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Dec 10, 2018

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approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

Olivier Sename control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Grenoble INP / GIPSA-lab Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Introduction Specifications Linear models

Modelling of dynamical systems as Integral Control or how to ensure Linearisation

functions

Nonlinear models state feedback control? Properties (stability)

Linear models Observer and output feedback control State feedback

Linearisation Observation control

To/from transfer functions A preliminary property: Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

State feedback control Observer design Pole placement control

Problem formulation Specifications

Controllability Observer-based control Integral Control

control Observation

Observer design

control: the pole placement control Conclusion

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

Introduction

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

References approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

Some interesting books: To/from transfer

functions

I K.J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Computer-Controlled Systems,

Properties (stability)

Information and systems sciences series. Prentice Hall, New State feedback

Jersey, 3rd edition, 1997. control

Problem formulation

I R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Prentice Controllability

Definition

Hall, USA, 2005. Pole placement control

Specifications

I G.C. Goodwin, S.F. Graebe, and M.E. Salgado, Control System Integral Control

Observation

I G. Franklin, J. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Observability

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

The "control design" process approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

I Plant study and modelling Properties (stability)

I Determination of sensors and actuators (measured and controlled State feedback

control

outputs, control inputs) Problem formulation

Controllability

I Performance specifications Definition

Pole placement control

I Control design (many methods) Specifications

Integral Control

I Simulation tests

Observer

I Implementation, tests and validation Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

The "control design" process in CLEAR approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

About modelling... approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Identification based method Modelling

Nonlinear models

I System excitations using PRBS (Pseudo Random Binary Signal) Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

I Determination of a transfer function reproducing the input/ouput

Properties (stability)

system behavior

State feedback

control

Knowledge-based method: Problem formulation

Definition

equations, based on physical knowledge. Pole placement control

Specifications

I Formulate a nonlinear state-space model, i.e. a matrix differential Integral Control

Observation

I Determine the steady-state operating point about which to Observability

Observer design

linearize.

Observer-based

I Introduce deviation variables and linearize the model. control

Introduction to

Tools: Matlab/Simulink, LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim, Catia-Dymola, optimal control

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Simulation of complex system (LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim) approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

System Simulation for Controller Design Nonlinear models

What it means and what is required Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

Simulation of the complete system using an assembly

of components State feedback

Components are described with analytical or tabulated control

models Problem formulation

Controllability

Multi-physics / Multi-level approach

Definition

Control-oriented actuator models Pole placement control

Description of physical phenomena based on few Specifications

“macroscopic” parameters Integral Control

Models for static and dynamic responses, in time &

Observer

frequency domains

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

Restricted © Siemens AG 2016 digital control

Page 9 Siemens PLM Software

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Why state space equations ? approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

I dynamical systems where physical equations can be derived : Linear models

To/from transfer

engineering, microsystems, process plants .... functions

Properties (stability)

I include physical parameters: easy to use when parameters are

State feedback

changed for design. Need only for parameter identification or control

knowledge. Problem formulation

Controllability

I State variables have physical meaning. Definition

Pole placement control

Integral Control

saturation) Observer

I Easy to extend to Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems Observation

Observability

I Advanced control design methods are based on state space Observer design

Observer-based

equations (reliable numerical optimisation tools) control

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Towards state space representation approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

What is a state space system ? Linearisation

To/from transfer

A "matrix-form" representation of the dynamics of an N- order functions

differential equation system into a FIRST order differential equation in a Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Definition of a system state Controllability

Definition

The state of a dynamical system is the set of variables, known as state Pole placement control

variables, that fully describe the system and its response to any given Specifications

Integral Control

set of inputs. Observer

Mathematically, the knowledge of the initial values of the state variables Observation

Observability

at t0 (namely xi (t0 ), i = 1, ..., n), together with the knowledge of the Observer design

system inputs for time t ≥ t0 , are sufficient to predict the behavior of the Observer-based

control

future system state and output variables (for t ≥ t0 ).

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Definition of a NonLinear dynamical system approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Many dynamical systems can be represented by Ordinary Differential Nonlinear models

Linear models

Equations (ODE). Linearisation

A nonlinear state space model consists in rewritting the physical To/from transfer

functions

equation into a first-order matrix form as Properties (stability)

( State feedback

ẋ(t) = f ((x(t), u(t), t), x(0) = x0 control

(1) Problem formulation

Definition

Pole placement control

where f and g are non linear functions and Specifications

Integral Control

I x(t) ∈ Rn is referred to as the system state (vector of state Observer

variables), Observation

Observability

I u(t) ∈ Rm the vector of m control inputs (actuators) Observer design

control

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Example of a one-tank model approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Usually the hydraulic equation is non linear and of the form Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

dH Linearisation

S = Qe − Qs To/from transfer

dt functions

Properties (stability)

where H is the tank height, S the tank

√surface, Qe the input flow, and State feedback

Qs the output flow defined by Qs = a H. control

Problem formulation

Definition

The system is represented by an Ordinary Differential Equation whose Pole placement control

Specifications

solution depends on H(t0 ) and Qe . Clearly H is the system state, Qe is Integral Control

Observation

(

ẋ(t) = f (x(t), u(t)), x(0) = x0 Observability

Observer design

(2)

y (t) = x(t) Observer-based

control

√ Introduction to

with x = H, f (x, u) = − Sa x + S1 u optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

Example: Underwater Autonomous Vehicle UAV Aster x

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Actions: axial propeller to control the velocity in Ox direction and 5 Observer design

independent mobile fins : Observer-based

I 2 horizontals fins in the front part of the vehicle (β1 , β10 ). control

Introduction to

I 1 vertical fin at the tail of the vehicle (δ ). optimal control

digital control

Conclusion

State space

UAV modelling approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Physical model: Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

M ν̇ = G(ν)ν + D(ν)ν + Γg + Γu (3) functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

η̇ = Jc (η2 )ν (4) control

Problem formulation

Controllability

where: Definition

- M: mass matrix: real mass of the vehicle augmented by the Pole placement control

Specifications

"water-added-mass" part, Integral Control

Observability

- Γg : gravity effort and hydrostatic forces, Observer design

control

- Γu : forces and moments due to the vehicle’s actuators.

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

UAV state definition approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

T Linearisation

A 12 dimensional state vector : X = η(6) ν(6) . To/from transfer

functions

T

I η(6): position in the inertial referential: η = η1 η2 with Properties (stability)

T T State feedback

η1 = x y z and η2 = φ θ ψ . x, y and z are the control

positions of the vehicle , and φ , θ and ψ are respectively the roll, Problem formulation

Controllability

pitch and yaw angles. Definition

Pole placement control

I ν(6): velocity vector, in the local referential (linked to the vehicle) Specifications

describing the linear and angular velocities (first derivative of the Integral Control

T Observer

position, considering the referential transform: ν = ν1 ν2 with Observation

T T Observability

ν1 = u v w and ν2 = p q r Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Exercise: a simple pendulum approach

Olivier Sename

Let consider the following pendulum

Introduction

Modelling

T Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

l State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

θ Observation

Observability

Observer design

M Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

where θ is the angle (assumed to be measured), T the controlled Introduction to

torque, l the pendulum length, M its mass. Give the dynamical digital control

equations of motion for the pendulum angle (neglecting friction) and Conclusion

State space

Definition of linear state space representations approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

A continuous-time LINEAR state space system is given as : Nonlinear models

Linear models

(

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t), x(0) = x0 Linearisation

To/from transfer

(5) functions

y (t) = Cx(t) + Du(t) Properties (stability)

State feedback

I x(t) ∈ Rn is the system state (vector of state variables), control

Problem formulation

Definition

Pole placement control

I

Specifications

Integral Control

I A, B, C and D are real matrices of appropriate dimensions, e.g.

