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Swing music

Swing music, or simply swing, is a form of popular music developed in the United
States that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s. The name swing came from the 'swing
Swing
feel' where the emphasis is on the off–beat or weaker pulse in the music. Swing Stylistic 1920s jazz · big band
bands usually featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the origins
arrangement. The danceable swing style ofbig bands and bandleaders such as Benny Cultural 1930s, United States
Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, a origins
period known as the swing era. The verb "to swing" is also used as a term of praise
Derivative New jack swing ·
for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Notable musicians of the swing era
forms traditional pop
include Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Artie
Shaw, Glenn Miller, Woody Herman, Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Harry James, Subgenres
Louis Jordan, and Cab Calloway. Swing revival
Fusion genres
Swing has roots in the 1920s as larger dance music ensembles began using new
styles of written arrangements incorporating rhythmic innovations pioneered by Electro swing
Louis Armstrong and Earl Hines. A typical song played in swing style would feature Regional scenes
a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely tied wind and brass. Western swing
The most common style consisted of theme choruses and choruses with improvised
solos within the framework of his bandmates playing support. Swing music began to decline in popularity during World War II
because of several factors. Swing influenced the later styles of traditional pop music, jump blues, and bebop jazz. Swing music saw a
revival in the late 1950s and 1960s with the resurgent Count Basie and Duke Ellington orchestras, and with pop vocalists such as
Frank Sinatra and Nat King Cole.

Swing blended with other genres to create new music styles. In country music, artists such as Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican and
Bob Wills introduced many elements of swing along with blues to create a genre called western swing. Gypsy swing is an outgrowth
of Venuti and Lang's jazz violin swing. Swing revivals have occurred periodically from the late 1960s to the 2000s. In the late-1980s
(into the early 1990s) a trendier, more urban-styled swing-beat emerged called new jack swing, spearheaded by Teddy Riley. In the
late 1990s and into the 2000s there was a swing revival, led by Squirrel Nut Zippers, Brian Setzer, Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, and
Lavay Smith. In Canada, some of the early 2000s records byThe JW-Jones Blues Band included swing revival elements.

Contents
1920s: Roots
Early swing
1935–1946: The swing era
1940s: Decline
1950s–1960s
Swingin' pop
Big band jazz
Cross-genre swing
1960s–2000: Big Band nostalgia and swing revival
1990s to present: swing house, electro swing and swing pop
Notable musicians
See also
Notes
Further reading

1920s: Roots
Developments in dance orchestra and jazz music during the 1920s both contributed to the development of the 1930s swing style.
Starting in 1923, the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra featured innovative arrangements by Don Redman that featured call-response
interplay between brass and reed sections, and interludes arranged to back up soloists. The arrangements also had a smoother
rhythmic sense than the ragtime-influenced arrangements that were the more typical "hot" dance music of the day.[1] In 1924 Louis
Armstrong joined the Henderson band, lending impetus to an even greater emphasis on soloists. The Henderson band also featured
Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, and Buster Bailey as soloists, who all were influential in the development of swing era
instrumental styles. During the Henderson band's extended residency at the Roseland Ballroom in New York, it became influential on
other big bands. Duke Ellington credited the Henderson band with being an early influence when he was developing the sound for his
own band.[1] In 1925 Armstrong left the Henderson band and would add his innovations to New Orleans style jazz to develop
Chicago style jazz, another step towards swing.

Traditional New Orleans style jazz was based on a two-beat meter and contrapuntal improvisation led by a trumpet or cornet,
typically followed by a clarinet and trombone in a call-response pattern. The rhythm section consisted of a sousaphone and drums,
and sometimes a banjo. By the early 1920s guitars and pianos sometimes substituted for the banjo and a string bass sometimes
substituted for the sousaphone. Use of the string bass opened possibilities for 4/4 instead of 2/4 time at faster tempos, which
increased rhythmic freedom. The Chicago style released the soloist from the constraints of contrapuntal improvisation with other
front-line instruments, lending greater freedom in creating melodic lines. Louis Armstrong used the additional freedom of the new
format with 4/4 time, accenting the second and fourth beats and anticipating the main beats with lead-in notes in his solos to create a
swing.[2]
sense of rhythmic pulse that happened between the beats as well as on them, i.e.

