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Republic of Philippines


Pililla, Rizal

Collage of Education

Linking Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment (CIA): Making a Fit

A report presented by Mark Edison V. Sacramento, BSE II Social Studies, 2nd Semester,

Curriculum and Instruction

A curriculum according to Howell and Evans and Sands, is a structured set of learning outcomes or tasks
that educators usually call goals and objectives. Curriculum is the “what” in the teaching.

Criteria for Curriculum Content Selection

Significance brings the content to the degree to which it contribute basic ideas, concepts, principles and
generalizations and to development of particular learning abilities, skills, processes and attitudes.

Validity refers to the degree of authenticity of the content selected and to the congruence of the
content in the light of the objectives selected.

Interest is the degree to which the content either caters or fosters particular interests in the students.

Learnability is the appropriateness of the content in the light of the particular students who are to
experience the curriculum

Feasibility refers to the question, "Can the selected content be taught in the time allowed, considering
the resources, staff and particular community?”

The other aspect of curriculum described here are the objectives. The objectives provided cue to what
content should be included.

Instruction is the actual engagement of learners of the planned learning activities.

Does instruction provide learning experiences that:

1. Bring about optimum benefit to the learners?

2. Approximate real life situations?

3. Encourage the learners to inquire further?

4. Heighten learners interest and motivation?

5. Involve the use of different senses?

6. Approximate real life situations?

7. Provide opportunities for broad and deep study?

8. Provide mastery of total learning?

Curriculum and Assessment

Assessment is the process of collecting information which describes student achievement in relation to
curriculum expectations.

Levels of achievement

Level 4- Student has demonstrated all the required knowledge and skills and achievement has exceeded
the standard set.

Level 3- Student has demonstrated most of the required knowledge and skills and achievement
exceeded the standard set.

Level 2- Student has demonstrated some of the required knowledge and skills and achievement falls
below the standard.

Level 1- Student has demonstrated a few of the required knowledge and skills and achievement falls
below the standard set.

To ensure that assessment is aligned with the curriculum, the teacher needs to ask the following key

For Diagnostic assessment

1. What do I expect my students to learn?

2. What is the best way for my students to demonstrate their achievement?

3. How will I provide an on-going feedback to help them improve learning?

4. What are other ways of facilitating learning so that learners will succeed?

For formative assessment

1. How will I monitor learners' progress?

2. What does feedback tell about curriculum?

3. Is there a need to modify the objectives?

4. Are the intended contents too high or too low for the learners?

5. Is the curriculum addressing the learners' needs?

For Summative assessment

1. Are the objectives set in the curriculum accomplished?

2. What is the level of performance in the various tasks?

3. Are there gaps between the set objectives and the performance?

4. Are the outcomes truly the result of the curriculum?

5. Have the learners acquired the intended knowledge, skills and attitudes planned in the curriculum?

When all the items are answered positively, then there exists a match between curriculum and

Instruction and Assessment

Instruction refers to the various ways of teaching, teaching styles, approaches, techniques, and steps in
delivering the curriculum.

Learner The center and the one who receives instruction. The learners will be the one to put action on
the objectives and learn the content. All factors in instruction will be greatly influenced by the learners.
Learners are the object of instruction.

Teacher He/She guides the implementation of the plan. Often times referred to as instructors because
they give instructions. The teacher is a very important factor because, the skill, abilities, professional and
personal qualities of the teachers greatly affect instructions.

Learning Environment This is where learning occurs. The learning environment provides the situation or
conditions for teaching and learning to occur. It embraces all the physical and psychological
environment, where teaching and learning happen. It includes the physical environment like classroom,
materials, temperature, lightning, resources. It also includes human environment like the teachers,
learners, school officials, community people and other resource persons.

Subject Matter

This is the content of instruction. This includes the ideas, concepts, principles and theories in the
different disciplines that are taken up as a means to accomplish the objectives. This is the what of
teaching and learning. Subject matter should be mastered by the teacher who teaches and the learners
who learn.

Method of Teaching and Learning

This is the heart of instruction. How well the teachers teach and how far the students learn is
determined by the methods, strategies, styles and approaches to teaching.


This refers to assessment. As stated in the beginning, objectives are measurable, hence, at the end of
the teaching-learning process, the intended objectives should be measured in the terms of the learning