 𝜖𝑥 , 𝜖𝑦 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 of are determined by solving these three equations Fig. 6.4: Cross-Section of I-Beam

simultaneously. And

𝜖𝑥 + 𝜖𝑦 𝜖𝑥 − 𝜖𝑦 2

𝜖1,2 = ± √( ) + 𝛾𝑥𝑦 2

2 2

(ϵ1 + μϵ1 )E

σ1 =

1 − μ2

(ϵ2 + μϵ1 )E

σ2 =

1 − μ2

σx = My/I

𝑉𝑄

𝜏𝑥𝑦 =

𝐼𝑡

For 45o rosette;

a = 0o, b = 45o, c = 90o 𝜖𝑥 = 𝜖𝑎 , 𝜖𝑦 = 𝜖𝑐 , 𝛾𝑥𝑦 = 2𝜖𝑏 − (𝜖𝑎 + 𝜖𝑐 )

1 2

a = 0o, b = 60o, c = 120o 𝜖𝑥 = 𝜖𝑎 , 𝜖𝑦 = 3 (2𝜖𝑏 + 2𝜖𝑐 − 𝜖𝑎 ), 𝛾𝑥𝑦 = (𝜖𝑏 − 𝜖𝑐 )

√3

Table No. 01: Values of Principal strains and stresses from experimentally measured strain values

using 45o strain rosette.

No. (kN) µ µ µ µ µ rad µ µ MPa MPa

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50

Table No. 2: Values of Principal Strains and stresses from the theoretically measured strains values

using 45o strain rosette.

No. Force of inertia moment Stress from =PL/4

V = P/2 of area τxy Neutral

(N) (N) (m4) (m) Q (m3) (MPa) axis) (N.m) MPa MPa MPa

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50

Table No.3: Values of Principal stresses from the theoretical relations and their comparison with

experimental measure stresses.

Obs. Load

No. (N) 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐 𝝈𝟏 𝝈𝟐

MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50

Significance of testing:

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the

(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of

Equipment equipment

accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

Experiment No. 7:

Finding out principal strains and stresses in an instrumented (with strain rosette) steel beam using

graphical solution.

THEORY

Strain rosette circle: Graphical solution is possible for any configuration of strain rosette. There are six

possibilities of strain rosette depending upon the components of magnitude of component gauges.

Possibilities:

i. ɛa > ɛb > ɛc

ii. ɛa > ɛc > ɛb

iii. ɛb > ɛa > ɛc

iv. ɛb > ɛc > ɛa

v. ɛc > ɛa > ɛb

vi. ɛc > ɛb > ɛa

Procedure

Following procedure is adopted in lab for the experiment:

1. Set up a vertical axis to represent /2 axis.

2. Decide scale of both and axis, keeping in mind the magnitude of strain gauges.

3. Draw three lines parallel to /2 axis at the appropriate distance representing the values a, b, c.

4. Assume intermediate gauge line is vertical.

5. On intermediate gauge line take any point P.

6. Draw angles α and β from point P towards a, c lines separately.

7. Both these lines will cut a, c lines at point Q and R.

8. Lines a, b, c was drawn parallel to /2 axis, depending upon their given values.

9. From the intermediate strain gauge line, select a point P and draw two lines to greater and smaller ɛ

lines at the given angles which was 45o and 90o respectively.

10. Then right bisectors of these two lines were drawn and the intersecting point of these two right

bisectors give us the center of circle.

11. Circle was drawn by opening the compass from center of circle to any point P, Q, and R.

12. All the end, ɛ axis was drawn, passing through the center of circle.

13. ɛ1 and ɛ2 were calculated from the graph

14. Stresses were calculated using

1 + 𝜈2

𝜎1 = E

1 − 𝜈2

2 + 𝜈1

𝜎2 = E

1 − 𝜈2

Graphical Method

Table No. 01 Values of Principal strains from Graph and Analytical solution and their difference.

No. (kN) measured Strains found principal found principal difference

strains strains

ɛa ɛb ɛc ɛ1 ɛ2 ɛ1 ɛ2 ɛ1 ɛ2

(μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ) (μ)

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50

Table No. 2 Values of Principal stresses from Graphical and Analytical solution and their difference.

(kN) Principal Stress Principal Stress

σ1 σ2 σ1 σ2 σ1 σ2

(MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

1 10

2 20

3 30

4 40

5 50

Graphs:

Paste Mohr’s circle against each load.

