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Thirty-Seventh Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2013



Emanuelta Naibaho*
Hendry Setiawan Lie**
Ildrem Syafri*

ABSTRACT a regressive and transgressive pattern in this area.

Furthermore, in thin sections, a cleat of coal and
The Oligocene and Miocene of the outcrops of the dominant ash was found.
North East Java Basin provide an excellent chance
to compare clastic and carbonate depositional This study will bring us another perspective of the
systems with eustatic and tectonic controls Ngrayong Formation, which will be very useful to
(Bransden & Mathew, 1992). The depositional hydrocarbon exploration.
environment of the Ngrayong Formation is still
debatable. Keyword: Facies, Clastic Limestone, Sandstone,
Ngrayong Formation, Jatirogo, North
The research area located in Dingil Village, Jatirogo East Java Basin
shows an excellent outcrop on the surface. Located
within the Rembang Zone and the northern part of
Randublatung Zone are several outcrops that show
The North East Java Basin area comprises a
differences in the original terrain. The data were
complex of NE–SW trending troughs, separated by
collected from field geological mapping and studio
ridges and arches. According to the
analysis. Four significant samples and measuring
morphotectonics, the North East Java Basin is
sections from several data sites were collected.
classified as a back arc basin. This area is relatively
Petrography analysis has been done to determine
stable from tectonic influence, so thick sediments
are filled, a quiet environment is built, and a
shallow marine–deep marine environment will
develop. The most important matter is organic
This paper will describe the facies and diagenetic
material will occur for source rock quality and
process of the Ngrayong Formation. From the
maturity (Satyana, 2004). Tectonic activity created
petrography data, a description of diagenetic and
some structural traps, which are very important in
facies of limestone and sandstone has been
the petroleum system due to the accumulation of
undertaken. The clastic limestone is composed of
hydrocarbons (Figure 1).
fragments of clastic limestone: clastic limestone,
coral fragment, and fossil fragments with a calcite
The study area occupies the northern part of the
matrix. Several diagenetic events are on the
East Java Basin. It is located within the Rembang
carbonate. The porosity of the carbonate samples
Zone and the northern part of the Randublatung
ranges from 10–20%. The sandstone was composed
Zone (Van Bemmelen, 1949). The Rembang Zone
of fragment clastic sandstone (MS–FS) and the
consists of a series of E–W oriented hills with a
matrix of mudstone had porosity between 20–30%
maximum elevation of about 500 m. Those hills
and fossil occurrence. The petrography analysis
generally represent an anticline that may or may not
found several diagenetic processes on the carbonate.
be faulted (Figure 2). The Randublatung Zone is to
A coal deposit was found that shows a marker of
the south and represents a physiography depression
change in the depositional environment. Coal
that contains folds, such as the Pegat and Ngimbang
deposits show
anticlines (Duyfjes, 1938).
* University of Padjadjaran The tectonic history passes through Eocene to Early
** Chevron Indonesia Company Oligocene rifting stages, during which number of
half graben were formed, followed by a phase of a. Limestone Alternate Coarse Grain
quiescence, and starting in the late Miocene, local Sandstone (Stop Side 001–Cokrowati)
deformation and active volcanism (Doust & Noble,
2008). The onshore fold belt is complex and is Shallow Marine Environment (Base
thought to originate from oblique wrenching of the Shoreface, Walker & James, 1992)
basement and inversion involving unstable shale
sequences (Figure 2). The outcrop appeared on the north of the study
area, Cokrowati Village, and it shows a shallow
marine depositional environment. It consists of
REGIONAL GEOLOGY SETTING red clastic limestone with alternating calcareous
sandstone that is highly weathered. The outcrop
During the Cenozoic period, the North East Java has thickness around 8 m and is 15 m in length.
Basin was affected by the relative movements of the It had a texture of medium clastic sand–coarse
Indian, Eurasian, and Australian plates and clastic sand and medium sorted–poor sorted.
experienced a complex history of initial extension Based on hand specimens, the calcite is a
followed by differential basin subsidence and a late primary mineral (> 80%) and quartz is a second
compressional phase during the Plio-Pleistocene mineral with less than 20%. There is no
period (Hall, 2002). sedimentary structure in this outcrop. In
practice, the base of the shoreface can be
The stratigraphy of the North East Java basin and its defined at the point where clastic limestone
depositional environment history encompassed four alternates of sandstone and mudstone pass
depositional cycle and stratigraphies: Ngimbang upward into relatively massive sandstone. The
and Kujung Formation (Eocene–Late Oligocene); outcrop is an attempt at a shallow marine
Prupuh, Tuban, Tawun, and Ngrayong Formations environment based at the shoreface (Walker &
(Research Focus Area; Late Oligocene–Middle James, 1992) (Figure 5).
Miocene); Bulu, Wonocolo, Ledok, and Mundu
Formation (Middle Miocene–Late Pliocene); and b. Sandstone Very Fine Grain Sand – Fine
Selorejo, Lidah Formation (Late Pliocene– Grain Sand (Stopside 002–Belik Anget)
Pleistocene) (Figure 3).
Shallow Marine Environment (Tide-
Dominated Continental Shelves, Walker &
METHODOLOGY James, 1992)

