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May 2013 Cover_4/06 Cover 4/16/13 9:29 AM Page C1

May 2013

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Setting the Gold

Standard in Nickel Alloy

plants, piping systems, furnace

fur such as heat exchangers, and in
elect-Arc. equipment and petrochemical
petr and offshore
ff e and marine applications.
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emium class of SelectAlloy UÊ SelectAlloy C276-AP – delivers Select-Arc offers
fffers just the right
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cor exceptional resistance
r to crevice SelectAlloy nickel alloy electrode
electr to
odes developed for a wide range corrosion and pitting for outstanding
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essure vessels, chemical nickel alloy electrodes fromom Select-Arc
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pr over a processing
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oad range of temperatures,
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UÊ SelectAlloy 82-AP – offers
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esistance to pitting and UÊ SelectAlloy 625-AP – the NiCrMo
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May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:41 AM Page 3

CONTENTS May 2013 • Volume 92 • Number 5

AWS Web site

Features Departments
30 Not Your Father’s Gas Shielded Flux Cored Electrodes Editorial ............................4
From general usage to specialized applications, flux cored
Press Time News ..................6
electrodes have come a long way since their early
development News of the Industry ..............8

30 36
T. Myers

Welding Resources for When You’re on the Go

International Update ............12
Stainless Q&A ....................14
RWMA Q&A ......................20
Take a look at what is available in welding apps ready for
download to your tablet or smart phone Product & Print Spotlight ......24
H. Woodward et al. Coming Events....................54
42 Improving Surfacing Performance with GMAW Certification Schedule ..........58
A method of synchronizing polarity is used for applications Conferences ......................60
that require minimal dilution Welding Workbook ..............62
J. C. Dutra et al.
Society News ....................65
48 Exploring the Forces that Shape Droplets during Gas Metal Tech Topics ......................66
Arc Welding Guide to AWS Services ........86
The key to improving gas metal arc welding is understanding
the physics of droplet formation Personnel ........................88
A. Yelistratov Classifieds ........................95
Advertiser Index..................96

Welding Research Supplement

42 133-s Prediction of σ-Phase Embrittlement in Type 316FR
Weld Metal
The weldability of an advanced stainless steel developed for
the harsh service environment of a fast breeder reactor was
E. J. Chun et al.

140-s Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties

of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in an Iron-Copper
Based Multicomponent Steel
The HAZ mechanical properties were studied in the welds of
ultrahigh-strength NUCu-140 precipitation hardened steel
J. D. Farren et al.
Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published
monthly by the American Welding Society for
148-s Preliminary Investigation on Ultrasonic-Assisted $120.00 per year in the United States and posses-
Brazing of Titanium and Titanium/Stainless Steel Joints sions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
The fracture behavior of dissimilar joints made with an ultrasonic- per single issue for domestic AWS members and
assisted induction heating system were explored $10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and
$14.00 single issue for international. American
A. Elrefaey et al. Welding Society is located at 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste.
130, Doral, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
154-s Dynamic Control of the GTAW Process Using a Human Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and addi-
Welder Response Model tional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address
The sensory system of a human welder was used as a model for changes to Welding Journal, 8669 Doral Blvd.,
Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166. Canada Post: Publi-
intelligent welding systems cations Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Re-
W. J. Zhang and Y. M. Zhang turns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box
25542,London, ON N6C 6B2

Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of

articles for personal, archival, educational or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from arti-
cles, provided customary acknowledgment of
authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items
excluded from copyright.

On the cover: The fast-freezing slag system of all-position FCAW electrodes al-
lows for better out-of-position welding capabilities. (Photo courtesy of The Lin-
coln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio.)

Editorial May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 1:59 PM Page 4

Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding

Why You Should Join the Officers

President Nancy C. Cole
RWMA NCC Engineering

Vice President Dean R. Wilson

My company has a long history in the Resistance Welding Manufacturing Alliance Well-Dean Enterprises
(RWMA) with several of its personnel involved since the organization’s founding in
1935. As this year’s RWMA chair, I have the unique opportunity to not only experience Vice President David J. Landon
regular member benefits, but also to see the workings inside the group. This scope of Vermeer Mfg. Co.
involvement undoubtedly provides my company and me with unique economic value well
Vice President David L. McQuaid
worth the cost of membership.
The focus of our volunteer effort in the resistance welding industry is to advance D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
resistance welding technology, broaden its use, and promote its economic benefits. Treasurer Robert G. Pali
Thousands of engineers spanning a time period of more than 100 years have kept resist- J. P. Nissen Co.
ance welding a highly relevant joining process. Through this collective effort, resistance
welding has remained the most cost-effective process available for joining metals in a Executive Director Ray W. Shook
wide range of industries. American Welding Society
RWMA, with the crucial support of AWS, maintains visibility at trade shows and in trade
journals around the world; provides the technical leadership for conducting the Emmet A.
Craig Resistance Welding School held in conjunction with FABTECH each year; provides Directors
nearly every volunteer hour on AWS resistance welding-related technical committees; and T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Global Welding Tech. Center
sponsors content-rich meetings with learning and networking opportunities. U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Miami Diver
The weld school is a mainstay program of the RWMA and AWS. Every year it intro- J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
duces more people to resistance welding for the first time. Nearly everyone in the resist-
ance welding industry either learned the technology from this school or has helped with R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc.
the curriculum and development of the school and the modern foundation of the process G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services
found in the Resistance Welding Manual, 4th Edition (2003). T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Victor Technologies
Membership in RWMA also provides access to a wealth of other educational oppor-
D. A. Flood (At Large), Tri Tool, Inc.
tunities. Perhaps most notably, meetings and events feature speakers willing to share
their incomparable and varied industry experience. Speakers at the Spring Annual S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries
Meeting and Fall Working Meetings range from industry leaders dealing with the short- K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards
age of skilled labor to engineers and researchers giving highly technical presentations J. Jones (Dist. 17), The Harris Products Group
that introduce and teach some of the latest trends and nuances of the technology. These
W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech, LLC
meetings draw a variety of resistance welding experts, such as Dr. Jerry Gould of the
EWI, keynote speaker at the annual meeting held in February in Tampa, Fla. T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory
Another major value resulting from your RWMA membership is networking with key J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center
players in the resistance welding industry. The RWMA presents many different venues M. J. Lucas Jr. (At Large), Belcan Engineering
to meet suppliers, customers, and competitors in a constructive, positive environment.
With the addition of the deep resources of the AWS, RWMA membership has also D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
become a window to the world market for resistance welding technology. As you may C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
already know, AWS has become a leader in presenting welding technology to both devel- J. L. Mendoza (Past President), Lone Star Welding
oped and emerging markets. The focus on developed markets includes FABTECH, S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro
Essen Welding & Cutting Fair, and Tokyo Welding Show. For more than a decade, AWS
has taken a leading role in emerging markets through participation in the Beijing-Essen K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), KA Phy Services, Inc.
Welding & Cutting Fair, Arabia-Essen Welding & Cutting Fair, Brazil Welding Show, W. A. Rice (Past President), OKI Bering
and further refinement of the successful AWS Weldmex Show. RWMA and AWS have R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
created a compelling value proposition to the members of the Society and are uniquely
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp.
positioned to bring the best of American ingenuity to the world marketplace.
In a time of limited budgets, very busy calendars, and an overdose of media every day, N. Saminich (Dist. 21), Desert Rose H.S. and Career Center
the RWMA presents clear value to its varied members. With RWMA stepping under the K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
umbrella of AWS as a Standing Committee in 2005, T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.)
the future effectiveness of this industry effort could
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
not be brighter. Your participation in RWMA will not
only benefit you individually but it will benefit all mar- R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), ACH Co.
ket participants collectively in a way that otherwise J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
would not be possible. It’s in all of our interests to M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute
keep resistance welding technology visible as the most
cost-effective joining process available for many appli- D. Wright (Dist. 16), Zephyr Products, Inc.
cations and help our customers compete worldwide.

Mark B. Gramelspacher
Chair, RWMA

4 MAY 2013
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Publisher Andrew Cullison
GM Invests $332 Million for New Fuel-Efficient Powertrains
General Motors Co., Detroit, Mich., will invest nearly $332 million in four manufac- Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
turing sites to produce more fuel-efficient engines and transmissions. Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
The investment includes $215 million in Flint Engine Operations for a new small Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Ecotec gas engine, part of a new engine family that includes three- and four-cylinder Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
variants with displacements from 1.0 to 1.5 L; $55.7 million in Toledo Transmission Op- Editorial Asst./Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez
erations for increased capacity and tooling to produce a new eight-speed automatic
transmission and an existing six-speed transmission; $31.7 million in Bay City Power- Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
train, including $19.2 million to produce components for a new V6 engine and $12.5
million to produce components for the small Ecotec gas engine; and $29.4 million in Design and Production
Bedford Castings, including $19 million to produce components for the small gas en- Production Manager Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
gine and $10.4 million to produce components for the new eight-speed and existing six-
Manager of International Periodicals and
speed transmissions.
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman
Also, GM is increasing powertrain investment in plants in Romulus and Saginaw,
Mich., to $646 million for supporting production of the new V6 engine. This consists of Advertising
a $41 million increase to $256 million for Saginaw Metal Castings Operations to pro- National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
duce castings for the new V6 engine and a $5 million increase to $390 million for Ro- Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca
mulus Engine Operations to build the new V6 engines. Advertising Sales Representative Sandra Jorgensen
Combined, the two investments will retain about 1650 jobs at the six facilities. Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
Indiana Foundry Records One Million Worker Hours Subscriptions Representative Tabetha Moore
without a Lost Time Accident

Bremen Castings Inc., Bremen, Ind., a family-owned foundry and machine shop, has American Welding Society
recorded one million worker hours without a lost-time accident, which is defined as an 8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166
occurrence that resulted in a fatality, permanent disability, or lost time from work of (305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
one day or shift. Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
“We’ve implanted strategies and procedures to make sure that each and every em- D. L. Doench, Chair
ployee is accountable for each other’s safety while at work,” said President J. B. Brown. Hobart Brothers Co.
He added the executive team analyzes “near miss” reports, filed by employees when S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair
they notice something amiss, to determine changes that would prevent accidents from ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
occurring in the future. J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
Broadwind Energy Wins $49 Million in Tower Orders T. Coco, Victor Technologies International
L. Davis, ORS Nasco
Broadwind Energy, Inc., Cicero, Ill., recently announced $49 million in tower orders D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg.
from U.S. wind turbine manufacturers. This includes the following: $35 million for tow- J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
ers serving various domestic wind projects that will be produced in its Manitowoc, Wis., F. H. Kasnick, Praxair
facility for delivery during 2013 and $14 million for producing towers in its Abilene, Tex., D. Levin, Airgas
facility with delivery scheduled for the second half of 2013. E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant
“We’ve seen a significant improvement in activity, and we are quoting orders for 2014 R. Madden, Hypertherm
delivery as the wind energy industry recovers from the downturn at the end of 2012,” D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
said Peter C. Duprey, company president and CEO. J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
D. Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises
National Safety Council Accepting Submissions N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering
for 2013 Robert W. Campbell Award J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
The National Safety Council (NSC), Itasca, Ill., invites worldwide organizations to D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
apply for the 2013 Robert W. Campbell Award. Presented annually, it is given to an or- S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
ganization that integrates environmental, health, and safety management into the core E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
of its business operations and understands this is critical to its people, planet, and profit.
N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
“We are able to capture the best practices of our honorees through the development R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
of case studies detailing their continuous improvement process...we can then share these
lessons learned in boardrooms and classrooms worldwide,” said Janet Froetscher, NSC
president and CEO. Copyright © 2013 by American Welding Society in both printed and elec-
tronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
Organizations can take a ten-question quiz at to determine opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
whether they are ready to apply for the award. More information can be found at of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not in-
tended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the along with application criteria. Final submittals must be postmarked part of potential users.
by May 31.◆

6 MAY 2013
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DTE Energy Foundation Makes $1 Million Gift to

Support Career Technology Center
The DTE Energy Foundation recently
made a $1 million contribution to support
the capital campaign for a new Career
Technology Center at Monroe County
Community College (MCCC), Monroe,
The $17 million, 60,000-sq-ft center is
scheduled to open in the fall.
It will allow updating and expansion
of existing programs now housed in the
East and West Technology buildings. In-
cluded are program areas such as weld-
ing, nuclear engineering, construction,
computer-aided drafting and manufactur- Pictured with the presentation check are (from left) Fred Shell, vice president
ing, electronics, mechanical engineering of corporate and governmental affairs, DTE Energy, and president of the DTE
and automation, quality assurance, and Energy Foundation; Dr. David Nixon, president, Monroe County Community
automotive engineering and service with College (MCCC); Ron May, senior vice president, major enterprise projects,
an emphasis on hybrid and battery DTE Energy; and William J. Bacarella Jr., chair, board of trustees, MCCC.
Additionally, the center will provide
facilities and equipment for developing programs in advanced manufacturing; renewable energies such as wind, solar,
and fuel cell technology; and sustainable and green technologies.
The center is being built to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver Standards. It will feature the fol-
lowing: a geothermal system; industrial technology division and faculty offices; a computer classroom; and labs for weld-
ing, automation, automotive, construction, electronics, manufacturing, materials, mechanical design, metrology, and re-
newable/nuclear energies.
MCCC Board Chairman William J. Bacarella Jr. added that the college is developing a program to provide more edu-
cational opportunities for young people in southeastern Michigan, while helping to diversify the state’s future work force.
The state of Michigan is financing half the center’s construction costs. The college has committed to funding the other
half through existing funds and a capital campaign.
More information is available at

Washington Governor Creates Weld

on Stateʼs Newest 144-Car Ferry
Washington Governor Jay Inslee kicked off the construction
of M/V Samish, the state’s newest 144-car ferry, by creating the
vessel’s first weld — with the initials of his grandson, Brody Robert
Inslee, into the keel — at Vigor Industrial’s Seattle shipyard.
Vigor CEO Frank Foti welcomed speakers, including Chris
Morgan, vice president of US Fab, the Vigor company building
the ferry; Patty Lent, Bremerton mayor; David Moseley, Wash-
ington State Department of Transportation’s assistant secretary;
and Paula Hammond, Washington’s secretary of transportation.
“More than 200 people will work on this ferry here at Vigor.
Hundreds more skilled craftspeople will build critical compo-
nents of the boat at our subcontractors around the region,” Mor-
gan said.
As he concluded the event, Foti called people’s attention to
the drydock outside the assembly hall where the first 144-car
ferry, Tokitae, is also under construction. US Fab achieved a mile- Washington State Governor Jay Inslee welds the initials of his grand-
stone when workers moved its 270 × 80 × 45 ft superstructure child at the keel laying ceremony for the state’s newest ferry, Samish,
onto the hull while both structures were in floating drydocks. at Vigor Industrial’s Seattle shipyard. (Photo by Stuart Isett/Vigor.)

8 MAY 2013
NI May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 12:59 PM Page 9

Miller to Invest in Regional Engineering

and Robotics Students
Miller Electric Mfg. Co., Appleton, Wis., recently announced
an initiative to promote engineering and robotics education in
the Fox Valley area. This includes $40,000 in scholarships to stu-
dents attending the University of Wisconsin-Fox Valley (UWFox)
and employee mentors for these students.
Starting with the fall 2013 semester, scholarships will be
granted for two school years, with $20,000 a year going to pro-
vide financial assistance to UWFox engineering and robotics stu-
dents enrolled through the Fox Valley engineering program. They
are offered through the ITW Foundation, the charitable outreach
of Miller parent company, Illinois Tool Works (ITW), with the
University of Wisconsin-Fox Valley Foundation, Inc.
In addition, Miller and UWFox have established three local
robotics teams with the Boys & Girls Club of Appleton. With the
help of eight Miller employee mentors, they will build robots to
compete in regional VEX Robotics Competitions.

