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Dr. Dheeraj Joshi Dr. K.S. Sandhu Electrical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra Abstract—Self-excited induction generators (SEIG) may be useful for wind energy conversion provided its voltage regulation is maintained as per standards. In the present paper three control techniques using static exciter and dump load are proposed to control the load voltage. Genetic algorithm approach (GAA) is with a very simple objective function is proposed to meet the control requirements. In addition concept of utilization factor has been introduced to make the control more effective and useful. Keywords— Self-excited induction generators, Genetic algorithm, voltage control, utilization factor. NOMENCLATURE a per unit frequency α firing angle,degrees b per unit speed E1 air gap voltage per phase at rated frequency, Volt f rated frequency, Hz I1 stator current per phase, A I2 rotor current per phase, referred to stator, A IC capacitor current per phase, A Id dump load current per phase, A I load current per phase, A N prime mover speed, rpm R load resistance per phase, Ω stator resistance per phase, Ω R1 R2 rotor resistance per phase, referred to stator, Ω Rd dump load resistance, Ω V stator voltage per phase, Volt VL load voltage per phase, Volt X1 stator reactance per phase, Ω X2 rotor reactance per phase, referred to stator, Ω Xm magnetizing reactance per phase at rated frequency, Ω C excitation capacitance per phase, µF Lα inductance of static exciter, H Vref desired value of load voltage, Volt INTRODUCTION Nowadays wind energy shares substantial part of energy produced by non conventional energy sources. Researchers used self-excited induction generators in contrast to grid-connected induction generators in wind energy conversion systems due to their capability to generate power for a wide range of operating speeds. The main drawback, which was observed by the research scholars in case of SEIG, is its poor voltage regulation. Various researchers have been proposed different methods for overcoming such problems. Murthy et al  has shown that excitation capacitance must be varied over a wide range to maintain the generator voltage constant. Switched capacitor scheme is cheap and simple solution for providing variable reactive power. It is proposed by Singh et al  for SEIG while variation in the load voltage is kept within tolerable limit. The voltage regulation scheme using thyristor-controlled capacitors is proposed by Frank and Landstom . Continuous and smooth control in terminal voltage can be obtained by using thyristor controlled variable inductor or a saturable core reactor in parallel to a fixed value capacitor at the terminals of the SEIG [4,5].This scheme is advantageous over the thyristor controlled capacitor scheme  , as thyristors are protected by inductor. The drawback of this scheme is that it requires a large filter and thus become a costlier solution. El-Sharkawi  proposed an adaptive power factor controller which uses the reactive current drawn by machine to provide the necessary control of the switching of capacitors and maintains generator power factor close to unity. References [7,8] presented the design of a load controller to control the voltage and the frequency of stand alone induction generator to eliminate hydraulic control of turbine. The load controller uses thyristor bridge rectifier with phase angle control and resistive load along with chopper. The chopper with pulse width control has been used to decouple the control between the real and reactive powers. Singh et al  used the simulated annealing like approach to solve voltage regulation optimization
e. A very important parameter related with the utilization of SEIG is also defined here. 5]. In the present paper. 2 shows the basic scheme for SE and DL VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY CONTROL GENETIC ALGORITHM APPROACH (GAA) GA based approach i. Cα=Cmax.f. YT = 0 (3) (4) . ZL = R a . Ym = a−b Zm ZSCLD = ZS + ZCLD . 2 Basic circuit diagram of SE and dump load. Zs = R1 ZCL ZD + jX 1 .. Objective function as given above is minimized using GAA to maintain the power quality. ZCLD = a ZCL + ZD . Genetic Algorithm (GA) [10. a dump load (DL) has been connected across the stator terminals.11] is one of them. The lagging current taken by the inductor can be controlled smoothly by varying the firing angle α in between 0 to 90 degrees. This approach results into a new and unique methodology to compute the values of α and Rd simultaneously for successful controlled operation of SEIG. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL OF SEIG USING STATIC EXCITER (SE) AND DUMP LOAD(DL) Fig. Further as shown in Fig. 1 does not contain any e. Bounds on firing angle. The fundamental component of the exciter current is given by. 1 YR = . ZD = Rd a ZCL = ZC ZL ZC + ZL . 