Observer

A = [aij ]i,j=1:n with n rows and n columns Observation

Observability

I x0 is the initial condition. Observer design

Observer-based

n is the order of the state space representation. control

Matlab : ss(A,B,C,D) creates a SS object SYS Introduction to

optimal control

representing a continuous-time state-space model

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

A state space representation of a DC Motor approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Assumption: only the speed is measured. Nonlinear models

Linear models

The dynamical equations are : Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

di

Ri + L + e = u e = Ke ω Properties (stability)

dt State feedback

dω control

J = −f ω + Γm Γm = K c i Problem formulation

dt Controllability

Definition

System of 2 equationsof order

1 =⇒ 2 state variables. Pole placement control

Specifications

ω

A possible choice x = It gives: Integral Control

i Observer

Observation

−f /J Kc /J 0

A= B= C= 0 1 Observability

Observer-based

How to extend this definition when: measurement= motor angular control

position θ ? Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Examples: Suspension approach

Olivier Sename

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

where x1 is the relative position (measured), M1 the system mass, k1 Observer design

the spring coefficient, u the force generated by the active damper, and Observer-based

control

F1 is an external disturbance. Applying the mechanical equations

Introduction to

around the equilibrium leads to: optimal control

Introduction to

M1 ẍ1 = −k1 x1 + u + F1 (6) digital control

Conclusion

State space

Examples: Suspension cont. approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

x1 To/from transfer

The choice x = gives functions

ẋ1 Properties (stability)

State feedback

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) + Ed(t) control

Problem formulation

y (t) = Cx(t) Controllability

Definition

Specifications

Integral Control

0 1 0

A= , B=E = , and C = 1 0 Observer

−k1 /M1 0 1/M1 Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Example : Wind turbine modelling from CAD software approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Some important issues approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

I A complete ADAMS or CATIA model can include 193 DOFs to Nonlinear models

represent fully flexible tower, drive-train, and blade components ⇒ Linear models

Linearisation

simulation model To/from transfer

functions

I Different operating conditions according to the wind speed Properties (stability)

I Control objectives: maximize power , enhance damping in the first State feedback

control

drive train torsion mode, design a smooth transition different Problem formulation

modes Controllability

Definition

I The control model is obtained by a linearisation of a non linear Pole placement control

Specifications

electro-mechanical model (done by the software): Integral Control

Observer

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) + Ed(t) Observation

Observability

y (t) = Cx(t) Observer design

Observer-based

where x1 = rotor-speed x2 = drive-train torsion spring force, x3 = control

optimal control

u = generator torque, d : wind speed

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Homework approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Let the following quarter car model with active suspension. Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

chassis and of the wheel, State feedback

control

ms (resp. mus ) the mass of the chassis Problem formulation

(resp. of the wheel), Controllability

Definition

ks (resp. kt ) the spring coefficient of the Pole placement control

Integral Control

u the active damper force,

Observer

zr is the road profile. Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

Choose some state variables and give a state space representation of control

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Linearisation: how to get a linear model from a nonlinear approach

particular point defined by: Modelling

( Nonlinear models

ẋeq (t) = f ((xeq (t), ueq (t), t), given xeq (0) Linear models

(7) Linearisation

functions

Properties (stability)

Defining

x̃ = x − xeq , ũ = u − ueq , ỹ = y − yeq State feedback

control

Problem formulation

this leads to a linear state space representation of the system, around Controllability

the equilibrium point: Definition

Pole placement control

˙

( Specifications

x̃(t) = Ax̃(t) + B ũ(t), Integral Control

(8)

Observer

ỹ (t) = C x̃(t) + D ũ(t) Observation

Observability

∂f

with A = |

∂ x x=xeq ,u=ueq

, B = ∂∂uf |x=xeq ,u=ueq , Observer design

∂g

C= |

∂ x x=xeq ,u=ueq

and D = ∂∂ gu |x=xeq ,u=ueq Observer-based

control

optimal control

Usually an equilibrium point satisfies: Introduction to

digital control

0 = f ((xeq (t), ueq (t), t) (9) Conclusion

State space

Are state space representations equivalent to transfer approach

Introduction

Modelling

Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t), x(0) = x0 Properties (stability)

(10)

y (t) = Cx(t) + Du(t) State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Using the Laplace transform (and assuming zero initial condition Controllability

Pole placement control

Specifications

Observer

Then the transfer function matrix of system (10) is given by Observation

Observability

Observer design

N(s)

G(s) = C(sIn − A)−1 B + D = (11) Observer-based

D(s) control

Introduction to

optimal control

digital control

transfer matrix. Equivalent to tf(N,D)

Conclusion

State space

Conversion TF to SS approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

There mainly three cases to be considered Linear models

Linearisation

Simple numerator To/from transfer

functions

y 1

= G(s) = 3 2

Properties (stability)

u s + a1 s + a2 s + a3 State feedback

control

Numerator order less than denominator order Problem formulation

Controllability

y b s2 + b2 s + b3 N(s) Definition

= G(s) = 3 1 2

= Pole placement control

u s + a1 s + a2 s + a3 D(s) Specifications

Integral Control

Observation

Observability

y b0 s3 + b1 s2 + b2 s + b3 N(s) Observer design

= G(s) = =

u s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 D(s) Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Canonical forms approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

For the strictly proper transfer function: Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

sn−1

c0 + c1 s + . . . + cn−1 To/from transfer

G(s) = functions

State feedback

a very well-known specific state space representations, referred to as control

Problem formulation

the controllable canonical form is defined

as: Controllability

0 1 0 ... 0 0

Definition

. Specifications

.. .. .. .. ..

Integral Control

A= . . . . . , B = . and

.. Observer

0 .. Observation

. 0 1 0 Observability

Observer design

−a0 −a1 . . . . . . −an−1 1

Observer-based

C= c0 c1 ... cn−1 . control

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

What is a canonical form for a physical system? approach

Olivier Sename

It is worth noting that the following state space representation

Introduction

0 1 0 ... 0 0

Modelling

Nonlinear models

0 0 1 0 ... .. Linear models

.. .. .. .. ..

.

Linearisation

functions

..

.