Berry Metal Enhances Developing

Energy-Efficient Ironmaking Technology
Berry Metal Co., Harmony, Pa., in collaboration with AISI
and the University of Utah, is lending its expertise to developing
a flash ironmaking process aimed at establishing an energy-
efficient and environmentally preferred alternative to the tradi-
tional blast furnace process.
The $8.9 million project has been selected by the Department
of Energy as a part of its Innovative Manufacturing Initiative.
For info go to

For info go to

NI May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:00 PM Page 10

This effort has seen support from the government and within the attracted participants from around the globe.
steel industry due to its potential for cutting down energy use Fu Chunyan of Beijing Railway Signal Co. Ltd. in China earned
and environmental emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The first place. She won $1000; a new Metcal soldering station; a Man-
process utilizes direct gaseous reduction of fine iron concentrates tis inspection system; and a Sovella ESD footrest. In addition,
to make iron and is being powered by natural gas. second place went to Viengkeo (Gail) Sourivongs of Connecti-
Berry’s role in the project so far, and in the future, will be cut-based Imperial Electronic Assembly, and the third place prize
bringing the technology to life through designing and manufac- went to Wang He of China’s Changchun Institute of Optics.
turing the equipment, enabling practical application. The contestants built a functional electronics assembly within
a 1-h time limit that was judged in accordance with IPC-A-610E
Class 3 criteria, production speed, and overall electrical
IPC Crowns Winner of Hand Soldering functionality.
World Championship Upcoming hand soldering competitions are also planned for
Malaysia, Thailand, and India. For more details, visit

Coxreels Celebrates Its 90th Anniversary

Coxreels, Tempe, Ariz., a manufacturer of hose, cord, and
cable reels, is celebrating its 90th anniversary this year. The third-
generation, family owned and operated business was established
in 1923 as Cox Air Gauge. Originally aimed at enhancing the au-
tomotive service station market, its of-
fering has grown into a global product
used in more than 24 industries. Many
patents have marked the company’s
milestones. It also designs, builds, and
Fu Chunyan of Beijing Railway Signal Co. Ltd. accepts her first supports all its products in the United
place IPC World Championship hand soldering competition award States.
from John Mitchell, IPC president and CEO.
Coxreels has been in business for 90
years. Displayed is one of the company’s
The first IPC World Championship hand soldering competi- oldest known catalogs from when it was
tion at IPC APEX EXPO® in San Diego, Calif., on February 21, known as Coxwells Inc.

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10 MAY 2013
NI May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 8:28 AM Page 11

Industry Notes
• Camfil Farr Air Pollution Control (APC), Jonesboro, Ark., a
producer of dust and fume collectors to clean up industrial
processes, plus an American Welding Society and International
Thermal Spray Association member, will now operate as Cam-
fil Air Pollution Control (APC). The new Web address for the
company is

• Masterweld Products, Coplay, Pa., a provider of gas metal arc,

gas tungsten arc, and plasma torches as well as consumables,
has expanded its repair department to include the Houston,
Tex., location. The facility will begin operations on May 1.

• Engine manufacturers, including KOHLER Engines, are warn-

ing users of gas-powered lawnmowers and other outdoor power
equipment to be vigilant when fueling. Blends with more than
10% ethanol, such as E15 and E85, should not be used. They
can cause permanent, irreversible damage not covered under

• The Aluminum Association, Arlington, Va., and Metal Powder

Industries Federation, Princeton, N.J., signed a memorandum
of understanding to share metal powder safety information.

• Goodwill Industries of Northwest North Carolina and Forsyth

Technical Community College, Winston-Salem, N.C., have
teamed up to offer welding classes for skills sought by area
companies such as Siemens, Caterpillar, and John Deere-
Hitachi. For more details, visit

• Desert NDT, LLC, Odessa, Tex., has acquired T&K Inspection,

Inc., Williston, N.D. Co-owners Jerry Thompson and Ken Kain
will continue to oversee local office operations.◆

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May International Update_Layout 1 4/16/13 1:57 PM Page 12

New Facility Supports Solid-State Laser the sales organization and customers with technical training semi-
nars and detailed research into material applications. It will also
Development provide materials analysis for other Sandvik business areas, specif-
ically Sandvik Construction and Sandvik Machining Solutions.

Wall Colmonoy Joins Forces with

Wall Colmonoy’s European headquarters in Pontardawe, Wales,
has reached a distributor partnership agreement with Portugal-
based supplier, Metaglobal LDA, to sell surfacing and brazing
products, and castings to the Iberian region. The agreement will
The TRUMPF Development Center, with a total floor space of strengthen Wall Colmonoy’s presence, market coverage, and sup-
6200 sq m, contains office space and development laboratories for port to customers in the Iberian region. Metaglobal LDA was
solid-state lasers. founded in 2006, and has facilities in Lisbon and Leiria, Portugal.
Its sales offices and staff will offer customers support on products,
TRUMPF, a manufacturer of lasers for industrial use, has services, and technologies in industries such as glass, oil and gas,
expanded its primary solid-state laser development facility by erect- automotive, and aerospace.
ing a new building in the town of Schramberg-Sulgen, Germany. Richard Shaw, commercial director of Wall Colmonoy Ltd., said,
TRUMPF Laser GmbH + Co. KG has augmented this corpo- “We are excited to partner with a distributor that can expand our
rate site with a structure offering 6200 sq m of floor space. The two- product reach and deliver technical support that customers can rely
story structure, measuring 52 × 52 m, houses laser testing labora- on.” Certain global accounts will continue to be managed directly
tories, a climate control chamber, and the building’s utility services by Wall Colmonoy Ltd.; however, all new inquiries for Spain and
on the first floor. The upper floor consists of offices and conference Portugal will be handled by Metaglobal.
rooms. With an investment of $17.5 million and 17 months of con-
struction work, development sections at Schramberg, which were
previously located in a number of different buildings around the Westinghouse to Support Argentinaʼs
site, are now consolidated under a single roof. The company plans Steam Generator Replacement
to use the freed up floor space to expand its production capacities
for solid-state lasers.

Chinese Research Center to Feature

Specialized Laboratories

Westinghouse will provide welding services in support of

project Life Extension Embalse Nuclear Power Plant.
(Photo courtesy of Nucleoeléctrica S. A.)
The Sandvik Materials Technology management team and Zhenjiang
local government officials turned the first soil on the site of the new Westinghouse Electric Co. recently announced that its sub-
research center. sidiary, PCI Energy Services, LLC (PCI), has signed a contract
with Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) to provide engi-
neering, specialty pipe cutting, and welding services in support of
Sandvik Materials Technology, a global engineering compa-
the replacement steam generator program at Argentina’s
ny, plans to invest in a new high-tech research and development
Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. This work is part of the overall
center adjacent to its manufacturing facilities in Zhenjiang,
refurbishment program at Embalse to extend the plant’s life by
China. A symbolic ground-breaking ceremony was held on
up to an additional 30 years.
March 6. Building work on the 1440-sq-m center is set to begin
this summer, with plans to be operational in early 2014. It will Rubén Semmoloni, NA-SA project director, Life Extension
accommodate specialized laboratories, a learning center, Embalse Nuclear Power Plant, said, “NA-SA values the engage-
offices, and an exhibition area. ment and participation of PCI in the Embalse life extension proj-
ZZ Zhang, Sandvik China president, said, “The laboratories ect, which will further enhance plant safety and operation for
will be equipped to the highest standards with modern analyti- years to come.”
cal equipment, including scanning electron microscopes and Although the engineering scope of the work for the CANDU-6
advanced mechanical testing facilities.” pressurized heavy water reactor plant is underway, the major site
The center will support not only production units, but also activities are expected to be executed during 2014. ♦

12 MAY 2013
fronius_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:49 PM Page 13

/ Battery Charging Systems / Welding Technology / Solar Electronics

/ Fronius is internationally recognized as the welding clad

leader in process and equipment design. The only manufacturer
of cladding equipment that is vertically integrated which
allows us to maximize the system‘s deposited weld quality and
throughput. With the support of a global service organization,
Fronius cladding systems have and will continue to set the
standard in the cladding industry.

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For Info go to
Stainless Q+A MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:18 PM Page 14


Q: We have fabricated some 304 stainless

steel tanks using ER308LSi filler metal.
Our customer specified the 304, rather
than 304L, out of cost concerns. Ordinary
tap water is corroding the tanks, beside
the welds. One corroded tank was exam-
ined and found to be sensitized in the
heat-affected zone (HAZ), where the cor-
rosion is occurring. Can we do anything
about the remaining tanks?

A: Sensitization was previously addressed

in the November 2007 Stainless Q&A col-
umn. Briefly, sensitization occurs in those
portions of the heat-affected zone (HAZ)
that reach a peak temperature between
about 480° and 870°C (900° and 1600°F)
when there is enough carbon (more than
0.03%) available to produce precipitation
of chromium-rich carbides along grain
boundaries. Higher peak temperatures
than 870°C either allow chromium to dif-
fuse fast enough to keep up with the car-
bon in forming carbides, or actually cause
the carbides to dissolve. Peak tempera-
tures below about 480°C don’t allow Fig. 1 — Sensitized 304 stainless steel. The chromium carbides responsible for sensitization
enough carbon diffusion to form signifi- appear as black specks along the austenite grain boundaries.
cant chromium carbides during welding.
The carbides have the general formula
M23C6, where M is any metallic element,
but chromium is by far the most concen-
trated metallic element in the carbides.
The carbon atom is a very small atom
that can diffuse rapidly through the stain-
less steel matrix to the grain boundaries, so
that carbon from anywhere in a grain can
reach the grain boundary in this tempera-
ture range. But the chromium atom is a
large atom that diffuses slowly, so that only
chromium from very close to the grain
boundary participates in formation of the
carbides. Formation of the carbides then
tends to produce a chromium-depleted
zone beside the grain boundary. This
chromium-depleted zone, if exposed to a
corrosive medium, is preferentially at-
tacked and dissolved. The corrosion fol-
lows the chromium-depleted zones beside
the grain boundaries and a continuous
network of corrosion along grain bound-
aries causes grains to separate from the
weldment. Figure 1 shows the networks of
chromium carbides along the grain bound-
Fig. 2 — Graphic display of the effects of time and temperature on chromium carbide pre-
aries in a 304 HAZ.
cipitation and intergranular corrosion (IC) in 304 stainless steel.
First, one might ask why your customer
would specify 304 instead of 304L. The
concern about cost made sense many years
ago, but it really doesn’t now. As recently decarburizing was designed to contain William A. Krivsky and his colleagues at
as 1955, the only available methods of pro- only about 2% Cr. Then after decarbur- what was then the Linde Division of Union
ducing low-carbon stainless steel involved ization, expensive low-carbon fer- Carbide Corp. developed the argon-
decarburizing the melt under oxidizing rochromium was added to the melt to oxygen decarburization (AOD) process.
conditions that removed chromium to the reach the intended chromium content in In the AOD process, much cheaper
slag (Ref. 1). As a result, the melt during the stainless steel. But around 1955, Dr. high-carbon ferrochromium was intro-

14 MAY 2013
Stainless Q+A MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:19 PM Page 15

duced into the melt and an argon-oxygen The second heat treatment involves References
gas mixture was forced into the melt. considerably lower temperature, but
Combustion of the carbon raised the tem- much longer time. The idea behind this 1. Krivsky, W. A. 1973. Stainless His-
perature of the melt and removed the car- second heat treatment is to allow the car- tory, Metallurgical and Materials Transac-
bon. As the carbon decreased, the oxygen bides to form, but to provide enough time tions, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 1439–1477.
content of the gas stream was decreased. at temperature to also allow chromium to 2. Folkhard, E. 1988. Welding Metal-
Then ferrosilicon was added to recover diffuse back into the chromium-depleted lurgy of Stainless Steels. Springer-Verlag,
some oxidized chromium from the slag. zones and eliminate them. This can re- Vienna.
The decarburization could be stopped at quire more than 100 h at a temperature
whatever carbon level was desired. The like 760°C (1400°F). Figure 2 illustrates
argon cost was more than offset by using the effect of temperature on chromium
cheap high-carbon ferrochromium in- carbide precipitation and on intergranular
stead of expensive low-carbon fer- corrosion (labeled “IC attack” in the fig- DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president,
rochromium for the alloying. ure). It can be seen from this figure, re- Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants, Inc.
It took about 15 years to fully debug the produced from Folkhard (Ref. 2), that He is treasurer of the IIW and a member of
AOD process, but since about 1970, the long times at intermediate temperatures the A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
AOD process has been the preferred can be used to heal the damage from sen- Filler Metals, D1K Subcommittee on Stain-
method of stainless steel refining. It com- sitization. The advantages of this ap-
pletely dominates stainless steel refining proach over annealing and quenching is less Steel Structural Welding; and WRC
in the Western World. Today, I am told that distortion will be much less (in part Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels
that the price premium for 304L over 304 because no quench is required at the end and Nickel-Base Alloys. He is a past chair of
is about 1.5 to 2 cents/lb. That price dif- of the treatment) and scaling will not the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Al-
ference is hardly worth considering in view occur although the steel will be oxidized. lied Materials, and served as AWS president
of the likelihood of sensitization when So cleanup afterward is less. But 100 h at
(2005–2006). Send questions to damian@
welding 304. 760°C is not cheap.
There is a second reason that 304 might In conclusion, use of 304 in a weldment, or Damian Kotecki,
be specified. Its specified minimum tensile that will see corrosive service is not a good c/o Welding Journal Dept., 8669 Doral
strength is 75 ksi (515 MPa) vs. 70 ksi (485 idea. The fix is expensive.♦ Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.
MPa) for 304L, and the specified mini-
mum yield strength of 304 is 30 ksi (205
MPa) vs. 25 ksi (170 MPa) according to
ASTM A240. However, you can purchase
stainless steel that is dual certified as both
304 and 304L (i.e., it is below 0.03% car-
bon but still meets the higher strength re-
quirement of 304). That would take care
of the strength concern.

want to land a job

The above discussion does not solve
your problem, but hopefully it will keep
others from making the same mistake.
Once 304 (or any other nonlow-carbon

after graduation?
stainless steel) has been sensitized, there
are only two ways of removing the sensiti-
zation; both involve heat treatment, and
neither is very palatable. The first is a so- Employers want commercial divers that are internationally certified.
lution anneal followed immediately by
water quench. The annealing temperature
of about 1040°C (1900°F), for an hour or NICAL INS
so, dissolves all of the chromium carbides


and diffuses chromium back into the


chromium-depleted zones beside the CDA Technical Institute’s

te’s Commercial
Co Diver
grain boundaries. The water quench from
the annealing temperature is necessary to Pr
Program offers the internationally
lly recognized
keep the carbon in solution. The problem Unr
Unrestricted Surface Supplied
ed Divers
Div Certification.
with this approach, however, besides cost,
is that the stainless steel oxidizes heavily at
the annealing temperature and tends to Start your career training in an internatio
nally recognized Commercial Diving and
nd Underwater
Unde Welding program.
distort both at the annealing temperature
and during the quench. A cylindrical
shape, such as a pipe, lends itself to this ap-
proach because the cylindrical shape is
quite stiff, and entering the quench from
one end of an open cylinder greatly limits
distortion. But a tank does not lend itself Financial aid available for
or those who qualify • Approved for Veterans
eterans Benefits
readily to this approach. If you were to an- For more information about graduation
raduation rates, the median debt of students who completed the
neal and quench your tanks, I believe you program
ram and other important information,
inf visit
would need to rigidly support the tanks to
maintain their present shape, and you For info go to
would have to descale after the quench.

Fellow Letter 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:11 AM Page 16

Friends and Colleagues:

I want to encourage you to submit nomination packages for those individuals whom you feel
have a history of accomplishments and contributions to our profession consistent with the standards
set by the existing Fellows. In particular, I would make a special request that you look to the most
senior members of your Section or District in considering members for nomination. In many cases,
the colleagues and peers of these individuals who are the most familiar with their contributions, and
who would normally nominate the candidate, are no longer with us. I want to be sure that we take
the extra effort required to make sure that those truly worthy are not overlooked because no obvious
individual was available to start the nomination process.

For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Fellow nomination form in this issue
of the Welding Journal. Please remember, we all benefit in the honoring of those who have made
major contributions to our chosen profession and livelihood. The deadline for submission is July 1,
2013. The Committee looks forward to receiving numerous Fellow nominations for 2014


Thomas M. Mustaleski
Chair, AWS Fellows Selection Committee
weld engineering_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:55 PM Page 19

For Info go to

RWMA May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 2:30 PM Page 20

Q: I am trying to make resistance weld- table in the control and see that we are in range, the output of the welding trans-
ing seams using a single-phase constant the 25–30% range so I know I am not over- former is a series of very small heat pulses
current welding control and am having a working the welding machine. Do you and a lot of spaces in between. This
hard time holding the tolerance required have any suggestions? makes control of the process very sensi-
for this military project. We are using a tive. No matter how good your control is,
150-kVA seam welding machine with 3⁄8- A: The problem here is a misunder- it will be very difficult to achieve the de-
in.-wide welding wheels on 0.040-in. CRS. standing of how a resistance welding ma- sired results with this welding machine.
The welding transformer tap switch is set chine works. Because you are using the Welding machine size is also often mis-
to the #1 position. I checked the learn control in this very low heat percentage understood. The idea that you need a

Fig. 1 — 99% weld heat. Fig. 2 — 50% weld heat.

Gentec is a total solution provider for your welding, cutting, and gas control needs.