A surface geological map of Dingil Village, The shallow marine environment starts from
Jatirogo, North East Java Basin by Situmorang and stop side 2 and is located in the southern end of
Smith 1992 was used to identify the location of the Cokrowati Village, in Belik Anget Village. The
outcrop formation (Figure 4). Four samples from outcrop shows a lithotype of light sandstone
the Ngrayong Formation were collected from the with a thickness of 12 m and a length of around
outcrop. Field observation was conducted from 20 m. The outcrop shows the texture of
early October to late October 2012. In the studio, sandstone, with grain size as very fine grain
analysis made a vertical stratigraphy column, and sand–fine grain sand, loose material
the laboratory field samples collected for analysis characteristics, very well sorted–well sorted,
included facies, petrography, and rock properties and a local silicate, a quartz mineral, can be
(porosity) to learn the sandstone and limestone found in the upper part of the bedding. The
characteristics and reservoir potential. outcrop was representative of numerous
sedimentary rocks in different beds. Parallel
RESULTS lamination appears in the lower bed of this
outcrop, thus there is a symmetrical cross bed in
Facies Classification the second bed (planar cross bedding), swally
cross bedding in the next bedding, and the
The outcrop, which shows a difference in deposition upper bedding is current ripple. The outcrop
of environment, from lithotype and sedimentary showed a unique composition interpreted as
properties, represents, for instance, textural and Tide-Dominated Continental Shelves with a
sedimentary structures and biogenic content. Four transgression process to change across the
depositional environments were found. bedding to a finer grain sand, current rippled,
and burrowed sediment, as the current speed Benthic Foram was attempted in each part of
decreased (Walker & James, 1992) (Figure 6). the thin section. All physically formed
structures have been destroyed partly or
c. Sandstone Medium Grain Sand Alternate of completely by the burrowing and grazing
thin Coal Deposit (stopside 003 – Ngepon activities of organisms (Walker & James,
village). 1992). The outcrop was deposited in shallow
marine actually in the shelf margin (Figure 8).
Fluvial Environment (Barrier Island Marsh
Area or Swamp Flatland, Walker and James, Petrography Analysis
a. Sandstone Petrography (Ss–001,Ss–003 &
Stop side 3, in this case, was located in Ngepon Ss–005)
Village. The composition of the outcrop
consisted of brown sandstone and a thin layer of According to the sandstone classification from
clastic limestone. The brown sandstone, with a Petitjohn (1975), three samples have been
thickness 18 m and length around 30 m, has a classified as grey wackes sandstone (Figure 8)
textural composition of medium grain sand–fine from stop side 1, stop side 3, and stop side 5.
grain sand, medium sorted–poor sorted, and Sandstone from stop side 2 cannot be identified,
ductile hardness, and appeared as a thin coal as the sand is very loose and comprises of
bedding (microscopy analysis). Brownish black, opaque mineral (10–15%), quartz mineral (40–
as a weathered color, and dark black, as a fresh 50%), k-feldspar (5–15%), lithic fragments (2–
color, with concoidal cleavage, and it contains a 5%), and samples containing piroksen, biotite,
little sulphur with a carbonaceous siltstone and muscovite (< 3%) (Figures 10–12).
lenses. According to Walker and James (1992),
the lithofacies of a barrier island marsh area The matrix (15–20%) is composed of silt and
deposition environment identifies as a coal clay sized material. Cementation during
lenses deposit, with medium grain sand and diagenesis has dominantly influenced reducing
sheets like deposits of sand. Organic deposits of the porosity value in the primary porosity. It has
coal and peat record marsh are usually very intragranular porosity of 15–20%, intergranular
thin, having formed on sand and a mud flat on porosity of 10–15%, with tectonic and
the emerging washover flat. As a marker, this dissolution causing around 7–13% of it.
condition of the outcrop was deposited in a
fluvial deposition environment, actually in a b. Carbonate Petrography (Ss–001 & Ss–005)
barrier island marsh area (Walker & James,
1992). Quartz sandstone was attempted in the Clastic limestone in this case has shown an
upper bedding in this outcrop (Figure 7). irregular grain, open fabric with the matrix
supported. The grain size is around 0.5–1.5 mm.
d. Sandstone Medium Grain Sand Alternate of Two samples of clastic limestone were analyzed
Clastic Limestone (Stopside 004–Tawun) from stop side 1 (Cokrowati Village) and stop
side 5 (Tawun Village). The composition of the
Shallow Marine Environment (Shelf Margin, detrital is arranged by foram (15%), interclast
Walker & James, 1992) (10%), benthic foram (5–10%), and a matrix
with carbonate mud domination (20%). This
Stop side 5 was collected as evidence of a new fills a space among the grain and intra clast.
environment. Stop side 5 is shallow marine According to Dunhaim (1962), the carbonate is
because the composition of the outcrop consists identified as packstone classified.
of dark brown sandstone with alternate
thicknesses of clastic limestone. Non-calcareous Diagenetic mineral into the neomorfisme
sandstone is attempted in this outcrop. The dark process (replacement) has been identified
brown was found in the Tawun Village, with a within a body of limestone. There are micrite
thickness of 7 m and a length of 10 m. It has (15%), calcite (8%), and aragonite (5%). There
properties of the rock with fine grain sand– is also sparite with calcite (5%), which fills the
medium grain sand, well sorted–medium sorted, space between the grain (detrital) and the
and locally, has a thin section of mudstone in interclast grain.
the lower bed. A thin section from this outcrop It has porosity with a very good quality (15%).
shows numerous kinds of organic rich deposits. The shallow marine environment in the
Cokrowati Village (shelf margin) shows better PROVENANCE
quality porosity (13%) than the shallow marine
(base shoreface) with a porosity of 25%. There Provenance analysis was carried out on five
are other porosities of crystal (1%), porosity samples from three of the sandstones (SS–001, SS–
vugular (1–2%), fracture porosity (8%), and 003, SS–005) and two of the clastic limestones (SS–
intraclast porosity (10–12%) (Figures 13 & 14) 001,SS–005).

