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# Given: 29/08/2014 (Wk 6) Assignment 2 Due: 18/09/2014 (Wk 8)

## ANALYTICAL MODEL OF THE ENGINE AND

RMIT TRANSMISSION ASSEMBLY VIBRATING SYSTEM
SAMME The engine and transmission assembly was modelled as a rigid body supported on
resilient mounts as illustrated in Figure 3.2. Its motion was described in six degrees of
AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS AND CONTROL (AUTO1029) freedom (6 DOF), with body translations and rotations about an axes system
originating from the centre of mass.
ASSIGNMENT 2:
The mounts were assumed to be linear elastic springs, with independent stiffness’s
GENERAL RESPONSE OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE along their principal axes. Viscous damping in the mounts was assumed.
The axes, X; Y and Z, were selected so as to be orthogonal with the principal elastic
This assignment is due on Thursday, September 18. axes of the mounts. Consequently the shear stiffness components, or the coupling
Submit via Blackboard. stiffness’s, cancel from the equations, reducing the number of non zero elements in
No late submission will be accepted unless an application for extension (in writing the stiffness matrix.
and on the approved form) has been lodged and approved before submission date.
The foundation, namely the vehicle structure, was considered to be rigid such that
base motion could be ignored. This assumption was justifiable as road-induced inputs
Refer to the details of the engine and transmission assembly for the four-cylinder
are low frequency in comparison to the 100-200 Hz range being investigated here.
motor vehicle (from J.K.Vethecan, MEng Thesis, RMIT, 1988)
THE EQUATION OF MOTION
Consider the special case where ex = ey = 0; that is, the second order unbalance force
Lagrange's equations were applied in the derivation of the equations of motion, and
acts through the c.g. of the engine and transmission assembly. Otherwise, the data is
can be written in the matrix form as,
shown as in Table 1. The damping can be taken to be negligible.

## M q  C q  K q  F 

.. .
1. Treat the dynamic system as having six degrees of freedom, and solve for the
(1)
natural frequencies (in both, rad/s and Hz) of the system using MATLAB    
2. Prove that 3rd and 6th modes are orthogonal with respect to both, mass and
where [M]; [C] and[K] are the mass, damping and stiffness matrices respectively, all
stiffness matrices.
six by six symmetric matrices. Damping in the mounts was assumed to be viscous.
3. Calculate the receptance frequency response function z2/F0 (i.e displacement
The mass matrix is, m 0 0 0 0 0 
of engine Mount 2 divided by excitation force F0) by synthesising the
normalized (with respect to [M]) mode shapes. Plot the receptance frequency 0 m 0 0 0 0 

response function for the range 5-25 Hz. 0 0 m 0 0 0 
4. Also calculate the force transmitted through Mount 2 at 5,000 rpm engine M    
0 0 0 I xx  I xy  I xz 
speed (magnitude only required).
0 0 0  I xy I yy  I yz 
5. Calculate z2 response of the system, excited with the only external input  
force Fz, applied to the centre of gravity of the engine.  0 0 0  I xz  I yz I zz 
where M is the mass of the engine and transmission assembly and I ij (i, j = x, y, z) are
7. Apply the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) to the z2 response, using fft
its mass moments of inertia.
MATLAB command and comment on the findings.

©2014, RMIT, School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering (AUTO-1029) Lecturer: Prof. Pavel M.Trivailo
Given: 29/08/2014 (Wk 6) Assignment 2 Due: 18/09/2014 (Wk 8)

## The stiffness matrix is, Inertias (kg.m2)

  k xi Ixx = 6.892 Ixy = -0.386

0 0 0 k xi a zi   k xi a yi 
 Iyy = 11.076 Iyz = -1.686
 
Izz = 10.349 Izx = -0.285

0 k yi 0   k yi a zi 0 k yi a xi 

 
  Mass (kg)

0 0 k zi k zi a yi   k zi a xi 0

K    
Engine and transmission assembly mass:
   k yi a zi k  k a zi  k zi a yi    k zi a xi a yi   k yi a xi a zi  m = 167.0
2 2
0 a yi
 zi yi

  Reciprocating mass:
 k 
 
  k xi a zi   k zi a xi   k zi a xi a yi   k xi a yi a zi
0 a xi  k xi a zi
2 2 M = 0.753
zi 
 
 k 
 
  k xi a yi k   k yi a xi a zi   k xi a yi a zi a yi  k yi a xi
2 2 Length (m)
yi a xi 0 xi 
Connecting rod length:
Here kxi, kyi, kzi are the stiffness’s of the ith mount and axi, ayi, azi are its coordinates l = 0.136
from the centre of mass. The summation symbol  applies from i = 1 to n, where n is Crank radius:
the number of mounts. The damping matrix is identical in composition to the stiffness r = 0.0398
matrix, with the stiffness elements replaced with damping elements. Distance between cylinder centrelines:
S = 0.100
The displacement vector {q} consists of the x, y, z translations and x; y; z rotations Distance from centre of force to c.g.:
of the body about the X, Y, Z axes. {F} is the forcing vector, containing the ex = 0.072*
unbalanced second order inertial forces and couples. The displacement vector, {q}, ey = 0.050*
*
and the forcing vector, {F}, are, In this assignment, assume these are zero.

q  x z x y z
T Distance from c.g. to engine mounts:
y Mount No. x y z
1 0.358 0.260 0.050
F   Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz
T 2
3
0.263
-0.437
-0.210
0.290
0.070
-0.070
4 -0.352 -0.130 0.005
THE FORCING FUNCTION
Internally generated forces in an internal combustion engine result from unbalanced Dynamic Spring Rates (N/m)
fluctuating inertia forces and couples generated by the reciprocating masses and the Mount No. x y z
combustion process. These vibratory forces are transmitted through the mountings 1 60 000 270 000 135 000
into the vehicle structure. In conventional in-line four cylinder engines, the even 2 309 000 90 000 180 000
harmonics are unbalanced and are dominated by the second harmonic, which causes 3 20 000 100 000 30 000
high vibration levels at twice the crankshaft rotational frequency. 4 180 000 530 000 240 000

When only the second order reciprocating forces are included, the vector {F} becomes Table 1. Inertia, mass, geometric and
stiffness data required for the model
F   0 0 F0 e y F0  e x F0 0
T

## where F0 = 4Mr2/,  = l/r. These quantities are given in Table 1.

©2014, RMIT, School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering (AUTO-1029) Lecturer: Prof. Pavel M.Trivailo