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capability indices Cpu, Cpl, and Spk based on Boole’s

inequality and de Morgan’s laws

To cite this article: Chang-Hsien Hsu, Kuen-Suan Chen & Chun-Ming Yang (2016):

Construction of closed interval for process capability indices Cpu, Cpl, and Spk based on Boole’s

inequality and de Morgan’s laws, Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, DOI:

10.1080/00949655.2016.1182168

Article views: 5

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=gscs20

Download by: [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] Date: 10 June 2016, At: 20:49

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION, 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00949655.2016.1182168

Cpl , and Spk based on Boole’s inequality and de Morgan’s laws

a Department of Business Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan; b Department of Industrial Engineering

and Management, National Chin-Yi Institute of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan; c Department of Management

Sciences, Tamkang University, New Taipei, Taiwan

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

Considerable effort has been spent on the development of confidence Received 9 July 2015

intervals for process capability indices (PCIs) based on the sampling distri- Accepted 20 April 2016

bution of the PCI or the transferred PCI. However, there is still no definitive KEYWORDS

way to construct a closed interval for a PCI. The aim of this study is to Process capability index;

develop closed intervals for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk based on Boole’s closed interval; interval

inequality and de Morgan’s laws. The relationships between different sam- estimation

ple sizes, the significance levels, and the confidence intervals of the PCIs

Cpu , Cpl , and Spk are investigated. Then, a testing model for interval estima-

tion for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk is built as a powerful tool for measuring

the quality performance of a product. Finally, an applied example is given

to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method

and the testing model.

1. Introduction

The competitive market has forced manufacturers to focus on providing high-quality and low-cost

products. To improve quality and remain competitive, manufacturers utilize process capability indices

(PCIs), which are useful tools for monitoring both process mean μ and process standard deviation

σ for a manufacturing process or product quality. Chen et al. [1] indicated that the larger the PCI

value, the higher the quality yield. Furthermore, by analysing the PCI, the quality manager can ascer-

tain whether a product is capable of producing quality characteristics within customer requirements,

so that product quality level and customer satisfaction can be further enhanced. Over the past few

decades, PCIs have been widely studied in the literature, such as by Boyles,[2] Kotz and Johnson,[3]

Kotz et al.,[4] Chen,[5] Pearn and Chen,[6] Kotz and Lovelace,[7] Chen and Pearn,[8] Huang et al.,[9]

Chen et al.,[10,11] Huang and Chen,[12] Yu et al.,[13] Pearn et al.,[14,15] Wang et al.,[16] and Wu

and Liao.[17]

Under the assumption of normality, several well-known traditional PCIs – nominal-the-best Cp

and Cpk , smaller-the-best Cpu , and larger-the-best Cpl – were proposed by Juran [18] and Kane.[19]

These indices are defined as follows:

USL − LSL

Cp = , (1)

6σ

2 C.-H. HSU ET AL.

USL − μ μ − LSL d − |μ − M|

Cpk = min , = , (2)

3σ 3σ 3σ

USL − μ

Cpu = , (3)

3σ

μ − LSL

Cpl = , (4)

3σ

where USL and LSL are the upper specification limit and the lower specification limit of the process,

respectively and M = (USL + LSL)/2 is the midpoint of the specification closed interval [LSL, USL].

However, the two indices Cp and Cpk are irrelevant to the target value T and are only used when the

specification interval involves symmetrical bilateral specifications (which require both USL and LSL)

with the T at the M, that is, T = M. In practice, there are many cases with asymmetrical bilateral

specifications (that is, T = M). To obtain an exact measure, Boyles [20] proposed the new yield-

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

based capability index Spk , which includes two PCIs, smaller-the-best Cpu and larger-the-best Cpl , for

assessing the capability of process having asymmetric specification limits. This index is defined as

follows:

1 −1 1 USL − μ 1 μ − LSL

Spk = +

3 2 σ 2 σ

(5)

1 1 1

= −1 (3Cpu ) + (3Cpl ) ,

3 2 2

where (·) is the standard normal cumulative distribution function and −1 (·) is the inverse func-

tion of (·). The index Spk can be viewed as a smooth version of Cpk . Note that, when T = M

(symmetric case), Spk attains its maximum at μ = T. For fixed σ , the value of Spk decreases as μ

shifts away from T. Clearly, Spk is more suitable to evaluating quality characteristics with symmetrical

bilateral specifications.[16,21–23]