Properties (stability)

0 . 0 1 0

State feedback

−a0 −a1 ... ... −an−1 1 control

Problem formulation

Controllability

with Definition

Specifications

Integral Control

does correspond to the Nth-order differential equation

Observer

d ny d n−1 y

Observation

Observability

n

+ an−1 n−1 + . . . + a1 ẏ + a0 y = u Observer design

dt dt

Observer-based

control

This indeed can be reformulated into N simultaneous first-order

Introduction to

differential equations defining the state variables : optimal control

Introduction to

d n−1 y digital control

x1 = y , , x2 = ẏ , , . . . xn = ,

dt n−1 Conclusion

State space

How to compute the solution x(t) of a linear system? approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

This theoretical problem is solved now using simulation tools (as Modelling

Simulink) Nonlinear models

Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

It is the generalization of the scalar case: if ẏ = αy then

Properties (stability)

y (t) = exp(αt)y0 .

State feedback

The state x(t) with initial condition x(0) = x0 is then given by control

Problem formulation

Controllability

x(t) = eAt x(0) (12) Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

To get an explicit analytical formula, this requires to compute the Integral Control

function eAt , which can be done following one of the 3 methods to Observer

compute eAt : Observation

Observability

Observer-based

2. Diagonalisation of A control

Introduction to

3. Cayley-Hamilton method optimal control

digital control

Conclusion

State space

How to compute the solution x(t) of a linear system ? approach

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

functions

State feedback

Z t control

At A(t−τ)

x(t) = e x(0) + e Bu(τ)dτ (13) Problem formulation

|0

| {z } Controllability

{z } Definition

free response

forced response Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Simulation of state space systems Observation

Observability

Example: Observer-based

control

t = 0:0.01:5; u = sin(t); lsim(sys,u,t) Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

Properties control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Non unicity approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Linear models

Linearisation

(14) functions

y (t) = Cx(t) + Du(t) Properties (stability)

State feedback

the transfer matrix being G(s) = C(sIn − A)−1 B + D,

and consider the control

Problem formulation

change of variables x = Tz (T being an invertible matrix). Replacing Controllability

Pole placement control

Specifications

T ż(t) = ATz(t) + Bu(t) (15) Integral Control

Observer

y (t) = CTz(t) + Du(t) (16) Observation

Observability

Observer-based

Introduction to

y (t) = CTz(t) + Du(t) (18) optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Defining Ã = T −1 AT , B̃ = T −1 B and C̃ = CT , the transfer function of Modelling

the previous system is: Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

−1

G̃(s) = C̃(sIn − Ã) B̃ + D (19) To/from transfer

functions

−1 −1 −1

= C T (sIn − T AT ) T B +D (20) Properties (stability)

State feedback

(21) control

Problem formulation

Definition

Pole placement control

−1 −1 −1

G̃(s) = C T T (sIn − A) T T B + D = G(s) (22) Specifications

Integral Control

Observation

Observability

x1 = zs , x2 = żs , x3 = zs − zus , x4 = żs − żus Observer design

Observer-based

and give the equivalent state space representation. control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Stability approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Definition Linear models

Linearisation

An equilibrium point xeq is stable if, for all ρ > 0, there exists a η > 0 To/from transfer

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Definition Pole placement control

Integral Control

there exists η > 0 such that: Observer

Observation

kx(0) − xeq k < η =⇒ x(t) → xeq , when t → ∞ Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

These notions are equivalent for linear systems (not for non linear control

ones). Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Stability Analysis approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

The stability of a linear state space system is analyzed through the To/from transfer

functions

The system poles are then the eigenvalues of the matrix A. It then State feedback

control

follows: Problem formulation

Controllability

Proposition Definition

Pole placement control

A system ẋ(t) = Ax(t), with initial condition x(0) = x0 , is stable if Specifications

Re(λi ) < 0, ∀i, where λi , ∀i, are the eigenvalues of A. Integral Control

Observer

Using Matlab, if SYS is an SS object then pole(SYS) computes the Observation

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

The Phase Plane approach

It consists in plotting the trajectory of the state variables (valid also for Olivier Sename

Modelling

ẋ1 (t) = x2 (t)

given x1 (0) & x2 (0) Nonlinear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Objective of any control system approach

Olivier Sename

reference and get (or keep) a stable system in closed-loop, with desired Modelling

performances, while minimising the effects of disturbances and Nonlinear models

Linear models

measurement noises, and avoiding actuators saturation, this despite of Linearisation

functions

point. Properties (stability)

Steps to be achieved: State feedback

control

Nominal stability (NS): The system is stable with the nominal model Problem formulation

Definition

Nominal Performance (NP): The system satisfies the performance Pole placement control

Specifications

specifications with the nominal model (no model Integral Control

uncertainty) Observer

Observation

Robust stability (RS): The system is stable for all perturbed plants Observability

Observer design

about the nominal model, up to the worst-case model

Observer-based

uncertainty (including the real plant) control

optimal control

specifications for all perturbed plants about the nominal Introduction to

model, up to the worst-case model uncertainty digital control

State space

About Feedback control approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

How to design a controller using a state space representation ? Linearisation

Two classes of controllers do exist (in red those studied in the course): To/from transfer

functions

State feedback

I Dynamic controllers (output feedback or observer-based) control

Problem formulation

Definition

I Closed-loop stability (of state or output variables) Pole placement control

Specifications

I disturbance rejection Integral Control

Observer

I Model tracking Observation

Observability

I Input/Output decoupling Observer design

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Why state feedback and not output feedback? approach

Olivier Sename

y (s) 1

Exercise: G(s) = u(s) = s2 −s Introduction

Follow the steps below:

Modelling

Nonlinear models

1. Define x1 = y , x2 = ẏ . Write the differential equations that the Linear models

state variables (x1 , x2 ) do satisfy. Deduce the state space system Linearisation

To/from transfer

representation, and check that this corresponds to the controllable functions

State feedback

2. Case of output feedback= Proportional control : control

Let us consider u = Kp (yref − y ) Problem formulation

Controllability

I Compute the transfer function of the closed-loop system (with unitary Definition

feedback), and check that the closed-loop system poles are those Pole placement control

Integral Control

I Can the closed-loop system be stabilized (chosen Kp well)?

Observer

3. Case of state feedback : choose u = −x1 − 3x2 + yref Observation

Observability

I From 1., compute the state space representation of the closed-loop Observer design

system (replacing u by u = −x1 − 3x2 + yref ).

Observer-based

I What are the poles of the closed-loop system? Is the closed-loop control

system stable?

Introduction to

I Now, consider u = −f1 x1 − f2 x2 + yref . How can we choose (f1 , f2 ) optimal control

such that the closed-loop system is stable ? Introduction to

digital control

4. To conclude, when the closed-loop system is stable, explain why

Conclusion

the second control law is efficient?

State space

A preliminary property analysis: Controllability approach

Olivier Sename

using state feedback. Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linearisation

Given two states x0 and x1 , the system (10) is controllable if there exist To/from transfer

functions

t1 > 0 and a piecewise-continuous control input u(t), t ∈ [0, t1 ], such

Properties (stability)

that x(t) takes the values x0 for t = 0 and x1 for t = t1 .