For info go to

20 MAY 2013
RWMA May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:01 PM Page 21

Fig. 3 — 30% weld heat. Fig. 4 — 460-V welding machine operating on a 230-V line
at 60% weld heat.

welding machine large enough to join the has no heat. The upper scan shows the each half cycle. The upper scan shows the
thickest metal can also mean it will be way RMS current that results from this firing. RMS current from this setting. A very
too large to do the smaller thickness com- Figure 3 shows what happens with a small change in this heat setting makes a
binations. Some of this problem can be heat setting of 30%, which is similar to large change in the RMS current, and a
overcome by using the welding machine your setup. Note that the amount of time control working in this range will be un-
with the transformer tap switch set at the that voltage is being conducted to the stable and cannot be accurate.
high settings for the thicker metal weld- welding transformer is very small com- A good rule of thumb is to use a resist-
ing, and then going to the low tap switch pared to the time of no voltage flow in ance welding machine with a transformer
setting for thin metals. Sadly, many of the
newer U.S.-made welding machines and
most of the imported welding machines
do not have a transformer tap switch and,
therefore, lose this ability.
To understand why using a welding ma-
chine at a very low heat percent setting is
a problem, you have to understand how a
welding control provides heat in response
to the program settings. The process is
called phase shifting. This is accomplished
by having the welding control fire the SCR
contactor (solid-state switch that conducts
voltage to the welding transformer) at dif-
ferent time delays in each half cycle of the
line power.
If you want to use all of the line volt- Welders,
age, the control will turn on the SCR con-
tactor just after the current in the weld- Positioners,
ing transformer goes to zero. Since a weld-
ing transformer is an inductive device, this
will happen a little after the line voltage
goes to zero.
ciiallt E
q ipm
Figure 1 shows a welding machine op-
erating at a 99% heat setting. The lower
red trace shows the current going into the
welding transformer primary. Note that
the current is conducted over the entire
sine wave of line power less a small notch
at each zero crossing. This would be about
the same as if you shorted the SCR con-
tactor and put the entire available line
voltage into the welding machine trans-
former. The upper blue scan shows the
RMS current created by this AC firing.
This RMS current is proportional to the
output of the welding transformer.
Figure 2 shows a current scan for a heat
setting of 50%. Note that about half of the 1-866-733-3272
sine wave is being used, and the other half
For info go to

RWMA May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:01 PM Page 22

tap switch setting that will produce the de- form a nugget. When you try to make the and compensate for any slight misalign-
sired RMS welding current when the con- second spot weld, some of the voltage ment of the parts.
trol’s heat setting is between 60 and 90%. being conducted from the upper to the Another big advantage to using pro-
The recommended upper limit of 90% is lower electrode finds an easy path through jections on this part is that you can use flat
to allow the welding control to have the the fused metal of the first weld nugget. electrodes. These electrodes will have
ability to increase heat to compensate for This is called shunting. Because of shunt- much longer life than a small spot weld-
incoming line voltage variations. It also ing, the second weld will be considerably ing electrode, and weld strength will not
allows for changes in the welding machine weaker than the first weld. When you do be dependent on how well the electrodes
secondary impedance as ferrous metal of the third and fourth welds, the same prob- are dressed.◆
the part is being pushed into the welding lem continues, but at an even greater level
machine throat. of strength loss.
There are several solutions to this type Making four welds this close together
of control problem: will, if you are lucky, produce a total
The first is to set the welding machine strength of about 11⁄2 times that of a single
transformer tap switch to a lower number weld. And since the diameter of each weld
and then use a higher weld heat setting. nugget will be small enough to fit into this
Unfortunately, in your case, you are al- tab, the total strength of all four welds will
ready at the lowest setting. be very low as you have observed. ROGER HIRSCH is past chair of the
Next, use the correct size welding ma- The solution is to use welding projec- RWMA, a standing committee of the
chine for the job. If you have a smaller tions on the tabs. This will allow the weld- American Welding Society. He is also
kVA seam welding machine, move the job ing current to make good separate welds president of Unitrol Electronics, Inc.,
there. As an example, a 75-kVA seam at each projection in one pass of the weld- Northbrook, Ill., a manufacturer of re-
welding machine will probably find the ing machine, and the strength of the over- sistance welding controls and process
proper heat setting in the 60% range to all joint will be much closer to the strength water chillers. Send your comments
give control back to the system. of a single projection multiplied by the and questions to Roger Hirsch at
If this is not possible, and if you are number being used., or
working on a 460-V power line, connect In this case, since you are welding a flat by mail to Roger Hirsch, c/o Welding
the welding machine to a 230-V line with tab to a curved surface, it would be best Journal, 8669 NW Doral Blvd., Suite
the results as shown in Fig. 4. Be sure to to use two oval-shaped projections placed 130, Doral, FL 33166.
change the voltage select jumpers in the at right angles to the radius of the part.
control to 230 V. Now you will be in the This will allow the maximum weld area
60% range since the line voltage ampli-
tude will be lower and you will be using
more of each ½ cycle of this line voltage
to create the desired RMS current for
welding. This will not increase the load on
the power lines since the turns ratio of the Change of Address?
welding transformer will remain the same.
Note that you can operate a 460-V Moving?
transformer on a 230-V line, but you can-
not operate a 230-V transformer on a 460-
V line without damaging the transformer. Make sure delivery of your Welding Journal is not interrupted. Con-
Compare this to Fig. 3, which shows tact the Membership Department with your new address informa-
the same transformer operating on 460 V tion — (800) 443-9353, ext. 204;
at a 30% weld heat setting. You can eas-
ily see how much more stable the process
is when more of each half-cycle of current
is being used.

Q: I have a project to join a small hanger

strap to the top bell of a fire extinguisher.
The hanger strap has two flat welding
tabs. Each tab has a flat welding area of
about 1⁄2 × 3⁄4 in. The drawing specifies four REPRINTS REPRINTS
small spot welds on each tab. I tried doing
this and cannot get very strong welds. To order custom reprints
What am I doing wrong? of 100 or more of articles in
A: The problem here is in the hands of the Welding Journal,
designer. Many people who design sheet- call FosteReprints at
metal parts do not have a full understand- (219) 879-8366 or
ing of how spot welding works and, as a (800) 382-0808.
result, specify parts that cannot be suc-
cessfully welded. This part seems to be Request for quotes can be faxed to (219) 874-2849.
such a case. You can e-mail FosteReprints at
When you make the first of the four
small spot welds, you fuse the metal to

22 MAY 2013
otc daihen_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 3:09 PM Page 23

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Touch panel and jog Easy quantitative Space-saving design
dial ensure easy op- management of welding with reduced
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P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:08 PM Page 24



Wire Feeder Designed for Heavy-Duty GMAW and FCAW

The SuitCase X-Treme 12VS voltage-sensing wire

feeder has been designed for welding in heavy-duty
field applications such as construction, structural
steel erection, heavy equipment repair, and mobile
fabrication. A wire delivery system eases wire load-
ing and provides minimal resistance in feeding. The
drive motor assembly and integrated tachometer en-
sures the wire feed speed accuracy throughout the
day so it performs to precise parameters, whether
welding with small-diameter solid wires (0.023 in.) or
large-diameter cored wires (5⁄64 in.). The wire delivery
system makes it easier to load the 12-in. wire spools
and reduces drag on the wire by eliminating the inlet
guide and allowing the wire to roll over the large ra-
dius of the drive rolls. It also features a visual scale
on the wire pressure knob and allows welders to dial
in tension settings. Other features include a re-
designed placement of the shielding gas inlet (for
GMAW and dual-shielded FCAW applications) to better protect the fitting from damage, and a wire speed dual schedule
feature that reduces wire feed speed to 87.5% of standard speed; this feature requires a dual schedule gun or switch (sold
separately). Additional highlights include SunVision™ digital meters; a portable polypropylene case with built-in slide
rails and ability to open the door to change wire in a vertical position; and potted/trayed main printed circuit boards. It is
compatible with CC or CV DC power sources or engine-driven welding machines/generators.

Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
(800) 426-4553

System Transforms GMA hammer, 100 2-mm pins, and a replace- gonomics have been developed and tested
ment slide hammer knurled locking cam. with professional welders and the Finnish
Gun into Stud Welding Tool Institute of Occupational Health. When
The Eastwood Co. a welder uses the pistol grip with the han- dle, its cable passes above the wrist and
(800) 343-9353 its center of gravity is closer to the elbow.
When welding with the product in a hori-
GMAW Gun Handle Reduces zontal or vertical position, the upper arm
Strain on Shoulders, Arms is lower. The pistol grip does not require
any squeezing of the handle; it allows a
relaxed hold. The cable passing over the
lower arm balances the handle. It is com-
patible with most Abicor Binzel®, Tbi®,
and Kemppi® torches.
The company’s GMA stud weld system Ergowelder Oy Ltd.
transforms any Tweco®-style GMA gun
into a stud welding tool, which enables +358 (0)44 2779953
users to remove dings in doors, hoods,
deck lids, or quarter panels. After the pins
are welded into place using the product,
Catalog Showcases Line
pull the metal flush with the slide ham- of Women’s Welding Gear
mer, cut and grind the pins, and a prop- The company’s GMAW gun handle al-
erly shaped surface ready to finish is lows two working positions, traditional The 2013 Welding Gear catalog intro-
achieved. It includes a GMA stud nozzle and pistol grip. It also reduces strain on duces the new Jessi Combs women’s line,
attachment, precision-balanced slide shoulders and arms. The handle’s er- which includes the VIKING™ 1840 Series

24 MAY 2013
P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:09 PM Page 25

Welding Machine Useful Two-Gas Adjustable Mixer

for Shipyards Configured for Hydrogen

The portable VR 5000 case has been

developed for dusty, damp, and salty en-
vironments. Used in combination with
GMA power sources from the TransSteel The company’s SuperFlash Mini-PGM
series for separate wire feed units, it gives t two-gas adjustable mixer can now be con-
welders a system for shipbuilding, oil-rig figured for use with hydrogen. Users can
construction, railway-vehicle manufac- customize hydrogen/argon or hydrogen/
turing, and site erection. With external nitrogen mixes to best support their
Amp Angel™ autodarkening welding hel- dimensions of 507 200 320 mm, it fits process, creating their own mixed gas for
met, Women’s Shadow™ welding jacket, through any manhole of up to 350 mm in GMAW, GTAW, or plasma gouging/cut-
and several glove options sized for female diameter. The unit weighs less than 22 lb ting/welding. Weighing 7.5 lb and using
hands. New offerings include custom em- and has interconnecting hose packs of up less than 1 ft3 of space, the Mini-PGM
broidery, a new facial protection category, to 229 ft long (for gas-cooled welding sys- provides enough gas for eight welding ma-
welding brushes, welding curtains, and tems). It is designed for use with an chines at approximately 40–50 ft3/h per
welding blankets. The catalog’s latest edi- 11-lb wire spool 200 mm in diameter. The machine. Each mixer is fully adjustable
tion may be requested from the contact feeder unit is offered in water- or gas- and comes standard with a mounting
information below. cooled, or synergic versions. bracket.
The Lincoln Electric Co. Fronius International GmbH SuperFlash
(888) 355-3213 (877) 376-6487 (888) 327-7306

For info go to

P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:10 PM Page 26

Materials Testing Company

Updates Web Site

The company has launched an updated

Web site with new features that provide
easier access to frequently used materi-
als, as well as all of the information and
tools found on the previous site. Calibra-
For info go to

tion customers will now find a tabbed sec-

tion dedicated to the capabilities and serv-
ices provided by LTI Metrology, the cali-
bration and dimensional inspection divi-
sion of the company. The Quick Service
Form, accessible under the contact tab or
with the contact us button, provides a con-
venient way to request information on ma-
terials testing, calibration, quality assur-
ance, billing, pickup, and delivery service.
The new site provides easy navigation and
access through the homepage to informa-
tion targeted to specific customers.

Laboratory Testing, Inc.
(800) 219-9095

Fluids Eliminate Hazards

from Mineral Deposits
The company’s new welding chemical
products include a heavy-duty antispatter
and two glycol-based cooling fluids. The
antispatter, which is nonflammable and
solvent based, quickly evaporates to pro-
vide an effective surface coating and
eliminates the need to grind or brush the
surface after welding. The cooling fluids,
designed for use in plasma, GTAW,
GMAW, and resist-
ance welding systems,
eliminate the hazards
of mineral deposits.
The coolants also
For info go to

lubricate the pump,

liner, and gasket and
seal. They are ther-
mally stable and have
dielectric properties
that make them suit-
able for plasma and
arc welding systems.

Thermacut, Inc.
(800) 932-8312

26 MAY 2013
P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:10 PM Page 27

Earplugs Available in
Three Damping Levels
The DI Red 25 dB is
a CE-certified indus-
trial hearing protection
earplug that incorpo-
rates DEC sound tech-
nology. Available in
three damping levels,
this universal plug pro- Manufacturin
vides acoustic protec-
tion in a discrete minia-
ture package and is designed for noisy en- Flux Cored
vironments, either at work or leisure. The
product allows air to enter the ear, reduc-
ing the occlusion effect normally experi-
enced when using earplugs. All of the
elding Wire
company’s products are designed to be in- off wheels, mounted points, and other
terchangeable and upgradable to custom types of grinding, blending, deburring, COBALT
fit molds. and finishing products. The catalog in-
cludes usage tips; easy-to-read charts with
Crescendo sizes, shapes, and specifications; and QR codes to video demonstrations. New prod- NICKEL
(305) 463-9304 ucts include Type 27 Max Flex cotton-fiber
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P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:11 PM Page 28

Grinders Feature
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For info go to

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28 MAY 2013
harris_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:51 PM Page 29

For Info go to

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:53 PM Page 30

TOM MYERS is a senior
applications engineer,
The Lincoln Electric Co.,
Cleveland, Ohio,

Not Your Father’s

Gas Shielded
Flux Cored Fig. 1 — In years
past, a limited
number of FCAW-G

Electrodes electrode options

were offered to

FCAW-G consumables have steadily evolved into

application-specific productivity workhorses

lectrodes for the gas shielded, flux atively few variations in the formulations that was in essence a “one-size-fits-all”
cored arc welding (FCAW-G) of electrodes within a specific American product. This philosophy was partially
process were first developed in the Welding Society (AWS) classification. In successful in meeting the demands of the
late 1950s. Over the next 40 years or so, many cases, one particular electrode was welding market during this time. How-
manufacturers refined and improved intended to be used for a variety of ap- ever, today’s structural engineers and in-
these products, offering a fairly limited plications. Oftentimes it was intended to dustrial designers are increasingly speci-
line of carbon steel and low-alloy steel be used with either 100% carbon dioxide fying higher-strength, lower-weight steels
electrodes for either all-position welding (CO 2) shielding gas or a mixed argon for cost savings and productivity consid-
or flat and horizontal only (i.e., in-posi- (Ar)/CO2 shielding gas. erations, making these base materials a
tion) welding — Fig. 1. Back then, the general manufacturing popular choice in many industries.
During this time, there also were rel- philosophy was to develop an electrode These new specifications demand the

30 MAY 2013
Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:53 PM Page 31

Fig. 2 — The fast-freezing slag

system of all-position FCAW
electrodes allows for better out-
of-position welding capabilities.

need for low-alloy FCAW-G electrodes tion of new materials, combined with de- spool, and with the use of a wire feeder
that produce welds with increased ten- mands for more customized, efficient and welding gun, be fed continuously into
sile and yield strengths (compared to car- electrodes, manufacturers have been re- the weld joint.
bon steel electrodes) for welding these turning to their R&D drawing boards to Flux cored electrodes fall into two
higher-strength steels. Other applica- develop new gas shielded, flux cored con- fundamentally different categories: self-
tions require electrodes that produce sumables. shielded, flux cored electrodes (FCAW-
welds with improved impact properties. S) and gas shielded, flux cored electrodes
Generally, electrodes needed to produce Fundamentals and (FCAW-G).
welds with low-temperature toughness of Gas shielded, flux cored electrodes in-
at least 20 ft·lbf (27 J) at a test tempera- Advantages of FCAW corporate a double shielding system by
ture of 0°F (–18°C) or –20°F (–29°C). Electrodes using an external shielding gas as well as
Some applications now require these a slag system. The shielding gas is re-
same absorbed energy values at temper- Flux cored electrodes were originally quired to protect the arc and molten
atures of –40°F (–40°C) or even lower. developed as a higher productivity exten- metal from the atmosphere. It also re-
Similarly, operator demand for just sion of shielded metal arc welding sults in exceptionally smooth arc charac-
the “right” application-specific, flux (SMAW) electrodes. They are, in fact, teristics, compared to self-shielded elec-
cored electrode has steadily increased like a SMAW electrode turned inside out. trodes. They use either a rutile slag sys-
over the past five to ten years to keep up They consist of a steel tube (i.e., outer tem or a basic slag system. The rutile sys-
with a growing desire for increased weld steel sheath) with flux inside the tube or tem is the most common and is charac-
productivity, performance, and quality, at the electrode’s core, hence the name, terized by a smooth arc with complete
not to mention aesthetics. “flux core.” Because of this design, the slag coverage of the weld. The basic slag
Because of this increased specifica- electrode can be wound onto a coil or system, while producing a globular metal