For a normally distributed process, the quality yield, yield%, can be calculated as yield% =

[(USL − μ)/σ ] − [(μ − LSL)/σ ]. According to Equations (3) and (4), the quality yield of the

smaller-the-best and larger-the-best Cpu and Cpl can be expressed as yield% = (3Cpu ) and yield% =

(3Cpl ), respectively. We assume Spk = y, where y is a constant value. Then, the quality yield of the

nominal-the-best Spk can be obtained as yield% = 2(3y) − 1. As a result, the indices Cpu , Cpl , and

Spk hold one-to-one mathematical relationships with the quality yield. On the other hand, as noted by

Boyles,[2] the inequality relationship between Cpk and the quality yield is 2(3Cpk ) − 1 ≤ yield% <

(3Cpk ). Obviously, Spk not only accurately reflects the quality yield, but also measures whether μ

shifts away from T, unlike Cpk , which is irrelevant to T and only is approximately related to the process

yield.

The PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk are generally a function of the process parameters, μ and σ . In prac-

=

tice, μ and σ are usually unknown, and need to be estimated by the sample mean X and the sample

standard deviation Sd , respectively, from randomly collected samples in this situation. However, sam-

pling error is unavoidable owing to sampling methods, measuring instruments, users with insufficient

experience, and environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and pressure. Moreover, some

=

incorrect results may occur in PCI analysis because the X and Sd are point estimators of the μ and

σ , respectively. Recently, many studies have proposed different approaches in order to overcome this

problem. For example, Chou et al.,[24] Chen and Chen,[25] and Wang and Tamirat [26] used the

sampling distribution of PCIs to derive an approximate lower confidence limit (LCL) of PCIs. Tong

and Chen [27] and Pearn and Wu [28] applied a bootstrap approach to compute the LCLs of the PCIs.

Sung et al. [29] and Chen et al. [30] introduced two indices, the accuracy index δ = (μ − T)/d and

the precision index γ = σ/d, into PCIs to construct a joint confidence interval.

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION 3

Although all these approaches seem to be effective for solving the point estimator problem in a

PCI, there are some disadvantages:

(i) The sampling distribution of the PCI is mathematically intractable, owing to its complex

structure. Further, the approximate LCL of a PCI is useful, but it is not a closed interval.

(ii) The basic idea of the bootstrap approach is to resample the sample data to model the sample

data and then to estimate the sampling distribution of the parameter estimator. However, if the

sample is not representative of the population, the unrepresentative sample will cause prediction

errors, and thus lead to poor decision making.

(iii) The joint confidence interval using the transferred PCI is not the confidence interval of the PCI.

Therefore, the outcome of the joint confidence interval may not ensure that the quality of the

product completely satisfies customer preset targets.

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

Given the above issues, the main purpose of this study is to develop closed intervals for the PCIs

Cpu , Cpl , and Spk based on Boole’s inequality and de Morgan’s laws. A testing model for interval estima-

tion for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk is then constructed to measure whether the quality of a product with

nominal-the-best, larger-the-better, and smaller-the-better quality characteristics meet customer pre-

set targets. Finally, an applied example is presented to illustrate the applicability and feasibility of the

proposed method and the testing model.

The remainder of this study is organized as follows. Section 2 illustrates how to use Boole’s inequal-

ity and de Morgan’s laws to derive the closed intervals of the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk . Section 3

introduces an integrated PCI CT . A testing model for interval estimation for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and

Spk is constructed in Section 4. An illustrative example is given in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 presents

the conclusions.

Suppose that a quality characteristic X is normally distributed with μ and σ and let

Xi1 , Xi2 , . . . , Xin , i = 1, 2, . . . , m, be m random samples, each of size n with a normal distribution on

the quality characteristic. Then, μ and σ can be estimated using:

m m n

m

= i=1 X̄i i=1 j=1 Xij i=1 (ni

− 1)S2i

X= = and Sd = ,

m θ θ −m

respectively, where:

n

j=1 Xj

X̄i = , θ =m×n

n

is the total sample size and:

n 2

j=1 (Xij − X̄i )

Si = , i = 1, 2, . . . , m.

n−1

=

X −μ

Z= √ ∼ N(0, 1), (6)

σ/ θ

4 C.-H. HSU ET AL.

where the Z-statistic follows the standard normal distribution N(0, 1). Equation (6) can be rewritten

as:

=

(USL − μ) − (USL− X )

Z= √

σ/ θ

=

(7)

√ USL − μ USL− X Sd √ Sd

=3 θ − = 3 θ Cpu − Cpu ∼ N(0, 1).

