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Scientific method - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Scientific_method

The term "scientific method" did not come into wide use until the 19th century, when other modern scientific
terminologies began to emerge such as "scientist" and "pseudoscience" and significant transformation of science
was taking place.[19] Throughout the 1830s and 1850s, by which time Baconianism was popular, naturalists like
William Whewell, John Herschel, John Stuart Mill engaged in debates over "induction" and "facts" and were
focused on how to generate knowledge.[19] In the late 19th a debate over realism vs. antirealism was conducted as
powerful scientific theories extended beyond the realm of the observable.[20]

The term "scientific method" came to be used prominently in the twentieth century, with no scientific authorities
over its meaning despite it popping up in textbooks and dictionaries.[19] Though there was a steady growth on the
concept into the twentieth century, by the end of that century numerous influential philosophers of science like
Ibn al-Haytham
Galileo Galilei
Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend had questioned the universality of the "scientific(Alhazen), method" and in doing so
965–1039
Aristotle,
(1564–1642).
Johannes 384–322
Kepler BCE.
According
largely replaced the notion of science as a homogeneous and universal method Iraq. withA thatpolymath, of it being a
"As
to regards
Albert Einstein,
(1571–1630). his method,
"All
"Kepler
heterogeneous and local practice.[19] In particular, Paul Feyerabend argued against thereconsideredbeing any
Aristotle
knowledge is by some torules
universal
recognized
of reality
shows his keen logical
of science.[20] be
as the inventor
the father of of modern
starts
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scientific methodology,
method
and ends in
whole process by whichit.
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Overview he finally of
Propositions his
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This is means
the
[21] reproducibility
implications of its
contained in
The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out. As in otherare completely
areas
greatest of inquiry,
piece
[15][16]
empty
of as
science
results.
demonstrative
(through the scientific method) can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated regards
Retroductive reality. Because
reasoning
understanding
discourse,
Galileo which
saw this, and goes
of its topics of study over time.[22][23][24][25][26][27] This model can be seen to underlie the ever performed."
scientific revolution. – C.[28]
S.
well beyond
particularly
Peirce, c. 1896, on natural
because he
logic
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The ubiquitous element in the model of the scientific method is empiricism, or more precisely, epistemologic
anything
scientific
through to the ones
world,
explanatory he is the
sensualism. This is in opposition to stringent forms of rationalism: the scientific method embodies that reason
who
father philosophized
of modern physics
hypotheses [17]
alone cannot solve a particular scientific problem. A strong formulation of the scientific before method
him." –isRiccardo
not always
– indeed, of modern
aligned with a form of empiricism in which the empirical data is put forward in the form Pozzo of experience
science [14]
altogether." or[18]
other
abstracted forms of knowledge; in current scientific practice, however, the use of scientific modelling and reliance
on abstract typologies and theories is normally accepted. The scientific method is of necessity also an expression of
an opposition to claims that e.g. revelation, political or religious dogma, appeals to tradition, commonly held
beliefs, common sense, or, importantly, currently held theories, are the only possible means of demonstrating
truth.

Different early expressions of empiricism and the scientific method can be found throughout history, for instance
with the ancient Stoics, Epicurus,[29] Alhazen,[30] Roger Bacon, and William of Ockham. From the 16th century
onwards, experiments were advocated by Francis Bacon, and performed by Giambattista della Porta,[31] Johannes
Kepler,[32] and Galileo Galilei.[33] There was particular development aided by theoretical works by Francisco
Sanches,[34] John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume.

The hypothetico-deductive model[35] formulated in the 20th century, is the ideal although it has undergone
significant revision since first proposed (for a more formal discussion, see below). Staddon (2017) argues it is a
mistake to try following rules[36] which are best learned through careful study of examples of scientific
investigation.

Process
The overall process involves making conjectures (hypotheses), deriving predictions from them as logical
consequences, and then carrying out experiments based on those predictions to determine whether the original
conjecture was correct.[5] There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific
method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, these actions are better considered as general principles.[10]
Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always done in the

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