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:54 PM Page 32

Fig. 3 — While the use of a one-size-

fits-all electrode for a wide range of
applications can deliver adequate
arc performance, a single electrode
cannot perform well in every appli-

transfer and thinner slag coverage, can

be more resistant to weld cold cracking.
Most FCAW-G electrodes are ideal
for all-position welding and all deliver
great mechanical properties with high
deposition rates. They are used effec-
tively in general shop fabrication, struc-
tural steel (including seismic applica-
tions), shipbuilding, offshore, pipeline,
and other applications.
Flux cored arc welding electrodes can
be used similarly to SMAW electrodes
with a few notable benefits in the process
itself. First, SMAW electrodes must be
fed manually into a weld joint, making
only short welds and resulting in a lot of
stop and restart areas in the weld. Restart
areas generally have a higher chance of
containing a weld defect than any other
part of the weld. With the FCAW process,
the weld can be made for as long as
welders can comfortably reach before
having to stop the arc and reposition
themselves. This results in fewer restart
areas in the weld and, ultimately, fewer
chances for weld defects.
The FCAW process also has a higher
operating factor than the SMAW process
(where operating factor (%) equals arc
time divided by total fabrication time).
It’s also easier to use. It operates at
higher current levels, which yields higher
deposition rates and higher productivity.
Finally, FCAW electrodes have higher
electrode efficiency than SMAW elec-
trodes. This means that more of the pur-
chased pounds (kg) of electrode end up
as deposited weld metal and less is lost
through stubs.
Flux cored electrodes, with their slag characteristics, making them ideal for Flux cored arc welding electrodes are
systems, also have inherent advantages thicker sections of steel plate. considered to be “fabricated” electrodes
over slagless processes, such as gas metal Flux cored arc welding electrodes also and, thus, provide a good platform for
arc welding (GMAW). The fast-freezing handle surface contaminants on steel manufacturing new low-alloy electrodes.
slag system of all-position-classified plate better than solid GMAW elec- The outer sheath on FCAW electrodes —
FCAW electrodes allows for better out- trodes. Not only are deoxidizers present even low-alloy types — are fabricated
of-position welding capability, including in the outer carbon steel sheath of FCAW from types of carbon steels that are either
vertical and overhead, as the slag helps electrodes, but deoxidizers, denitrifiers, strip-based or green rod-based, both of
hold the molten metal against gravity — and scavenger elements are also added which are commonly available from steel
Fig. 2. Flux cored electrodes produce to the core elements, while solid GMAW mills. As such, the core ingredients for
higher deposition rates when welding out electrodes can only rely on the deoxidiz- various FCAW electrodes then can be al-
of position than do GMAW consumables. ers that are present in the raw green rod tered to produce low-alloy weld deposits
In addition, many in-position-classified material, which is drawn down to make with differing mechanical properties.
FCAW electrodes have good penetration them. In contrast, low-alloy solid GMAW

32 MAY 2013
Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:54 PM Page 33

Fig. 4 — Some industries, such as

pipeline fabrication, often require
FCAW-G electrodes that produce
welds with a minimum low-temper-
ature toughness of 20 ft-lbf (27 J)
at –40°F (–40°C).

dioxide is an active gas, meaning that it

actively reacts with some of the elec-
trode’s alloys. Less alloy recovery from
the electrode occurs in the weld pool, re-
sulting in a slight decrease in mechani-
cal properties, such as ultimate tensile
strength and yield strength. Argon, an
inert gas, is nonreactive in the arc. There-
fore, the more argon in a mixed gas, the
more alloy recovery that occurs in the
weld pool. This results in a slight increase
in both tensile and yield strengths.
Hydrogen levels also play a role in why
FCAW-G electrodes are becoming more
specific, moving away from the one-size-
fits-all design structure of the past. Lower
levels of diffusible hydrogen in weld de-
posits means that such welds will have
higher resistance to hydrogen-induced
Welding consumables can be classi-
fied with an optional diffusible hydrogen
designator. These designators include
the letter “H” and a number, which indi-
cate maximum milliliters of diffusible hy-
drogen per 100 g of weld metal. Most
FCAW-G electrodes today meet a dif-
fusible hydrogen rating of H8, with some
meeting a very low rating of H4.
Some industries, such as shipbuild-
ing/barge building, have increasingly
pushed the deposition rate capabilities
of all-position FCAW-G electrodes. Gen-
erally, when welding in position or with
gravity, welders can utilize faster wire
feed speed procedures to produce higher
deposition rates than they can when
welding out of position or against grav-
ity. However, because of remote welding
wire cannot be fabricated. The final the years. While the use of a one-size- locations and limited access to their weld-
chemistry of the electrode can only be fits-all electrode for a wide range of ap- ing equipment, welders often cannot eas-
achieved by purchasing it as the raw plications can deliver adequate arc per- ily turn up their procedures when they
green rod steel. Low-alloy green rod can formance, the reach for a single electrode transition from out-of-position to in-po-
be more expensive and difficult to source to perform well in every application is sition welding. Therefore, they need one
than carbon-steel green rod. just too broad — Fig. 3. As a result, the set of welding procedures for FCAW-G
arc is never optimized. electrodes that produce maximum depo-
Why? One electrode used with both sition rates for out-of-position welding
Concerns with One-Size- 100% CO 2 and mixed gas (i.e., 75% and still produce high deposition rates
Fits-All Electrodes Ar/25% CO2) has to have a fine chemi- for in-position welding. Many of the orig-
cal balance in order to meet the mini- inal one-size-fits-all FCAW-G electrodes
The traditional multipurpose ap- mum and maximum mechanical property could only be pushed so far before the
proach toward FCAW-G electrodes has requirements of its AWS classifications slag system would not support the addi-
proven to be increasingly ineffective over with either type of shielding gas. Carbon tional molten weld metal. Therefore, new

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:54 PM Page 34

FCAW-G electrodes were needed with a that produces mechanical properties that
different type of slag system. These high- are so robust that they tip the scale on
deposition or “HD” electrodes have very operability.
fast freezing slag systems that better sup- Think of the three key components of
port higher wire feed speed welding electrode design as a triangle — Fig. 5.
procedures. On one side, you have operability. On the
Additionally, many industries have second side, you have mechanical prop-
had increased requirements for weld erties. On the third side, you have dif-
metal with improved impact properties. fusible hydrogen levels.
The original one-size-fits-all FCAW-G Targeted product development has al-
electrodes were designed to produce lowed manufacturers to design “families”
welds with a minimum low-temperature of FCAW-G electrodes, each aimed for
toughness of 20 ft-lbf (27 J) at 0°F or 20 different applications in specific indus-
ft-lbf (27 J) at –20°F. Some industries, Fig. 5 — Manufacturers must bal- try segments. Each family balances the
such as offshore and pipeline fabrication ance three components when they three sides of the design triangle to avoid
(Fig. 4), often require FCAW-G elec- design an FCAW-G electrode — op- compromising any one of those compo-
trodes that produce welds with a mini- erability, mechanical properties, nents and, thus, delivers a robustly per-
mum low temperature toughness of 20 and diffusible hydrogen levels. forming electrode.
ft-lbf (27 J) at –40°F. These more strin-
gent requirements have necessitated the Application-Specific
need for new FCAW-G electrodes with order to produce optimum operator ap-
improved impact properties. peal and the targeted mechanical prop- FCAW Electrodes
In other cases, FCAW-G electrodes erties. They either will be for use with
have been increasingly used on weld- 100% CO2 or a mixed blend, consisting Today, manufacturers of FCAW elec-
ments that must be stress relieved after of 75– 85% Ar/balance CO 2 (with 75% trodes offer broad product lines, with
welding. In general, after postweld heat Ar/25% CO2 the most popular blend). many electrodes designed for specific ap-
treatment (PWHT), the tensile and yield The required shielding gas is now also plications and industries. Examples of
strength of the weld drops to a certain incorporated into the electrode’s AWS more specialized FCAW-G electrodes in-
degree. When the weld from a one-size- classification number. For example, the clude ones designed for the following
fits-all FCAW-G electrode is stress re- “C” in an E71T-1C classified electrode uses:
lieved, you can run the risk of the tensile specifies that it is for use with CO2 shield- • with one specific type of shielding gas
and yield strengths dropping below the ing gas, while the “M” in an E71T-1M such as UltraCore® 71C and Ultra-
minimum specified levels. Therefore, classified electrode specifies that it is for Core® 71A85 from The Lincoln Elec-
PWHT applications have led to the need use with mixed shielding gas. Electrodes tric Co.
for more specialized FCAW-G electrodes that are still designed for use with either
that have an altered chemical formula- type of shielding gas are dual classified, • for higher-strength steels (i.e., 80-,
tion. These electrodes are designed to such as “E71T-1C/E71T-1M.” 90-, and 100-ksi minimum tensile
have a minimal drop in tensile and yield Furthermore, operator appeal of low- strength).
strength after stress relief. alloy FCAW-G electrodes also has im- • “HD” type for high-deposition, out-of-
With such changeable factors as proved. A welder can weld with a carbon position capability (i.e., UltraCore®
shielding gas, diffusible hydrogen levels, steel FCAW-G electrode or a low-alloy HD-C and HD-M).
deposition rate needs, and mechanical FCAW-G electrode and not really see a
property requirements, as well as differ- difference in arc performance. This re- • for exceptionally high deposition rates
ent grades of steel, coming into play in sults from the fact that manufacturers in the flat and horizontal positions.
the FCAW-G arena, the scope and ver- have succeeded in coming up with a stan-
• for improved low-temperature tough-
satility of a one-size-fits-all electrode has dard slag system for families of elec-
ness properties.
become increasingly narrower. This chal- trodes. Individual electrodes can be mod-
lenges manufacturers to meet stringent ified for different applications by tweak- • “SR” type for stress-relieved applica-
mechanical properties on a consistent ing the alloy formulation in the elec- tions.
basis with traditional multipurpose trode’s core so that welders and fabrica-
• for pipe welding applications such as
FCAW-G electrode design. tors will see similar operating character-
Pipeliner® 81M, 101M, and 111M.
istics, no matter the application.
New Approach to Design • for chromium-molybdenum (Cr-Mo)
Electrode Design steels.
To meet various industry-specific re-
quirements and operator demands for Producing a successful FCAW-G elec- Welders now have a broad choice of
mechanical properties, performance, and trode comes down to balance in the de- electrodes designed for a variety of spe-
aesthetics, manufacturers now are sign and manufacture of the electrodes. cific applications and industries, expand-
designing and producing application- Manufacturers have worked to develop ing the range of use, as well as overall
targeted, next-generation FCAW-G con- FCAW-G consumables that consistently quality and productivity. With improved
sumables with specific industries in mind. meet mechanical properties, without operating characteristics and perform-
In addition, many of the FCAW-G compromising quality and aesthetics. ance, these enhanced, highly efficient
electrodes today have been designed for They do so without taking it to the ex- products are truly not our fathers’ flux
use with only one type of shielding gas in treme. They avoid creating an electrode cored electrodes.◆

34 MAY 2013
weld aid_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:55 PM Page 35

For Info go to

Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:26 AM Page 36

Welding Resources
for When You’re
on the Go
A search found plenty
of free, easy-to-use,
welding-related apps



ure you can play games, work on a
crossword puzzle, count calories,
track your exercise regimen, and
of each of their offerings to clarify the im-
portant features to consider when shop-
ping for these items.
1 Help for Selecting
Power Generators.
manipulate photos through any number While many full-featured apps can be
of applications (apps) on your smart downloaded free of charge, some free This well-organized, easy-to-use app
phone or tablet, but can your work bene- apps are “Lite” versions that offer basic details Multiquip’s line of MQ Power
fit from the use of an app? It so happens versatility to promote purchasing the WhisperWatt Super-Silent portable 5- to
that when you Google “welding apps,” “Full” version. Although some are lim- 450-hp generators designed to provide
you’ll discover a lengthy list for download ited in scope, a Lite version may be worth power under the harsh conditions at con-
to both Android and Apple smart phones checking out since the information it of- struction sites, entertainment venues,
and tablets. fers may be all you require for your daily and disaster-recovery operations. The
Many apps are intuitive and require needs. data are intuitively organized into com-
no instruction to use. The topics include A bonus to using mobile apps is their pact files that permit uncluttered viewing
selecting equipment, inspection data, potential educational value. You can eas- of images and text on the small smart-
weld joint design, calculators, code stan- ily “experiment” with different metals, phone screens.
dards, test questions, safety, etc. After material thicknesses, processes, etc., to Opening the app for the first time
the initial downloading, most apps func- get a feel for how various processes work. (Fig. 1) reveals a “Begin” button. Once
tion without an Internet connection. Following are brief descriptions of a tapped, it opens a screen that scrolls
Apps usually begin by asking you to cross section of welding-related apps through 19 sizes of generators from 5 to
answer a few questions to define your sit- available for free downloading onto your 450 hp.
uation, then open a scroll-down page smart phone or tablet. To search for these Tapping the hp size of your choice
with the answers or recommended set- and other apps, just Google your topic opens a screen showing the several volt-
tings, data chart, a table, equipment set- or the app’s name. You can often find age ranges available for that size genera-
tings, required filler metals, etc. useful apps offered on welding equip- tor. Tapping a voltage range opens a page
The apps offered by equipment and ment manufacturers’ Web sites. Check illustrating the recommended generator
consumables manufacturers make it easy for new apps online occasionally, since including its prime, standby, and voltage
to compare the features and capabilities they are added and updated daily. dip ratings. Tapping that page opens a

HOWARD WOODWARD ( is associate editor, MARY RUTH JOHNSEN ( is editor, and KRISTIN
CAMPBELL ( is associate editor of the Welding Journal. CARLOS GUZMAN ( is editor of the
Welding Journal en Español.

36 MAY 2013
Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:26 AM Page 37

simple questions. After entering the B

metal information, the calculator will dis-
play the suggested wire size, wire feed
speed and shielding gas settings, and volt-
age and current ranges.
The opening page of this app displays
a screen with four large icons labeled
MIG (Solid Wire), MIG (Flux Cored),
STICK, and TIG, plus a row of icons for
accessing YouTube, Facebook, Twitter,
and e-mail contact.
For example, touching the MIG (Solid
Wire) icon asks you the following two
questions: 1. What material are you weld-
ing? (The choices are aluminum, stain-
less steel, and steel); and 2. How thick is
the material? (The choices range from 1⁄8
to 1⁄2 in. and up.) After entering these
Fig. 1 — Multiquip MQ Power Genera- data, touch the “Get Settings” icon to
tor Selector app as it appears on a view the recommended settings and Fig. 3A and B — The 3M app offers
smart phone. other suggestions. a guide for protecting yourself
against a variety of specific indus-

menu listing pages detailing this genera- App Provides Fast trial airborne contaminants.
tor’s specifications, dimensions, weights, Access to Respirator
engine specifications, trailer require-
ments, various options, plus a “Docu-
Info. the iPhone, this app is expected to be
ments” file that opens to offer a number available in December for Android-
This app from 3M is designed for in-
of PDF spec sheets and equipment based smart phones.
dustrial hygienists and safety profession-
brochures. A “Contact Us” button also
als who want rapid access to respirator
appears on this page that when touched
opens into a short form for writing an e-
mail message to the company.
guide information on their smart phones.
The guide identifies facepieces, car-
tridges, and filters including an overview
4 Pipefitter’s Reference
of qualitative fit-testing protocols and The opening screen details (Welded)

2 Calculator Fine Tunes

Your Welding Machine.
how to conduct the fit tests for a variety
of specific contaminants found in indus-
trial environments — Fig. 3A.
Flange Dimensions. The tabs shown are
Series 150, 300, 600, 900, and 1500; Valve
Dimensions; 1⁄2 Dimensions; Reducing
This calculator (Fig. 2) from Miller After the user enters the chemical Tees; Pipe Schedules; and Abbreviations.
Electric Mfg. Co. is designed to help you name, the app presents the company’s Touching the “Series Flange 600” tab, for
tune your welding machine for optimal recommendations for the appropriate example, opens a table cross-referencing
results based on your answers to a few type of respiratory protection for that Pipe Size, Wrench Size, Stud Length,
contaminant — Fig. 3B. Included is a fre- Raised Face, Gasket, and Ring Joint.
quently asked questions section and Touching the Pipe Schedules tab
product catalog. Currently available for opens a table displaying Nominal Wall
Thicknesses for commonly used pipes.

5 Ultrasound Calc Lite
Version App.

The first page presents three tabs la-

beled Transducers Physical Principles,
Characteristics of Ultrasonic Waves, and
Fundamental Principles of Ultrasonic
Wave Propagation.
Touching the Fundamental Principles
tab reveals three tabs for Snell’s Law Cal-
culations, Geometry Calculations, and
Basic Skip Calculations. Touching the
Basic Skip tab, for example, opens a
screen for the user to enter wall thick-
ness of the piece, refracted angle in the
Fig. 2 — The opening screen of Miller piece, half skip, full skip, and sound path
Electric’s weld setting calculator. numbers to complete the calculations.

Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:27 AM Page 38

6 Phased Array Wizard Once installed, it has a login process

Lite. for the program’s users to input their ex-
isting username/password.
Features include the following: a list
This app offers a wealth of informa-
of companies to see machine data and pro-
tion beginning with five opening tabs la-
duction details; an overview of all ma-
beled PA Transducer Parameters, Wedge
chines and live status indicator; dashboard
Calculation, PA Inspection, Acoustic Pa-
widgets for each machine, an alerts his-
rameters of Materials, and Glossary.
tory, and lists of all events/alarms gener-
Touching the Parameters of Materials
ated by the machine; downloadable doc-
tab opens tabs for selecting aluminum,
uments and manuals; historical trending
brass, copper, glycerine, lead, nickel,
data for potential issues while walking the
Plexiglass, Rexolite, steel, titanium, and
shop floor; and scanning barcodes using
water. Touching a material’s tab presents
the phone’s camera for operator ID, part
its long and transverse velocities, density
serial number, and consumable lot code.
in g/cc, and the longitudinal and trans-
The app works for Blackberry (sup-
verse acoustic impedances.
ports OS 5.0 and greater), iPhone (sup-
ports iOS 4.3 and greater), and Android

7 ISMT Tube Calc Limited. phones.

This basic app is an easy-to-use

Tube/Bar Weight Calculator. The open-
ing screen prompts you to enter two val-
9 Discover Wheel Speed

ues from the menu of Diameter, Thick- The Norton Abrasives grinding app of-
fers calculators for a coolant, dressing pa- Fig. 6 — The ShopFloorTalk app has
ness, Inside Diameter, and Length. As
rameter, and wheel speed. The portable many forums, including one for welding
an example, typing in 6-in. diameter,
grinder product selector has areas for se- processes.
0.25-in. wall, and 25-ft length displays a
table listing the parameters with a total lecting the application, material, and pri-
mary/secondary attributes. Postal codes ing, fabrication, machining, and general
weight of 384.9 lb.
can be entered in the distributor locator metalwork of all kinds — Fig. 6.
lookup. The application inquiry features The welding and metalworking fo-

8 Check Live Welding

Machine Status
options for general information, machine
tool, abrasive and dressing products, work
material, and operational factors. Also
rums offer the following topics: fabrica-
tion; equipment, suppliers, and original
equipment manufacturers; welding
provided are sections for logging into an processes; machining; metallurgy and
The Lincoln Electric Co.’s Check- abrasive connection site and contacting materials; shop safety; shop; general
Point™ app allows viewing live welding the company — Fig. 5. welding information; SFT information,
machine status and production reports The app is available for iOS and workshops, and support; and business.
on mobile devices — Fig. 4. Android operating systems on mobile These sections have numerous posts,
devices. including photos of finished, painted art-
works; questions and answers from what
welding process to use and when; tips for
getting customers; and much more.
There is also a members only forum.
To post messages, users must register;
provide profile information; and then ac-
tivate their account.
The app is compatible with the
iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad; requires
iOS 4.3 or later; is optimized for the
iPhone 5; and Android (1.5 and up).

Fig. 5 — Among Norton’s app offerings

are calculators for a coolant, dressing
parameter, and wheel speed.
11 Select Job Materials for
the Metalworking
The Tool Steel Selection Guide app

10 Discuss Welding and

Metalworking Topics.
by Lindquist Steels, Inc., is for tool mak-
ers and designers, engineers, and users
interested in selecting and utilizing the
Fig. 4 — Lincoln’s app enables explo- The ShopFloorTalk (SFT) app by End company’s materials — Fig. 7.
ration of a robot’s in limit, out of limit, of Time Studios, LLC, provides a discus- The build tab asks users the following
and total welds. sion forum for users interested in weld- question: What would you like to create

38 MAY 2013
Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:27 AM Page 39

type in the thickness of the weld and it

calculates the most common discontinu-
ities including cracks, incomplete pene-
tration, internal porosity, slag, undercut-
ting, and concave root. It also calculates
the sizes of image quality indicators
(IQIs) needed. The IQI area has three
sections for welds with no reinforcement
and welds reinforced on one or both
Lance Henderson, the app’s devel-
oper, offers four other free apps: X-Ray
Timer, Density, Ug Calc, and Barricade.
Information is available at www.lance- as well as through the
Apple app store.

Fig. 8 — Users plug a few pieces of in-

14 Calculates Weld Costs.

formation into ESAB’s Welding Parame- The Welding Pro app by Certilas Ned-
ters Set-Up Guide and receive data that erland BV, a maker of welding consum-
Fig. 7 — Lindquist’s app acts as a ref- can be used to set up their welding ma- ables in The Netherlands, provides weld
erence guide to work around tool pro- chine and adjust it to their specific ap- cost calculations for fillet welds, and sin-
duction needs. plication requirements. gle-V, double-V, and double bevel butt
joints — Fig. 10. It allows users to quickly
today? An A–Z list has keywords from compare labor, gas, and filler metal costs.
aluminum extrusion tooling to zinc die
cast dies. By clicking on each term, sug-
gested materials from low to high pro-
13 Help with Interpreting
Industrial Radiographs.
Users pick the type of weld they will be
making (fillet or groove), then select
welding process, amperage, duty cycle,
duction value are found. Another area The Code 313 app (Fig. 9) is a calcu- type of electrode, etc. Users also desig-
for materials can also be explored. lator for interpreting industrial radi- nate whether they are welding steel,
In addition, users can obtain a ographs in accordance with ASME B31.3, stainless steel, or aluminum. While the
quote/order, discover the company’s his- Process Piping. The app’s developer app is set up for metric units and euros,
tory, and find contact details. warns that the app does not replace the a tap on the settings button allows users
The app is compatible with the iPhone code itself, nor the need to have the code, to switch to Imperial Standard units and
(3GS, 4, 4S, and 5); iPod touch (3rd, 4th, but is a calculator to help you verify your dollars. It also displays the most recent
and 5th generations); and iPad. own interpretation. To use the app, you calculations and users can designate cer-
tain calculations as “favorites” that can

12 Identify the Welding

Parameters for Your
Next Job.
be stored and retrieved later. Requires
Android 2.2 and up or iOS 4.3 or later.

The Welding Parameters Set-Up

Guide app from ESAB Welding & Cut-
ting Products provides users with the
welding parameters they need for a par-
ticular job, including wire feed speed,
voltage, current, and inductance — Fig.
8. The first step is to select solid wire or
flux-cored wire at the bottom of the
screen. If the user selects solid wire, it
will then ask what type of material, thick-
ness, wire type, and gas type will be used
(each of these are selected through
scroll-down listings). The guide then lists
the recommended settings. If flux-cored
wire is chosen, the guide asks users to se-
lect material thickness and wire type be-
fore listing the settings.
The app is compatible with iPhone, Fig. 9 — Code 313 helps with interpreta- Fig. 10 — Welding Pro allows users to
iPod touch, iPad, Blackberry, and An- tions of industrial radiographs. quickly compare labor, gas, and filler
droid devices. metal costs.

Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:27 AM Page 40

15 Troubleshoot
Resistance Spot
16 Growing Catalog of
Welding Calculators. 17 Look Up Cut Charts
and Error Codes.
AxonCalc has developed a series of The Thermal Dynamics Cut Chart is
The Resistance Spot Welding Trou- app calculators for welding, mechanical, designed for the company’s Ultra-Cut
bleshooting App by Miyachi Unitek of- and materials engineering — Fig. 12. The series of high-precision automated
fers a quick guide to solving common Welding AxonCalc app includes the fol- plasma systems — Fig. 13. The app of-
problems found in the RSW process — lowing calculators: Carbon Equivalent fers a cut chart for Ultra-Cut with
Fig. 11. The sharp interface is simple to and Composition Parameter (PCM), Pre- DPC3000 and error codes for all Ultra-
use and is well laid out. There are four Heat and Interpass Temperature, Maxi- Cut as well as Auto-Cut systems — Fig.
main menus or tabs: Instructions, Guide- mum Hi-Lo at Internal Diameter for 13.
lines, Troubleshoot, and Info. By tapping Pipes, Hi-Lo at Internal Diameter at Spe- Under the best cut division, users can
on the Troubleshoot tab, the user is able cific Location for Pipes, and Arc Weld- select the appropriate material type, in-
to choose from a variety of possible symp- ing Heat Input Calculator. cluding aluminum, mild steel, and stain-
toms or problems: overheating of weld- Designed with a legible and attractive less, along with the thickness (gauge, in.,
ment, discoloration, weak weld, insuffi- interface, the AxonCalc calculators are or mm). Corresponding options will ap-
cient nugget, metal expulsion, sparking, easy to navigate and use. For example, pear, and some materials have multiple
inconsistent welds, electrode damage, the Arc Welding Heat Input calculator options. Entering error codes will enable
and electrode sticking. Solutions are pre- viewing troubleshooting suggestions.
sented in four categories: material, elec- Also, there are sections linking to the
trode, weldhead, and power supply. Victor Technologies Cutting & Welding
Additionally, the user selects one of YouTube channel and locating technical
four priority levels, according to the most
likely cause of the problem. For exam-
ple, if overheating of weldment is the
most likely cause of the problem, select
Priority 1 and the app reveals that it may
be caused by excess time. This suggestion
appears in the Power Supply Related
field. Tap on this field and a possible so-
lution is shown (in this case, “Decrease
weld time in steps of 5–10% ...”).
Although the solutions presented in
this app are brief and may not cover all
variables, it’s a good starting point for
professionals and a worthwhile tool for
educational purposes. This Miyachi
Unitek app is available for iPad, iPhone,
and Android.

Fig. 12 — AxonCalc welding calculators

have a clean interface that is easy to

has fields for inputting current, voltage, Fig. 13 — The Thermal Dynamics Cut
and travel speed alone or travel speed Chart features areas for looking up a cut
and time. The results, which can be chart along with error codes.
copied onto the device’s memory or
e-mailed directly from the application,
are displayed in both kJ/in. and kJ/mm.
This free app contains demos of all support in Australia, Canada, China, Eu-
the welding calculators, which lets the rope, South East Asia, and the United
user try them before committing to buy, States.
and the company has plans to expand the The app is compatible with the iPhone
Fig. 11 — By tapping on the Troubleshoot collection regularly. Additional app (3GS, 4, 4S, and 5); iPod touch (3rd, 4th,
tab, the user is able to choose from a va- demos can be found on the company’s and 5th generations); and iPad. It re-
riety of possible symptoms or problems. Web site: quires iOS 5.0 or later.◆

40 MAY 2013
arc one_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:43 PM Page 41

For Info go to

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:55 PM Page 42

Improving Surfacing
Performance with GMAW
The synchronized polarity gas metal EDUARDO BIDESE PUHL,
arc welding technique shows NELSO GAUZE BONACORSO, AND
promise for applying coatings where JAIR CARLOS DUTRA, EDUARDO BIDESE PUHL
the risk of perforating the base (, and
Federal University of Santa Catarina — UFSC
material is a critical factor Mechanical Engineering Department, Florianópolis,
Brazil. NELSO GAUZE BONACORSO is with Federal
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of
Santa Catarina, Metal Mechanics Department,
Florianópolis, Brazil.

new technique for the production case of coating applications, beside the polarity, a welding condition tradition-

A of a coating using the gas metal arc

welding (GMAW) process is pre-
sented in this article. The technique
absence of defects in the weld beads and
in their overlaps, penetration and dilu-
tion must be minimized in order to guar-
ally considered inappropriate due to the
instability of the arc and a weld bead
geometry that is completely unsuitable.
fulfills two important requisites for this antee the intended quality. The instability is currently resolved
type of operation: low dilution and high Despite the fact that this study en- through the use of a specific gas compo-
productivity. compasses the parameters mentioned sition within a certain range of electrical
In order to carry out a welding task, above, the intention herein is not to apply current. The geometry of the deposit is
some characteristics associated with the them as comparison parameters. What is then solved by the synchronized polarity
process and its respective procedure of fundamental relevance is the possibil- gas metal arc welding (SP-GMAW) tech-
need to be sought in order to fulfill the ity of using the GMAW process with di- nique proposed here, which consists of
technical requirements specified. In the rect current electrode negative (DCEN) the synchronization of the welding power

Table 1 — Weld Beads Obtained in the Flat Position on an ABNT 1020 Carbon Steel Plate (AWS ER70S-6) Wire with Diameter of
1.2 mm, Mixture of Ar and O2, Welding Speed of 348 mm/min, and Current of 250 A

Test Polarity Feed Speed (m/min) Weld bead appearance Cross section

1 DCEP 7.2

2 DCEN 11.7

42 MAY 2013
Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:56 PM Page 43

A B Fig. 1 — Electric arc showing the behavior

of the GMAW arc in the following polari-
ties: A — DCEP; B — DCEN.

of welding power sources including CMT

Advanced (cold metal transfer), revealed
the gap-bridging capacity of the molten
material of the joint faces in root passes,
which they designated as the bridgeabil-
ity (Ref. 2).
Another important characteristic of
DCEN that is favorable for the applica-
source output polarity with the torch po- transfer was globular at 150 A and axial tion of the coating is the high wire-melt-
sition in relation to its oscillatory motion. spray at 250 A without drop repulsion, in ing rate for a certain current in compari-
Welders discard the use of DCEN with contrast to descriptions in the classical son with direct current electrode positive
solid electrodes as an option because of literature. The bead profile has low wet- (DCEP) polarity. This distinctive melt-
the allegation that the electric arc is un- tability (inappropriate format) but ac- ing rate, also represented by the differ-
stable and produces a globular metal ceptable penetration, as shown in Test 2 entiated wire feed speed in Table 1, can
transfer with a significant amount of spat- (Table 1). be explained by the behavior of the elec-
ter. The geometry of the bead deposited The use of DCEN in the GMAW tric arc. In DCEN polarity, the electric
is unsuitable due to the low wettability, process is a real possibility for tubular arc does not anchor only at the end of the
which results in an almost circular cross electrodes with a slag-forming flux, but electrode as in DCEP (Fig. 1A), but in-
section that can lead to discontinuities in the case of solid electrodes, it is lim- stead, widely embraces the electrode
due to incomplete fusion at the joints ited only to the context of alternating cur- (Fig. 1B), seeking points where the elec-
with adjacent weld beads. However, for rent. In this latter case, the frequency of tron emission is favorable for the pres-
coating operations, other characteristics, the polarity switching is associated with ence of oxides. This characteristic leads
such as low levels of penetration and di- the frequency of the drop transfer and, to a greater parcel of the arc energy being
lution, are required. coincidently, is close to the frequency (50 transferred to the electrode, enhancing
Recent studies on the GMAW process or 60 Hz) the electricity-generating com- its relative melting at the expense of the
with DCEN polarity have verified, via panies provide. One sought-after prop- melting of the workpiece (Refs. 3, 4).
high-speed digital filming, that the type erty is the greatest amount of molten The objective of the new SP-GMAW
of shielding gas has a significant influ- electrode material for a certain arc technique is to minimally affect the base
ence on metal transfer behavior and weld power. This provides the process with material and provide high productivity
bead geometry (Ref. 1). Good results particular characteristics in order to with a reduced amount of defects. A po-
were obtained with an appropriate com- achieve specific objectives. For example, tential application for this technology is
position of argon and oxygen. The metal researchers at Fronius, a manufacturer the repair of in-service pipelines that un-
dergo a reduction in wall thickness due
to corrosion. In this application, more
than the need for low dilution, the ob-
tainment of highly reduced penetration
and the possibility of carrying out the re-
pair in a short time are of fundamental
importance. However, this type of coat-
ing is still carried out with coated elec-
trodes, where the result is fundamentally
dependent on the ability of the welder
and the execution time is long.

The SP-GMAW Technique

The developed technique was given
the denomination of synchronized polar-
ity (SP) due to the characteristic of the
change in polarity during the GMAW
process in synchrony with the torch po-

Fig. 2 — Functioning strategy for the

SP-GMAW technique (Ref. 5).

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:56 PM Page 44

sition in the trajectory of the weld bead

execution. Robots or manipulators auto-
Fig. 3 — Characteristics expected of the
weld bead cross section.
matically execute the weld beads, and
combine the qualities of both polarities
in the GMAW process. The negative po- Fig. 4 — Functioning diagram of the
larity is used in the center of the bead tra- SP-GMAW technique.
jectory in order to obtain greater melt-
ing rate and welding speed, and lower di-
lution and penetration. The positive po- Fig. 5 — Synchronization logic of the
larity is used only at the ends of the os- SP-GMAW technique.
cillation trajectory to prepare the weld
bead for adequate overlapping with an-
other that will be deposited alongside it, 4
thus avoiding fusion defects. In the qual-
ification of the procedure the values for
Yt and Yp of the transversal Y axis (Fig.
2) need to be appropriately considered.
The aim is to obtain weld beads with
the geometric characteristics shown in
Fig. 3.
The task of synchronizing the polari-
ties with the oscillation trajectory of the
gun is carried out via a digital synchro-
nization signal generated in the manipu-
lator controller and recognized at the
welding source, as shown in Fig. 4. Thus,
the welding equipment involved — ma-
nipulator and power source — must be
based on digital technology with the pos-
sibility for the programming and param-
etrization of electrical signals.
For a certain weld speed and oscilla-
tion amplitude/frequency, configured at
the programming interface of the manip- 5
ulator, the position of the transversal Y
axis is constantly compared with the tran-
sition amplitudes –Yt and +Yt, as shown
in Fig. 5. When the position of the Y axis
surpasses one of the transition ampli-
tudes, –Yt or +Yt, the synchronization
signal shifts to logic level 1, which, in
turn, commands the welding power
source to impose the I+ current on the
electric arc through the application of
DCEP polarity. If the position of the Y
axis is between these transition ampli-
tudes, the synchronization signal
switches to logic level 0, and commands
the welding source to impose the I– cur-
rent on the electric arc through the ap-
plication of DCEN polarity.
The value in the current module im-
posed by the source, I+ or I–, must be in
agreement with the respective wire feed
speeds established, since the melting
rates are different for each polarity when
the current values are the same. If the re-
action dynamics of the wire feeder used
is low, then the same wire speed can be
applied for the two polarities. In this
case, the process equilibrium is achieved
through the adjustment of the intensity
of each current, I+ and I–.