Significance:

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

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Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

1 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 3

Experiment No. 8:

To verify that a rectangular cantilever beam with skew loading is linear elastic.

THEORY:

Skew Loading: It is the bending of symmetrical sections about axes other than the axes of symmetry. In

other words, it is the loading which causes bending simultaneously in two planes.

Consider the simple rectangular-section beam shown in Fig. 8.1 which is subjected to a load inclined to

the axes of symmetry. In such cases bending will take place about an inclined axis, i.e. the N.A. will be

inclined at some angle to the XX axis and deflections will take place perpendicular to the N.A.

b

Z

h 𝑃𝑥 = 𝑃 cos 𝜃

Z Z

Z

𝑃𝑦 = 𝑃 sin 𝜃

Y P

Fig. 8.1: Skew loading of symmetrical section

In such cases it is convenient to resolve the load P, and hence the applied moment, into its components

parallel with the axes of symmetry and to apply the simple bending theory to the resulting bending about

both axes. It is thus assumed that simple bending takes place simultaneously about both axes of symmetry.

Assumptions of Simple Bending Theory: Following are some of the assumptions of simple bending theory

1. The plane sections of the beam remain plane after bending

2. The material of the beam is homogeneous and linearly elastic.

3. There is no net internal axial force.

Principal Axes: A set of centroidal rectangular axes about which moment of inertia have maximum and

minimum principal values, whereas product moment of inertia is zero is called as principal axis. The

simple bending theory is applicable for bending about principal axes only.

Bi-axial Bending: Biaxial bending is produced in a member when bending moments are applied

simultaneously about both principal axes.

Specimen: Cantilever Rectangular beam

Procedure:

Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

1. Set the fix end of the cantilever to 45o and dial gauges to 90o. If necessary centralise the dial gauge

plate. This will load the cantilever at 45o to its principal axes, and measure the vertical and horizontal

deflections of the loaded end.

Dial Gauge Plate

135

90o o 180 Dial Gauge

o X

0o

45o 225o 270o

45o

90o 135o

o

270 Dial Gauge

Y

Fig 8.2: Cantilever End Clamp Fig 8.3: Dial Gauge Plate Clamp

increments of 5N. Note the dial gauge readings and calculate deflections.

3. Plot the deflection against load on a graph to verify that the system is linearly elastic.

4. Measure the dimensions of the beam for theoretical values of deflections and take modulus of elasticity

as 210 kN/mm2.

5. Find the deflections by theoretically given formula;

𝑃 cos 𝜃 𝐿3

δ𝑍 =

3𝐸𝐼𝑌𝑌

𝑃 sin 𝜃 𝐿3

δ𝑌 =

3𝐸𝐼𝑍𝑍

6. Compute the theoretical deflection and compare with those measured experimentally.

Width of rectangular beam (b) = _________________________ mm

Table No. 8.1: Observations for deflections from Experiment

Horizontal

Vertical Dial Vertical Deflection Horizontal Dial

Load Deflection

Gauge reading y = L.C. x y Gauge reading

(N) z = L.C. x z

(y) (mm) (z)

(mm)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Deflection Deflection Deflection Deflection

Load y (mm) z (mm) 𝛅𝒀 =

𝑷 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 𝑳𝟑

𝛅𝒁 =

𝑷 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 𝑳𝟑

(N) 𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒁𝒁 𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒀𝒀

(mm) (mm)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Graph and Diagram:

Plot (the vertical and horizontal) deflections against load and use the graph to verify that the system

is linearly elastic.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the

(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of

Equipment equipment

accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

Experiment No. 9:

To verify linear elastic behavior of an equal angle section beam (with fixed-fixed end condition)

under eccentric loadings.

THEORY:

A body is said to be linear elastic when stresses are directly proportional to strain, and body comes back

to its original position after the removal of load.

Load Deflection Curve is a graph in which increasing flexural loads on a beam are plotted along the

vertical axis, and deflections resulting from these loads are plotted along the horizontal. Deflection is a

linear displacement by the application of load and rotation is an angular displacement by the application

of load.

Procedure:

Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

2. Apply load from 11N to 41N in 10N increments at two eccentricities of 40 mm in front of the vertical

flange and 100 mm behind it.