In three samples of the sandstone, sections were
Sandstone Diagenetic included in Grey Wacke (Petitjohn, 1975): quartz
mineral (40–50%), k-feldspar (10–15%), lithic
The combined effect of organic, physical, and fragment (2–5%), and other minerals (< 3%). The
chemical diagenesis produces significant changes in composition plotted in a Q-F-L diagram (Dickinson
the depositional characteristics of siliciclastic rock & Suzcek, 1979) shows that the sandstone sample
in sandstone. The diagenetic process influences the came from a continental block area provenance.
porosity and maturity of sandstone. The diagenetic Sandstone from the continental craton interior
in this sandstone has several aspects: provenance has a characteristic with a higher
percentage of quartz and silicate mineral than a
 Cementation shown by the appearance of clay lithic fragment and k-feldspar mineral (Figure 16).
mineral and mud/silt grain, lithic, silicate, and This is because the unstable mineral (k-feldspar)
iron oxide, which fill the pore within it. cannot be mechanism sediment from the source
(Folk, 1980).
 Maturity is shown by the properties of
sedimentary rock: grain size, roundness, and DISCUSSION
sorting. Maturity in the sandstone moves to
immature because of the roundness (sub Shallow marine evidence in the base shoreface was
angular–sub rounded) and medium sorting–poor found in northern Dingil Village, in Cokrowati
sorting. Village. Medium sorting–poor sorting identified
that this sedimentation process for this rock is not
 Dissolution of quartz and feldspar grains far from the source. The transport length of the
forming intragranular porosity and intergranular detrital was not long. In addition to the grain size of
porosity. the detrital, it was shown to be medium grain clastic
sand–coarse grain clastic sand. Through thin
Clastic Carbonate sections, two samples were analyzed in this facies.
The quartz mineral has a high percentage of primer
The principle diagentic process in this environment mineral in which a continental block in the Craton
involves bioturbation of sediment, and the Interior shows a value of 40–50% (Dickinson and
modification of carbonate shells and other grains by Suzcek, 1979). From a thin section of limestone, the
boring organisms largely influencing the rock. porosity in this facies can be obtained. This facies
Three major diagenetic processes are in use in the has good porosity with 15% limestone. This was
clastic carbonate: caused by intense deformation and a dissolution
process, which made the pores spread and the rock
 Biogenic alteration shows a large organism, porous (Figure 9).
such as ruggose coral, nummulite, and benthic
foraminifera, may break down carbonate grains Moving east, the depositional environment of the
in various ways. sandstone Ngrayong Formations changed. The
outcrop represented an excellent outcrop. There was
very fine clastic sand–fine clastic sand, with a good
 Cementation shown by the appearance of clay
sorting, showing the difference in the sedimentation
carbonate and mud/silt grains. Calcite
process from previous facies. This is shown in a
cementation may also take place during deep
long transportation from the indicator of the grain
burial, which reduces the pore space.
size and sorting level, and the numerous
sedimentary structures. There is parallel lamination,
 Grain deformation caused by compression in symmetrical cross bedding (planar cross bedding),
rock, characterized by fracture and cleavage swally cross bedding, and current ripples in the
caused by tectonic movement. upper bed. This sandstone from the outcrop shows a
loose material, which indicates high porosity. Thin 4. SS–004 was determined to be a shallow
sections from this outcrop were not collected marine environment associated with shelf
because the grain properties showed no lithification margin (Walker & James, 1992).
so it was not possible to take it (Figure 9).
 The diagenetic process has two parts:
In the southern study area, the Ngepon Village, an
anomaly of depositional environment was found: 1. Sandstone has a diagenetic process from
sandstone intercalated by clastic limestone and coal. cementation that is filled by mud/clay
The coal has attempted to change facies to be a mineral and grain. Dissolution by pore
fluvial deposition environment associated with a fluids produced a solution removal of
marsh flat region (Walker & James, 1992). Grains silicate framework grains, and the creation
are dominated by silicate mineral (quartz 60%), of intragranular porosity by preferential
indicating provenance from the continental craton destruction of less stable minerals
interior (Dickinson & Suzcek, 1979) (Figure 9). (mesogenesis). The sandstone is immature
because the properties of sedimentary rock
The last focus area in the Tawun Village has an do not support it to make it mature.
outcrop consisting of dark brown sandstone
alternating with clastic limestone. The sandstone is 2. Clastic limestone has a diagenetic aspect
not calcareous, which shows a difference in place to from biogenic alteration filled by ruggose
deposit this material. Shallow marine life associated coral, nummulite, and benthic foraminifera;
with the shelf margin (Walker & James, 1992) can the cementation is filled by mud/clay
be a place to deposit this sediment. The matrix with minerals and grains, which influenced the
carbonate mud domination (20%) has damaged the pore space for primary and secondary
porosity percentage. However, the porosity level in porosity. The tectonic intensity occurred as
this rock is very good quality (25 %) (Figure 9). a grain deformation in the rock.