44 MAY 2013
Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:56 PM Page 45

Fig. 6 — The equipment setup for demonstrating the validity of the synchronized polarity gas metal arc welding technique.

Setting up the System IMC SAP-V4.01) (Ref. 6) — Fig. 6. application time for DCEN was twice
The welding power source was pro- that of DCEP. Despite the occurrence of
The tests performed to demonstrate grammed to operate in GMAW mode spattering (Fig. 7A), a regular weld bead
the validity of the SP-GMAW technique with the current imposed instead of the with an average width of 15.4 mm and
simulated the recovery of the thickness voltage. This produces better dynamics maximum height of 3.1 mm was obtained.
of a worn low-carbon steel workpiece for the alternating polarities. The shield- The maximum penetration (Fig. 7B) was
through the addition of 1.2-mm-diame- ing gas used was a mixture of 98%Ar only 0.5 mm and the dilution was approx-
ter ER70S-6 wire in the flat welding po- + 2%O 2 with a flow rate of 13 L/min imately 13%.
sition. The equipment used for the tests that was recommended by researchers The oscillograms of the voltage and
consisted of a microprocessor-controlled (Ref. 1). current of the electric arc, as well as the
welding power source (Model IMC In- Table 2 shows the parameters of the wire feed speed (Fig. 8), were captured
versal 450) with its respective wire movement and of the welding used to during the production of this particular
feeder, a Cartesian XY manipulator produce the weld bead shown in Fig. 6. weld bead. The temporal behavior of the
(Model SPS Tartílope V2F), and a This deposit was obtained using the push electric arc voltage indicates that short
portable data-acquisition system (Model technique with an angle of 10 deg. The circuiting does not occur. The spattering
observed can be explained by the projec-
tion of drops of the electric arc to the out-
side of the weld pool due to the inversion
Table 2 — Values for the Parameters Applied in SP-GMAW of the direction of the weld torch move-
ment. This inversion of movement occurs
Parameters Values during the application of DCEP polarity
and at both lateral ends of the trajectory
Weld speed (mm/min) 436
Oscillation frequency (Hz) 1.5 of the torch oscillation.
Oscillation amplitude, 2.Yp (mm) 12.0 It can also be observed that in DCEP
Polarity amplitude DCEN, 2.Yt (mm) 8.0 polarity, when the I+ current reaches its
Wire feed speed (mm/min) 11.5 reference value (270 A), the voltage grad-
Electric current in DCEP polarity, I+ (A) 270 ually reduces. This signals the decrease
Electric current in DCEN polarity, I– (A) 250 in the length of the electric arc due to a
lack of wire consumption. When the po-

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:57 PM Page 46

larity is switched to DCEN, the length of

the electric arc is reestablished, indicated A
by an increase in its voltage. In this case,
the electric arc is stable, but operating
close to the limit of instability. To make
the process more stable, the DCEP cur-
rent of the DCEP polarity (I+) must be
corrected, that is, increased until an ap-
propriate wire feed speed is reached.
Also, other factors, such as nonlinear
electromagnetic force variations of the
arc, influence the transitory characteris-
tics that can contribute to the previously
mentioned voltage variation.
Another unstable and undesirable sit-
uation is when one or both currents, I+
and I–, are higher than the currents suit- B
able for a certain wire feed speed. In this
case, the arc length increases excessively
and melts the contact tip of the torch.
The same set of parameters used in
the previous test (Table 2) was applied to
make the weld shown in Fig. 9. In order
to ensure the overlap of the weld beads
only in the region of DCEP polarity, the
following criteria were applied: distance
between the longitudinal axes of two ad-
jacent weld beads equal to the value of
the oscillation amplitude, that is, 12.0
mm. The layer obtained (Fig. 9A) has
good superficial appearance with a max-
imum height of 3.1 mm and a maximum Fig. 7 — A — The weld bead obtained with the SP-GMAW technique; B — cross section
undulation of less than 0.3 mm. Its cross of the weld bead.
section (Fig. 9B) reveals a shallow pene-
tration and the absence of weld defects.

The SP-GMAW technique offers a
real possibility for the application of
coatings where the risk of perforating the
base material is a critical factor. This is
due to the achieved appropriate geomet-
ric characteristics for the task of coating
surfaces, such as shallow penetration, a
surface with almost no undulation, and
good dimensional ratio (width/height) of
the weld beads.
The coating criteria adopted in the SP-
GMAW technique for the overlap of ad-
jacent beads produced good results in the
flat welding position. There is no increase
in the height of the weld layer due to this
overlap. The maximum undulation gen-
erated was lower than 0.3 mm. The weld
layers produced do not present disconti-
nuities and have an excellent visual
aspect with the presence of very little
The use of DCEN polarity during
times that extend beyond the period of Fig. 8 — Behavior of the main variables of the SP-GMAW technique.
drop transfer should not be discarded. If
used with certain wires in conjunction

46 MAY 2013
Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:57 PM Page 47

Fig. 9 — A — The coating obtained with the SP-GMAW process; B — a cross section of
the coating.

with adequate gas mixtures and a suit- sion rate in the MIG/MAG process. Re-
able current range, it can represent a vista Soldagem & Inspeção 14(3):
good alternative for specific cases of 192–198.
welding. However, this technology re- 2. Pickin, C. G., Willams, S. W., and
quires pieces of equipment that commu- Lunt, M. 2011. Characterization of the
nicate with each other and considerable cold metal transfer (CMT) process and
dedication in the qualification of the set its application for low dilution cladding.
of variables and parameters for the Journal of Materials Processing Technol-
GMAW process as well as for automatic ogy 211(3): 496–502.
torch displacement.◆ 3. Ueyama, T., Tong, H., Harada, S.,
and Passmore, R. 2005. AC pulsed
GMAW improves sheet metal joining.
Acknowledgments Welding Journal 84(2): 40–46.
4. Cirino, L. M. 2009. Study on the ef-
The authors are grateful to the team fects of polarity in direct and alternate
at Labsolda/UFSC whose efforts made current TIG and MIG/MAG welding
this multidisciplinary task possible and processes. Master’s thesis. PosMec/
to the Brazilian government agency UFSC, Florianópolis, Brazil.
CNPq and the company Tractebel Ener- 5. Puhl, E. B. 2011. Development of
gia for financial support. MIG/MAG welding technologies for
productivity and quality enhancement by
means of negative polarity. Master’s the-
References sis. PosMec/UFSC, Florianópolis, Brazil.
6. Labsolda: Operation Manuals.
1. Souza, D., Rezende, A. A., and Available at
Scotti, A. 2009. A qualitative model to tos/manuais/manuais.php. Instituto de
explain the polarity influence on the fu- Mecatrônica. Accessed June 14, 2012.
For info go to

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:54 AM Page 48

Exploring the Forces that

Shape Droplets during
Gas Metal Arc Welding
A model is presented to better understand the BY ALEXEI YELISTRATOV

physics of drop formation ALEXEI YELISTRATOV

( is a
research associate.

ew, effective variations of the gas the liquid metal drops. Because of this, gradually increasing the welding current
metal arc welding (GMAW) the physical processes causing the drop (A), the transition to spray mode occurs
process are emerging. Some of transfer mode changes are of key impor- sharply, within a transition current range
these methods, such as variations of con- tance for further development of GMAW of 50–80 A — Fig. 1A.
trollable drop transfer, pulse welding technologies, which attracts the attention For GMAW in Ar-rich gas mixtures,
methods, etc., are based on controlling of multiple researchers (Refs. 1, 2, 4). the transition current density is 120–190
the drop transfer mode. These methods The application of gas mixtures of A/mm2 (Ref. 3). When Ar + oxidizing gas
improve the performance of GMAW for argon (Ar) with carbon dioxide (CO2) or (1 to 5% O2 or 5 to 8% CO2) mixtures are
thin-metal, root-pass welding by applying oxygen (O 2) expands the arc and in- used with a steel wire, the stability and
controllable pulses of current and creases the anode spot size while de- the range of technological modes demon-
thereby changing conditions for forming creasing droplet diameter (Refs. 1, 3). By strate marked improvement when com-


Fig. 1A — Effect of welding current and shielding gas on droplet frequency for GMAW with 1⁄16-in. (1.6-mm) welding wire
(Ref. 3); B — effect of welding current (current density) on drop transfer mode for GMAW with 1⁄16-in. (1.6-mm) welding
wire ER70S-3 in shielding gas mixture Ar + 5% O2 (Ref. 7).

48 MAY 2013
Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:54 AM Page 49

Fig. 2 — Directions of the electromagnetic force acted on Fig. 3 — Experimental setup for hydraulic modeling of
molten droplet at globular and spray modes. Current-carrying droplet formation. 1 — Upper vessel; 2 — thermocouple;
areas at the bottom of the electrode correspond to areas of 3 — extension; 4 — lower vessel with water; 5 — elec-
the arc anode spot. trical heater. A — Position of lower vessel (with boiling
water) that corresponds to highest vapor concentration
at the droplet forming zone; B — initial position of the
lower vessel.

pared to an arc with single-gas shielding. tions are the same. There is, however, an- During GMAW with Ar+O 2/CO 2
According to multiple observations, other important feature of this constrict- mixtures, the anode spot is stabilized at
anode spot expands with increased cur- ing force: When current-carrying cross the bottom of the metal droplet (Refs. 1,
rent (this provides its constant current sections are different, an axial electrody- 3), and heat energy is transferred from
density), and in spray mode it envelops namic force is created. This force directs the arc to the electrode through the bulk
the droplet and the tapered bottom part from lesser cross section to the larger of the droplet. With a further increase in
of the wire — Fig. 1B. one. Welding current undergoes change the welding current, the anode spot size
In pulsed GMAW of aluminum, con- in the current-carrying cross sections dur- becomes larger than the external surface
trollable droplet and spray modes can be ing its path from the welding wire to the of the droplet, eventually expands to in-
achieved (Ref. 6). In this study, an abrupt anode spot — Fig. 2. This is similar to clude the cylindrical surface of the elec-
transition from pulsed-globular to “conduction angle” (Refs. 3, 5). trode, and melting occurs radially, creat-
pulsed-spray transfer is mentioned (see Electrodynamic forces can be directed ing a taper (Refs. 1, 4).
conclusion #3 and Ref. 6). up (Fig. 2) when the anode spot size is The temperature inside the anode
smaller than the diameter of the elec- spot is approximately the metal boiling
The Metal Transfer Forces trode at low-current globular transfer in point (Ref. 4), resulting in intensive evap-
GMAW. In this case, the electrodynamic oration of the metal. The increased
The physical forces in the electric arc force and surface tension force acted droplet temperature (Ref. 7) and in-
zone that are mainly responsible for jointly to support the droplet on the tip of creased metal vapor concentration in the
droplet transfer at the transition current the electrode (wire). This force can be di- arc zone could lead to increased electri-
range are electrodynamic (pinch-effect) rected down when the anode spot area cal conductivity in the arc zone and result
and surface tension (Ref. 8). becomes larger than the cross section of in sharpening the electrode tip (Ref. 8).
The electrodynamic force acts as a the electrode at high-current, spray In summary, the electrodynamic force
squeezing force, constricting the conduc- transfer with GMAW in Ar+CO 2/O 2 changes direction and becomes directed
tor when the current-carrying cross sec- mixtures (Refs. 4, 5). downward during GMAW in Ar-rich

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:55 AM Page 50

Fig. 4 — Water modeling. A —

Droplet diameter vs. vapor concen- A
tration; B — droplet frequency vs.
vapor concentration.

shielding gases when the welding current

exceeds the transition current. There is
no information about variation of surface
tension force for GMAW at the transition
current range. The purpose of the fol-
lowing experiments was to study the rela-
tionship between welding current and
anode spot size, and the influence of sur-
face tension on droplet formation in con-
ditions similar to ones at the tip of the
molten electrode within transition cur-
rent range.
Experimental Procedures
The experiments were performed
using direct current, electrode positive
(DCEP) GMAW head with constant volt-
age (CV) power supply. Used throughout
these experiments were mild steel plates
7.87 × 2.36 × 0.39 in. (200 × 60 × 10
mm), AWS ER 70S-3 welding wire 1⁄16 in.
(1.6 mm) diameter, and various shielding
gases (100% CO2; 20% CO2 + 80% Ar;
10% CO2 + 90% Ar; 5% CO2 + 95%
Ar). The shielding gas mixture flow rate
was 42 ft3/h (20 L/min). The welding cur-
rent and voltage were recorded. High-
speed photography (4000 f/s) was used to
capture droplet measurements. The geo-
metrical sizes of the droplets and droplet
frequency were measured from the image
the surface tension force — physical This computation objective is to study
on the screen. The anode spot size was
modeling of liquid droplet formation. the surface tension variations in condi-
measured from the image on the screen
The physical model is not a model for tions similar to real welding, using water
by measuring the size of the bright spot
GMAW, nor a model for GMAW metal as a modeling liquid. Conditions that are
on the outer side of the droplet. This in-
drop transfer; instead, it is just the distin- similar in forming both, real arc welding
direct method is acceptable for evalua-
guishing group of physical interactions metal drop, and water drop are:
tion of low-scale objects in the electric arc
where the surface tension force predom- • Drop temperature is close to the boil-
zone (Ref. 4). The variations in measured
inates. This model allows investigating ing point.
droplet size were ±5%, and in anode spot
only the effect of surface tension and • The growing drop is surrounded by
size were ±10–15%.
eliminates the influence of forces related the drop’s liquid vapors.
to electrical current. Selection of the Since both liquids, molten steel and
Computational Model of modeling liquid and analog model di- water, have negative coefficients of
the Surface Tension Force mensions were made in accordance with surface tension, they react similarly to
theory of similarity. variations in the temperature of the drop-
Significant measurement errors can Although calculations have been made forming zone: The higher the tempera-
occur when studying the arc zone condi- for a number of liquids, water was se- ture (closer to boiling), the lower the sur-
tions using direct methods such as lected as the most suitable for these ex- face tension. The surface tension is
probes, thermocouples, etc. Practical cal- periments. Water and low-melting alloys caused by cohesion forces inside the
culation of the surface tension force for are used to study the flow of liquid steel in liquid and acts on any liquid surfaces in
GMAW conditions is impossible because molds and feed head systems in the met- accordance with the liquid’s physical
there are no reliable supporting data. allurgical industry; also, a water/alcohol properties.
Therefore, in this work, a qualitative model was used (Ref. 9) to study droplet/ To investigate the influence of surface
method was used to study the influence of molten pool interaction in GMAW. tension on water droplet transfer, the

50 MAY 2013
Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:55 AM Page 51

Fig. 5 — Droplet external surface and

A anode spot area at GMAW. A — 100%
CO2; B — 95%Ar + 5%CO2.O2.

tration of vapor around the drop, not the

surrounding temperature.
For evaluation of the water vapor con-
centration, additional experiments were
conducted to measure the vapor concen-
tration (humidity) with a portable ther-
mohygrometer Testo 605-H1, which was
used in parallel with measuring the tem-
perature in the drop-forming zone. Ac-
cording to results, the hygrometer cannot
provide accurate readings due to the re-
stricted space for measurements (less
than 1 cm 3), but for larger spaces the
B readings from the hygrometer and ther-
mocouple correlated to 5 to 7% at a fixed
distance for the thermocouple of a few
millimeters from the drop surface. Also,
it was found the correlation between
vapor concentration and temperature
improved with approaching the boiling
point. Because of that, temperature read-
ings from the thermocouple were ac-
cepted to evaluate the vapor concentra-
tion present in the small drop-forming