3. Record front and rear dial gauge readings in Table 8.1, noting that the load hanger is part of the load.

4. Plot graphs for rotation against load at both eccentricities.

Readings & Observations:

Least count (L.C.) = 0.01 mm

Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge

Rotation

Load (N) Displacement Displacement = ΔF - ΔR

Reading Reading

ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z (mm)

(y) (z)

(mm) (mm)

0

11

21

31

41

Table No. 9.2: Observations & Calculations for eccentricity of 100 mm

Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge

Rotation

Displacement Displacement

Load (N) Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR

ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z

(y) (z) (mm)

(mm) (mm)

0

11

21

31

41

Plot Rotation (for 40 and 100 mm eccentricity) against load and use the graph to verify that there is

linear behavior.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the

(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of

Equipment equipment

accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

Experiment No. 10:

To determine and compare theoretical and experimental deflection of a rectangular beam

undergoing unsymmetrical bending.

THEORY:

The simple theory of bending applies only to bending in the plane of a principal axis of the beam section.

There are two such axes, mutually perpendicular. They are easily located in regular sections since axes of

symmetry must be a principal axis.

If the load acting on a beam is not in the plane of a principal axis, the simplest way of determining its

effect is to resolve it into two components which are in the planes of principal axes. Let the load act at an

angle θ to principal axes. Then the behavior of the beam is described by

N.

Y A

Z

Z

Y

𝑀 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝐸

=

𝐼𝑥𝑥 𝑅𝑌

𝑀 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝐸

=

𝐼𝑦𝑦 𝑅𝑥

It is frequently the case when sections like angles are used as beams that the load is not applied in the

plane of principal axes.

Apparatus: Unsymmetrical bending Apparatus, Dial gauges, Vernier Caliper, Load hanger & Weights

Procedure:

Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

1. Fix the dial gauge plate and fixed end of beam at 45o.

2. Centralize the dial gauge plate

3. Apply the load of 20N.

4. Record horizontal and vertical dial gauge readings before and after applying load.

5. Repeat it for each 15o increment between 45o and 225o, keeping the fixed end and dial gauge

reading always at matching angular readings.

6. Plot a graph of deflection (Y, Z, and R) against orientation.

7. Measure the dimensions of the beam for theoretical values of deflections and take modulus of

elasticity as 210 kN/mm2.

8. Find the deflections by theoretically given formula;

𝑃 cos 𝜃 𝐿3

δ𝑍 =

3𝐸𝐼𝑌𝑌

𝑃 sin 𝜃 𝐿3

δ𝑌 =

3𝐸𝐼𝑍𝑍

9. Compute the theoretical deflection and compare with those measured experimentally.

Width of rectangular beam (b) = _________________________ mm

Height of rectangular beam (h) = _________________________ mm

Young’s modulus of the material (E) = _________________________ kN/mm2

Span of cantilever beam (L) = _________________________ mm

Izz = __________________________ mm4

Iyy = __________________________ mm4

Y Dial Gauge Reading Z Dial Gauge Reading

Angle of

Load Deflection Deflection

No load 20N load No load 20N load

(o) Y Z

(0.01mm) (0.01mm) (0.01mm) (0.01mm)

(mm) (mm)

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

Table No. 10.2: Resultant Deflection and Inclination to Vertical

Angle of Load Y Z R 𝜹

= 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝜹𝒀 =-

(o) (mm) (mm) 𝒁

50

70

90

110

130

150

170

190

210

Experimental Deflection Theoretical Deflection %age Difference

Angle

of Vertical Horizontal

Vertical Horizontal Deflection Deflection

Load Deflection Deflection 𝑷 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 𝑳𝟑 𝑷 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 𝑳𝟑 y (%) z (%)

(o) Y (mm) Z (mm) 𝛅𝒀 = 𝛅𝒁 =

𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒁𝒁 𝟑𝑬𝑰𝒀𝒀

(mm) (mm)

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

Plot Deflection (Y, Z, and R) against Orientation ()

Plot Inclination of Resultant Deflections to Vertical plane of load () against Orientation.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the

(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of

Equipment equipment

accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

Experiment No. 11: To find out shear center of following cross sections;

a) Semi Circle

b) Channel Section

c) Angle Section

d) Z-Section

THEORY:

Shear center of the cross section of a beam is that point through which the lines of load must pass in order

that the beam shall bend without twisting about its longitudinal axis. For beams with two axes of symmetry

the shear center is at the intersection, while for sections with one axis of symmetry the shear center will

lie somewhere on that axes.

Specimen: Semi Circle, Channel Section, Angle Section, Z-Section

Procedure:

Following procedure is adopted while performing experiment:

2. Apply the load of 40 N for an equal angle and 100N for the other sections, at varying positions marked

on given samples.