State feedback

control

Proposition Problem formulation

Controllability

The controllability matrix is defined by C = [B, A.B, . . . , An−1 .B]. Then Definition

Pole placement control

system (10) is controllable if and only if rank (C ) = n. Specifications

det(C ) 6= 0. Observer

Observation

Observability

Using Matlab, if SYS is an SS object then crtb(SYS) returns the Observer design

control

(A,B,C,D). This is equivalent to ctrb(sys.a,sys.b)

Introduction to

Exercices optimal control

Introduction to

Test the controllability of the previous examples: DC motor, suspension, digital control

inverted pendulum. Conclusion

State space

Definition of the state feedback control approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

Properties (stability)

control

When the system is SISO, it corresponds to : Problem formulation

Definition

When the system is MIMO we have Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

u1 x1

u2 f 11 . . . f1n x

Observer

.. 2

Observation

.

. = .. .

Observability

.. .

.. Observer design

um xn control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

State feedback (2): stabilization approach

Olivier Sename

simplicity D = 0) Modelling

Nonlinear models

ẋ(t) = (A − BF )x(t), Linear models

(24)

y (t) = Cx(t) Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

The stability (and dynamics) of the closed-loop system is then given by Properties (stability)

the eigenvalues of A − BF . State feedback

Indeed, in that case, the solution y (t) = C exp(A−BF )t x0 converges control

Problem formulation

asymptotically to zero! Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

But what happens if the closed-loop system must also track a Integral Control

Observation

We might select u(t) = r (t) − Fx(t). Therefore the closed-loop transfer Observability

Observer design

matrix is :

Observer-based

y (s)

= C(sIn − A + BF )−1 B (25) control

r (s) Introduction to

optimal control

for which the static gain is C(−A + BF )−1 B and may differ from 1!! Introduction to

digital control

The control law must be completed.

Conclusion

State space

State feedback (3): complete solution for reference tracking approach

Olivier Sename

When the objective is to track some reference signal r , i.e

Introduction

y (t) −→ r (t), Modelling

t→∞ Nonlinear models

Linear models

the state feedback control must be of the form: Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

u(t) = −Fx(t)+Gr (t) (26) Properties (stability)

State feedback

where G is a m × p real matrix to be determined. control

Controllability

Definition

−1

GCL (s) = C(sIn − A + BF ) BG (27) Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Therefore, the following choice for G ensures a unitary steady-state Observer

gain for the closed-loop system: Observation

Observability

Observer design

(28)

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

F Need to adapt when D 6= 0 Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Implementation in Simulink approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

How to synthetize the state feedback control gain F ? approach

Introduction

Modelling

Problem definition Nonlinear models

Given a linear system (5), does there exist a state feedback control law Linear models

Linearisation

(23) such that the closed-loop system poles are in predefined locations To/from transfer

functions

(denoted γi , i = 1, ..., n ) in the complex plane ? Properties (stability)

State feedback

Proposition control

Problem formulation

Let a linear system given by A, B, and let γi , i = 1, ..., n , a set of Controllability

complex elements (i.e. the desired poles of the closed-loop system). Definition

Pole placement control

There exists a state feedback control u = −Fx such that the poles of Specifications

Integral Control

the closed-loop system are γi , i = 1, ..., n if and only if the pair (A, B) is

Observer

controllable. Observation

Observability

In Matlab, use F=acker(A,B,P) or F=place(A,B,P) where Observer design

control

Remark Introduction to

optimal control

predefined locations means that, according to the required closed-loop

Introduction to

performances (settiling time, rise time, overshoot ...), the designer has digital control

chosen a set of desired poles for the closed-loop system. Conclusion

State space

Illustration on the easy case of controllable canonical forms approach

Here we assume that the system state space model is of the form: Olivier Sename

0 1 0 ... 0 0

Introduction

0 0 1 0 ... .. Modelling

.

.. .. .. .. ..

Nonlinear models

A= . . . . . , B = . and

.. Linear models

Linearisation

0 ..

To/from transfer

. 0 1 0 functions

C= c0 c1 ... cn−1 , State feedback

control

corresponding to the transfer function: Problem formulation

Controllability

sn−1

Definition

c0 + c1 s + . . . + cn−1 Pole placement control

G(s) =

a0 + a1 s + . . . + an−1 sn−1 + sn Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Let F = [ f1 f2 ... fn ] Observation

Then Observability

Observer design

0 1 0 ... 0 Observer-based

control

0 0 1 0 ... Introduction to

.. .. .. .. ..

optimal control

A − BF =

. . . . .

(29) Introduction to

.. digital control

0 . 0 1 Conclusion

State space

the case of controllable canonical forms (cont..) approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

locations, {γi }, i = 1, n., the desired closed-loop characteristic Modelling

polynomial (denominator of the closed-loop transfer function) is given Nonlinear models

Linearisation

(s − γ1 )(s − γ2 )...(s − γn ) To/from transfer

functions

State feedback

control

(s − γ1 )(s − γ2 )...(s − γn ) = sn + αn−1 sn−1 + . . . + α1 s + α0 Problem formulation

Controllability

Pole placement control

Specifications

Observer

ensures that the poles of A − BF are {γi }, i = 1, n. Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

Remark control

the case of controllable canonical forms is very important since , when Introduction to

optimal control

we consider a general state space representation, it is first necessary to Introduction to

use a change of basis to make the system under canonical form, which digital control

will simplify a lot the computation of the state feedback control gain F . Conclusion

State space

How to specificy the desired closed-loop performances? approach

Olivier Sename

The required closed-loop performances should be chosen in the

following zone Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

which ensures a damping greater than ξ = sin φ . digital control

−γ implies that the real part of the CL poles are sufficiently negatives Conclusion

State space

Specifications (2) approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

Some useful rules for selection the desired pole/zero locations (for a functions

1.8

I Rise time : tr ' ωn

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

4.6

I Seetling time : ts ' ξ ωn Controllability

Definition

Specifications

ξ = 0.3 ⇔ Mp = 35%, Integral Control

Observation

ξ = 0.7 ⇔ Mp = 5%. Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Specifications(3) approach

Olivier Sename

Some rules do exist to shape the transient response. The ITAE (Integral

of Time multiplying the Absolute value of the Error), defined as: Introduction

Z ∞ Modelling

Nonlinear models

ITAE = t|e(t)|dt Linear models

0 Linearisation

To/from transfer

can be used to specify a dynamic response with relatively small functions

overshoot and relatively little oscillation (there exist other methods to do Properties (stability)

so). The optimum coefficients for the ITAE criteria are given below (see State feedback

control

Dorf & Bishop 2005). Problem formulation

Controllability

Order Characteristic polynomials dk (s) Definition

Specifications

2 d2 = [s2 + 1.4ωn s + ωn2 ] Integral Control

Observation

4 Observability

ωn6 ]

control

Introduction to

optimal control

and the corresponding transfer function is of the form:

Introduction to

digital control

ωnk

Hk (s) = , ∀k = 1, ..., 6 Conclusion

dk (s)

State space

Specifications(4): responses of the optimum ITAE approach

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Integral Control or how to ensure disturbance attenuation approach

Introduction

Nonlinear models

( Linear models

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t)+Ed(t), x(0) = x0 Linearisation

