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s s

Z ∞ Z T 3 2T
s43 = s4 (t)φ∗3 (t)dt = (1) dt =
−∞ T /3 2T 3

Changing the order of the signals used to generate the basis functions produces a different
set of basis functions and thus a different set of signal vectors which can be seen by comparing
equations (1.182) and (1.192). But the lengths of these vectors and the distance between
the vecotrs are the same for both sets of signal vectors.

1.9 Representation of Digitally Modulated Signals

The digital modulator, shown in Figure 1.53, maps the digital information sequence, {an },
into analog waveforms, {sm (t)}, which match the characteristics of the channel. This map-

{an } Digital {sm (t)}


Figure 1.53: Digital Modulator

ping involves taking k = log2 M sets of {an } and selecting one of M = 2k deterministic, finite
energy waveforms from {sm (t)} to transmit over the channel.

1.9.1 Modulator Characteristics

memory/memoryless - A modulator has memory if the waveforms transmitted depends
on one or more previously transmitted waveforms.
linear/nonlinear - In general for analog signals, if m(t) is the modulating signal and s(t) is
the modulated signal, the modulation is linear if ddm(t)
is independent of m(t). For a digitally
modulated signal the modulation is considered linear, if x(t) and y(t) are constants in the
following representation

s(t) = <{u(t)ejωc t }
= x(t) cos (ωc t) − y(t) sin (ωc t) (1.193)

over any symbol interval, 0 ≤ t ≤ T , where x(t) = a(t) cos (θ(t)) , y(t) = a(t) sin (θ(t)) and
a(t) and/or θ(t) is a function of {an }, the information sequence.
Thus in digital modulation, amplitude and phase modulation is considered linear and
frequency modulation is considered non-linear (for memoryless schemes). In linear modula-
tion systems the spectrum of the modulated signal is simply the frequency translation of the
baseband spectrum. But, since frequency modulation is a nonlinear modulation technique,
the spectral properties of the modulated signal cannot, in general, be deduced from the
baseband spectrum. Frequency modulation techniques generally alter the baseband spectral

shaping and can result in a bandwidth considerably greater than the base bandwidth for
some choices of modulation parameters.
Note that in analog communication, phase modulation is considered a non-linear tech-
nique. For digital communications if the phase changes over the symbol interval (eg. Contin-
uous Phase Modulation (CPM)) it is nonlinear. But for M-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK)
it does not change over the symbol interval, the result is a linear modulation.

1.9.2 Linear, Memoryless Modulation Methods

In general, the output of a modulator is a bandpass signal of the form

s(t) = <{v(t)ejωc t } (1.194)


v(t) = a(t)ejθ(t) (1.195)

a(t) = the amplitude of s(t) (1.196)
θ(t) = the phase of s(t) (1.197)

In digital modulation, as in analog modulation, there are three methods that can be used
to vary the carrier. The sequence of binary bits, {an }, can be mapped to

1. a set of discrete amplitudes - ie. varying a(t)

2. a set of discrete phases - ie. varying θ(t)

d θ(t)
3. a set of discrete frequencies - ie. varying dt

or some combination of these three. The digital modulation schemes will be described in
terms of signal space complexity, starting with one dimensional signals.

1.9.3 One dimensional Signaling

The simplest form of modulation involves mapping the information sequence into a set of
discrete amplitudes. This is referred to as PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation (digital)) or
ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying). Define the set of M discrete amplitudes as {Am , m =
1, 2, · · · , M}, which corresponds to the M = 2k possible k-bit blocks from the information
sequence, then the M signal waveforms are

sm (t) = <{Am u(t)ejωc t } m = 1, 2, · · · , M (1.198)

where u(t) is a real valued pulse (0 ≤ t ≤ T ) whose shape is important for equalization in
bandlimited channels (note that u(t) is changed to g(t) in the third edition of Proakis). The
lowpass equivalent of a single symbol is given by

v(t) = Am u(t) 0 ≤ t ≤ T. (1.199)