In 1927 Armstrong worked with pianist Earl Hines, who had a similar impact on his instrument as Armstrong had on trumpet. Hines'
melodic, horn-like conception of playing deviated from the contemporary conventions in jazz piano centered on building rhythmic
patterns around "pivot notes." His approaches to rhythm and phrasing were also free and daring, exploring ideas that would define
swing playing. His approach to rhythm often used accents on the lead-in instead of the main beat, and mixed meters, to build a sense
of anticipation to the rhythm and make his playing swing. He also used "stops" or musical silences to build tension in his
phrasing.[3][4] Hines' style was a seminal influence on the styles of swing-era pianists Teddy Wilson, Art Tatum, Jess Stacy, Nat
"King" Cole, Erroll Garner, Mary Lou Williams, and Jay McShann.

Black territory dance bands in the southwest were developing dynamic styles that often went in the direction of blues-based
simplicity, using riffs in a call-response pattern to build a strong, danceable rhythm and provide a musical platform for extended
solos.[5] The rhythm-heavy tunes for dancing were called "stomps." The requirement for volume led to continued use of the
sousaphone over the string bass with the larger ensembles, which dictated a more conservative approach to rhythm based on 2/4 time
signatures. Meanwhile, string bass players such as Walter Page were developing their technique to the point where they could hold
[6]
down the bottom end of a full-sized dance orchestra.

The growth of radio broadcasting and the recording industry in the 1920s allowed some of the more popular dance bands to gain
national exposure. The most popular style of dance orchestra was the "sweet" style, often with strings. Paul Whiteman developed a
style he called "symphonic jazz," grafting a classical approach over his interpretation of jazz rhythms in an approach he hoped would
be the future of jazz.[7][8] Whiteman's Orchestra enjoyed great commercial success and was a major influence on the sweet bands.
Jean Goldkette's Victor Recording Orchestra featured many of the top white jazz musicians of the day including Bix Beiderbecke,
Jimmy Dorsey, Frank Trumbauer, Pee Wee Russell, Eddie Lang, and Joe Venuti. The Victor Recording Orchestra won the respect of
the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra in a Battle of the Bands; Henderson's cornetist Rex Stewart credited the Goldkette band with being
the most influential white band in the development of swing music before Benny Goodman's.[9][10] As a dance music promoter and
agent, Goldkette also helped organize and promote McKinney's Cotton Pickers and Glen Gray's Orange Blossoms (later the Casa
Loma Orchestra), two other Detroit-area bands that were influential in the early swing era.
Early swing
As the 1920s turned to the 1930s, the new concepts in rhythm and ensemble playing that comprised the swing style were
transforming the sounds of large and small bands. Starting in 1928, The Earl Hines Orchestra was broadcast throughout much of the
midwest from the Grand Terrace Cafe in Chicago, where Hines had the opportunity to expound upon his new approaches to rhythm
and phrasing with a big band. Hines' arranger Jimmy Mundy would later contribute to the catalog of the Benny Goodman Orchestra.
The Duke Ellington Orchestrahad its new sounds broadcast nationally from New York's Cotton Club, followed by the Cab Calloway
Orchestra and the Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra. Also in New York, the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra featured the new style at the
Roseland Ballroom and the swing powerhouse Chick Webb Orchestra started its extended stay at the Savoy Ballroom in 1931.[11]
Bennie Moten and the Kansas City Orchestra showcased the riff-propelled, solo-oriented form of swing that had been developing in
the hothouse of Kansas City.[12][13] Emblematic of the evolving music was the change in the name of Moten's signature tune, from
"Moten Stomp" to "Moten Swing." Moten's orchestra had a highly successful tour in late 1932. Audiences raved at the new music,
and at the Pearl Theatre in Philadelphia in December 1932, the doors were let open to the public who crammed into the theatre to
[6]
hear the new sound, demanding seven encores from Moten's orchestra.

With the early 1930s came the financial difficulties of the Great Depression that curtailed recording of the new music and drove some
bands out of business, including the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra and McKinney's Cotton Pickers in 1934. Henderson's next
business was selling arrangements to up-and-coming bandleader Benny Goodman. "Sweet" dance music remained most popular with
white audiences but the Casa Loma Orchestra and the Benny Goodman Orchestra went against that grain, targeting the new swing
style to younger audiences.

