This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Human hookworms are found in tropical and subtropical regions between 30° north and south of the equator. Ancylostoma duodenale is found in the Mediterranean region, Southeast Asia, and scattered in the Southern Americas.
Along with its range of definitive hosts, Ancylostoma duodenale also has a range of paratenic hosts of canids and felids, where it may remain for intervals of time until it reaches the definitive host. In the paratenic host it may survive in the muscles where it is then transferred to humans via undercooked meat, including rabbit, lamb, beef, and pork. The eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale are still within the muscle and are ingested with the meat, allowing for the adults to develop within the intestinal tract. Juveniles of the species reside in the warmer regions of the world where the soil is preferably humus and loose with reasonable water drainage and good aeration. Oxygen is necessary for the development of the eggs, whose metabolism is aerobic. Hookworm eggs derive their nutrition from the host feces via absorption. Therefore they must live in areas with soils of neutral pHs and in shady areas, such as coffee, banana, and sugar plantations where the feces will remain intact long enough for them to develop into juveniles. They are extremely sensitive to sunlight, which can ultimately kill the juveniles. Juveniles are also sensitive to high salt concentrations and acidic pHs of soils. After penetrating the skin, juveniles attach to blood vessels and begin to feed until reaching the adult stage. Adult females remain attached and the males detach to find their mates. Continual reinfection is promoted by repeated defecation by infected individuals in the same locals where they were originally infected. This may even lead to epidemics of Ancylostoma
000-30.51 in) Ancylostoma duodenale is an S-shaped worm because of its flexure at the frontal end. but the male leaves at one point to search for a female to mate with. one along each side of the buccal capsule.31 to 0. Filiform juveniles infect by directly penetrating the skin of the host. 1980.W. the Ancylostoma duodenale eggs are passed into the feces of the host. First. The average female life span is about one year.. 2000) Physical Description Length 8 to 13 mm (0. Adult male hookworms range in size from 8-11 mm long. However. The larvae are rod-shaped and are about 0. usually a human. Roberts and Janovy Jr. and produce eggs that are sent off in the feces of the host to begin the process once more. and Ostfeld. A possible alternate root of infection may occur if juveniles are swallowed and develop normally without moving into the lungs. . Humans may be infected via the oral cavity by ingestion of undercooked meat. the juveniles then migrate through the circulatory system until they reach the lungs. Hookworm eggs have a thin shell and the larvae possess amphids. The first stage rhabditiform juvenile then hatches once the egg is outside of the host. 1999.. the embryo passes via and develops within the feces. during which it may lay from 10. which allow them to locate their host. It takes about 5-6 weeks for the hookworm to reach the small intestine from the lungs.. The worm is pinkish-white. this is a very rare occurrence.duodenale infections in arid regions of the world. (Beigal. Both male and female hookworms have two powerful ventral teeth in the adult forms of the parasite. Roberts and Janovy Jr. the juveniles leave the circulatory system by finding their way into the alveoli and then migrating to the small intestine via the trachea. which are distally fused. Sixth. large paired sensilla on each side of the mouth.000 eggs a day during its adult life. Second. which are as follows. the adult worms develop in the small intestine where they mate. Finally. with the males having bursa characteristics and needle-like spicules with small tips.004 cm long. Development The hookworm life cycle is composed of seven steps. Fifth. 2000) Reproduction Both males and females attach to the intestinal walls during their life span. This species is dimorphic. whereas adult females range in size from 10-13 mm long. Next. Females have a vulva located approximately one-third of the body length from the posterior end. 2000. Adults form about 6 weeks after the initial infection. Greenburg. D. smaller pairs of teeth are located deeper in the capsule. once they have reached the lungs. (Chilton and Gasser. This stage is characterized by an arrest in development until a new host is reached. the filariform or infective juvenile develops after two molts.
. 2000) Behavior The juvenile stages of the parasite move around in the outside environment prior to locating the host. cannot cross-infect to humans. Males use spicules to hold the female during copulation. whereas its close relative. The larvae of the infective stage are usually stationary. guides spicules which extend through the cloaca and anus. They use environmental signals to flag their host and prepare for ingestion during their third larval stage. Chilton and Gasser. Humans are the definitive hosts of Ancylostoma duodenale. thermosensory and chemosensory. and Ostfeld. D. For example. 1980. Roberts and Janovy Jr. 1999. 2000. The male coils around a female with his curved area over the female genital pore.W. 1980. Greenburg. They then penetrate the host's skin by the secretion of digestive enzymes that dissolve the skin. Communication and Perception The larvae of the infective stage are usually stationary. Hookworm eggs gain nutrition via the host feces.W.Females may produce a phermomone to attract males.. Beigal. which they also use to break open small blood vessels so that they can suck the blood from them.. until they sense vibrations in the soil as heat or carbon dioxide. juveniles attach to blood vessels and begin to feed. They use environmental signals to flag their host and prepare for ingestion during their third larval stage. (Brinksworth et al. 2000. They do so by using neurons with dendritic processes that resemble cilia. D. Food Habits The definitive host is where the parasite reaches sexual maturity. 1987. which are mechanosensory. The gubernaculum. Ancylostoma duodenale possess anticoagulant substances that are secreted to prevent blood clotting to the blood flowing from the wound. Roberts and Janovy Jr. The larval stage is free-living where there is independent existence in the soil.. thermosensory and chemosensory. Young and adult worms feed on blood from the walls of the host's intestine by attaching to the intestinal lining via their sharp buccal cavity teeth. Nematode sperm are amoeboid-like and lack flagella. made of cuticle tissue. Adult human hookworms move by flowing within the bloodstream from one local to another and then attach to the intestinal walls where they feed. Ancylostoma duodenale posses the ability to cross-infect from humans to canines. until they sense vibrations in the soil as heat or carbon dioxide.. thus increasing blood loss through the wounds that are left behind in the intestinal linings. which are mechanosensory. After penetrating the skin. Recent research shows that other definitive hosts may exist because of the ability to cross-infect different hosts. Ancylostoma caninum. (Barnes. They do so by using neurons with dendritic processes that resemble cilia. The adult worms can move from one place to another along the intestine once inside of the host. 2000) .