(30) To/from transfer

y (t) = Cx(t) functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Pole placement control

Integral Control

of d, which means Observer

Observability

t→∞

Observer design

when r = 0 and d(t) 6= 0 : y (t) −−−→ 0, Observer-based

t→∞ control

Introduction to

optimal control

BUT

Introduction to

A state feedback controller may not allow to reject the effects of digital control

disturbances (particularly of input disturbances)!! Conclusion

State space

Formulation of the Integral Control approach

Olivier Sename

Without integral

Let consider the state feedback control u(t) = −Fx(t) + Gr (t) for the Introduction

system

Modelling

Nonlinear models

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) + Ed(t), x(0) = x0 Linear models

(31)

y (t) = Cx(t) Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

The tracking and disturbance rejection objectives can be formulated as Properties (stability)

y

I −−→ 1 ? i.e. C(−A + BF )−1 BG = 1 ?

r − State feedback

t→∞ control

Problem formulation

y

I −−→ 0? i.e. C(−A + BF )−1 BE = 0 ?

d − Controllability

t→∞ Definition

Pole placement control

However, there are few chances to find F and G such that both Specifications

objectives, together with the pole placement one, are achieved! Integral Control

Observer

A solution to solve both problems: add and integral term Observation

Observability

A very useful method consists in adding an integral term (as usual on Observer design

the tracking error) to ensure a unitary static closed-loop gain. Therefore Observer-based

control

the control law is chosen as:

Introduction to

Z t optimal control

0 digital control

Conclusion

Now the question is: how to find H? (and F too since a single design

procedure is better in order to get a solution)

State space

Synthesis of the Integral Control approach

Olivier Sename

It consists in first extending the system by introducing the new state Modelling

variable: Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

functions

Properties (stability)

which leads, for the whole system, to define the extended state vector

State feedback

x control

.

z Problem formulation

Controllability

Then the new open-loop state space representation is given as: Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

ẋ(t) A 0 x 0 B E

= + u(t) + r (t) + d(t) Observer

ż(t) −C 0 z 1 0 0 Observation

Observability

x Observer design

y (t) = C 0

z Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Let us denote:

Introduction to

digital control

A 0 B

Ae = , Be = , Ce = C 0 Conclusion

−C 0 0

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

The new state feedback control is now defined as:

Introduction

x Modelling

u(t) = −[F H] = −Fx(t)−Hz(t) Nonlinear models

z Linear models

Linearisation

Then the synthesis of the control law u(t) (i.e of Fe = [F H]) requires: To/from transfer

functions

I the verification of the extended system controllability, i.e of (Ae , Be ) Properties (stability)

State feedback

I the specification of the desired closed-loop performances, i.e. a control

set Pe of n + 1 desired closed-loop poles has to be chosen, Problem formulation

Controllability

Pole placement control

Fe=acker(Ae,Be,Pe) Specifications

Integral Control

We then get the closed-loop system Observer

Observation

ẋ(t) A − BF BH x 0 E Observability

= + r (t) + d(t) Observer design

ż(t) −C 0 z 1 0

Observer-based

control

x

y (t) = C 0 Introduction to

z optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Integral control scheme approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

The complete structure has the following form: Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

When an observer is to be used (see next chapter), the control action Observability

Observer design

simply becomes: Observer-based

u(t) = −F x̂(t) − Hz(t) control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

control Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Introduction approach

Olivier Sename

To implement a state feedback control, the measurement of all the state Modelling

Nonlinear models

variables is necessary. If this is not available, we will use a state Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

The estimation theory is based on the famous Kalman contribution to State feedback

control

filtering problems (1960), and accounts for noise induced problems. Problem formulation

The observation theory has been developed for Linear Systems by Controllability

Definition

Luenberger (1971), and doe snot consider the noise effects. Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Other interest of observation/estimation Observer

In practice the use of sensors is often limited for several reasons: Observation

Observability

feasibility, cost, reliability, maintenance ... Observer design

An observer is a key issue to estimate unknown variables (then non Observer-based

measured variables) and to propose a so-called virtual sensor. control

Introduction to

Objective: Develop a dynamical system whose state x̂(t) satisfies: optimal control

digital control

t→∞

Conclusion

I (x(t) − x̂(t)) → 0 as fast as possible

State space

How to simply (bad) compute x(t) ? approach

Olivier Sename

Let consider (

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t), x(0) = x0 Introduction

(32) Modelling

y (t) = Cx(t) Nonlinear models

Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

y (t) = Cx(t)

Properties (stability)

ẏ (t) = CAx(t) + CBu(t)

State feedback

ÿ (t) = CA2 x(t) + CABu(t) + CB u̇(t) control

Problem formulation

... = ... Controllability

Definition

y n−1 (t) = CAn−1 + . . . Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

and given that we know the measurement, the inputs (and the system Observer

Observation

matrices), we can just perform some few computation to compute x(t) Observability

−1 Observer-based

C y (t)

control

CA ÿ (t)

− F (u(t), u̇(t), . . . , u n−2 Introduction to

x(t) = .. .. (t)) This

optimal control

.

.

Introduction to

CAn−1 n−1

y (t) digital control

requires the system to be observable (but still cannot work in practice Conclusion

when faced to measurement noises, modelling errors ....)

State space

A preliminary property: Observability approach

Olivier Sename

Observability refers to the ability to estimate a state variable (often not Introduction

Nonlinear models

Linearisation

A linear system (5) is completely observable if, given the control and To/from transfer

functions

the output over the interval t0 ≤ t ≤ T , one can determine any initial Properties (stability)

state x(t0 ). State feedback

It is equivalent to characterize the non-observability as : control

Problem formulation

A state x(t) is not observable if the corresponding output vanishes, i.e. Controllability

Pole placement control

Specifications

C

Observer

Observation

CA Observability

Observer design

. Observer-based

control

CAn−1

Introduction to

(10) is observable if and only if rank (O) = n. optimal control

digital control

det(O) 6= 0.

Conclusion

State space

Observability cont. approach

Olivier Sename

Using Matlab, if SYS is an SS object then obsv(SYS) returns the

observability matrix of the state-space model SYS with realization Introduction

Nonlinear models

Linearisation

Compare the transfer function of the two different systems* To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

ẋ = −x + u

State feedback

control

y = 2x Problem formulation

Controllability

and Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

−1 0 1

ẋ = x+ u Integral Control

0 −2 1 Observer

Observation

Observability

y = 2 0 x Observer design

Observer-based

control

Exercices Introduction to

optimal control

Test the observability of the previous examples: DC motor, suspension, Introduction to

inverted pendulum. digital control

sensors.