1935–1946: The swing era


In 1935 the Benny Goodman Orchestra had won a spot on the radio show "Let's
Dance" and started showcasing updated repertoire featuring Fletcher Henderson
arrangements. Goodman's slot was on after midnight in the East, and few people
heard it. It was on earlier on the West Coast and developed the audience that later led
to Goodman's Palomar Ballroom triumph. At the Palomar engagement starting on
August 21, 1935, audiences of young white dancers favored Goodman's rhythm and
daring arrangements. The sudden success of the Goodman orchestra transformed the
landscape of popular music in America. Goodman's success with "hot" swing
brought forth imitators and enthusiasts of the new style throughout the world of
[14] Benny Goodman, one of the first
dance bands, which launched the "swing era" that lasted until 1946.
swing bandleaders to achieve
widespread fame.
A typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm
section in support of more loosely-tied woodwind and brass sections playing call-
response to each other. The level of improvisation that the audience might expect varied with the arrangement, song, band, and band-
leader. Typically included in big band swing arrangements were an introductory chorus that stated the theme, choruses arranged for
soloists, and climactic out-choruses. Some arrangements were built entirely around a featured soloist or vocalist. Some bands used
string or vocal sections, or both. Swing-era repertoire included the Great American Songbook of Tin Pan Alley standards, band
originals, traditional jazz tunes such as the “King Porter Stomp”, with which the Goodman orchestra had a smash hit, andblues.

Hot swing music is strongly associated with the jitterbug dancing that became a national craze accompanying the swing craze. Swing
dancing originated in the late 1920s as the "Lindy Hop," and would later incorporate other styles including The Suzie Q, Truckin',
Peckin' Jive, The Big Apple, and The Shag in various combinations of moves. A subculture of jitterbuggers, sometimes growing
quite competitive, congregated around ballrooms that featured hot swing music. A dance floor full of jitterbuggers had cinematic
appeal; they were sometimes featured in newsreels and movies. Some of the top jitterbuggers gathered in professional dance troupes
such as Whitey's Lindy Hoppers (featured in A Day At the Races, Everybody Dance, and Hellzapoppin'). Swing dancing would
outlive the swing era, becoming associated withR&B and early Rock&Roll.
As with many new popular musical styles, swing met with some resistance because of its improvisation, tempo, occasionally risqué
lyrics, and frenetic dancing. Audiences used to traditional "sweet" arrangements, such as those offered by Guy Lombardo, Sammy
Kaye, Kay Kyser and Shep Fields, were taken aback by the rambunctiousness of swing music. Swing was sometimes regarded as
light entertainment, more of an industry to sell records to the masses than a form of art, among fans of both jazz and "serious" music.
Some jazz critics such as Hugues Panassié held the polyphonic improvisation of New Orleans jazz to be the pure form of jazz, with
swing a form corrupted by regimentation and commercialism. Panassié was also an advocate of the theory that jazz was a primal
expression of the black American experience and that white musicians, or black musicians who became interested in more
[15] In his 1941 autobiography, W. C. Handy wrote
sophisticated musical ideas, were generally incapable of expressing its core values.
that "prominent white orchestra leaders, concert singers and others are making commercial use of Negro music in its various phases.
That's why they introduced "swing" which is not a musical form" (no comment on Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, Duke Ellington,
or Count Basie).[16] The Dixieland revival started in the late 1930s as a self-conscious re-creation of New Orleans jazz in reaction
against the orchestrated style of big band swing. Some swing bandleaders saw opportunities in the Dixieland revival. Tommy
Dorsey's Clambake Sevenand Bob Crosby's Bobcatswere examples of Dixieland ensembles within big swing bands.

Between the poles of hot and sweet, middlebrow interpretations of swing led to great commercial success for bands such as those led
by Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller and Tommy Dorsey. Miller's trademark clarinet-led reed section was decidedly "sweet," but the Miller
catalog had no shortage of bouncy, medium-tempo dance tunes and some up-tempo tunes such as Mission to Moscow and the Lionel
Hampton composition “Flying Home”. "The Sentimental Gentleman of Swing" Tommy Dorsey made a nod to the hot side by hiring
jazz trumpeter and Goodman alumnus Bunny Berigan, then hiring Jimmie Lunceford's arranger Sy Oliver to spice up his catalog in
1939.

New York became a touchstone for national success of big bands, with nationally broadcast engagements at the Roseland and Savoy
ballrooms a sign that a swing band had arrived on the national scene. With its Savoy engagement in 1937, the Count Basie Orchestra
brought the riff-and-solo oriented Kansas City style of swing to national attention. The Basie orchestra collectively and individually
would influence later styles that would give rise to the smaller "jump" bands and bebop. The Chick Webb Orchestra remained closely
identified with the Savoy Ballroom, having originated the tune “Stompin' at the Savoy” and became feared in the Savoy's Battles of
the Bands. It humiliated Goodman's band,[11] and had memorable encounters with the Ellington and Basie bands. The Goodman
band's 1938 Carnegie Hall Concert turned into a summit of swing, with guests from the Basie and Ellington bands invited for a jam
session after the Goodman band's performance. Coleman Hawkins arrived back from an extended stay in Europe to New York in
1939, recorded his famous version of “Body and Soul”, and fronted his own big band. 1940 saw top-flight musicians such as Charlie
Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Don Byas, Charlie Christian, and Gene Ramey, whose careers in swing had brought them to New York,
beginning to coalesce and develop the ideas that would becomebebop.