3. Record front and rear dial gauge readings.

4. Plot the graph of rotation against position of load.

5. Note the position at which this graph crosses zero rotation. This defines the shear center.

6. Repeat these steps for other sections.

7. Compare theoretical and experimental calculations by applying % difference formula.

a) Semi Circle

𝜃

Shear stresses: 𝑄𝑧 = ∫ 𝑦 𝑑𝐴 = ∫0 𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑠∅ = 𝑟 2 𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

in which φ is the angle to the element of area and t is the thickness of the section. Thus, the shear stress τ

at section bb is

𝑉𝑦 𝑄𝑧 𝑉𝑦 𝑟 2 sin 𝜃

𝜏= =

𝐼𝑧 𝑡 𝐼𝑧

𝝅 𝟑

Substituting 𝑰𝒛 =

𝟐

𝒓 𝒕, we get

2 𝑉𝑦 sin 𝜃

𝜏=

𝜋𝑟𝑡

Location of shear center: The resultant of the shear stresses must be the vertical shear force Vy. Therefore,

the moment Mo of the shear stresses about the center O must equal the moment of the force Vy about that

same point:

𝑀𝑜 = 𝑉𝑦 𝑒

To evaluate Mo, we begin by noting that the shear stress τ acting on the element of area dA (Fig. 10.1. (b)

is

2 𝑉𝑦 sin ∅

𝜏=

𝜋𝑟𝑡

The corresponding force is τ dA, and the moment of this force is

2 𝑉𝑦 sin ∅ 𝑑𝐴 2𝑟𝑉𝑦 sin ∅ 𝑑∅

𝑑𝑀𝑜 = 𝑟 (𝜏𝑑𝐴) = =

𝜋𝑡 𝜋

Therefore, the moment produced by the shear stresses is

𝜋 2𝑟𝑉 sin ∅ 𝑑∅ 4𝑟𝑉𝑦

𝑦

𝑀𝑜 = ∫ 𝑑𝑀𝑜 = ∫ =

0 𝜋 𝜋

𝑴𝒐 𝟒𝒓

𝒆= = ≈ 𝟏. 𝟐𝟕𝒓

𝑽𝒚 𝝅

In other form,

2𝑟 4 𝑡

𝑒=

𝐼

b) Channel Section

Shear-Flow Resultants: A vertical downward shear V applied to the section causes the shear to flow

through the flanges and web as shown in Fig. 10.2b. This causes force resultants Ff and V in the flanges

and web as shown in Fig. 10.2c.We will take moments about point A so that only the force Ff on the lower

flange has to be determined.

𝟏 𝒉 𝟐 𝒕𝒉𝟐 𝒉

𝑰= 𝒕𝒉𝟑 + [𝟐𝒃𝒕 ( ) ] = ( + 𝒃)

𝟏𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟔

From Fig. 10.2d, q at the arbitrary position x is

ℎ

𝑉𝑄 𝑉 ( ) [𝑏 − 𝑥]𝑡 𝑉(𝑏 − 𝑥)

𝑞= = 2 =

𝐼 𝑡ℎ 2 ℎ ℎ

( ) [( ) + 𝑏] ℎ [(6) + 𝑏]

2 6

Hence, the force Ff is

𝑏 𝑏

𝑉 𝑉𝑏 2

𝐹𝑓 = ∫ 𝑞 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ (𝑏 − 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 =

0

ℎ ℎ

ℎ [(6) + 𝑏] 0 2ℎ [(6) + 𝑏]

This same result can also be determined by first finding (qmax)f, Fig. 10.2b, then determining the triangular

area ½ b (qmax)f = Ff.

Shear Center: Summing moments about point A, Fig. 10.2c, we require

𝑉𝑏 2 ℎ

𝑉𝑒 = 𝐹𝑓 ℎ =

ℎ

2ℎ [(6) + 𝑏]

Thus,

𝒃𝟐

𝒆 = 𝑭𝒇 𝒉 =

𝒉

[(𝟑) + 𝟐𝒃]

In other form,

𝑏 2 ℎ2 𝑡

𝑒=

4𝐼

c) Angle Section

When a vertical downward shear V is applied at the section, the shear flow and shear-flow resultants are

directed as shown in Fig. 10.3b and 10.3c, respectively. Note that the force F in each leg must be equal,

since for equilibrium the sum of their horizontal components must be equal to zero. Also, the lines of

action of both forces intersect point O; therefore, this point must be the shear center since the sum of

the moments of these forces and V about O is zero, Fig. 10.3c.