State space

Open loop (OL) observers: estimation from input data approach

Olivier Sename

computer), a simulation of the system model feeded by the known input Modelling

Nonlinear models

variables. Linear models

For a linear system, it means that we may define the OL observer as: Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

˙

(

x̂(t) = Ax̂(t) + Bu(t), given x̂(0) Properties (stability)

(33) State feedback

ŷ (t) = C x̂(t) + Du(t) control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Specifications

Integral Control

BUT Observer

Observation

I x(0) is UNKNOWN so we cannot choose x̂(0) = x(0), Observability

Observer design

I the estimation error (e = x − x̂) satisfies ė(t) = Ae(t) (could be

Observer-based

unstable AND cannot be modified) control

optimal control

digital control

CORRECT THE ESTIMATION ON LINE! Conclusion

State space

Closed-loop Observer: estimation from input AND output approach

Introduction

variables, use an on line comparison of the measured system output y Nonlinear models

Linear models

and the estimated output ŷ . Linearisation

To/from transfer

Observer description: functions

Properties (stability)

˙

x̂(t)

= Ax̂(t) + Bu(t) + L(y (t) − ŷ (t)) State feedback

control

(34)

| {z }

Problem formulation

Correction

ŷ (t) = C x̂(t) + Du(t) Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

with x̂0 to be defined, and wherex̂(t) ∈ Rnis the estimated state of x(t) Specifications

Integral Control

and L is the n × p constant observer gain matrix to be designed.

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Analysis of the observer properties approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Nonlinear models

Linear models

ė(t) = (A − LC)e(t) (35) Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

If L is designed such that A − LC is stable, then x̂(t) converges Properties (stability)

asymptotically towards x(t). State feedback

control

Proposition Problem formulation

Controllability

(34) is an observer for system (5) if and only if the pair (C,A) is Definition

Specifications

Integral Control

Observation

C

Observability

Observer design

CA Observer-based

where O = .. .

control

.

Introduction to

CAn−1 optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Observer design approach

Olivier Sename

The observer design is restricted to find L such that A − LC is stable (so

that (x(t) − x̂(t)) −−−→ 0) and has some desired eigenvalues (so that Introduction

t→∞

Modelling

(x(t) − x̂(t)) → 0 as fast as possible). This is still a pole placement Nonlinear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

Specifications functions

Usually the observer poles are chosen around 5 to 10 times higher than Properties (stability)

State feedback

the closed-loop system, so that the state estimation is good as early as control

possible. This is quite important to avoid that the observer makes the Problem formulation

Controllability

closed-loop system slower. Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Design method Integral Control

Observer

I In order to use the acker Matlab function, we will use the duality Observation

Observer design

(C, A) observable ⇔ (AT , C T ) controllable. Observer-based

I Then there exists LT such that the eigenvalues of AT − C T LT can control

optimal control

such that A − LC is stable. Introduction to

digital control

I Matlab : use L=acker(A’,C’,Po)’ where Po is the

Conclusion

set of desired observer poles.

State space

Theoretical validation scheme using Simulink approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Written below for D = 0.

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

About the robustness of the observer approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Let assume that the systems is indeed given by Modelling

Nonlinear models

( Linear models

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) + Edx (t), x(0) = x0 Linearisation

(36) To/from transfer

y (t) = Cx(t) + Nν(t) functions

Properties (stability)

where dx can represent input disturbance or modelling error, and ν State feedback

control

stands for measurement noise. Problem formulation

Then the estimated error satisfies: Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

ė(t) = (A − LC)e(t) + Edx − LNν (37) Specifications

Integral Control

Observation

errors due to bias or variations. Then do not forget that you can: Observability

Observer design

I Provide an analysis of the observer performances/robustness due

Observer-based

to dx or ν (see later) control

Introduction to

I Design optimal observer when dx and ν represent noise effects optimal control

(Kalman - lqe, see next course ) Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Implementation approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Rules Modelling

I use a state-space block in Simulink Nonlinear models

Linear models

To/from transfer

’C’= eye(n), ’D’= zeros(n,m)) functions

Properties (stability)

I Choose x̂(0) 6= x(0),

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

I alternative use of estim digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

Observer-based control

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Observer-based control approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

When an observer is built, we will use as control law: Linear models

Linearisation

functions

Properties (stability)

The closed-loop system is then

State feedback

control

ẋ(t) = (A − BF )x(t) + BF (x(t) − x̂(t)), Problem formulation

(39) Controllability

y (t) = Cx(t) Definition

Pole placement control

Therefore the fact that x̂(0) 6= x(0) will have an impact on the Specifications

Integral Control

closed-loop system behavior. Observer

The stability analysis of the closed-loop system with an observer-based Observation

Observability

state feedback control needs to consider an extended state vector as: Observer design

T Observer-based

xe (t) = x(t) e(t) control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Observer-based control: stability analysis approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Defining Modelling

T Nonlinear models

xe (t) = x(t) e(t) Linear models

Linearisation

The closed-loop system with observer (34) and control (38) is: To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

A − BF BF BG

ẋe (t) = xe (t) + r (t) (40) State feedback

0 A − LC 0 control

Problem formulation

Definition

Pole placement control

Integral Control

Observer

If the observer and the control are designed separately then the Observation

closed-loop system with the dynamic measurement feedback is stable, Observability

Observer design

given that the control and observer systems are stable and the

Observer-based

eigenvalues of (40) can be obtained directly from them. control

This corresponds to the so-called separation principle. Introduction to

optimal control

Remark: check pzmap of the extended closed-loop system. Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Closed-loop analysis approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

The closed-loop system from r to y is then computed from:

Modelling

T Nonlinear models

y = [C 0] x(t) e(t) Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

which leads to functions

y

= C(sIn − A + BF )BG Properties (stability)

r State feedback

control

However if some disturbance acts as for: Problem formulation

( Controllability

ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) + Ed(t), x(0) = x0 Definition

Integral Control

Observer

where d is the disturbance, then the extended system writes Observation

Observability

Observer design

A − BF BF BG E Observer-based

ẋe (t) = xe (t) + r (t) + d(t) (42) control

0 A − LC 0 E

Introduction to

optimal control

which is a problem for the performances of closed-loop system and of Introduction to

the estimation (see later the Integral control). digital control

Conclusion

State space

How to define the observer+state feedback control as a approach

Introduction

Modelling

The observer-based controller is nothing else than a 2-DOF Dynamic Nonlinear models

Linear models

Output Feedback controller. Linearisation

To/from transfer

Indeed it comes from functions

Properties (stability)

˙

x̂(t) = Ax̂(t) + Bu(t) + L(y (t) − ŷ (t))

(43) State feedback

u(t) = −F x̂(t) + Gr (t) control

Problem formulation

Controllability

which can be written as (when D = 0) Definition

Pole placement control

˙

Specifications

x̂(t) = (A − BF − LC)x̂(t) + BGr (t) + Ly (t)

(44) Integral Control

Observation

Observability

We then can write: Observer design

Observer-based

U(s) = Kr (s)R(s) − Ky (s)Y (s) control

Introduction to

with Kr (s) = G − F (sIn − A + BF + LC)−1 BG and optimal control

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Introduction approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