1 Per phase equivalent circuit representation of self-excited induction generator with SE and dump load. Here fixed excitation capacitor. As Fig. YSCLD = 1 ZSCLD Total admittance. therefore for successful generator operation. USING Fig.m. comprising of fixed capacitor in parallel with thyristor controlled inductor [4. IC =VaωbCmax ⎡1− 1 (π −2α −sin 2α )⎤ ⎢ ⎥ α ⎣ πa2 ⎦ (1) Where ωb is base frequency.problem. 1 shows the equivalent circuit of SEIG. At other frequencies. (5) OF= YT +V err Where ⎛V −V Verr = ⎜ ref ⎜ V ref ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Fig. ZR ZR = 1 R2 + jX 2 . or current source. YT = YR + Ym + YSCLD Where. Dump load is represented by an additional variable resistance. nodal analysis at node ‘2’ results into. static exciter and dump load are used using genetic algorithm approach (GAA) to control the load voltage of SEIG. the minimum and maximum values of the effective excitation capacitance also depends upon the generated frequency. Over the past few years real-coded evolutionary algorithms. is replaced by a variable excitation capacitor also called static exciter (SE). Fig. particularly for solving real-world optimization problems is used by researchers. . ZC = −j XC a2 . Application of GAA model results in to the appropriate selection of α and Rd. 3 depicts the proposed scheme to control the load voltage of SEIG using SE and dump load for fixed prime mover speed. 1 ⎡ ⎤ Cα = C max ⎢1 − (π − 2α − sin 2α )⎥ πa 2 ⎣ ⎦ (2) Therefore at base frequency with α =90 degrees. Here − jXCα / a 2 is the equivalent capacitive representation of SE for any value of α and generated frequency. ‘GAA’ is applied with following objective function. Zm = jX m .2 is selected as . Lα=1/ ω2b Cmax The effective value of variable capacitance provided by the SE is therefore given by. YT is written as follows. Cmax is maximum shunt capacitance. GAA may be used to control the load voltage of SEIG for any variation in its operating condition. Value of Lα as shown in Fig. In order to obtain the desired voltage regulation. ‘α’ is 0 to 90 degrees and bounds on Rd are 200Ω to 1000 Ω. Fig.1.
1 0. 4 and Fig.1 0.e α control 2. Simulations are done assuming machine operates at rated speed. .2 1 0..7 shows that the voltage control is better through static exciter in contrast to other control techniques.2 0. Satyanarayana K.6 0. 7 Variation of utilization factor with load current.2 0 0 0.6 1.7 shows the variation of utilization factor of the machine with load. Singh B.1 0.7 Load current(pu) Fig.5 0.6 With dump load control With excitation control With dump load and excitation control 0. REFERENCES  Murthy S. 4 to Fig. Fig.2 With dump load control With excitation control With dump load and excitation control 0.8 Fig. Here utilization factor is defined as ratio of load current with stator current. All three controls are capable to maintain the load voltage. It indicates the effective use of machine with variations in load.7 Load current(pu) 0 0 0. Fig.4 0.2 Stator current(pu) 1 With dump load control With excitation control With dump load and excitation control 0.2 Fig. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Load voltage control is possible by minimizing the OF of equation (5). 6 shows the variation of stator current with load and Fig. 7 show the simulated results on test machine [Appendix] using all three possible controls as explained in previous sections.2 0 0 0. By controlling dump load i. Nagamani C.2 0. By controlling excitation through SE only i.8 1.4 Utilization factor 0.6 0.3 0.4 0. The above control is possible in the following manner. 1. A comparison of simulated results on a test machine shows the superiority of static exciter control over other techniques. In this paper an attempt has been made to control the load voltage using genetic algorithm.6 and Fig. 3.4 0.e Rd control. “Studies on the use of 0 0 0. 5 Variation of load voltage with load current.4 1. A careful observation of Fig.7 Load Current (pu) Fig.8 Generated frequency(pu) 0.6 0.6 0. By simultaneous control of SE and DL.5 0. 6 Variation of stator current with load current.1.5 0.V.4 0.5 1 0. 1. Fig.V.2 0..3 0.S.3 0.7 Load current(pu) Fig.6 0.6 0..4 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.6 0. CONCLUSIONS Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) which is generally used for remote windy locations looses its attraction due to poor voltage regulation.8 Load voltage(pu) With dump load control With excitation control With dump load and excitation control 0.5 0. A new concept of utilization factor has been introduced for the comparison purpose and in addition it shows the usefulness of control.5 show the variation of generated frequency and voltage with load.1 0.P.3 0.2 0. 3 Voltage control of SEIG for fixed speed operation.4 0. 0. 1.. 4 Variation of generated frequency with load current.1 0.