The lowpass equivalent of a sequence of symbols is
v(t) = In u(t − nT ), (1.200)

where the set {In } represents the sequence of discrete amplitudes, and the transmission rate,
, is given by
1 R
= symbols/second (1.201)
T k
where R is the message signal bit rate and k = log2 M.
The signal space diagram for PAM (using the orthonormal expansion previously pre-
sented) is a one dimensional representation. Basically, the signal vector has only one ele-
ment which is the signal amplitude. Examples of PAM signal space diagrams for M = 2 and
M = 4 are given in Figure 1.54. The PAM signal defined by

M =2

M =4

Figure 1.54: Example PAM Signal Space Diagrams

sm (t) = <{Am u(t)ejωc t } (1.202)

is a DSB (double sideband) signal. The bandwidth of this signal can be reduced by using
sideband filtering. This will result in SSB (single sideband) PAM which has 12 the spectral
width of DSB PAM. The lowpass equivalent representation of SSB PAM is
v(t) = Am [u(t) ± j û(t)] (1.203)
where û(t) is the Hilbert transform of u(t). Reviewing the lowpass equivalent notes on the
Hilbert transform, it is apparent that, u(t) + j û(t) is just the signal which represents the
single-sided spectrum (positive) of u(t). Thus the signal
sm (t) = <{Am [u(t) + j û(t)]ejωc t } (1.204)
is the upper sideband PAM signal. The lower sideband is obtained using, u(t) − j û(t), which
is the signal which represents the negative single-sided spectrum of u(t). Thus
sm (t) = <{Am [u(t) − j û(t)]ejωc t } (1.205)
is the lower SSB PAM signal.

1.9.4 Two Dimensional Signaling
Two dimensional signals are represented using quadrature basis functions

f1 (t) = u(t) cos (ωc t) 0 ≤ t ≤ T (1.206)

f2 (t) = u(t) sin (ωc t) 0 ≤ t ≤ T (1.207)

where u(t) is a real valued signal pulse. There are a number of techniques which use quadra-
ture carriers, such as QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation), MPSK (M-ary Phase Shift
Keying) and PAM-PSK. A general representation of the quadrature form will be discussed
in the next chapter. The following gives brief descriptions of each of these techniques.

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

The signal waveform for QAM is given by

sm (t) = <{(Amc + jAms )u(t)ejωc t }

= Amc u(t) cos (ωct) − Ams u(t) sin (ωc t) (1.208)
for m = 1, 2, · · · , M

where √
Amc , Ams  {±1, ±3, · · · , ± M − 1} (1.209)

and M is an integer.
Note that the bandwidth efficiency of QAM is equivalent to SSB PAM, since two quadra-
ture carriers are used. An example block diagram of a QAM modulator is shown in Figure
1.55 (k is assumed to be even). If the amplitude values {Amc } and {Ams }, in the block
diagram of Figure 1.55, are equally spaced the signal space diagram will be rectangular. The
M signals can be represented by the M signal space vectors.

sm = (Amc , Ams ) m = 1, 2, · · · , M (1.210)

Note that the basis functions must be orthonormal, ie. u(t) cos (ωc t) and u(t) sin (ωc t) have
unit energy. The signal space diagram can be broken down into the in-phase and quadrature
components. The in-phase signal space diagram, for M = 16, is given in Figure 1.56 and
the quadrature phase signal space diagram is shown in Figure 1.57. Combining these
two components results in an M = 16 rectangular signal space. Several signal spaces for
rectangular QAM, including M = 16 are shown in Figure 1.58. The number of signal points
in the signal space is given by M = 2k . If k is restricted to be even (see the QAM block
diagram in Figure 1.55) this limits the value of M, for example M = 4, 16 or 64. The
advantages of the even k systems are
1. The in-phase and quadrature signals are independent k2 level PAM signals so the design
of the modulator is simple (see QAM block diagram Figure 1.55).

2. The decision regions between signal points are defined by threshold levels along the
inphase and quadrature axis, since the signal space is square. This makes the decision
of which signal was sent easier to implement.

