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ciGRE International Conference on Large High Tension Electric Systems 112, boulevard Haussmann — Pars 18 Session — 10-20 June 22-06 T THE USE OF SOIL MECHANICS METHODS FOR ADAPTING TOWER FOUNDATIONS TO SOIL CONDITIONS by J. BIAREZ YY. BARRAUD fessor at the Universty of Grenoble Engineer ED (France) Calculation, Experiment, Foundation, Practice, Soil Mechanics, Theory, Tower. REPORT 1. INTRODUCTION ‘The design of uplift foundations practically determines the sizes of the foundations required for the four-legged towers of overhead lines, Until practical conclusions to investigations were reached, which will be described in this report, use was made of simplified, rather inaccurate methods whose disadvantages, felt not only in France but in other countries as well, led to the formation within the framework of Study Committee No, 7 of CIGRE, of a Working Group whose terms of reference were to study precisely this problem. ‘The most commonly used method consisted in calculating the uplift resistance of a foun- dation as that given by the weight of soil included in a truncated cone whose small area was equal to that of the base of the actual foundation and whose semi-angle at the top was assessed, as well as could be, in function of the assumed soil "resistance", ‘The limits of such approximation had never been properly assessed notwithstanding the fact that, for many years, a large number of tests had been performed on full size foundations (in most cases, when starting actual work on a given line), no synthesis being possible because of the lack of a suitable theory. To overcome this difficulty, it was necessary to investigate means of connecting methods of uplift foundation design to soil mechanics principles. Such was the aim that B.D.F. attempted to reach with the collaboration of the GRENOBLE, UNIVERSITY (Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, section of sofl mechanics, Mr. BIAREZ and Mr, MARTIN). Besides its own test results obtained either in a laboratory (reduced models) or on site (full size) in natural soils (properly detailed by investigations into thelr mechanieal charac~ teristics) #.D.F. had available, through the Working Group of CIGRE Study Committee No, 7, the results of a lange number of full seale tests (with sufficient data on geotechnical measu- ements) performed in many countries. ‘The advantages of this international cooperation will become obvious later on in the report. The purpose of this report is to give the results of this work, Successively, the following points will be covered : I. general study of the design method, Il, its practical application with some practical examples, II], a small survey of measurement methods "in situ" of soil mechanical properties, IV, some comments on the technique of foundation installation, 22-06 -2- 2, GENERAL STUDY OF THE DESIGN METHOD ‘The different experimental investigations performed on foundations models subjected to uplift, either in a two-dimensional system, on analogical models, with rollers, of the TAYLOR- SCHNEEBELI type, or in a three-dimensional system on reduced models consisting of river sand, then of glass marbles and, finally, of saturated and unsaturated clay, have actually con- firmed the existence in the soils of zones in the shape of truncated cones which become part of the uplifted foundation ; except in the particular case of pad foundations set at a very great depth where local shear appears in the neighbourhood of the pad, ‘Thus, it has been possible to single out some "models" or "schemes" reproducing rea- sonably closely the physical process of shear likely to become the basis of a theoretical design of uplift resistance. It will be seen in the latter part of this paper that, as a first approximation, practically all foundation types (except the pad type set at a great depth, which will be dealt with in a separate paragraph) can be reduced to the generic case of a revolution foundation, i.e. the cylindrical pile, ‘This is why the latter scheme will form the basis of the theoretical design by consider ing a "soil which has both cohesion and internal friction, To study the condition of equilibrium in such a medium, we apply CAQUOT's theorem of corresponding states which enables us to consider that the limiting state of equilibrium of a cohesive medium is equivalent to that of a powdery medium of the same shape and same internal friction "g"", in equilibrium under the action of external loads acting in the cohesive medium, but inereased by a constant hydrostatic pressure acting at all points and everywhere equal to H = C . cotang. ‘This principle enables us to define the shear line, generating the surface of failure, by starting with an experimental investigation in powdery medium, All the experimental results indicate that the shear surfaces have their origin at the base of the foundations and extend towards ground level, ‘The photographs, figures 1a and 2b opposite, show on an anslogical model with rollers, in a plane system, the general shape of this shear line for piles as well as for pads, when the latter have a planting depth smaller than the critical depth, The schematic diagram shown in figure 1c illustrates the physical shear line, Calculations based on perfect plasticity give results which are very satisfactory in a homogeneous medium, but the complexity of actual cases prevents the application of such theo- retieal design which becomes quickly inextricable, This is why we have assumed that the zones of large strains would have a straight line as a boundary where the stresses vary in accordance with KOTTER's equations. This simplification was in fact justified by more complex calculations, By adopting such a straight line, with a variable angle of slope a, we have more facility in adapting the design to the various factors likely to modify the ideal conditions on which it is based : quality of contact between soil and foundations, values of absolute and relative depths, heterogenelty of different soil layers above the same foundation, etc... 2,1, Présentation of the straight line method 2.1.1, Foundation : cylindrical "pile" - Having thus idealised the behaviour of the zone solidly connected to the uplift foundation, various physical considerations enable us to accept that the "screen" AB is under pressure and that the stresses on its surface are acting at an angle 9 to its normal in powdery medium, Under such conditions, the maximum uplift load @,, will be the resultant of the stresses acting on the above truncated cone area, by accepting af an approximation, acceptable in some cases, the sum of the following limiting equilibrium states in homogeneous media 1 ~ equilibrium under the action of dead weight alone (figure 2), to which corresponds the load Q,g, called friction term, 22:06 Figure 1 - Representation of the line of shear. = On anslogieal model with rollers 1, = for a pile 1, = for a pad foundation = Simplified geometrical representation. 1, = equivalent" atraight line AB, Figure 2 - Distribution of etresses due to frietion Figure 3 - Distribution of stresses representing the ‘The Integration of KOTTER's equation along the line intluence of cohesion in a soll whose angle is @ AB gives PEY-8. cos. (p +a).