Effects of Water Vapor

In this set of experiments, the lower
vessel with boiling water was moved up,
closer to the droplet-forming zone. This
allowed the temperature and vapor con-
model (Fig. 3) included an upper vessel 1. In the model, the drop is formed by centration in the droplet-forming zone to
with water, an extension wherein the water flowing from top, while in real reach 100°C (100% vapor). The temper-
droplets form, and a lower vessel with welding, wire melts from its bottom by ac- ature in the droplet formation zone and
boiling water and an electric heater. The tion of an electric arc. Current-caused the droplet transfer parameters (diame-
experimental setup included a thermo- forces (pinch-effect, plasma jets, etc.) ter and frequency) was determined at
couple, which was fixed closely to the make the real drop formation more com- various vapor concentrations — Fig. 4.
outer end of the extension to measure the plicated, but the resulting effect of that is When the concentration of the water
temperature at the droplet-forming zone. variations in the drop temperature and vapor approached 100%, sharp changes
The extension used a special porous in- surface tension since they are the main in droplet transfer parameters were ob-
sert to provide the laminar flow of the forces that support the drop. served. The drop diameter decreased
water during droplet formation. The con- 2. When the heater moved up, radi- from 0.177 to 0.039 in. (4.5 to 1 mm), and
centration of the water vapor was deter- ated heat could heat the upper vessel the drop transfer frequency increased
mined indirectly, by temperature in the with water. But with the thermocouple from 40 to 90/s.
droplet-forming zone, i.e., the tempera- installed near the drop, the total sur-
ture of boiling water (100°C) corresponds rounding temperature was registered Effects of Temperature
to 100% vapor concentration near the without relation to ways of heating. To
surface. The formation of the water minimize that effect, the time for the ex- An electrical heater without the lower
droplets was observed using a 25× periment was limited and each set of ex- vessel was installed below the droplet for-
microscope. periments was repeated 8 to 10 times. mation extension and moved up toward
The water model for studying surface 3. The method for evaluating the the extension. When the heater was in the
tension effect in conditions compatible to vapor concentration by temperature in upper position, the size of the droplets
that at transition current range in the drop-forming zone cannot be accu- changed. The droplets lengthened in the
GMAW has several features: rate but what is important is the concen- direction of the heater from 0.019 to

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:56 AM Page 52

0.047 in. (0.5 to 1.2 mm), and their diam- used: gas mixture 95% Ar+5% CO 2, influence of the surface tension force on
eters decreased from 0.177 to 0.149 in. welding current 290 to 310 A, and current droplet formation becomes insignificant
(4.5 to 3.8 mm). The drop transfer fre- density 145 to 160 A/mm2. and the electrodynamic force governs the
quency increased from 40–43/s to liquid metal transition to the molten
50–53/s. Model Explains Iron pool.
4. The surface tension force can be an-
Powder Effect on Stability
Effects of Adding Dyes and other effective tool for controlling the
droplet transfer, arc stability, and alloy-
Ceramic Powders The modeling experiments developed ing efficiency.◆
in this study explain the change in droplet
Aniline dye, which is a soluble liquid, transfer mode when welding within the
was deposited on the surface of a droplet. transition current range as follows: Acknowledgment
In a fraction of a second, the dye had • As the axial electrodynamic (“pinch-
spread through the bulk of the drop. The effect”) force is directed down and grad- The author would like to acknowledge
amount of aniline dye used did not affect ually increases, the anode spot size be- Dr. A. Lesnewich for reviewing the man-
the diameter or the frequency of droplet comes larger than the cross section of the uscript and for his valuable suggestions.
transfer. electrode and larger than the external
Mineral oil, a nonsoluble liquid, col- surface of the droplet.
lected at the bottom of a water droplet, • At this moment, the value of the sur-
and formed an independent drop. When face tension decreases drastically be- References
the oil was injected into the water droplet cause formation of the droplet occurs
(through a thin pipe), an independent oil completely inside the arc’s anode active 1. Soderstrom, E. J., and Mendez, P.
sphere formed inside the water droplet. spot, within the zone with high metal F. 2008. Metal transfer during GMAW
There were no noticeable changes in vapor concentration. with thin electrodes and Ar-CO2 shield-
drop transfer. Together, those two factors lead to an ing gas mixture Welding Journal 87(5):
When dry ceramic powder was de- abrupt change in droplet size, changing 124-s to 133-s.
posited on the surface of a water droplet, the transfer mode from globular to spray. 2. Hu, J., and Tsai, H. L. 2006. Effects
it occupied only the surface of the Experiments confirmed that any method of current on droplet generation and arc
droplet. The powder, previously soaked that increases the metal vapor concentra- plasma in gas metal arc welding. Journal
in aniline dye, penetrated through the tion in the arc zone would decrease the of Applied Physics, 100, Article No.
bulk of the water droplet. Powder, previ- surface tension force of liquid metal. For 053304.
ously soaked in mineral oil, occupied only example, the addition of iron powder into 3. Rhee, S., and Kannatey-Asibu, E.
the surface of the droplet. the flux core (or in the electrode coating), Jr. 1992. Observation of metal transfer
When a mixture of ceramic powders in conjunction with increased deposition during gas metal arc welding. Welding
preliminarily soaked in aniline dye and in rate, will probably decrease the droplet Journal 71(10): 381-s to 386-s.
mineral oil was used, penetration into the diameter through the intensive metal va- 4. Kim, Y. S., McEligot, D. M., and
bulk of the water droplet depended on the porization, thus providing a more stable Eagar, T. W. 1991. Analysis of electrode
composition of the mixture. When there process. heat transfer in gas metal arc welding.
was more than 30 to 50% dyed powder in Also, modeling experiments with ce- Welding Journal 70(1): 20-s to 31-s.
the mixture, the powder began to pene- ramic powder mixtures (conditions simi- 5. Jones, L. A., Eagar, T. W., and Lang,
trate into the bulk of the water droplet, lar to flux core and shielded metal arc J. H. 1998. Images of a steel electrode in
carrying the oiled powder. There were no welding) demonstrated that interaction Ar-2%O2 shielding gas during constant
noticeable changes in drop transfer. between liquid metal and slag are de- current gas metal arc welding. Welding
From the modeling experiments, pendent on the composition of the slag. Journal 77(4): 135-s to 141-s.
droplet transfer parameters and there- 6. Subramaniam, S., White, D. R.,
fore surface tension are not dependent Some Interesting Results Jones, J. E., and Lyons, D. W. 1998.
considerably on temperature in the Droplet transfer in pulsed gas metal arc
droplet-forming zone until the tempera- 1. For GMAW with Ar-rich shielding welding of aluminum. Welding Journal
ture in drop forming zone approaches the gas, increasing the anode spot size above 77(11): 458-s to 464-s.
boiling point. After that, the high con- the droplet external surface provides 7. Soderstrom, E. J., Scott, K. M., and
centration of vapor causes the droplet- high metal vapor concentration in the Mendez, P. F. 2011. Calorimetric meas-
transfer parameters to change in a droplet-forming zone. urement of droplet temperature in
marked degree because of the drastic de- 2. The main cause of transfer mode GMAW. Welding Journal 90(4): 77-s to
crease in the surface tension force. change from globular to spray is the in- 84-s.
An analysis of the high-speed photo- crease in the electrodynamic (“pinch ef- 8. Wang, F., Hou, W., Kannatey-Asibu,
graphs of the droplet transfer during fect”) force and the sharp decrease of the E., Schultz, W., and Wang, P. 2003. Mod-
GMAW in different gas mixtures (Fig. liquid metal surface tension force on the elling and analysis of metal transfer in gas
5A, B) confirmed that change in droplet tip of the melted welding wire. metal arc welding. Journal of Physics D:
transfer mode from globular to spray 3. During GMAW in the globular Applied Physics 36, pp. 1143–1152.
(Fig. 1) occurred at the instant the anode transfer mode, the surface tension force 9. Choo, R. T. C., Mukai, K., and
spot on the droplet’s surface became and the electrodynamic force are two im- Toguri, J. M. 1992. Marangoni interac-
greater than the droplet external surface portant factors in forming of the metal tion of a liquid droplet falling onto a liq-
(Fig. 5B). In this study, this occurred drops. In the spray mode, when welding uid pool. Welding Journal 71(4): 139-s to
when the following parameters were current exceeds the transition value, the 146-s.

52 MAY 2013
trumpf_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:53 PM Page 53

For Info go to

CE MAY_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:07 AM Page 54

12th Annual Great Designs in Steel Seminar. May 1. Laurel American Welding Society, Fabricators and Manufacturers Assn,
Manor Conf. Center, Livonia, Mich. Sponsored by The Steel Mar- Int’l, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, and Precision Metal-
ket Development Institute. forming Assn.
Int’l Thermal Spray Conf. and Expo. May 13–15. Busan, Repub-
♦JOM-17, Int’l Conf. on Joining Materials. May 5–8. Konventum lic of Korea. Sponsored by ASM International. www.asminterna-
Lo Skolen, Helsingør, Denmark. Institute for the Joining of Ma-
terials (JOM) in association with the IIW. Cosponsored by AWS,
TWI, Danish Welding Society, Welding Technology Institute of Int’l Conf. on Materials for Renewable Energy & Environment.
Australia, University of Liverpool, Cranfield University, Force May 15, 16. Nanjing, China.
Technology, and Brazilian Welding Assn. IIE Annual Conf. and Expo. May 18–22. Caribe Hilton, San Juan,
side6.html. Puerto Rico.
AISTech 2013, Iron and Steel Technology Conf. and Expo. May 44th Steelmaking Seminar — Int’l. May 19–22. Tauá Grande
6–9, Pittsburgh, Pa. Hotel Termas & Convention Araxá, Estância Parque do Barreiro,
s/nº Araxá - Minas Gerais, Brazil. Held by Brazilian Metallurgi-
INTERTECH 2013, Superabrasive Materials, Principles, and cal, Materials, and Mining Assn.
Applications for the Aerospace and Defense Industries. May 6–8.
Hyatt Regency Baltimore Harbor Hotel, Baltimore, Md. Indus- LPPDE-Europe. June 3–5. Park Plaza Hotel, Amsterdam Air-
trial Diamond Assn. port, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Lean Product & Process Devel-
opment Exchange, Inc. Address e-mail to
POWER-GEN India & Central Asia, Renewable Energy World
Conf. & Expo, and HydroVision® India. May 6–8. Bombay Exhi- ♦Pipeline Conf. June 4, 5. Houston, Tex. Sponsored by the Amer-
bition Centre, Goregaon, Mumbai, India. www.power-genindia. ican Welding Society (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264;

♦ AWS Weldmex Show, FABTECH Mexico, METALFORM Manufacturing Surabaya 2013. June 12–15. Surabaya, Indonesia.
Mexico. May 7–9. Cintermex, Monterrey, Mexico. Sponsors:
— continued on page 56


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fabtech_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:08 AM Page 55


FABTECH represents every step of the
metal manufacturing process from start
to finish. It’s where new ideas, products
and technology are highlighted through
interactive exhibits, education and net-
working. Compare solutions from 1,500+
exhibitors, find machine tools to improve
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— continued from page 54

18th Beijing-Essen Welding & Cutting Fair. June 18−21. New In- GAWDA Annual Convention. Sept. 15–18. Orlando, Fla. Gases
ternational Expo Center, Shanghai, China. www.beijing-essen- and Welding Distributors Assn.
ASM Heat Treating Society Conf. and Expo. Sept. 16–18. Indiana
Third VDI Congress, “Lightweight Design Strategies in Vehi- Convention Center, Indianapolis, Ind.
cles.” July 3, 4. Wolfsburg, Germany. Sponsored by VDI Wis- content/Events/heattreat/.
sensforum, Assn. of German Engineers.
IIW Int’l Conf. on “Automation in Welding.” Sept. 16, 17. Essen,
♦Codes and Standards Conf. July 16, 17. Orlando, Fla. To include Germany. Event in the IIW Annual Assembly.
AWS D1, Structural Welding Code — Steel, ASME Boiler and Pres-
sure Vessel Code, API pipeline codes, MIL specs and ISO stan- Schweissen & Schneiden 2013 Int’l Trade Fair — Joining, Cutting,
dards. Sponsored by the American Welding Society (800/305) 443- Surfacing. Sept. 16–21. Essen, Germany. Sponsored by DVS (Ger-
9353, ext. 264; man Welding Society).
59th Annual UA Assn. of Journeymen and Apprentices of the
Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry’s Instructor Training Pro- ♦16th Annual Aluminum Conf. Sept. 17, 18. Chicago, Ill. Spon-
gram. Aug. 11–17, Washtenaw Community College, Ann Arbor, sored by the American Welding Society (800/305) 443-9353, ext.
Mich. 264;
Educational Opportunities
12th Int’l Conf. on Application of Contemporary Non-Destructive
Testing in Engineering. Sept. 4–6. Grand Hotel Metropol, Por- Brazing School — Fundamentals to Advanced Concepts. May
toroz, Slovenia. Sponsored by The Slovenian Society for Non-De- 14–16 (Hartford, Conn.); Oct. 22–24 (Greenville, S.C.); Nov.
structive Testing. 19–21 (Simsbury, Conn.).;; (860) 651-5595.
LPPDE-North America. Sept. 9–11. Savannah, Ga. Lean Product
& Process Development Exchange, Inc. Address e-mail to CWI Preparation Courses: June 3–7, Aug. 19–23, Nov. 11–15. D1.1 Endorsement: June 7, Aug. 23, Nov. 15; D1.5 Endorsement:
May 31, Aug. 16; API Endorsement: May 30, Nov. 8. All courses
66th IIW Annual Assembly. Sept. 11–17. Essen, Germany. Or- and endorsements held at Welder Training & Testing Institute,
ganized by DVS (German Welding Society). www.dvs- 1144 N. Graham St., Allentown, Pa.; (610) 820- 9551, ext. 204.◆

For info go to For info go to

56 MAY 2013
image of welding_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:14 AM Page 57

An Association of Welding Manufacturers

Know an individual, company, educator, or educational facility that

exemplifies what welding is all about?

Nominate them!
The Image of W
ding A
wards Program recogn
nizes outstanding
achievement in the following categories:
 Individual  Distributor
(you or other individual) (welding products)
 Section  Educator
(AWS local chapter)
(AWS (welding teacher at an institution, facility
facility,, etc.)
 Large Business  Educational Facility
(200 or more employees) (any or
ganization that conducts welding
education or training)
 Small Business
(less than 200 employees)  Media
(open to industry and business publications)

Entry deadline is July 31, 2013

For more
more informatio
on and to submit a nomination
nation form online,
/awards/image.html or call
ca 800-443-9353.
Cert Schedule MAY_Layout 1 4/12/13 1:05 PM Page 58

SCHEDULE Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations

Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) Miami, FL July 21–26

Birmingham, AL June 2–7 June 8 Denver, CO Sept. 15–20
Hutchinson, KS June 2–7 June 8 Dallas, TX Oct. 6–11
Spokane, WA June 2–7 June 8
Miami, FL Exam only June 13 Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
Bakersfield, CA June 9–14 June 15 LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Pittsburgh, PA June 9–14 June 15 Minneapolis, MN July 15–19 July 20
Beaumont, TX June 9–14 June 15 Miami, FL Sept. 23–27 Sept. 28
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only June 29 Norfolk, VA Oct. 14–18 Oct. 19
Hartford, CT June 23–28 June 29 CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
Orlando, FL June 23–28 June 29
Memphis, TN June 23–28 June 29 Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
Jacksonville, FL July 7–12 July 13 LOCATION SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE
Omaha, NE July 7–12 July 13 Dallas, TX Aug. 19–23 Aug. 24
Cleveland, OH July 7–12 July 13 Chicago, IL Sept. 23–27 Sept. 28
Miami, FL Exam only July 18 Pittsburgh, PA Oct. 14–18 Oct. 19
Phoenix, AZ July 14–19 July 20 The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
Los Angeles, CA July 14–19 July 20 exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Louisville, KY July 14–19 July 20
Waco, TX July 14–19 July 20 Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
Milwaukee, WI July 14–19 July 20 CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only July 27
Sacramento, CA July 21–26 July 27
Kansas City, MO July 21–26 July 27 Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Denver, CO July 28–Aug. 2 Aug. 3 Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Miami, FL July 28–Aug. 2 Aug. 3 Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Philadelphia, PA July 28–Aug. 2 Aug. 3 Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Chicago, IL Aug. 4–9 Aug. 10
Baton Rouge, LA Aug. 4–9 Aug. 10 Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
Portland, ME Aug. 4–9 Aug. 10 The course dates are followed by the location and phone number
Las Vegas, NV Aug. 4–9 Aug. 10
Mobile, AL Aug. 11–16 Aug. 17 June 17–21, Dec. 9–13 at
Charlotte, NC Aug. 11–16 Aug. 17 ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 391–8421
Rochester, NY Exam only Aug. 17
San Antonio, TX Aug. 11–16 Aug. 17 May 20–24, Aug. 19–23, Dec. 2–6 at
Seattle, WA Aug. 11–16 Aug. 17 Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
San Diego, CA Aug. 18–23 Aug. 24
Minneapolis, MN Aug. 18–23 Aug. 24 Oct. 14 at
Salt Lake City, UT Aug. 18–23 Aug. 24 Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
Anchorage, AK Exam only Sept. 21
Miami, FL Sept. 15–20 Sept. 21 July 15–19, Oct. 21–25 at
Idaho Falls, ID Sept. 15–20 Sept. 21 OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
St. Louis, MO Sept. 15–20 Sept. 21
Houston, TX Sept. 15–20 Sept. 21 Training: May 20–22, July 22–24, Sept. 23–25, Nov. 18–20
New Orleans, LA Sept. 22–27 Sept. 28 Exams: May 23–24, July 25–26, Sept. 26–27, Nov. 21–22 at
Fargo, ND Sept. 22–27 Sept. 28 Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
Pittsburgh, PA Sept. 22–27 Sept. 28
Indianapolis, IN Sept. 29−Oct. 4 Oct. 5 On request at
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996

9–Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI Certified Welding Engineer; Senior Certified Welding
(No exams given.) For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet Inspector Exams can be taken at any site listed under Certified
education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be Welding Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.
taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
International CWI Courses and Exams Schedules
Pittsburgh, PA June 2–7
San Diego, CA July 7–12

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the
seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application
deadline dates by visiting our website Verify your event dates with the Certification
Dept. to confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or
to register online, visit or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.
Apply early to avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.