The objective of an optimal control is to minimize a cost function which Modelling

penalizes

R∞

simultaneously the state and input behaviors, of the form Nonlinear models

Linear models

0 L(x, y )dt, i.e to reach a tradeoff between the transient response and Linearisation

To/from transfer

the control effort. functions

This objective is defined through the following criteria always Properties (stability)

control

Z ∞ Problem formulation

J= (x T Qx + u T Ru)dt Controllability

Definition

0

Pole placement control

Specifications

In that form: Integral Control

Observation

I u T Ru is the control cost, Observability

Observer design

I Q and R are respectively the state and cost penalties. Observer-based

control

It can be proved that the state feedback control that minimizes J in

Introduction to

closed-loop (given Q and R) is obtained solving an Algebraic Riccati optimal control

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) design approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

Given a linear system ẋ(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t), with (A, B) stabilizable, and

given positive definite matrices Q = Q T > 0 and R = R T > 0, if there Properties (stability)

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

AT P + PA − PBR −1 B T P + Q = 0 Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Integral Control

−1 T Observer

K =R B P Observation

Observability

minimizes the quadractic criteria J (for given Q and R). Observer design

Observer-based

This problem is handled in Matlab through the lqr command. control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Toward digital control approach

Olivier Sename

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

This requires the use of the discrete theory. Observation

Observability

m (Sampling theory + Z-Transform) m Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Definition of the Z-Transform approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Mathematical definition Nonlinear models

Because the output of the ideal sampler, x ∗ (t), is a series of impulses Linear models

Linearisation

with values x(kTe ), we have: To/from transfer

functions

∞ Properties (stability)

x ∗ (t) = ∑ x(kTe )δ (t − kTe ) State feedback

k =0 control

Problem formulation

Controllability

by using the Laplace transform, Definition

Pole placement control

∞ Specifications

∗ −ksTe

L [x (t)] = ∑ x(kTe )e Integral Control

k =0 Observer

Observation

Observability

Noting z = esTe , we can derive the so called Z-Transform Observer design

Observer-based

∞ control

X (z) = Z [x(k )] = ∑ x(k )z −k Introduction to

k =0 optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Properties approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Definition Nonlinear models

Linear models

∞ Linearisation

−k

X (z) = Z [x(k )] = ∑ x(k )z To/from transfer

functions

k =0

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Definition

−n

Z [x(k − n)] = z Z [x(k )] Pole placement control

Specifications

d Integral Control

Z [kx(k )] = −z Z [x(k )]

dz Observer

Observation

Z [x(k ) ∗ y (k )] = X (z).Y (z) Observability

Observer design

lim x(k ) = lim (z − 1)X (z) Observer-based

k →∞ 1→z −1 control

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Zero order holder approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Nonlinear models

Linearisation

A Zero order holder holds the signal x for Te seconds to get h as: To/from transfer

functions

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Zero order holder (cont’d) approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Model of the Zero order holder Linearisation

To/from transfer

The transfer function of the zero-order holder is given by: functions

Properties (stability)

1 e−sTe State feedback

GBOZ (s) = − control

s s Problem formulation

1 − e−sTe Controllability

= Definition

s Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Influence of the D/A and A/D Observation

Note that the precision is also limited by the available precision of the Observability

Observer design

converters (either A/D or D/A).

Observer-based

This error is also called the amplitude quantization error. control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Representation of the discrete linear systems approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

The discrete output of a system can be expressed as:

Modelling

Nonlinear models

∞

Linear models

y (k ) = ∑ h(k − n)u(n) Linearisation

n=0 To/from transfer

functions

State feedback

control

Y (z) = Z [h(k )]U(z) = H(z)U(z) Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

H(z) = 0 = Specifications

a0 + a1 z + · · · + an z n U Integral Control

Observer

where n (≥ m) is the order of the system Observation

Observability

Corresponding difference equation: Observer design

Observer-based

1 control

y (k ) = b u(k − n) + b1 u(k − n + 1) + · · · + bm u(k − n + m)

an 0 Introduction to

optimal control

− a0 y (k − n) − a2 y (k − n + 1) − · · · − an−1 y (k − 1) Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Some useful transformations approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

x(t) X (s) X (z) functions

1 z control

u(t) s z−1 Problem formulation

1 zTe

t s2 (z−1)2

Controllability

Definition

1 z

e−at s+a z−e−aTe

Pole placement control

Specifications

1 z(1−e−aTe )

1 − e−at s(s+a) (z−1)(z−e−aTe )

Integral Control

ω zsin(ωTe ) Observer

sin(ωt) s2 +ω 2 z 2 −2zcos(ωTe )+1 Observation

s z(z−cos(ωTe )) Observability

cos(ωt) s2 +ω 2 z 2 −2zcos(ωTe )+1 Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Poles, Zeros and Stability approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Equivalence {s} ↔ {z}

Modelling

The equivalence between the Laplace domain and the Z domain is Nonlinear models

Linear models

obtained by the following transformation: Linearisation

To/from transfer

sTe functions

z =e

Properties (stability)

Two poles with a imaginary part witch differs of 2π/Te give the same State feedback

control

pole in Z. Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Stability domain Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Approximations for discretization approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

z −1

s= State feedback

Te control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

z −1 Observer design

s= Observer-based

zTe control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Approximations for discretization (cont’d) approach

Olivier Sename

Trapezoidal difference (Tustin)

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

2 z −1 Linearisation

s=

Te z + 1 To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Systems definition approach

Olivier Sename

A discrete-time state space system is as follows:

Introduction

(

x((k + 1)h) = Ad x(kh) + Bd u(kh), x(0) = x0 Modelling

(45) Nonlinear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

Properties (stability)

Matlab : ss(Ad ,Bd ,Cd ,Dd ,h) creates a SS object SYS

State feedback

representing a discrete-time state-space model control

From a discretization step (c2d) we have: Problem formulation

Controllability

Z h Definition

Pole placement control

Ad = exp(Ah), Bd = ( exp(Aτ)dτ)B Specifications

0 Integral Control

Observer

For discrete-time systems, Observation

Observability

(46)

y (kh) = Cd x(kh) + Dd u(kh) Observer-based

control

Introduction to

the discrete transfer function is given by optimal control

Introduction to

G(z) = Cd (zIn − Ad )−1 Bd + Dd (47) digital control

Conclusion

where z is the shift operator, i.e. zx(kh) = x((k + 1)h)

State space

Solution of state space equations - discrete case approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Linear models

given by Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

x1 = Ad x0 (48) Properties (stability)

control

xn = And x0 (50) Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

The state xk , solution of system (45), is given by Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

x1 = Ad x 0 + Bd u 0 (51)

Observer

x2 = A2d x0 + Ad Bd u0 + Bd u1 (52) Observation

Observability

n−1 Observer design

xn = And x0 + ∑ An−1−i

d Bd ui (53) Observer-based

control

i=0

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

State space analysis (discrete-time systems) approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Stability Modelling

Nonlinear models

A system (state space representation) is stable iff all the eigenvalues of Linear models

Linearisation

the matrix F are inside the unit circle. To/from transfer

functions

State feedback

control

Definition Problem formulation

Given two states x0 and x1 , the system (45) is controllable if there exist Controllability

Definition

K1 > 0 and a sequence of control samples u0 , u1 , . . . , uK1 , such that xk Pole placement control