1940s: Decline
The early 1940s saw emerging trends in popular music and jazz that would, once they had run their course, result in the end of the
swing era. Vocalists were becoming the star attractions of the big bands. Vocalist Ella Fitzgerald, after joining the Chick Webb
Orchestra in 1936, propelled the band to great popularity and the band continued under her name after Webb's death in 1939. In 1940
vocalist Vaughn Monroe was leading his own big band and Frank Sinatra was becoming the star attraction of the Tommy Dorsey
Orchestra, inciting mass hysteria among bobby-soxers. Vocalist Peggy Lee joined the Goodman Orchestra in 1941 for a two-year
stint, quickly becoming its star attraction on its biggest hits. Some big bands were moving away from the swing styles that dominated
the late 1930s, for both commercial and creative reasons. Some of the more commercial big bands catered to more "sweet"
sensibilities with string sections. Some bandleaders such as John Kirby, Raymond Scott, and Claude Thornhill were fusing swing
with classical repertoire. Lower manpower requirements and simplicity favored the rise of small band swing. The Savoy Sultans and
other smaller bands led by Louis Jordan, Lucky Millinder, Louis Prima, and Tony Pastor were showcasing an exuberant "jump
swing" style that would lead to the postwar rise of R&B. In a 1939 Downbeat interview, Duke Ellington expressed dissatisfaction
with the creative state of swing music;[17] within a few years he and other bandleaders would be delving into more ambitious, and
less danceable, forms of orchestral jazz and the creative forefront for soloists would be moving into smaller ensembles and bebop.
The Earl Hines Orchestra in 1943 featured a collection of young, forward-looking musicians who were at the core of the bebop
movement and would in the following year be in the Billy Eckstine Orchestra, the first big band to showcase bebop. As the swing era
went into decline, it secured legacies in vocalist-centered popular music, "progressive" big band jazz, R&B, and bebop.

The trend away from big band swing was accelerated by wartime conditions and royalty conflicts.[18] In 1941 the American Society
of Composers and Producers (ASCAP) demanded bigger royalties from broadcasters and the broadcasters refused. Consequently,
ASCAP banned the large repertoire they controlled from airplay, severely restricting what the radio audience could hear. ASCAP also
demanded pre-approval of set lists and even written solos for live broadcasts, to assure that not even a quoted fragment of ASCAP
repertoire was broadcast. Those restrictions made broadcast swing much less appealing for the year in which the ban was in place.
Big band swing remained popular during the war years, but the resources required to support it became problematic. Wartime
restriction on travel, coupled with rising expenses, curtailed road touring. The manpower requirements for big swing bands placed a
burden on the scarce resources available for touring and were impacted by the military draft. In July 1942 the
American Federation of
Musicians called a ban on recording until record labels agreed to pay royalties to musicians. That stopped recording of instrumental
music for major labels for over a year, with the last labels agreeing to new contract terms in November 1944. In the meantime,
vocalists continued to record backed by vocal groups and the recording industry released earlier swing recordings from their vaults,
increasingly reflecting the popularity of big band vocalists. In 1943 Columbia Records re-released the 1939 recording of “All or
Nothing at All” by the Harry James Orchestra with Frank Sinatra, giving Sinatra top billing ("Acc. Harry James and his Orchestra").
The recording found the commercial success that had eluded its original release. Small band swing was recorded for small specialty
labels not affected by the ban. These labels had limited distribution centered in large urban markets, which tended to limit the size of
the ensembles with which recording could be a money-making proposition.
Another blow fell on the market for dance-oriented swing
in 1944 when the federal government levied a 30% excise tax on "dancing" nightclubs, undercutting the market for dance music in
smaller venues.[19]

The war's end saw the elements that had been unified under big band swing scattered into separate styles and markets. Some
"progressive" big bands such as those led by Stan Kenton and Boyd Raeburn stayed oriented towards jazz, but not jazz for dancing.
Much of the top instrumental talent of the period were performing in small band formats ranging from R&B to bebop. The hard core
dancing niche formerly occupied by hot big band swing was occupied by small "jump" bands and R&B. Popular music was centered
on vocalists, and a full-time big band to back up a vocalist was increasingly seen as an unnecessary expense. By 1947 the economics
of popular music led to the disbanding of many established big bands. Big band music would experience a resurgence during the
1950s, but the connection between the later big band music and the swing era was tenuous.