3σ 3Sd σ σ

We define two critical values, Zα/2 and −Zα/2 , with the standard normal distribution as the values of

the Z variable, such that the probability of obtaining the critical values of Z that are greater than Zα/2

or less than −Zα/2 is:

P(−Zα/2 ≤ Z ≤ Zα/2 ) = 1 − α, (8)

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

Substituting Equation (7) into Equation (8), we obtain:

−Zα/2 Sd Zα/2

P √ ≤ Cpu − Cpu ≤ √ =1−α

3 θ σ 3 θ

Sd Zα/2 Sd Zα/2

⇒P Cpu − √ ≤ Cpu ≤ Cpu + √ = 1 − α. (9)

σ 3 θ σ 3 θ

The formula for the Chi-square statistic is defined as:

(θ − m)S2d

R= ∼ χ 2(θ −m) , (10)

σ2

where S2d is the sample variance and R obeys the χ 2 -distribution with (θ − m) degrees of freedom. We

2 (θ − m) and X 2

define two critical values, Xα/2 1−α/2 (θ − m), with the standard normal distribution

as the values of the R variable, such that the probability of obtaining the critical values of R that are

2 (θ − m) or less than X 2

greater than Xα/2 1−α/2 (θ − m) is:

2 (θ − m)S2d 2

P X1−α/2 (θ − m) ≤ ≤ Xα/2 (θ − m) = 1 − α

σ2

⎛ ⎞

2

X1−α/2 (θ − m) S2 2 (θ − m)

Xα/2

⇒ P⎝ ≤ d ≤ ⎠ = 1 − α. (11)

θ −m σ θ −m

Sd Zα/2 Sd Zα/2

A= Cpu − √ ≤ Cpu ≤ Cpu + √ ,

σ 3 θ σ 3 θ

and AC is the complement set of A; and:

⎧ ⎫

⎨ X2 (θ − m) Sd X 2 (θ − m) ⎬

1−α/2 α/2

B= ≤ ≤ ,

⎩ θ −m σ θ −m ⎭

P(A) = P(B) = 1 − α,

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION 5

and

P(AC ) = P(BC ) = α.

According to Boole’s inequality:

P(A ∩ B) ≥ 1 − P(AC ) − P(BC ) = 1 − α .

Hence, we have:

Sd Zα/2 Sd Zα/2

P

C pu − √ ≤ C pu ≤ Cpu + √ ,

σ 3 θ σ 3 θ

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

⎫

2 (θ − m) ⎬ (12)

2

X1−α/2 (θ − m) Sd Xα/2

≤ ≤ = 1 − α.

θ −m σ θ −m ⎭

√

Let Kl = (X1−α/2

2 (θ − m))/(θ − m), Ku = (Xα/2

2 (θ − m))/(θ − m), and A = Z

n α/2 /3 θ. Then,

Equation (12) can be rewritten as:

P{C

pu Kl − An ≤ Cpu ≤ C

pu Ku + An } = 1 − α . (13)

From Equation (13), we can obtain the (1 − α) × 100% confidence interval of Cpu as:

∗

Cpu

= [CpuL , CpuU ] = [C

pu Kl − An , C pu Ku + An ]. (14)

In the same way, the (1 − α) × 100% confidence interval of C pl can be derived as:

∗

Cpl

= [CplL , CplU ] = [C

pl Kl − An , C pl Ku + An ]. (15)

Let:

EU = {Cpu |Cpu ∈ [3(C

pu Kl − An )] ≤ (3Cpu ) ≤ [3(C pu Ku + An )]},

C is complement set of E ; and:

and EU U

EL = {Cpl |Cpl ∈ [3(C

pl Kl − An )] ≤ (3Cpl ) ≤ [3(C pl Ku + An )]},

P(EU ) = P(EL ) = 1 − α ,

and:

C

P(EU ) = P(ELC ) = α .

Similarly, according to Boole’s inequality:

P(A ∩ B) ≥ 1 − P(AC ) − P(BC ) = 1 − α .