Integral Control

Observer

Observability

Observer design

Definition Observer-based

control

The system (45) is said to be completely observable if every initial state

Introduction to

x(0) can be determined from the observation of y (k ) over a finite optimal control

number of sampling periods. Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

State space analysis (2) approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Controllability Nonlinear models

Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

Cd (A = rg[Bd Ad Bd . . . An−1

d Bd ] = n Properties (stability)

d ,Bd )

State feedback

control

Problem formulation

Observability Controllability

Definition

The system is observable iff Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

O(Ad ,Cd ) = rg[Cd Cd Ad . . . Cd An−1

d ]

T

=n Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Duality Observer-based

Observability of (Cd , Ad ) ⇔ Controllability of (ATd , CdT ). control

Introduction to

Controllability of (Ad , Bd ) ⇔ Observability of (BdT , ATd ). optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

About sampling period approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

control

place the poles inside a circle defined by the upper bound of the bound Introduction to

given by this time response. optimal control

The closer to zero the poles are , the faster the system is. Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Frequency analysis approach

Olivier Sename

As in the continuous time, the Bode diagram can also be used. Introduction

Example with sampling Time Te = 1s ⇔ fe = 1Hz ⇔ we = 2π): Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Note that, in our case, the Bode is cut at the pulse w = π. Observability

Observer design

see SYSD = c2d(SYSC,Ts,METHOD) in MATLAB. Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Frequency analysis approach

Olivier Sename

As in the continuous time, the Bode diagram can also be used. Introduction

Example with sampling Time Te = 1s ⇔ fe = 1Hz ⇔ we = 2π): Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Note that, in our case, the Bode is cut at the pulse w = π. Observability

Observer design

see SYSD = c2d(SYSC,Ts,METHOD) in MATLAB. Observer-based

control

Sampling ↔ Limitations Introduction to

optimal control

Recall the Shannon theorem which imposes the sampling frequency at

Introduction to

least 2 times higher than the system maximum frequency. Related to digital control

the anti-aliasing filter. . . Conclusion

State space

About sampling period and robustness approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Nonlinear models

In theory, smaller the sampling period Te is, closer the discrete system Linear models

To/from transfer

functions

Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

But reducing the sampling time modify poles location. . . Poles and

Observer-based

zeros become closer to the limit of the unit circle ⇒ can introduce control

optimal control

⇒ Sampling influences stability and robustness

Introduction to

⇒ Over sampling increase noise sensitivity digital control

Conclusion

State space

Stability approach

Olivier Sename

Recall Introduction

A linear continuous feedback control system is stable if all poles of the Modelling

closed-loop transfer function T (s) lie in the left half s-plane. Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

To/from transfer

σ Te functions

|z| = e and ∠z = ωTe

Properties (stability)

State feedback

control

Jury criteria Problem formulation

Controllability

The denominator polynomial (den(z) = a0 z n + a1 z n−1 + · · · + an = 0) Definition

Pole placement control

has all its roots inside the unit circle if all the first coefficients of the odd Specifications

Observer

an Observation

b0 = a0 − an Observability

1 a0 a1 a2 ... an−k ... an a0 Observer design

b1 = a1 − an−1 control

3 b0 b1 b2 ... bn−1 a0

Introduction to

2 bn−1 bn−2 bn−3 ... b0 anoptimal control

.. .. bk = ak − an−k

. . a0Introduction to

digital control

2n + 1 s0 bn−1

ck = bk − bn−1−k Conclusion

b0

State space

How to get a discrete controller approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

First way Nonlinear models

Linear models

Linearisation

I Obtain a discrete-time plant model (by discretization) To/from transfer

functions

I Design a discrete-time controller Properties (stability)

control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Pole placement control

Specifications

I Design a continuous-time controller Integral Control

Observation

Observer design

Observer-based

Now the question is how to implement the computed controller on a control

real-time (embedded) system, and what are the precautions to take Introduction to

optimal control

before?

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Discretisation approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

The idea behind discretisation of a controller is to translate it from Nonlinear models

Linear models

continuous-time to discrete-time, i.e. Linearisation

To/from transfer

functions

A/D + algorithm + D/A ≈ G(s) Properties (stability)

State feedback

To obtain this, few methods exists that approach the Laplace operator control

(see lecture 1-2). Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

z −1

s = Observation

Te Observability

Observer design

z −1

s = Observer-based

zTe control

Introduction to

2 z −1 optimal control

s =

Te z + 1 Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Implementation characteristics approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Anti-aliasing Linear models

Linearisation

Practically it is smart to use a constant high sampling frequency with an To/from transfer

functions

analog filter matching this frequency. Then, after the A/D converter, the

Properties (stability)

signal is down-sampled to the frequency used by the controller.

State feedback

Remember that the pre-filter introduce phase shift. control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Sampling frequency choice Definition

Pole placement control

The sampling time for discrete-time control are based on the desired Specifications

speed of the closed loop system. A rule of thumb is that one should Integral Control

sample 4 − 10 times per rise time Tr of the closed loop system. Observer

Observation

Observability

Tr Observer design

Nsample = ≈ 4 − 10

Te Observer-based

control

where Te is the sampling period, and Nsample the number of samples. Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Delay approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Problematic Nonlinear models

Linear models

Sampled theory assume presence of clock that synchronizes all Linearisation

measurements and control signal. Hence in a computer based control To/from transfer

functions

there always is delays (control delay, computational delay, I/O latency). Properties (stability)

State feedback

Origins control

Problem formulation

There are several reasons for delay apparition Controllability

Definition

I Execution time (code) Pole placement control

Specifications

I Preemption from higher order process Integral Control

Observer

I Interrupt Observation

Observability

I Communication delay Observer design

control

Hence the control delay is not constant. The delay introduce a phase Introduction to

shift ⇒ Instability! optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Delay (cont’d) approach

Olivier Sename

Modelling

I Measure the phase margin: PM = 180 + ϕw0 [ř], where ϕw0 is the Nonlinear models

Linear models

phase at the crossover frequency w0 , i.e. |G(jw0 )| = 1 Linearisation

To/from transfer

PMπ

I Then the delay margin is DM = 180w0 [s]

functions

Properties (stability)

State feedback

Exercise: compute delay margin for these 3 cases control

Problem formulation

Controllability

Definition

Pole placement control

Specifications

Integral Control

Observer

Observation

Observability

Observer design

Observer-based

control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

State space

Conclusion approach

Olivier Sename

Introduction

Modelling

Nonlinear models

Linear models

I A state space approach for continuous-time and discrete-time Linearisation

functions

I A first insight in optimal control... that can be extended towards Properties (stability)

control

I The state space approach is also considered in Robust control, in Problem formulation

order to Controllability

Definition

I design H∞ controllers Pole placement control

I provide a robustness analysis in the presence of parameter Specifications

Integral Control

uncertainties

I prove the stability of a closed-loop system in the presence of non Observer

Observation

linearities (as state or input constraints) Observability

I design non linear controllers (feedback linearisation...) Observer design

I solve an optimisation problem using efficient numerical tools as Linear Observer-based

Matrix Inequalities control

Introduction to

optimal control

Introduction to

digital control

Conclusion

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