1950s–1960s

Swingin' pop
After some rough years in the late 1940s, including another recording ban by the musicians'
union, big band music saw a revival in the 1950s and 1960s. One impetus was the demand for
studio and stage orchestras as backups for popular vocalists, and in radio and television
broadcasts. The bands in these contexts performed in relative anonymity, receiving secondary
credit beneath the top billing. Some, such as the Nelson Riddle and Gordon Jenkins
Orchestras, became well known in their own right. Ability to adapt performing styles to
various situations was an essential skill among these bands-for-hire, with a somewhat sedated
version of swing in common use for backing up vocalists. The resurgent commercial success
of Frank Sinatra with a mildly swinging backup during the mid-1950s solidified the trend. It
became a sound associated with pop vocalists such as Bobby Darin, Dean Martin, Judy
Garland, and Nat King Cole, as well as jazz-oriented vocalists like Ella Fitzgerald and Keely
Smith. Many of these singers were also involved in the "less swinging" vocal pop music of Frank Sinatra
this period. Swingin' pop remained popular into the mid-1960s, becoming one current of the
"easy listening" genre including Johnny Mathis, Andy Williams, Burt Bacharach, Dionne
Warwick, Ray Conniff, and Henry Mancini.
Big band jazz
Big band jazz made a comeback as well.The Stan Kenton and Woody Herman bands maintained their popularity during lean years of
the late 1940s and beyond, making their mark with innovative arrangements and high-level jazz soloists (Shorty Rogers, Art Pepper,
Kai Winding, Stan Getz, Al Cohn, Zoot Sims, Serge Chaloff, Gene Ammons, Sal Nistico). Lionel Hampton was a leader in the R&B
genre during the late 1940s then re-entered big band jazz in the early 1950s, remaining a popular attraction through the 1960s. Count
Basie and Duke Ellington had both downsized their big bands during the first half of the 1950s, then reconstituted them by 1956.
Ellington's venture back into big band jazz was encouraged by its reception at the 1956 Newport Jazz Festival. The Basie and
Ellington bands flourished creatively and commercially through the 1960s and beyond, with both veteran leaders receiving high
acclaim for their contemporary work and performing until they were physically unable. Drummer Buddy Rich, after briefly leading
one big band during the late 1940s and performing in various jazz and big band gigs, formed his definitive big band in 1966. His
name became synonymous with the dynamic, exuberant style of his big band. Other big jazz bands that drove the 1950s–60s revival
include those led by Thad Jones, Mel Lewis, Quincy Jones, and Oliver Nelson. Big band jazz remains a major component of college
jazz instruction curricula.

Cross-genre swing
In country music Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican, and Bob Wills combined elements of swing and blues to create a western swing.
Mullican left the Cliff Bruner band to pursue solo career that included many songs that maintained a swing structure. Artists like
Willie Nelson and Asleep at the Wheel have continued the swing elements of country music. Asleep at the Wheel has also recorded
the Count Basie tunes “One O'Clock Jump”, “Jumpin' at the Woodside”, and “Song of the Wanderer” using a steel guitar as a stand-in
for a horn section. Nat King Cole followed Sinatra into pop music, bringing with him a similar combination of swing and ballads.
Like Mullican, he was important in bringing piano to the fore of popular music.

Gypsy swing is an outgrowth of the jazz violin swing of Joe Venuti and Eddie Lang. In Europe it was heard in the music of guitarist
Django Reinhardt and violinist Stéphane Grappelli. Their repertoire overlaps 1930s swing, including French popular music, gypsy
songs, and compositions by Reinhardt, but gypsy swing bands are formulated differently. There is no brass or percussion; guitars and
bass form the backbone, with violin, accordion, clarinet or guitar taking the lead. Gypsy swing groups generally have no more than
five players. Although they originated in different continents, similarities have often been noted between gypsy swing and western
swing, leading to various fusions.

Rock music hitmakers like Fats Domino, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chuck Berry, Gene Vincent and Elvis Presley included swing-era
standards in their repertoire. Presley and Domino made the crooning ballads “Are You Lonesome Tonight” and “My Blue Heaven”
into a rock and roll-era hits. The doo-wop vocal group The Marcels had a big hit with their lively version of the swing-era ballad
“Blue Moon”.