6 C.-H. HSU ET AL.

Thus:

C

P(EU ) ∪ P(ELC ) ≤ P(EU

C

) + P(ELC ) = 2α ,

and:

C

P(EU ∩ EL ) ≥ 1 − P(EU ) − P(ELC ) = 1 − 2α .

As a result, we can obtain:

P{ 13 −1 [ 12 [3(C 1

pu Kl − An )] + 2 [3(C

1 −1 1 1

pl Kl − An )]] ≤ 3 { 2 (3Cpu ) + 2 (3Cpl )}

(16)

≤ 13 −1 [ 12 [3(C 1

pu Ku + An )] + 2 [3(C

pl Ku + An )]]} ≥ 1 − 2α .

Let:

SpkL = 13 −1 { 12 [3(C 1

pu Kl − An )] + 2 [3(C pl Kl − An )]}, (17)

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

and:

SpkU = 13 −1 { 12 [3(C 1

pu Ku + An )] + 2 [3(C pl Ku + An )]}. (18)

According to Equations (4), (16), and (17), Equation (15) can be rewritten as:

pk as:

pk Kl − An , S pk Ku + An ]. (19)

Table 1. Conﬁdence intervals for nominal-the-best, smaller-the-best, and larger-the-best quality characteristics.

Quality characteristic PCI Conﬁdence interval LCL UCL

Smaller-the-best ∗

Cpu [CpuL , CpuU ] Cpu Kl − An Cpu Ku + An

pl Kl − An C

pl Ku + An

Nominal-the-best ∗

Spk [SpkL , SpkU ] S

pk Kl − An S

pk Ku + An

Table 2. The corresponding values of Kl , Ku , and An under diﬀerent values of θ and α = 0.05, 0.025, and 0.01.

α = 0.05 α = 0.025 α = 0.01

m n θ Kl Ku An Kl Ku An Kl Ku An

20 10 200 0.8967 1.1031 0.0462 0.8825 1.1185 0.0528 0.8657 1.1368 0.0607

11 220 0.9020 1.0979 0.0441 0.8885 1.1124 0.0505 0.8725 1.1297 0.0580

12 240 0.9066 1.0933 0.0423 0.8936 1.1072 0.0483 0.8783 1.1237 0.0555

21 10 210 0.8992 1.1007 0.0452 0.8853 1.1156 0.0517 0.8689 1.1335 0.0594

11 231 0.9044 1.0955 0.0431 0.8911 1.1097 0.0493 0.8755 1.1266 0.0566

12 252 0.9088 1.0911 0.0412 0.8962 1.1046 0.0472 0.8812 1.1207 0.0542

22 10 220 0.9015 1.0983 0.0441 0.8879 1.1130 0.0505 0.8718 1.1304 0.0580

11 242 0.9066 1.0933 0.0421 0.8936 1.1072 0.0481 0.8783 1.1237 0.0553

12 264 0.9109 1.0890 0.0403 0.8986 1.1022 0.0461 0.8839 1.1179 0.0529

23 10 230 0.9037 1.0962 0.0432 0.8904 1.1105 0.0494 0.8746 1.1275 0.0567

11 253 0.9086 1.0913 0.0412 0.8960 1.1048 0.0471 0.8810 1.1209 0.0541

12 276 0.9129 1.0870 0.0394 0.9008 1.0999 0.0451 0.8865 1.1153 0.0518

24 10 240 0.9057 1.0942 0.0423 0.8927 1.1081 0.0483 0.8772 1.1248 0.0555

11 264 0.9105 1.0893 0.0403 0.8981 1.1026 0.0461 0.8835 1.1184 0.0529

12 288 0.9147 1.0852 0.0386 0.9029 1.0978 0.0441 0.8888 1.1128 0.0507

25 10 250 0.9076 1.0923 0.0414 0.8948 1.1060 0.0473 0.8797 1.1223 0.0544

11 275 0.9124 1.0875 0.0395 0.9002 1.1005 0.0451 0.8858 1.1160 0.0519

12 300 0.9164 1.0835 0.0378 0.9048 1.0958 0.0432 0.8911 1.1105 0.0497

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION 7

⎧

⎪

⎨[CpuL , CpuU ], i = Cpu ,

[LCLi , UCLi ] = [CplL , CplU ], i = Cpl ,

⎪

⎩

[SpkL , SpkU ], i = Spk ,

According to Table 1, the length ln of the confidence intervals for each PCI can be expressed as:

