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Date: Tuesday 18 /11/2014 Time: 10:00am-12:30pm
Instructions: Attempt all questions. Questions carry marks as indicated
Question 1 (10 marks)
a). (i). State the major functions of roads (2 marks)
 Mobility- to aid movement of people and goods (1 mark)
 Accessibility- to gain entry/exit to an area, connecting land use to transportation
(1 mark)

(ii). What is involved in Preliminary road surveys? (4 marks)

These are conducted along recommended routes from reconnaissance survey may
include the following:
1. Chaining and Leveling along the routes
2. Workout earth quantities and possible construction materials
3. Compare routes with respect to cost of construction and maintenance
In addition to leveling, hydrological data is collected, and Soil types. Information on
each route gathered include:
4. Route Length,
5. Maximum and minimum grades,
6. Soil formations,
7. Quantity of earthworks,
8. Available construction materials
9. Natural barriers.

b). Differentiate between average daily traffic volume (ADT) and average weekday
traffic (AWT). (4 marks)
 Average daily traffic (ADT) is the average 24-hour volume at a given location over a
defined period usually less than a year.
 Whilst the average weekday traffic (AWT) is the average 24-hour weekday volume at
a given location over a defined period less than one year, this excludes/does not
include traffic on weekends

Question 2 (14 marks)

a). (i). Define the following terms: (4 marks)
 Volume- is the number of vehicles/persons passing a point on a highway, lane or
direction during specified time interval. Units: vehicles per time (vehicles per hour
or vehicles per day). (1 mark)
 Flow rate- is the rate at which vehicles/persons pass a point in a time period less
than an hour, expressed in equivalent hourly rate. (1 mark)
 Demand- is the number of vehicles/persons that desire to travel past a point in a
specified period. (1 mark)

 Capacity- is the maximum rate at which vehicles can traverse a point or segment
during a specified time period. (1 mark)

(ii). A traffic stream displays an average headway of 2.2 seconds at 80km/hr. Calculate
the density and rate of flow for this traffic stream. (4 marks)
From q=uk (0.5 mark), where: q= flow in veh/hr, u= speed in km/hr,
k= density (veh/km)
Also, q=3600/h (veh/hr) (1 mark)
→Flow rate, q = 3600/2.2= 1636.4 veh/hr (1 mark)
Thus, density, k = q/u = 1636.4(veh/hr)/80 (km/hr) (0.5 mark) = 20.5
Density, k ≈21 vehs/km (1 mark)

b). The following traffic counts were taken on an intersection approach during the
morning peak hour. Determine the following: (6 marks)
 Hourly volume
 Peak rate of flow within the hour
 Peak hour factor
Table 1. Traffic counts
Time period Volume Rate of flow for time
interval (veh/hr)
8:00-8:15 AM 150 =150/0.25= 600 (0.5 mark)
8:15-8:30 AM 155 =155/0.25= 620 (0.5 mark)
8:30-8:45 AM 165 =165/0.25= 660 (0.5 mark)
8:45-9:00 AM 160 =160/0.25= 640 (0.5 mark)
Total 630
 Hourly volume:
Summation of all the volumes from 8:00 up to 9:00AM = 630 veh/hr (1 mark)
 Peak rate of flow within the hour:
This is the maximum rate of flow =660 veh/hr (see Table) & occurs during 8:30
up to 8:45 AM time period. (1 mark)
 Peak hour factor:
Hourly volume 630
PHF  (1 mark)   0.955  0.96 (1 mark)
Maximum flow rate 660

Question 3 (16 marks)

a) (i). Define the term spot speed (2.5 marks)
 Spot speed- average speeds of all vehicles passing a point on a highway or lane
over a defined period of time.

(ii). State the different applications of time mean speed? (6 marks)

 In establishing effectiveness of new or existing speed limits or enforcement
practices. For example, determining if police crackdown on speeding is effective.
 In determining appropriate speed limits for application.
 In establishing speed trends over a road network
 For specific design applications such as sight distances and performance of grades
 In specific control applications, yellow and all-red intervals at signalized

 In investigation of high accident locations if speeding is deemed the causal factor.

b) (i). Define the term travel time (2.5 marks)

 Travel time- is the time taken to traverse a given section of roadway.

(ii). State the different scenarios where data from travel time studies may be applicable
(5 marks)
 In identifying problem locations on facilities by virtue of high travel times.
 To measure arterial level of service based on average travel speed and travel times
 In traffic assignment models as an input parameter.
 In economic evaluation of transportation improvements
 To develop depictions of traffic congestion.

Question 4 (20 marks)

a) (i). Define the following terms used in signalised junctions (6 marks)
 Cycle- one complete rotation through all signal indications i.e. Green,
yellow/amber, all red, red. (2 marks)
 Cycle time- total time for signal to complete one sequence of signal
indications or time taken to complete one full cycle of signal indications= sum
of green, amber, & red times (30-120s). (2 marks)
 Interval- a period of time during which no signal indications changes. Smallest
unit of time within a signal cycle (2 marks)

(ii). What are the different types of signalised junctions? (4 marks)

 1). Fixed time signals- Green, amber and red time periods are of fixed
duration, Pre-timed operation conditions. Repeated in equal recurring
cycles. (1 mark)
 2). Vehicle/traffic actuated signals- Amount of green time available
varies with amount of traffic. (1 mark)
 i. Semi-actuated- Vehicle detectors are placed on minor approaches only
Lights are green all the time to major traffic until when vehicles are detected
on minor approach, subject to minimum major approach green time, green
period is then transferred to minor approach. (1 mark)
 ii. Full-actuated- Vehicle detectors are placed on all approaches/arms to
the junction. Green time is allocated on basis of information from detectors
and programmed rules, green time varies from cycle to cycle. (1 mark)

b). A signalised intersection approach has three lanes, the approach has a 35 seconds
green out of a 75 second cycle. The amber or yellow plus all-red time intervals for the
phase total are 3 seconds. If the start-up lost time is 1.5 s/phase, the clearance lost
time is 1.0s/phase, and the saturation headway is 2.87 s/veh under prevailing
conditions, what is the capacity of the intersection approach? (5 marks)
Green time, G = 35s, Y (amber & all red) = y + ar = 3s, C= 75s, h = 2.87s/veh, L1 =
1.5s per phase, L2 = 1.0s per phase
Capacity, q  s , (1 mark)
g  effective green time, C  cycle length, s  saturate flow rate
 Effective green, g = Green time (G) + amber+all red (yellow, Y) -∑ lost time (l) (1 mark)

 g= 35 + 3 – (1.5+1) = 35.5s (1 mark)
 Saturate flow rate, s:
3600 3600
s   1,254veh/hr (1 mark)
h 2.87

g 3600 35.5
 Capacity, q  s  x  594 veh/hr  600veh/hr (1 mark)
C 2.87 75

c). At a signalised junction, one lane is observed to discharge 22 through vehicles in the
same time as the right lane discharges 10 through vehicles and 3 right-turning
vehicles. What is the through-vehicle equivalent, ERT for right-turning vehicles? What
factors would influence the observed value of E RT? (5 marks)
Given 22 through vehicles are discharged in same time as 10 through vehicles and 3
right-turning vehicles
 22 (through vehicles)  10 (through vehicles)  3(right turning vehicles)x E RT (1 mark)
22  10
 E RT   4 (2 marks)

Factors influencing ERT:

o Opposing/oncoming traffic volume quantities- ERT would increase as traffic
volume increases (1 mark)
o Number of lanes for opposing/on-coming traffic- ERT would increase as
number of lanes increases (1 mark)