especially in regions with humid climates. where it may remain for intervals of time until it reaches the definitive host. They are dioecious. Economic Importance for Humans: Negative Infected individuals are susceptible to malnutrition. and anemia due to heavy blood loss and irondeficiency among other side-effects. It lives in the small intestine of host such as humans. 90% asymptomatic can lead to iron deficiency anemia. . Infants were recently recognized in the field of public health as being vulnerable. Larval mortality is high as most of the parasites do not reach appropriate hosts. Albendazole. Other effects include stunted growth and below-average intelligence in developing children. protein and iron drain from the diet. Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus are the two human hookworms that are normally discussed together as the cause of hookworm infection. cats and dogs. Treatment is fairly simple with Mebendazole. Hookworm disease is more prevalent in females than males. heavy infestations may lead to fatalities because of infection of other worms or malaria as well as excess blood loss and other types of complications. It is a parasitic nematode worm and commonly known as Old World hookworm. The use of dietary supplementation is important to compensate for the loss in nutrients Ancylostoma duodenale Ancylostoma duodenale is a species of the worm genus Ancylostoma. lowered antibody response to infectious agents. but are ingested from host to host. Tourists visiting areas where local sanitation is a problem should be careful of infestation.Predation These parasites are probably not preyed on directly. and Levamisole. Ecosystem Roles Ancylostoma duodenale mainly infects humans but paratenic hosts include canids and felids. In some cases.
Males are 8 mm to 11 mm long with a copulatory bursa at the posterior end. Life Cycle When a filariform larva (infective stage) penetrates the intact skin. Each of them has two large teeth that are fused at their bases. some areas in the United States. while iron deficiency anemia might have mental dullness and heart failure. coughed up and swallowed back to the small intestine. Females are 10 mm to 13 mm long with the vulva located at the posterior end and can lay 10. The filariform larvae can then penetrate another exposed skin and begin a new cycle of human infection. loss of appetite and geophagy. Embryonated egg on soil will hatch into juvenile 1 stage (rhabddtiform or noninfective stage) and mature into filariform larvae. Their life span is one year. a member of the Ancylostomidae. small areas of United States. Transmission of Ancylostoma duodenale is by contact of skin with soil contaminated with larvae. and South America. China. Morphology Ancylostoma duodenale has two ventral plates at the anterior margin of the buccal capsule. hookworms have the ability to mate and mature in the small intestine of their host. The larva later matures into adult in the small intestine and female worms can lay 25. This hookworm is well known in mines because of the consistency in temperature and humidity that provide an ideal habitat for egg and juvenile development. the larva enters the blood circulation. Laboratory Diagnosis . A pair of small teeth can be found in the depths of the buccal capsule.000 eggs per day. north Africa. It is prevalent in southern Europe. It also has needlelike spicules which are not fused and have simple tips. is also commonly referred to as a "hookworm". edema and potbelly. India. Epidemiology Ancylostoma duodenale is the first hookworm which a life cycle was illuminated.Ancylostoma duodenale .000 eggs per day. As such. Then it is carried to the lungs.000 to 30. northern Africa. Southeast Asia. It is estimated 1 billion people are infected with hookworms. India. Caribbean Islands. Heavy infection causes severe protein deficiency or iron deficiency anemia. Ancylostoma duodenale is abundant throughout the world. The eggs are released into the feces and resided on soil. China. and South America. Symptoms Light infection causes abdominal pain. Protein deficiency might have dry skin. Caribbean. and Southeast Asia. including the following countries: southern Europe.
Wearing shoes in endemic areas can reduce the prevalence of infection as well. In severe cases of anemia. Prevention and Control Education.The eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus cannot be distinguished. Treatment Ancylostoma duodenale can be treated with albendazole. blood transfusion might be necessary . improved sanitation and controlled disposal of human feces are important. mebendazole and benzimidazoles. Larvae cannot be found in the stool specimens unless it is left at ambient temperature for a day or more. Pyrantel pamoate is an alternative.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.