V ∈ W = {C

pu , C

pl , S pk }. (20)

=

To estimate X and Sd accurately, Montgomery [31] suggested that the sample should typically be

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

based on at least 20–25 samples (that is, m is between 20 and 25), each of size 10 to 15 (that is, n

is between 10 and 15). As a result, θ = m × n can be calculated. For convenience in applying the

proposed method, we tabulate the corresponding values of Kl , Ku , and An under different θ values

and α = 0.05, 0.025, and 0.01 in Table 2.

0.91

0.90

0.89

0.88

0.87

Kl

0.86

0.85 α= 0.05

0.84 α= 0.025

0.83 α= 0.01

0.82

200

210

220

230

231

240

242

250

252

253

264

275

276

288

300

1.16

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.12

Ku 1.11

1.10

1.09 α= 0.05

1.08 α= 0.025

1.07 α= 0.01

1.06

200

210

220

230

231

240

242

250

252

253

264

275

276

288

300

8 C.-H. HSU ET AL.

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

An

0.04

0.03

α= 0.05

α= 0.025

0.02 α= 0.01

0.01 200

210

220

230

231

240

242

250

252

253

264

275

276

288

300

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20

Ku - Kl

0.15

0.10 α= 0.05

α= 0.025

0.05

α= 0.01

0.00

200

210

220

230

231

240

242

250

252

253

264

275

276

288

300

Moreover, we test the relationships between θ and Kl , Ku , An , and Ku − Kl for different values of

α, and plot these in Figures 1–4. These figures reveal the following features:

(i) Figure 1 shows that the higher the values of θ and α, the greater the Kl value;

(ii) Figures 2 and 3 indicate that the higher the values of θ and α, the lower the Ku and An values;

(iii) It is notable that, from Equation (20) and Figures 3 and 4, we can see that the higher the values

of θ and α, the narrower the confidence intervals for each PCI, such that the confidence interval

is approximately the PCI value.

3. Integrated PCI

Generally, a product has many quality characteristics that are mutually independent or dependent.

Chen et al. [1] and Chen and Huang [32] presented two integrated PCIs, denoted CT+ and CT− , for

a product with multiple quality characteristics under the assumption of mutually independent or

dependent processes, respectively. The two indices CT+ and CT− are defined as follows. If the quality

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION 9

⎧⎡⎛ ⎞ ⎤ ⎫

1 ⎨

ti ⎬

CT+ = −1 ⎣⎝ [2(3Qij ) − 1]⎠ + 1⎦ ÷ 2 . (21)

3 ⎩ ⎭

i∈o j=1

⎧⎡ ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞⎤ ⎫

1 ⎨ ti ⎬

CT− = −1 ⎣2 − ⎝1 − ⎝1 − [2 − 2(3Qij )]⎠⎠⎦ ÷ 2 , (22)

3 ⎩ ⎭

i∈o j=1

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

⎧ USL − μ

⎪

⎪

j j

, i = Cpu , j = 1, 2, . . . , tu ,

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ 3σ j

⎪

⎨ μj − LSLj

Qij = , i = Cpl , j = 1, 2, . . . , tl ,

⎪ 3σj

⎪

⎪

⎪ ! 1 μ − LSL

⎪1

⎪

⎪

⎩

USLj −μj

+

j j

, i = Spk , j = 1, 2, . . . , tk ,

2 σj 2 σj

where tu , tl , and tk are the number of smaller-the-best, larger-the-best, and nominal-the-best quality

characteristics, respectively.

We denote the required quality level of the two integrated PCIs as c. The minimum individual PCIs,

C0+ and C0− , for each quality characteristic are equal under the mutually independent and dependent

processes, respectively (note that C0+ and C0− should be greater than c), that is, setting both CT+ and CT−

to a constant value c and Qij = C0+ or C0− . Then, from Equations (21) and (22), we have, respectively:

t

[2(3C0+ ) − 1] = 2(3c) − 1, (23)

i=1

and

ti

1− [2 − 2(3C0− )] = 1 − [2 − 2(3c)], (24)

j=1

which implies

"

C0+ = 13 −1 [( t 2(3c) − 1 + 1)/2], (25)

and

In order to set a value for c, Chen et al. [1] established four quality levels and corresponding values

for c, quality yield, non-conformity rate (parts per million, PPM), C0+ , and C0− , as shown in Table 3

(note that, for convenience, we use C0 to represent C0+ and C0− because the results of C0+ and C0− are

similar). These four quality levels are Capable (c = 1.00), Satisfactory (c = 1.33), Excellent (c = 1.50)

and Super (c = 2.00).

