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Z ∞ Z T 3 2T

s43 = s4 (t)φ∗3 (t)dt = (1) dt =

−∞ T /3 2T 3

Changing the order of the signals used to generate the basis functions produces a different

set of basis functions and thus a different set of signal vectors which can be seen by comparing

equations (1.182) and (1.192). But the lengths of these vectors and the distance between

the vecotrs are the same for both sets of signal vectors.

The digital modulator, shown in Figure 1.53, maps the digital information sequence, {an },

into analog waveforms, {sm (t)}, which match the characteristics of the channel. This map-

Modulator

ping involves taking k = log2 M sets of {an } and selecting one of M = 2k deterministic, finite

energy waveforms from {sm (t)} to transmit over the channel.

memory/memoryless - A modulator has memory if the waveforms transmitted depends

on one or more previously transmitted waveforms.

linear/nonlinear - In general for analog signals, if m(t) is the modulating signal and s(t) is

the modulated signal, the modulation is linear if ddm(t)

s(t)

is independent of m(t). For a digitally

modulated signal the modulation is considered linear, if x(t) and y(t) are constants in the

following representation

s(t) = <{u(t)ejωc t }

= x(t) cos (ωc t) − y(t) sin (ωc t) (1.193)

over any symbol interval, 0 ≤ t ≤ T , where x(t) = a(t) cos (θ(t)) , y(t) = a(t) sin (θ(t)) and

a(t) and/or θ(t) is a function of {an }, the information sequence.

Thus in digital modulation, amplitude and phase modulation is considered linear and

frequency modulation is considered non-linear (for memoryless schemes). In linear modula-

tion systems the spectrum of the modulated signal is simply the frequency translation of the

baseband spectrum. But, since frequency modulation is a nonlinear modulation technique,

the spectral properties of the modulated signal cannot, in general, be deduced from the

baseband spectrum. Frequency modulation techniques generally alter the baseband spectral

47

shaping and can result in a bandwidth considerably greater than the base bandwidth for

some choices of modulation parameters.

Note that in analog communication, phase modulation is considered a non-linear tech-

nique. For digital communications if the phase changes over the symbol interval (eg. Contin-

uous Phase Modulation (CPM)) it is nonlinear. But for M-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK)

it does not change over the symbol interval, the result is a linear modulation.

In general, the output of a modulator is a bandpass signal of the form

where

a(t) = the amplitude of s(t) (1.196)

θ(t) = the phase of s(t) (1.197)

In digital modulation, as in analog modulation, there are three methods that can be used

to vary the carrier. The sequence of binary bits, {an }, can be mapped to

d θ(t)

3. a set of discrete frequencies - ie. varying dt

or some combination of these three. The digital modulation schemes will be described in

terms of signal space complexity, starting with one dimensional signals.

The simplest form of modulation involves mapping the information sequence into a set of

discrete amplitudes. This is referred to as PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation (digital)) or

ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying). Define the set of M discrete amplitudes as {Am , m =

1, 2, · · · , M}, which corresponds to the M = 2k possible k-bit blocks from the information

sequence, then the M signal waveforms are

where u(t) is a real valued pulse (0 ≤ t ≤ T ) whose shape is important for equalization in

bandlimited channels (note that u(t) is changed to g(t) in the third edition of Proakis). The

lowpass equivalent of a single symbol is given by

48

The lowpass equivalent of a sequence of symbols is

X

v(t) = In u(t − nT ), (1.200)

n

where the set {In } represents the sequence of discrete amplitudes, and the transmission rate,

1

T

, is given by

1 R

= symbols/second (1.201)

T k

where R is the message signal bit rate and k = log2 M.

The signal space diagram for PAM (using the orthonormal expansion previously pre-

sented) is a one dimensional representation. Basically, the signal vector has only one ele-

ment which is the signal amplitude. Examples of PAM signal space diagrams for M = 2 and

M = 4 are given in Figure 1.54. The PAM signal defined by

M =2

M =4

is a DSB (double sideband) signal. The bandwidth of this signal can be reduced by using

sideband filtering. This will result in SSB (single sideband) PAM which has 12 the spectral

width of DSB PAM. The lowpass equivalent representation of SSB PAM is

v(t) = Am [u(t) ± j û(t)] (1.203)

where û(t) is the Hilbert transform of u(t). Reviewing the lowpass equivalent notes on the

Hilbert transform, it is apparent that, u(t) + j û(t) is just the signal which represents the

single-sided spectrum (positive) of u(t). Thus the signal

sm (t) = <{Am [u(t) + j û(t)]ejωc t } (1.204)

is the upper sideband PAM signal. The lower sideband is obtained using, u(t) − j û(t), which

is the signal which represents the negative single-sided spectrum of u(t). Thus

sm (t) = <{Am [u(t) − j û(t)]ejωc t } (1.205)

is the lower SSB PAM signal.

49

1.9.4 Two Dimensional Signaling

Two dimensional signals are represented using quadrature basis functions

f2 (t) = u(t) sin (ωc t) 0 ≤ t ≤ T (1.207)

where u(t) is a real valued signal pulse. There are a number of techniques which use quadra-

ture carriers, such as QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation), MPSK (M-ary Phase Shift

Keying) and PAM-PSK. A general representation of the quadrature form will be discussed

in the next chapter. The following gives brief descriptions of each of these techniques.

The signal waveform for QAM is given by

= Amc u(t) cos (ωct) − Ams u(t) sin (ωc t) (1.208)

for m = 1, 2, · · · , M

where √

Amc , Ams {±1, ±3, · · · , ± M − 1} (1.209)

√

and M is an integer.