1960s–2000: Big Band nostalgia and swing revival


Though swing music was no longer mainstream, fans could attend "Big Band Nostalgia" tours from the 1970s into the 1980s. The
tours featured bandleaders and vocalists of the swing era who were semi-retired, such as Harry James and vocalist Dick Haymes.
Historically-themed radio broadcasts featuring period comedy, melodrama, and music also played a role in sustaining interest in the
music of the swing era.

Dan Hicks and His Hot Licks, and later David Grisman, presented adaptations of Gypsy Swing, rekindling interest in the musical
form. Other swing revivals occurred during the 1970s. The jazz, R&B, and swing revival vocal group Manhattan Transfer and Bette
Midler included swing era hits on albums during the early 1970s. In Seattle the New Deal Rhythm Band and the Horns O Plenty
Orchestra revived 1930s swing with a dose of comedy behind vocalists Phil "De Basket" Shallat,
Cheryl "Benzene" Bentyne, and six-
foot-tall "Little Janie" Lambert. Bentyne would leave the New Deal Rhythm Band in 1978 for her long career with Manhattan
Transfer. Founding leader of the New Deal Rhythm BandJohn Holte led swing revival bands in the Seattle area until 2003.
A Swing Revival occurred during the 1990s and 2000s led by Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, The Cherry Poppin' Daddies, Squirrel Nut
Zippers, Lavay Smith, and Brian Setzer. Many of the bands played neo-swing which combined swing with rockabilly, ska, and rock.
The music brought a revival in swing dancing.

In 2001 Robbie Williams's album Swing When You're Winning consisted mainly of popular swing covers. The album sold more than 7
million copies worldwide. In November 2013, Robbie W
illiams released Swings Both Ways.

1990s to present: swing house, electro swing and swing pop


Another modern development consists of fusing swing (original, or remixes of classics) with hip hop and house techniques. "Swing
house" was particularly popular during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Influences incorporated into it include Louis Jordan and Louis
Prima. Electro swing is mainly popular in Europe, and electro swing artists incorporate influences such as tango and Django
Reinhardt's gypsy swing. Leading artists include Caravan Palace and Parov Stelar. Both genres are connected with a revival of swing
dances, such as the Lindy hop.

