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SCIENCE IN OHIO MIDTERM REVIEW

Introduction
- What is Geology
- Why study Geology
- Scientific Method
- Scientific Theory vs. Law

Chapter 1: Forming the Universe/Layers of the Earth


- Big Bang
- Age of the Earth
- Composition Layers
o Crust (Ocean & Continent)
o Mantle
o Core
- Mechanical Layers
o Lithosphere
o Asthenosphere
o Mesosphere
o Outer Core
o Inner Core

Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics


- Theory of Gradualism
- Continental Drift
o Evidence/Mechanisms
- Sea-floor Spreading
o Evidence/Mechanisms
- Subduction
- Plate tectonics theory
o Evidence
- Plate driving mechanism
- Convection
- Plate Boundaries
o Convergent
 Ocean-ocean
 Ocean-continent
 Continent-continent
o Divergent
o Transform

Chapter 8: Earthquakes
- Stress & Strain
- Types of stress
- Faults
- Describing Earthquakes
o Location (Focus & Epicenter)
o Waves
 Body (P & S Waves)
 Surface (Love & Rayleigh Waves)
- Measuring Earthquakes
o Seismometer & Seismograph
- Locating Earthquakes (3 stations)
o Focus Depth
- Size of Earthquake
o Mercalli Index vs. Richter Scale
- Earthquake Prediction
o Seismic gaps
- Earthquake distribution
- Effects of Earthquakes
- Tsunamis

Chapter 3: Minerals
- What is a mineral
o 5 keys that define a mineral
- Mineral formation
- 7 properties to test minerals
- Special Properties of minerals
- Gemstones

Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks


- Formation of Igneous rocks
- Magma vs. Lava
- 2 Origins of igneous rocks (intrusive vs. extrusive)
- 6 textures of igneous rocks (Phaneritic, aphanitic, porphyritic, pyroclastic, glassy, vesicular)
- Compositions (felsic, mafic, andesitic)
- Using chart to name igneous rocks

Chapter 5: Sedimentary Rocks


- Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
- Weathering vs. Erosion
- Physical vs. Chemical Weathering
- Effects of Transport (rounding, sorting)
- Sedimentary Features (cross bedding, graded bedding, ripple marks, fossils)
- Types of Sedimentary Rocks (clastic, chemical, biochemical)
- Names of Clastic Rocks
- Uses of sedimentary rocks