Note that the bandwidth efficiency of QAM is equivalent to SSB PAM, since two quadra-

ture carriers are used. An example block diagram of a QAM modulator is shown in Figure

1.55 (k is assumed to be even). If the amplitude values {Amc } and {Ams }, in the block

diagram of Figure 1.55, are equally spaced the signal space diagram will be rectangular. The

M signals can be represented by the M signal space vectors.

Note that the basis functions must be orthonormal, ie. u(t) cos (ωc t) and u(t) sin (ωc t) have

unit energy. The signal space diagram can be broken down into the in-phase and quadrature

components. The in-phase signal space diagram, for M = 16, is given in Figure 1.56 and

the quadrature phase signal space diagram is shown in Figure 1.57. Combining these

two components results in an M = 16 rectangular signal space. Several signal spaces for

rectangular QAM, including M = 16 are shown in Figure 1.58. The number of signal points

in the signal space is given by M = 2k . If k is restricted to be even (see the QAM block

diagram in Figure 1.55) this limits the value of M, for example M = 4, 16 or 64. The

advantages of the even k systems are

1. The in-phase and quadrature signals are independent k2 level PAM signals so the design

of the modulator is simple (see QAM block diagram Figure 1.55).

2. The decision regions between signal points are defined by threshold levels along the

inphase and quadrature axis, since the signal space is square. This makes the decision

of which signal was sent easier to implement.

50

U(t) cos wc t

R

2

BITS/SEC R

BIT Amc

2

X X

D TO A

SEQUENCE SERIAL TO QAM

PARALLEL X

R BITS/SEC CONVERTER s(t)

R

2

BIT Ams

X X

R

2

BITS/SEC D TO A

U(t) sin wc t

f1 (t)

f2 (t)

51

M=64

M=32

M=16

M=8

M=4

52

The disadvantage is that they are not the most efficient schemes in power for a given minimum

distance between signal points. The other rectangular signal spaces, M = 8, 32 are slightly

more complicated to implement.

If the amplitude levels of {Amc } and {Ams } are not equally spaced, as in the rectangular

configuration. It is possible to have other signal space constellations, for example the circular

16-QAM shown in Figure 1.59. The implementation of the circular 16-QAM modulator is

M=16

more complicated because, the levels are not equally spaced and there are now dependencies

between the in-phase and quadrature components.

The lowpass equivalent representation for the QAM signal is given by

v(t) = (Amc + jAms )u(t) (1.211)

This lowpass equivalent can also be represented in polar form as

v(t) = Vm ejθm u(t) (1.212)

where

q

Vm = A2mc + A2ms (1.213)

Ams

θm = arctan , (1.214)

Amc

53

and thus

sm (t) = <{Vm ejθm u(t)ejωc t }. (1.215)

This equation indicates that QAM is a form of combined amplitude and phase modulation.

This signal can also be put in quadrature form as

where

ym = Vm sin (θm ). (1.218)

This is another two dimensional modulation scheme which uses quadrature modulation. The

M-ary PSK (MPSK) signal is defined as

where θm is generated by mapping k = log2 M binary digits of {an } into one of M phases

2π(m − 1)

θm = m = 1, 2, · · · , M, (1.220)

M

and u(t) is a real valued pulse (0 ≤ t ≤ T ). The modulated signal can be put into quadrature

format as

= <{u(t)(cos (θm ) + j sin (θm ))(cos (ωc t) + j sin (ωc t))}

= u(t) cos (θm ) cos (ωc t) − u(t) sin (θm ) sin (ωc t) (1.221)

If u(t) cos (ωc t) and −u(t) sin (ωc t) are orthonormal basis functions, then the M signal space

vectors are given by

sm = (cos (θm ), sin (θm )) (1.222)

Example signal space diagrams for MPSK are shown in Figure 1.60. Note that if u(t), the

pulse, is not constant over 0 ≤ t ≤ T , the PSK signal will not have constant amplitude.

PAM-PSK Modulation

The general form of the modulated signal is

= Am u(t) cos (ωc t + θi ) (1.224)

where

m = 1, 2, · · · , M1 (1.225)

i = 1, 2, · · · , M2 . (1.226)

54

M=2

M=8

M=4

55

Basically, this is an M1 -level PAM and M2 -phase PSK signal. Note that QAM is a special

case of this signaling technique. In PAM-PSK there are M = M1 M2 distinct signals. If

M1 = 2n and M2 = 2l then

log2 (M1 M2 ) = log2 (2n+l ) = n + l bits (1.227)

will produce one symbol waveform. The symbol rate is given by

R

(1.228)

n+l

The PAM-PSK signal can be put in quadrature form to given the signal space representation.

smi (t) = Am u(t) cos (θi ) cos (ωc t) − Am u(t) sin (θi ) cos (ωc t). (1.229)

Thus the signal vectors are given by

m = 1, · · · , M1

smi = (Am cos (θi ), Am sin (θi )) (1.230)

i = 1, · · · , M2

Figure 1.61 is an example of PAM-PSK for M = 8. Here there are two combinations of

M=8

Amplitude Phase M1 M2

M1a = 1 M2a = 4 1×4=4

(1.231)

M1b = 1 M2b = 4 1×4 =4

M =8

In summary, a number of linear modulation techniques have been presented. Previously,

the lowpass equivalent of the modulated signal was presented as

X

v(t) = In u(t − nT ) (1.232)

n

56

For the modulation techniques presented the sequence In is given by

Modulation In

PAM Am

QAM Amc + jAms (1.233)

PSK cos (θm ) + j sin (θm )

PAM − PSK Am cos (θi ) + jAm sin (θi )

57

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