Notable musicians
Band leaders: Count Basie, Charlie Barnet, Les Brown, Cab Calloway, Benny Carter, Jimmy Dorsey, Tommy
Dorsey, Duke Ellington, Shep Fields, Benny Goodman, Glen Gray, Erskine Hawkins, Fletcher Henderson, Woody
Herman, Tiny Hill, Earl Hines, Harry James, Louis Jordan, Hal Kemp, Gene Krupa, Kay Kyser, Jimmie Lunceford,
Glenn Miller, Red Norvo, Gloria Parker, Louis Prima, Buddy Rich, Fred Rich, Artie Shaw, Charlie Spivak, Chick
Webb
Arrangers: Van Alexander, Ralph Burns, Toots Camarata, Benny Carter, Buck Clayton, Ray Conniff, Eddie Durham,
Duke Ellington, Bill Finegan, Jerry Gray, Bob Haggart, Buster Harding, Lennie Hayton, Neal Hefti, Fletcher
Henderson, Horace Henderson, Gordon Jenkins, Thad Jones, Michel Legrand, Billy May, Jimmy Mundy, Sy Oliver,
Nat Pierce, Johnny Richards, Edgar Sampson, Eddie Sauter, Billy Strayhorn, Ernie Wilkins, Mary Lou Williams
Clarinet: Buster Bailey, Barney Bigard, Kenny Davern, Buddy DeFranco, Benny Goodman, Edmond Hall, Jimmy
Hamilton, Woody Herman, Peanuts Hucko, Ken Peplowski, Russell Procope, Artie Shaw, Bob Wilber
Saxophone: Harry Allen (tenor), Georgie Auld (tenor), Charlie Barnet (tenor, alto and soprano), Tex Beneke (tenor),
Chu Berry (tenor), Sam Butera (tenor), Ernie Caceres (baritone), Benny Carter (alto and trumpet), Arnett Cobb
(tenor), Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis (tenor), Herschel Evans (tenor), Jimmy Dorsey (alto and clarinet), Frank Foster
(tenor), Bud Freeman (tenor), Paul Gonsalves (tenor), Glen Gray (alto), Scott Hamilton (tenor), Otto Hardwick (alto),
Coleman Hawkins (tenor), Johnny Hodges (alto and soprano), Illinois Jacquet (tenor), Louis Jordan (alto and tenor),
Al Klink (tenor), Eddie Miller (tenor), Vido Musso (tenor and clarinet), Charlie Parker (alto; also a bebop pioneer),
Tony Pastor (tenor), Flip Phillips (tenor), Russell Procope (alto and clarinet), Zoot Sims (tenor and soprano), Willie
Smith (alto), Buddy Tate (tenor), Lucky Thompson (tenor), Earle Warren (alto), Ben Webster (tenor), Frank Wess
(alto, tenor and flute), Lester Young (tenor)
Trumpet: Cat Anderson, Louis Armstrong (cornet on early recordings),Bunny Berigan, Ruby Braff (and cornet), Billy
Butterfield, Doc Cheatham, Buck Clayton, Bill Coleman, Harry Edison, Roy Eldridge, Ziggy Elman, Bobby Hackett
(and cornet), Harry James, Jonah Jones, Hot Lips Page, Louis Prima, Ray Nance (and violin), Charlie Shavers,
Charlie Spivak, Rex Stewart (cornet), Clark Terry (and fluegelhorn), Doc Severinsen, Warren Vaché, Cootie Williams,
Dizzy Gillespie (also a bebop pioneer)
Trombone: Dan Barrett, Will Bradley, Lawrence Brown, Cutty Cutshall, Vic Dickenson, Tommy Dorsey, Eddie
Durham, J. C. Higginbotham, Jack Jenney, Glenn Miller, Fred Rich, Jack Teagarden, Juan Tizol, Dicky Wells,
Trummy Young
Piano: Count Basie (and organ), Milt Buckner (and organ), John Bunch, Joe Bushkin, Nat King Cole, Duke Ellington,
Slim Gaillard, Johnny Guarnieri, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, Dick Hyman, Hank Jones, Nat Jaffe, Billy Kile,
Dave McKenna, Marian McPartland, Jay McShann, Jelly Roll Morton, Jack Perciful, Oscar Peterson, Nat Pierce, Mel
Powell, Sammy Price, Jess Stacy, Joe Sullivan, Ralph Sutton, Art Tatum, Johnny Varro, Fats Waller (and organ),
Dick Wellstood, Teddy Wilson, Mary Lou Williams, Bob Zurke
Guitar: Howard Alden, Oscar Aleman, Irving Ashby, George Barnes, Al Casey, James Chirillo, Charlie Christian,
Eddie Condon, Dick McDonough, Eddie Durham, Chris Flory, Herb Ellis, Slim Gaillard, Freddie Green, Marty Grosz,
Barney Kessel, Carl Kress, Biréli Lagrène, Nappy Lamare, Eddie Lang, Carmen Mastren, Oscar Moore, Django
Reinhardt, Allan Reuss, Duke Robillard, Bucky Pizzarelli, John Pizzarelli, Brian Setzer, Frank Vignola
Bass: Artie Bernstein, Jimmy Blanton, Bob Haggart, Milt Hinton, John Kirby, Walter Page, Slam Stewart
Drums: Sid Catlett, Sonny Greer, Jo Jones, Gene Krupa, Jackie Mills, Buddy Rich, Chick Webb
Vibraphone: Lionel Hampton, Red Norvo
Marimba: Gloria Parker
Violin: Svend Asmussen, Stephane Grapelli, Ray Nance, Eddie South, Joe Venuti, Helmut Zacharias
Accordion: Art Van Damme, John Serry Sr.
Vocal: Martha Tilton, Bea Wain, Bob Eberly, Ray Eberle, Dean Martin, Dick Haymes, Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis,
Jr., Tony Bennett, Tex Beneke, Helen Ward, Helen Forrest, Helen O'Connell, Marion Hutton, Kitty Kallen, The
Andrews Sisters, Michael Bublé, Seth MacFarlane, Robbie Williams, Billie Holiday

See also
Big band
Gypsy jazz
List of music styles
Swing (dance)
Swing (jazz performance style)