10 C.-H. HSU ET AL.

C0

Quality level Value of c Yield Non-conformity rate (PPM) t=2 t=3 t=4 t=5

Capable 1.00 0.9973002039 2699.796 1.07 1.11 1.13 1.15

Satisfactory 1.33 0.9999339267 66.073 1.38 1.41 1.44 1.45

Excellent 1.50 0.9999932047 6.795 1.55 1.58 1.60 1.61

Super 2.00 0.9999999980 0.002 2.04 2.06 2.07 2.09

Note: C0 represent C0+ and C0− .

4. Testing model for interval estimation for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk

In this section, a testing model for interval estimation for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk is constructed as

an easy-to-use tool for assisting quality managers to measure whether all the quality characteristics

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

of a product meet customer needs. The proposed testing model consists of the following eight steps:

Step 1: Determine the required quality level

The manufacturer determines the quality characteristics of a product that are mutually indepen-

dent or dependent processes based on personal experience, the required quality level (for example,

Satisfactory) and its corresponding value of c from Table 3. With the given c value and total number

of quality characteristics t of the product, the C0 can be derived from Table 3.

Step 2: Set the null hypothesis H 0 and the alternative hypothesis H 1

If the resources of the manufacturer for making improvements to substandard quality char-

acteristics are limited, then H 0 and H 1 can be set by using the C0 value obtained in Step 1

as:

H0 : Qij = C0 ,

H1 : Qij = C0 .

If the resources of the manufacturer for making improvements to substandard quality characteristics

are not limited, then H 0 and H 1 can be set by using the C0 value obtained in Step 1 as:

H0 : Qij ≥ C0 ,

H1 : Qij < C0 .

Step 3: Determine the total sample size θ and the significance level α

The manufacturer calculates the total sample size θ given the m samples, each of size n, and

specifies α for calculating the confidence intervals of all quality characteristics of the product.

Step 4: Compute the values of Kl , Ku , and An

The Kl , Ku , and An values can be obtained from Table 2 based on the θ and α values given in Step 3.

Step 5: Collect and calculate the related data of all quality characteristics of the product

=

Collect related USL and LSL of all quality characteristics of the product, and then calculate the X ,

Sd , C

pu , C

pl , and Spk .

Step 6: Compute the confidence intervals for all quality characteristics

The confidence intervals for all quality characteristics can be computed from Table 1.

Step 7: Establish the decision rules

If the confidence interval of the quality characteristic contains the calculated C0 value, then we

have failed to reject H 0 ; otherwise, we reject H 0 and accept H 1 . In other words, the quality condition

is considered Poor if the UCL of the quality characteristic is less than the C0 value; the quality condi-

tion is considered Capable if the confidence interval contains the C0 value; and the quality condition

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION 11

Conﬁdence interval Rule Quality condition

UCL < C 0 Reject H0 and accept H1 Poor

Conﬁdence interval ∈ C 0 Fail to reject H0 Capable

LCL > C 0 Reject H0 and accept H1 Good

is considered Good if the LCL of the quality characteristic is greater than the C0 value. Table 4 sum-

marizes the decision rules and the corresponding quality conditions for the confidence interval of the

quality characteristic.

Step 8: Check whether all quality characteristics are acceptable.

If the confidence intervals of all the quality characteristics are considered Capable or Good in terms

of quality, then all the quality characteristics of the product meet the acceptance standard, and it can

be continued in production. Otherwise, a quality improvement strategy should be implemented for

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5. An applied example

In this section, an applied example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method

and the testing model. A company, ‘Company L’, is a specialized manufacturer of optical lenses located

in central Taiwan, whose O-type circular infrared (IR) filter (see Figure 5) is a major product. The O-

type circular IR filter is composed of high-purity silicon (99.999%–99.99995%) that is used to increase

transmission rate (average increase of 80%) in some IR devices with a wavelength of 8.0–10.5 μm, such

as IR thermometers, non-contact temperature measurements, and IR gas monitor instruments. The

O-type circular IR filter has three key quality characteristics: lens thickness, lens diameter, and the

distance between foreign substances such as dust and grit. The structure of the O-type circular IR

filter is shown in Figure 5, and the specifications of its quality characteristics are presented in Table 5.