 Provenance analyses indicate that all rock

CONCLUSIONS samples are products of the continental craton
interior with high silicate grains and minerals
 Sandstone and limestone in this area exhibit from sandstone SS–001, SS–003, and SS–005.
four facies with different characteristics of
physical, chemical and biogenic. There are  Porosity of quality outcrop (Koesoemadinata,
textures, structures of sediments, and 1980)
geometries of outcrop.
1. According to SS–001 (Cokrowati Village),
 Due to Petitjohn’s (1975) classification, a shallow marine environment is associated
samples of sandstone were identified as grey with a base shoreface area with a
wacke and clastic limestone as a packstone percentage porosity of 15% (Good)
(Dunhaim, 1962).
2. According to SS–002 (Belik Anget
 The depositional environment was divided into Village), a shallow marine environment is
four parts: associated with tide-dominated continental
shelves (There are no data for thin section
1. SS–001 was determined to be a shallow petrography).
marine environment associated with base
shoreface area (Walker & James, 1992). 3. According to SS–003 (Ngepon Village), the
fluvial deposition environment associated
2. SS–002 was determined to be a shallow with the barrier island marsh area has a
marine environment associated with a tide- porosity percentage of 13% (Fair).
dominated continental shelf (Walker &
James, 1992). 4. According to SS–004 (Tawun Village), the
shallow marine environment associated
3. SS–003 was determined to be a fluvial with the shelf margin has a porosity
environment associated with a barrier island percentage of 25% (Very Good).
marsh area (Walker & James, 1992).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Doust, H., Noble, R.A. 2008. Marine and Petroleum
Geology, 25, 103-129.
Many thanks to all people, especially to Immanuel
Variant Rumende, Arsyan Hilman Sasoni (HMG-
2009), and Naufal Juliandre (HMG-2010), who Mutti, E., Ricci–Luchi, F., 1972. Le torbiditi dell’
supported and helped the authors to solve the Appenine settentrional: introduzione all analisi di
geological mapping in Jatirogo, Dingil Village. facies. Memorie Societta Geologica Italiana, 11,