219-226.79 − 3. December 1988. Hoops G.” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion. 1825-1831. pp. vol.3 V Base current =1. Power Apparatus and Systems.  Joshi D.19.04.5. “Stand alone induction generator with terminal impedance controller and no turbine controls. “Static exciters for induction generators. 228234. Industry Applications...” Electric Power Components and Systems. X1 = X 2 = 8. no. vol..” IEEE Trans. 98.69 − 2..422428. March 1990.” IEE Proc.84 Ω Base values Base voltage =219..78Xm 184. Jain S. pp.13.46 E1 = 0 . vol. 28-31. 44. APPENDIX Specifications 3-phase.1.  Singh S. Energy Conversion.. December 2004. squirrel cage induction machine 750W/1HP.6.” IEEE Trans.  Hammad A.66 − 4.. pp.” ASEA Journal. 4.B. March 2006. no. January 1998.. Venkata S. Landstrom B. Energy Conversion.. pp. star connected. R 2 = 8. vol. vol.E. Sharma J.K.. vol.2 179. Jain M. vol.5.” IEEE Trans... pp. no.1.  El-Sharkawi M. 679-685.  Joshi D. 5.. January/February 1979.4.S.4 Ω Base frequency=50 Hz Base speed=1500rpm Air-gap voltage i) The variation of air-gap voltage with magnetizing reactance at rated frequency for the induction machine is as given below. 50 Hz.. Soni M.” IEEE Trans. September/October1977. P.42〉 X m ≥ 169. vol. 1.. 33-39..9 A Base impedance=115. “An adaptive power factor controller for three-phase induction generators. Butler N. vol.conventional induction motors as self-excited induction generators.S.J.20 E1 = 512.” IEEE Trans. vol.  Bonert R. Williams T. 1. no. no. Sandhu K. no. Energy Conversion. no..37X m E1 = 785.  Frank H.P. 21. Singh B.. 461-470. 1971.. April 2006. “Power factor correction with thyristor controlled capacitors. 34.  Brennen M. Energy Conversion.1.D.G.. Sandhu K.K.... pp.46〉 X m ≥ 179. 842-848. 145. “Performance analysis of three phase selfexcited induction generator using genetic algorithm. Soni M. no. Power Apparatus and Systems.724-732. pp. no.” IEEE Trans. 4. Mathur R. July 1985.. “A new generalized concept for the design of thyristor phase-controlled VAr compensators.A.  Bonert R.K. pp.13X m E1 = 891. “Constant voltage constant frequency operation for a self-excited induction generator.42 X m ≥ 184.” IEEE Trans.P. 7. 104. pp. “Voltage regulation optimization of compensated selfexcited induction generator with dynamic load. “Self-excited induction generator with excellent voltage and frequency control. December 1990. 4-pole.4. vol.  Singh S. Rajakaruna S. Abbondanti A. no.. pp..S. no.5. “Performance characteristics and optimum utilization of a cage machine as capacitor excited induction generator.9 A Parameters The equivalent circuit parameters for the machine are R1 = 9.3. 180-184.. 380 V. pp.M. X m 〈169.
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