To measure the quality performance of the three quality characteristics of the O-type circular IR

filter, the proposed testing model in Section 4 is used and the computational procedure is summarized

as follows:

Step 1: Company L determined that the quality level is Satisfactory and the O-type circular IR filter

has three key quality characteristics that are mutually independent processes. According to Table 3,

the C0 is 1.41.

Unit: mm

=

Quality characteristic Type USL LSL X Sd PCI

Thickness Nominal-the-best 0.63 0.61 0.625 0.001 S

pk = 1.711

pk = 1.183

pl = 1.292

12 C.-H. HSU ET AL.

Table 6. Conﬁdence intervals and corresponding quality conditions for the O-type circular IR ﬁlter.

Quality characteristic Conﬁdence interval Decision rule Quality condition

Thickness ∗

Spk = [1.474, 1.949] Reject H0 Good

Diameter ∗

Spk = [1.020, 1.348] Reject H0 Poor

Distance between foreign substances Cpl∗ = [1.113, 1.471] Fail to reject H0 Capable

Step 2: Owing to the resource of Company L for making improvements to substandard quality

characteristics are limited, H 0 and H 1 by using the C0 value obtained in Step 1 be set as:

H0 : Qij = 1.41,

H1 : Qij = 1.41.

Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 20:49 10 June 2016

Step 3: Company L assigned five staff members to collect sample data of the O-type circular IR

filter in 25 random samples, each of size 12 from 5 production lines (that is, θ = 300) and specified

α = 0.025.

Step 4: From Table 2, we obtained Kl = 0.9048, Ku = 1.0958, and An = 0.0432.

=

Step 5: The related data, USL, LSL, X , Sd , C

pu , C

pl , and Spk , for the three quality characteristics of

the O-type circular IR filter are summarized in Table 5.

Step 6: According to Table 1, the confidence intervals for the three quality characteristics of the

O-type circular IR filter were derived, as per the summary in Table 6.

Step 7: As noted in Tables 4 and 6, the thickness S∗pk = [1.474, 1.949], indicating that the qual-

ity condition of the thickness is good; the diameter S∗pk = [1.020, 1.348], indicating that the quality

condition of the diameter is poor; and the distance between foreign substances Cpl ∗ = [1.113, 1.471],

indicating that the quality condition of the distance between foreign substances is capable, as per the

summary in Table 6.

Step 8: Since the diameter quality characteristic of the O-type circular IR filter is poor, Company L

should monitor and improve the process mean and/or process standard deviation in order to enhance

the quality level of this quality characteristic.

6. Conclusions

Since the traditional PCI is approximately a point estimate of a population parameter, the problem

of sampling error is unavoidable, which may affect the outcome of PCI analysis. For this reason, this

study developed closed intervals for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk based on Boole’s inequality and de

Morgan’s laws. Furthermore, the relationships between the different sample sizes, the significance

levels, and the confidence intervals of the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk were also discussed. For the con-

venience of the quality manager to measure quality performance of a product, a testing model for

interval estimation for the PCIs Cpu , Cpl , and Spk was constructed. An applied example of a circular

IR filter manufacturer was presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method and the

testing model.

The results from the applied example, as presented in Tables 5 and 6, showed that if the traditional

PCI (that is, a point estimate) is used as a measurement tool to evaluate the quality performance of

the O-type circular IR filter, the quality characteristic of distance between foreign substances needs

to be improved (C pl = 1.292 < 1.41). However, the quality characteristic of distance between foreign

substances is acceptable according to our proposed method (Cpl ∗ = [1.113, 1.471] ∈ 1.41). Obviously,

the actual product quality might be misrepresented, and incorrect decisions might be made regarding

the improvement of the quality level of the product if traditional PCIs are applied. Consequently, the

proposed method and the testing model are a potential tool for assisting quality managers to measure

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION 13

and monitor quality performance of the products and to ensure the quality levels of their products

satisfy customer preset targets.

Disclosure statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

References

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