Ardhana, W., 1993. The Depositional Model For Nilsen, T.H., 1992. Sedimentology of the Ngrayong
The Early Middle Miocene Ngrayong Formation Sandstone, East Java and Madura Island Indonesia.
and Implication For Exploration In The East Java Report prepared for JOB Pertamina- Trend Tuban.
Basin. Proceedings of the Indonesian Petroleum
Association, 22nd Annual Convention, Jakarta. Petitjohn, F.J., 1957. Sedimentary Rock. Harper &
Brother, New York.
Boggs, S. 1987. Principle of Sedimentology &
Stratigraphy, University of Oregon, 145-157, 190-
196. Satyana, A. 2004. Petroleum Geology of Java Area,
East Java Basin. HAGI Convention. Bandung, 132.
Cook, C.B.P., 1991. Ngasin 1 Well, East Java;
Sedimentological and Petrographic report on
conventional core and sidewell core samples. Scholle, P. 1982. Sandstone Depositional
Robertson Research Report #456. Environment, AAPG Memoir 31. Tulsa, 115-138,
Dickinson, W.R., Suzcek, C.A., 1979. Plate
Tectonic and Sandstone Composition. AAPG Walker, R.G. 1992. Facies Model Response to Sea
Bulletin, 63, 12, 2164-2182. Level Change. 219-238.
Figure 1- Physiography of East Java Basin which is study area get into a Rembang Zone and
distribution of hydrocarbon production (Satyana,2004)

Figure 2 – Main Structural Element of East Java Basin (Herry Doose., A.N Noubler,2006).
Figure 3 – Stratigraphic Regional of the main part study area.

Figure 4 – Geology Map of East Java Basin, Jatirogo, East Java (After Situmorang and Smith, 1992).
Figure 5 – Shallow Marine Environment associated with Base Shoreface; Thick of Red Clastic
Limestone alternate of brown coarse grain – very coarse grain sands, total thickness 8 m
(A) Light Brown of Coarse Grain Sand (B) Calcite as a primer mineral within a red
clastic limestone (C).

Figure 6 – Shallow Marine associate with Tide Dominated Continental Shelf with , Very Fine Grain
Sand – Fine Grain Sand, , Very Well Sorted (A) Lamination Structure (B) Planar Cross
Bedding (C) Swally Cross Beds (D) Current Ripple (E) Loose Material.
Figure 7 – Fluvial Environment associated with Barier Island Marsh Facies. (A) Coal Handspecimen
(B) Coarse Grain Sand Alternate of Clastic Limestone in Second bed (C) Thin Bedding of
Coal in Upper bedding. 

Figure 8 - Shallow Marine associate with shelf margin with (A), red clastic limestone (B), medium
grain clastic sand – fine grain clastic sand, non calcareous sandstone (C), no- sedimentary
structure in lower bed of sandstone (D).
Figure 9- Simple of Diagram East Java Basin (Modified from Ardhana’s Physiographic,1993).

Figure 10- Grain dominated by Quartz (B3, A6), Feldspar grain ( F3, E7) and Rock Fragment (D4,
C6), well sorting, closed pore, grain shape sub angular – sub rounded.
Figure 11 - Grain dominated by Quartz (C1, J7), Feldspar grain (G4, I5) and Rock Fragment (A5,
A3), Medium sorting, Intergranular Porosity (E4-E6), grain shape sub angular – sub

Figure 12 - Grain dominated by Quartz (F3, H1), Feldspar grain (F5, F6) and Rock Fragment (A7),
Medium sorting, Intragranular Porosity (I4, H5), Oxide Fe (B3, C2, B1), grain shape sub
angular – sub rounded.

Figure 13 - Limestone with a lime mud matrix ( H4, G5, G8, K8.G10), Iron Oxide /Fe2O3 (E7, B6,
I9, C10), Intraclast Porosity (C3) and Vugular porosity (A8).

Figure 14 - Limestone with a numerous of kind fossil contain, Nummulite (C3-E5), Benthic Foram
(C7), Rugose Coral (I9) and planktonic coral (H4). Close pore fill in a lime mud
carbonate as a matrix and cement.
Figure 15 - Coal thin section in SS-004 (Fluvial Deposition Environment associated with Marsh Flat
Margin) show a primary cleat (B7-J8), Roots Material (D4 – I5) and mud/silt grain (B4,

Figure 16 - Source of Sandstone From Continental Block, Mineral Contain and Plot of Triangular
(Dickinson and Suzcek,1979).