Notes
1. "Fletcher Henderson" (http://musicians.allaboutjazz.com/musician.php?id=7571#.ULZrjofhpMt)
.
Musicians.allaboutjazz.com. Retrieved 2017-05-21.
2. Harker, Brian C., 1997, Early Musical Development of Louis Armstrong, 1921–1928, unpublished PhD Dissertation,
Columbia University, 390 p. plus Appendix
3. Cook, Richard (2005), Jazz Encyclopedia, London: Penguin,ISBN 978-0-14-102646-6.
4. Kirchner, Bill, ed. (2000), The Oxford Companion to Jazz, New York: Oxford University Press,ISBN 978-0-19-
518359-7.
5. Russell, Ross, Jazz Style in Kansas City and the Southwest, Berkeley
, CA, University of California Press, 1972, 291
p.
6. Daniels, Douglas Henry (January 2006).One O'clock Jump: The Unforgettable History of the Oklahoma City Blue
Devils (https://books.google.com/books?id=p3tmQ4w1uR8C&pg=P A144). Beacon Press. p. 144.ISBN 978-0-8070-
7136-6.
7. Popa, Christopher (November 2007)."Big Band Library: Paul Whiteman"(http://www.bigbandlibrary.com/paulwhitem
an.html). www.bigbandlibrary.com.
8. Berrett, Joshua (1 October 2008)."Louis Armstrong and Paul Whiteman: Two Kings of Jazz" (https://books.google.c
om.au/books?id=sXdsTTQqUjkC&pg=P A63&lpg=PA63&dq=Paul+Whiteman+first+big+band&source=bl&ots=zImlO2
iXQE&sig=m9d45H5OTt-Gx0Yg7UVL01wjyVU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiJ7q6Y pqfKAhVFjpQKHa8PCI8Q6AEI
OjAF#v=onepage&q=Paul%20Whiteman%20first%20big%20band&f=false) . Google. Yale University Press.
9. Goldkette on The Red Hot Jazz Archive(http://www.redhotjazz.com/goldkette.html)Retrieved 22-05-2017.
10. Nye, Russell B., 1976,Music in the Twenties: The Jean Goldkette Orchestra, Prospects, An Annual of American
Cultural Studies 1:179–203, October 1976, DOI: 10.1017/S0361233300004361
11. "Chick Webb" (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/chick-webb-mn0000110604/biography). Retrieved 2017-05-27.
12. Lawn, Richard (2013).Experiencing Jazz (https://books.google.com/books?id=NMQNdJRSDksC&pg=P
A161).
Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-415-69960-0.
13. Driggs, Frank; Director, Marr Sound Archives University of Missouri-Kansas City Chuck Haddix (1 May 2005).
Kansas City Jazz: From Ragtime to Bebop(https://books.google.com/books?id=8ZbAyDygTLAC&pg=PA119).
Oxford University Press. p. 119.ISBN 978-0-19-536435-4.
14. Parker, Jeff. "Jazz History Part II" (http://www.swingmusic.net/getset.html). www.swingmusic.net.
15. Blowin' Hot and Cool: Jazz and Its Critics,(https://books.google.com/books?id=dcxlWTZPK-AC&pg=P
A58) by John
Remo Gennari, PhD (born 1960),University of Chicago Press(2006), pg. 58; OCLC 701053921 (https://www.worldc
at.org/oclc/701053921)
16. Handy, William Christopher (1941).Father of the Blues. MacMillan. p. 292.
17. "It's not very difficult to understand the evolution of jazz into Swing. Ten years ago this type of music was flourishing,
albeit amidst adverse conditions and surrounded by hearty indif ference....It is the repetition and monotony of
present-day Swing arrangements which bode ill for the future."Downbeat, February 1939, pp. 2–16
18. "The 1942 Recording Ban and the ASCAP/BMI W
ar" (http://www.swingmusic.net/Big_Band_Era_Recording_Ban_Of
_1942.html). Retrieved June 15, 2017.
19. Stomping the Blues. By Albert Murray. Da Capo Press. 2000. pages 109, 110. ISBN 0-252-02211-4, ISBN 0-252-
06508-5

Further reading
Erenberg, Lewis A. Swingin' the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture (1998)
Gitler, Ira. Swing to Bop: An Oral History of the Transition in Jazz in the 1940s (1987)
Hennessey, Thomas J. From Jazz to Swing: African-Americans and Their Music, 1890–1935(1994).
Schuller, Gunther. The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 1930–1945(1991)
Spring, Howard. "Swing and the Lindy Hop: Dance, V enue, Media, and Tradition". American Music, Vol. 15, No. 2
(Summer, 1997), pp. 183–207.
Stowe, David. Swing Changes: Big-Band Jazz in New Deal America(1996)
Tucker, Sherrie. Swing Shift: 'All-Girl' Bands of the 1940s(2000)

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