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Constraint Equations 16.0 Release

Chapter Overview

In this chapter we introduce the concepts and uses for Remote Boundary Conditions:

A. Definitions

B. Remote Points

C. Behavior Control

D. Pinball Control

E. Remote Point Sharing

F. Display Options

G. Workshop 6.1, Remote Boundary Conditions

H. Appendix

A. Definitions

Remote boundary conditions provide a means to apply a condition whose center of

action is not located where the condition is scoped (i.e, “remotely”).

Remote Boundary Conditions include: Point masses, thermal point masses, springs,

joints, remote displacement, remote force and moment loads.

As the list above implies, not all the items constitute a “boundary condition”.

Common features of all remote conditions:

• All use MPC contact constraint equations in the application of the condition.

• Geometry behavior can be set to rigid, deformable or coupled.

• Large numbers of remote conditions can be costly in terms of solution times.

B. Remote Points

• A remote point can be defined at an arbitrary location and is then scoped to

the existing geometry where desired. A specific “condition” (described

earlier) is then applied to the remote point.

. . . Remote Points

Remote points occur automatically when a remote BC is defined.

• The coordinates shown in the details indicate the location of

the remote point.

• Locations can be in terms of global or local coordinates.

• A point associated with a remote boundary condition can be

“promoted” to an independent remote point via RMB.

Additional Controls:

• Remote boundary conditions contain a “behavior” control that

allow rigid, deformable or coupled settings.

• Pinball Region allows a reduction in the amount of constraint

equations used.

• DOF Selection allows independent selection of the degrees of

freedom associated with the remote condition.

Each is discussed next . . .

C. Behavior Control

Several examples are included to illustrate the rigid/deformable option:

• Example of a remote force scoped to the face shown in red:

Deformable

Rigid

. . . Behavior Control

A remote displacement scoped to the yellow face with

all directions free except the out of plane, Z direction:

• Notice in the deformable case the circular section has

become “egg shaped” whereas the rigid section Deformable

maintains its circular shape.

Rigid

. . . Behavior Control

A remote displacement scoped to the end of the beam. The “coupled” option is

chosen.

end remains in plane (the scoped face

contains no Z deformation because

the remote point contains none).

Thus the scoped face is free to deform

in the Z direction.

D. Pinball Control

Large numbers of constraint equations can slow down compute times or cause over-constraint

conditions. The “Pinball Region” settings allows the number of constraint equations to be limited as

well as controlling their location:

• Default setting = All (note, to return to the default enter zero “0”).

• If the default (“All”) is active, no pinball is displayed graphically.

• If a value is entered for the pinball region, a sphere representing the pinball is displayed.

• Note: if a pinball region is defined such that no part penetrates the scoped region, no constraint

equations are written and an error message will be displayed.

. . . Pinball Control

Notice when the pinball region is defined, only parts of the scoped region that are

penetrated by the pinball have constraint equations defined.

Constraint Equations

Scope

Constraint Equations

10 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. February 27, 2015

E. Remote Point Sharing

Since each remote condition defines its own remote point and

constraint equations, multiple conditions can adversely affect solution

times. In cases where multiple remote conditions share a remote

location, a single remote point can be used for all conditions:

• Remote points are created in advance of the remote boundary

conditions.

• Notice the details for each remote point contain all the same

settings discussed earlier.

remote boundary conditions can

be scoped to them.

… Remote Point Sharing

Once a remote boundary condition is set on the analysis branch, remote point can be promoted

to be reused on other conditions:

• RMB on remote Boundary condition > Promote to remote point

in the tree outline:

unchanged

… Remote Point Sharing

• Details of remote boundary condition have changed:

- Scoping method is now “remote point”

- Remote point coordinates and behavior cannot be

changed from this details window. Any change has to

be done on remote point details window.

- New Boundary condition can be scoped on this

remote point.

F. Display Options

Constraint equations generated by remote boundary conditions can

be displayed graphically by configuring the “FE Connection Visibility”

settings and clicking the “Graphics” tab.

Display Options:

• “Activate Visibility” by default is set to “Yes”. For maximum

performance on large models, or if you know you will never view

FE connections you can set this to “No” prior to solving.

• Can display all connections or filter by type.

• Option to display connections on results plots.

• Control cosmetics (e.g. color, line versus point, etc.).

“RMB > Export FE Connections” from the solution information

branch allows details for FE connections to be exported. The

current visibility settings control the content of the export.

14 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. February 27, 2015

. . . Display Options

As stated earlier, remote boundary conditions are defined

using constraint equations (CE).

Several other FE connections exist which can also be

displayed and exported.

• Beam based connections are used to define spot

welds.

• Weak springs are applied to a model when a structural

under-constraint condition is possible.

all constraint equations written in ANSYS MAPDL

command language.

15 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. February 27, 2015

. . . Display Options

Examples of FE Connection display options:

G. Workshop 6.1

• Workshop 6.1 – Remote Boundary Conditions

H. APPENDIX

• Constraint Equations

• CE Exemple

Constraint Equations

• Constraint equations allow you to relate the motion of different portions of a model

through the use of an equation.

• The equation relates the degrees of freedom (DOF) of one or more remote points for

Static and Transient Structural, Harmonic and Modal analysis systems.

• Constraint equations are linear combinations.

• Can be applied to joints when using the ANSYS Rigid Dynamics solver (not covered

here).

. . . Constraint Equations

Constraint equations require the use of remote

points as defined here in the desired locations.

environment from the “Conditions” menu.

. . . Constraint Equations

The constraint equation is then constructed using the

worksheet. New rows are added for each term in the

expression by right clicking to “Add”.

Fields for remote point and DOF selection are drop down

choices in the worksheet. Coefficient values are entered as

needed.

constraint equation.

Examples follow . . .

21 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. February 27, 2015

CE Example

In this example a beam model is constrained at the end labeled “C” A

and loaded at point “A” as shown here.

UX = 10mm

B

A constraint equation is defined to control the movements at the

point labeled “B” relative to point “A”:

UAx = UBz C

All DOF

What this relation says is, what point A does in the +X direction,

point B must do in the +Z direction. Fixed

0 = UBz - UAx

22 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. February 27, 2015

. . . CE Example

After inserting a constraint equation in the environment, the Worksheet is configured as

shown here.

X deformation

at Point A Z deformation

at Point B

. . . CE Example

Notice the expression is written above the worksheet columns.

Coefficients

Constant

In this example both constants were set to unity (1) and the constant value to zero. Other

values may be provided in different expressions.

Workshop 6.2

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