1 𝑠 1 𝑠

𝑄 = 𝐴𝑦 ′ = ((𝑏 − 𝑠) + ) 𝑡𝑠 = (𝑏 − ) 𝑡𝑠

√2 2 √2 2

The moment of inertia of the angle, about the neutral axis, must be determined from “first principles,”

since the legs are inclined with respect to the neutral axis. For the area element dA = t ds, Fig. 10.3e,

2

2

𝑏

𝑠 1 2 2

1 3 𝑏 𝑡𝑏 3

𝐼 = ∫ 𝑦 𝑑𝐴 = 2 ∫ [ (𝑏 − ) 𝑡𝑠] 𝑡 𝑑𝑠 = [𝑡 (𝑏 𝑠 − 𝑏𝑠 + 𝑠 )] =

0 √2 2 3 0 3

Thus, the shear flow is

𝑉𝑄 𝑉 1 𝑠 3𝑉 𝑠

𝑞= = 3 [ (𝑏 − ) 𝑡𝑠] = 𝑠(𝑏 − )

𝐼 𝑡𝑏 2 √2𝑏 3 2

( 3 ) √2

The variation of q is parabolic, and it reaches a maximum value when s = b as shown in Fig. 10.3. b.The

force F is therefore

𝑏 𝑏

3𝑉 𝑠

𝐹 = ∫ 𝑞 𝑑𝑠 = ∫ 𝑠 (𝑏 − ) 𝑑𝑠

0 √2𝑏 3 0 2

𝑏

3𝑉 𝑠2 1

= [(𝑏 − 𝑠 3 )]

√2𝑏 3 2 6 0

1

𝐹 = 𝑉

√2

d) Z-Section

The shear force flows through as Indicated by F1, F2, and F3 on FBD (b). Hence, the horizontal force

equilibrium is not satisfied. To satisfy this equilibrium requirement. F1 and F2 must be equal to zero.

Pe = F2 (0) e=0

Also, the shear flows through the section as indicated by F1, F2, F3. However, ∑ Fx ≠ 0. To satisfy this

equation, the section must tip so that the resultant of F1 + F2 + F3 = P

Also, due to the geometry, for calculating F1 and F3, we require F1 = F3. Hence, e = 0.

b F F

F F

P P 1 1

h/2 e 1 P

e 3

O F F F

h/2 2 F

2 2

2

t

F

b F F F 1

3 3 3

Readings & Observations:

Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge

Rotation

Position of Displacement Displacement

Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR

Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z

(y) (z) (mm)

(mm) (mm)

100

80

60

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

Table No. 11.2: Shear Centre Calculation for Channel Section

Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge

Rotation

Position of Displacement Displacement

Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR

Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z

(y) (z) (mm)

(mm) (mm)

100

80

60

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge

Rotation

Position of Displacement Displacement

Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR

Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z

(y) (z) (mm)

(mm) (mm)

100

80

60

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

Table No. 11.4: Shear Centre Calculation for Z-Section

Front Dial Gauge Rear Dial Gauge

Rotation

Position of Displacement Displacement

Reading Reading = ΔF - ΔR

Load (mm) ΔF = L.C. x y ΔR = L.C. x z

(y) (z) (mm)

(mm) (mm)

100

80

60

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

Plot Rotation against Load (for all 4 sections on different graph papers) and the point at which this

graph crosses zero rotation. This defines the shear center.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS – II

(EVALUATION RUBRICS)

Sr. 3 2 1 0 Marks

Category

No. Excellent Good Fair Unacceptable Obtained

(a) Procedural Skills and applies with skills and applies applies under apply appropriate

confidence under guidance repeated guidance skills

Proficiency in Use of Unable to use the

(b) skillfully and with adequate minimal level of

Equipment equipment

accurately skills and accuracy skills and accuracy

2 CLO-2: Estimate the physical parameters using experimental data. [PLO-2, C-3]

All calculations are All solution is

(a) Calculations have mathematical calculations are not

accurate. incorrect

error correct

TOTAL 9

APPENDIX A

Beam Deflections and Slopes

LAB EVALUATION SUMMARY

1. - /3

2. /6 /3

3. /3 /3

4. - /3

5. /3 /3

6. /6 /3

7. - /3

8. /6 /3

9. /6 /3

10. /6 /3

11. /6 /3

Obtained Marks

Total Marks 42 33

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