U(t) cos wc t



U(t) sin wc t

Figure 1.55: QAM Modulator

f1 (t)

Figure 1.56: QAM In-Phase Signal Space Diagram (M = 16)

f2 (t)

Figure 1.57: QAM Quadrature-Phase Signal Space Diagram (M = 16)





Figure 1.58: Rectangular QAM

The disadvantage is that they are not the most efficient schemes in power for a given minimum
distance between signal points. The other rectangular signal spaces, M = 8, 32 are slightly
more complicated to implement.
If the amplitude levels of {Amc } and {Ams } are not equally spaced, as in the rectangular
configuration. It is possible to have other signal space constellations, for example the circular
16-QAM shown in Figure 1.59. The implementation of the circular 16-QAM modulator is


Figure 1.59: Circular 16-QAM

more complicated because, the levels are not equally spaced and there are now dependencies
between the in-phase and quadrature components.
The lowpass equivalent representation for the QAM signal is given by
v(t) = (Amc + jAms )u(t) (1.211)
This lowpass equivalent can also be represented in polar form as
v(t) = Vm ejθm u(t) (1.212)
Vm = A2mc + A2ms (1.213)
θm = arctan , (1.214)

and thus
sm (t) = <{Vm ejθm u(t)ejωc t }. (1.215)
This equation indicates that QAM is a form of combined amplitude and phase modulation.
This signal can also be put in quadrature form as

sm (t) = xm u(t) cos (ωc t) − ym u(t) sin (ωc t) (1.216)


xm = Vm cos (θm ) (1.217)

ym = Vm sin (θm ). (1.218)

Digital Phase Modulation

This is another two dimensional modulation scheme which uses quadrature modulation. The
M-ary PSK (MPSK) signal is defined as

sm (t) = <{u(t)ejθm ejωc t } (1.219)

where θm is generated by mapping k = log2 M binary digits of {an } into one of M phases
2π(m − 1)
θm = m = 1, 2, · · · , M, (1.220)
and u(t) is a real valued pulse (0 ≤ t ≤ T ). The modulated signal can be put into quadrature
format as

sm (t) = <{u(t)ejθm ejωc t }

= <{u(t)(cos (θm ) + j sin (θm ))(cos (ωc t) + j sin (ωc t))}
= u(t) cos (θm ) cos (ωc t) − u(t) sin (θm ) sin (ωc t) (1.221)

If u(t) cos (ωc t) and −u(t) sin (ωc t) are orthonormal basis functions, then the M signal space
vectors are given by
sm = (cos (θm ), sin (θm )) (1.222)
Example signal space diagrams for MPSK are shown in Figure 1.60. Note that if u(t), the
pulse, is not constant over 0 ≤ t ≤ T , the PSK signal will not have constant amplitude.

PAM-PSK Modulation
The general form of the modulated signal is

smi (t) = <{Am ejθi u(t)ejωc t } (1.223)

= Am u(t) cos (ωc t + θi ) (1.224)


m = 1, 2, · · · , M1 (1.225)
i = 1, 2, · · · , M2 . (1.226)




Figure 1.60: Example MPSK Signal Space Diagrams

Basically, this is an M1 -level PAM and M2 -phase PSK signal. Note that QAM is a special
case of this signaling technique. In PAM-PSK there are M = M1 M2 distinct signals. If
M1 = 2n and M2 = 2l then
log2 (M1 M2 ) = log2 (2n+l ) = n + l bits (1.227)
will produce one symbol waveform. The symbol rate is given by
The PAM-PSK signal can be put in quadrature form to given the signal space representation.
smi (t) = Am u(t) cos (θi ) cos (ωc t) − Am u(t) sin (θi ) cos (ωc t). (1.229)
Thus the signal vectors are given by
m = 1, · · · , M1
smi = (Am cos (θi ), Am sin (θi )) (1.230)
i = 1, · · · , M2
Figure 1.61 is an example of PAM-PSK for M = 8. Here there are two combinations of


Figure 1.61: PAM-PSK for M = 8

phases and amplitudes.

Amplitude Phase M1 M2
M1a = 1 M2a = 4 1×4=4
M1b = 1 M2b = 4 1×4 =4
M =8
In summary, a number of linear modulation techniques have been presented. Previously,
the lowpass equivalent of the modulated signal was presented as
v(t) = In u(t − nT ) (1.232)

For the modulation techniques presented the sequence In is given by

Modulation In
QAM Amc + jAms (1.233)
PSK cos (θm ) + j sin (θm )
PAM − PSK Am cos (θi ) + jAm sin (θi )