58 MAY 2013
awo metallurgy_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:06 AM Page 59

for the Non-Metallurg
ist: Fundamentals
Metallurgy is the science that deals with the internal
internal structure of
metals, the relationship between metals, and the properties of metals.
In welding, a basic understanding of metallurgy provides insight into
the positive and negative changes that occur in metals when joined
by welding.

From the properties of an atom to the behaviors

behaviors of metals during
the welding process, you are introduced to the properties of metals
and will gain an understanding of why metals behave the way they do.

Concepts covered include the anatomy of atoms,

atoms, the periodic table,
chemical bonding, including ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and
metallic bonding, as well as the properties of metals. This seminar
contains interactive exercises to reinforce key points and includes
summaries and quizzes to help prepare you for the completion exam.

The seminar is approximately five hours long and concludes with a

proficiency test.

Sample seminar at

Conferences May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:04 PM Page 60


Pipeline Conference welding engineer for Subsea 7.

Bill Bruce, U.S. director of Welding and Materials Technol-
June 4, 5 ogy for Det Norske Veritas, will discuss new revisions for pipeline
Houston, Tex. repair in API 1104.
Two popular processes, hybrid laser arc welding and friction
The transportation of oil and natural gas through cross-coun- stir welding, are waiting their turns for acceptance in some ap-
try pipelines has never been as vigorous as it is now, and greater plications. Matt Boring, senior welding engineer, Knieper & As-
growth lies ahead with welding in the thick of it. For many sociates, will speak on the situation from the standpoint of ASME
decades, the stick electrode has been a driving force behind the Section IX.
construction of these lines, and it is still very much in the driver’s Ian Harris, technical leader, Arc Welding, EWI, will give a
seat. But in order to cut costs, owners have started to use X80, a detailed presentation on the hybrid laser arc welding process and
lighter-weight, higher-strength linepipe steel. The same cellu- how it is suited for pipeline construction work.
losic electrodes used on the more conventional steels are inade- Another speaker from EWI, Connie Reichert, will talk about
quate for X80 steel. This has opened the door for low-hydrogen automated corrosion repair of pipelines. Reichert is principal
electrodes and mechanized welding. engineer, Design, Controls & Automation.
The keynote address to this important AWS conference will Michael Lang, senior construction engineer, Bechtel Corp.,
be delivered by Brian Laing, president of CRC-Evans Pipeline has lean welding as his topic. Lang is chairman of the AWS D10
International. A seasoned veteran of the pipeline industry, Laing Committee on Piping and Tubing.
once worked for NOVA (now TransCanada), as a welding Russel Fuchs, senior technical manager, Bohler Welding
engineer. Following is a breakdown of the other speakers and Group USA, will offer a comparison of one cellulosic electrode
their topics. and two low-hydrogen electrodes.
Robin Gordon, senior vice president of Microalloying Inter- “SMAW: The Evolution of Stick Welding, from a Welder’s
national Inc., will present the current status of Grade X80 pipeline Perspective” is the title of Lori Kuiper’s talk. She is offshore &
technology and highlight the technical challenges that must be pipeline segment manager, Euroweld, Ltd.
addressed before considering its use. Derick Railling, product manager, Global Onshore Pipeline,
Paul Tews’s presentation on “Specimen Quality for Fatigue ITW Welding, is basing his presentation on understanding the
Test Girth Welds” should be of interest to every pipeline owner. sources and remedies of hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline
Tews, who is operating out of the UK at present, is the principal welds.
Scott Funderburk from CRC-Evans Pipeline International
will talk about overcoming such operational challenges as leak
detection and automatic shut-off valves.
Chris Penniston, welding and materials engineer, RMS Sys-
tems in Canada, has chosen the topic of innovations in mecha-
nized welding.
Olivier Jouffron, technical manager, Serimax North America,
will discuss the steps that can be taken in welding corrosion-
resistant alloy pipe.
Win Wijnholds, president of Magnatech International BV in
The Netherlands, will discuss dual-process methodology.
Ryan Lewis, a consumables product manager at The Lincoln
Electric Co., will discuss some of the welding activities used in
oil shale environments.

Codes and Standards Conference

July 16, 17
Orlando, Fla.
This conference will feature information about the AWS D1
Structural Welding Code — Steel, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, and API pipeline codes, plus MIL and ISO standards, po-
tentially the most valuable documents available to manufacturers
and fabricators of welded products. Information will be provided
about the planning and execution of various welding processes, as
well as useful data for designers, inspectors, and QC specialists.◆

For more information, please contact the AWS Confer-

ences and Seminars Business Unit at (800) 443-9353, ext.
223, or e-mail You can also visit the Con-
ference Department Web site at
for upcoming conferences and registration information.

For info go to

60 MAY 2013
essen_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:48 PM Page 61

Join together.


Tel. 001-914-962-1310

Meet over 1,000 exhibitors and experts from all over the world.
Discover innovative solutions in joining, cutting and surfacing.
Take advantage of the opportunities in the industry’s hot spot.
Join your industry in Essen!
For Info go to
Welding Workbook May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:22 PM Page 1

WORKBOOK Datasheet 340

Selecting Shielding Gases for Gas Metal Arc Welding

The primary function of the shielding gas in gas metal arc mosphere unless precautions are taken to exclude nitrogen and
welding (GMAW) is to exclude the atmosphere from contact with oxygen.
the molten weld metal. This is necessary because most metals, Besides providing a protective environment, the shielding gas
when heated to their melting point in air, exhibit a strong ten- and flow rate have a pronounced effect on arc characteristics,
dency to form oxides, and, to a lesser extent, nitrides. Oxygen mode of metal transfer, penetration and weld bead profile, speed
also reacts with carbon in molten steel to form carbon monoxide of welding, undercutting tendency, cleaning action, and weld
and carbon dioxide. These reaction products may result in weld metal mechanical properties. The principal gases used in the
discontinuities such as slag inclusions, porosity, and weld metal spray arc mode are shown in Table 1 and those for short-circuit
embrittlement. Reaction products are easily formed in the at- GMAW are shown in Table 2.◆

Table 1 — GMAW Shielding Gases for Spray Transfer

Metal Shielding Gas Characteristics

Aluminum 100% argon Best metal transfer and arc stability; least spatter; good cleaning action.
35% argon/65% helium Higher heat input than 100% argon; improved fusion characteristics on
thicker material; minimizes porosity.
25% argon/75% helium Highest heat input; minimizes porosity; least cleaning action.

Magnesium 100% argon Excellent cleaning action; stable arc.

Argon + 20–70% helium Improved wetting; less chance of porosity.

Carbon steel 1–5% oxygen, balance argon Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld pool;
good fusion and bead contour; minimizes undercutting; permits higher
speeds than pure argon.
5–15% carbon dioxide (CO2); balance High-speed mechanized welding; low-cost manual welding.

Low-alloy steel 98% argon/2% oxygen Minimizes undercutting; provides good toughness.

Stainless steel 99% argon/1% oxygen Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld pool;
good fusion and bead contour; minimizes undercutting on heavier
stainless steels.
98% argon/2% oxygen Provides better arc stability, coalescence, and welding speed than
1% oxygen mixture for thinner stainless steel materials.

Nickel, copper, and 100% argon Provides good wetting; decreases fluidity of weld metal.
their alloys Argon/helium Higher heat inputs of 50 and 75% helium mixtures offset high heat
dissipation of heavier gauges.

Titanium 100% argon Good arc stability; minimum weld contamination; inert gas backing is
required to prevent air contamination on back of weld area.

Table 2 — GMAW Shielding Gases for Short-Circuiting Transfer

Metal Shielding Gas Characteristics

Carbon Steel 75% argon/25% CO2 High welding speeds with minimum melt-through; minimum spatter; clean
weld appearance; good pool control in vertical and overhead positions.
100% CO2 Deep penetration; faster welding speeds; high spatter levels.

Stainless steel 90% helium/7.5% argon/2.5% CO2 No effect on corrosion resistance; small heat-affected zone; minimizes
Low-alloy steel 60–70% helium/25–35% argon/ Minimum reactivity; excellent toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting
4.5% CO2 characteristics, and bead contour; little spatter.
75% argon/25% CO2 Fair toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting characteristics, and bead
contour; little spatter.
Aluminum, copper Argon and argon/helium Argon satisfactory on sheet metal; argon-helium preferred for thicker
magnesium, nickel, and base material.
their alloys

Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol. 2, ninth edition.

62 MAY 2013
buyers guide_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 8:21 AM Page 63
pipeline conference_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:09 AM Page 64

AWS Conferences & Exhibitions:

Pipelines Conference
June 4th – 5th / Houston, TX

Join us in Houston for the debut of the AWS Pipeline Welding Conference! Our featured
speakers will cover a multitude of topics including the welding of high strength X80 pipe
steels, orbital processes used in pipeline construction throughout the world, the new FRIEX
system from Belgium and many other exciting topics.


 Learn about the progress of new and innovative developments

in pipeline welding.

 Network with industry peers to find the best solutions for

business growth.

 AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional

Development Hour) for each hour of conference attendance.
These PDH's can be applied toward AWS recertifications
and renewals.

For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at or call 800-443-9353, ext. 224.
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:42 PM Page 65


D1 Committee Convenes in Doral

The D1 Committee on Structural Welding met at AWS World Headquarters the week of Feb. 25.

Shown are (from left) AWS Vice President David McQuaid, past D1 Chair Donald Rager,
AWS Executive Director Ray Shook, D1 Chair Duane Miller, and Allen Sindel, D1 vice chair.

On March 1, a rare copy of the first-edition of the forerunner and AWS vice president; Donald D. Rager, D1 chair (2002–2008),
to the D1.1, Structural Welding Code — Steel, all 20 pages of it, was and Allen W. Sindel, D1 vice chair. The Code for Fusion Welding
presented to Ray Shook, AWS executive director, for permanent and Gas Cutting in Building Construction includes general applica-
loan and preservation in the D. Fred Bovie Library and Museum tion, definitions, materials, permissible unit stresses, design, work-
at AWS World Headquarters in Doral, Fla. The presenters included manship, erection, gas cutting, and an appendix. The document was
Duane K. Miller, D1 chair; David McQuaid, D1 chair (1996–2002) donated to the Society by Paul E. Masters, Cape Coral, Fla.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:42 PM Page 66

AWS President Nancy Cole (left) presents Damian J. Kotecki (right) receives his 30-
Anne Rorke a special AWS award for her year service award pin from Harry Wehr,
many years of service at WTIA (Welding Tech- chairman, A5 Committee on Filler Metals
nology Institute of Australia) where she cur- David McQuaid (left), an AWS vice president and Allied Materials, on March 5, during the
rently is editor of the Australasian Welding and a past chair of the D1 Committee, re- annual meetings in Orlando, Fla. Kotecki
Journal. The presentation was made at the ceives recognition for his 30 years of service was cited for his many contributions to the
March WTIA conference in Perth, Australia. from D1 Committee Chair Duane Miller. A5 Committees.

Tech Topics
New Standards Projects ANSI Approved Revised Standards Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Galvanized
Development work has begun on the A5.16/A5.16M:2013 (ISO 24034:2010 Steel (M-1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-
following revised standards. Affected indi- MOD), Specification for Titanium and Ti- Welded Condition, with or without Backing.
viduals are invited to contribute to their tanium-Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods. 3/7/13.
development. Contact Staff Secretary A. Approved 2/19/13. B2.1-1-008:2002 (R2013), Standard
Diaz, adiaz; ext. 304. Participa- F1.2:2013, Laboratory Method for Meas- Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
tion on AWS Technical Committees is open uring Fume Generation Rates and Total Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
to all persons. Fume Emission of Welding and Allied (M-1, P-1, or S-1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in
B2.1-1/8-010:20XX, Standard Welding Processes. Approved 2/25/13. the As-Welded Condition, with or without
Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Gas Backing. 3/11/13.
Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon Steel to ANSI Approved Reaffirmed Standards B2.1-8-009:2002 (R2013), Standard
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1, P-1, or S-1 B2.1-1-003:2002 (R2013), Standard Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
to M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through 10 Gauge, Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Austenitic
in the As-Welded Condition, with or without Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through
Backing. Stakeholders: Manufacturers, Transfer Mode) of Galvanized Steel (M-1), 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with
welders, CWIs, engineers. 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Con- or without Backing. 3/11/13.
B2.1-1/8-231:20XX, Standard Welding dition, with or without Backing. 3/7/13. B2.1-1-011:2002 (R2013), Standard
Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Gas B2.1-1-004:2002 (R2013), Standard Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Tungsten Arc Welding with Consumable In- Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Galvanized
sert Root followed by Shielded Metal Arc Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting Steel (M-1), 10 through 18 Gauge, in the As-
Welding of Carbon Steel (M-1/P-1/S-1, Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel (M-1, Group Welded Condition, with or without Backing.
Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic Stainless Steel 1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded 3/11/13.
(M-8/P-8/S-8, Group 1), 1⁄8 through 11⁄2 Inch Condition, with or without Backing. 3/7/13. B2.1-1-012:2002 (R2013), Standard
Thick, IN309, ER309, and E309-15,-16, or B2.1-8-005:2002 (R2013), Standard Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
-17, or IN309, ER309(L), and ER309(L)- Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Condition, Prima- Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting (M-1, P-1, or S-1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in
rily Pipe Applications. Stakeholders: Man- Transfer Mode) of Austenitic Stainless Steel the As-Welded Condition, with or without
ufacturers, welders, CWIs, and welding en- (M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through 10 Gauge, in Backing. 3/11/13.
gineers. the As-Welded Condition, with or without B2.1-8-013:2002 (R2013), Standard
D9.1M/D9.1:20XX, Sheet Metal Welding Backing. 3/7/13. Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Code. Stakeholders: Those involved in the B2.1-1/8-006:2002 (R2013), Standard Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Austenitic
production and qualification of nonstruc- Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, S-8, Group 1), 10
tural sheet metal applications such as heat- Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting through 18 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condi-
ing, ventilating, and air conditioning sys- Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel to Austenitic tion, with or without Backing. 3/11/13.
tems, food processing equipment, architec- Stainless Steel (M-1 to M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 B2.1-1/8-014:2002 (R2013), Standard
tural sheet metal, and in the acceptance of through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condi- Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
welding and braze welding of nonstructural tion, with or without Backing. 3/14/13. Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
sheet metal components. B2.1-1-007:2002 (R2013), Standard to Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1 to M-8/P-
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for 8/S-8, Group 1), 10 through 18 Gauge, in the

66 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:42 PM Page 67

As-Welded Condition, with or without Back- ER309(L), As-Welded Condition, Prima- are available from your national standards
ing. 3/11/13. rily Pipe Applications. 3/11/13. body, which in the United States is ANSI,
B2.1-1/8-227:2002-AMD1 (R2013), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Fl., New York, NY,
Standard Welding Procedure Specification Standards for Public Review 10036; (212) 642-4900. Send comments
(SWPS) for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of B5.17:20XX, Specification for the Qual- regarding ISO documents to your national
Carbon Steel (M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to ification of Welding Fabricators. Revised. standards body. In the United States, if
Austenitic Stainless Steel ( M-8/P-8, Group $25. 5/20/13. you wish to participate in the development
1), 1⁄16 through 11⁄2 Inch Thick, ER309(L), C1.5:20XX, Specification for the Quali- of International Standards for welding,
As-Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Ap- fication of Resistance Welding Technicians. contact A. Davis,
plications. 3/11/13. Revised. $25. 5/20/13.
B2.1-1/8-228:2002 (R2013), Standard D15.1/D15.1M:2012-AMD1, Railroad Technical Committee Meetings
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) Welding Specification for Cars and Loco- All AWS technical committee meet-
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon motives. Amendment standard. $129. ings are open to the public. Persons wish-
Steel (M-1/P-1/S-1, Groups 1 or 2) to 5/13/13. 2nd BSR-8. ing to attend a meeting should contact the
Austenitic Stainless Steel ( M-8/P-8/S-8, AWS was approved as an accredited committee secretary listed.
Group 1), 1⁄8 through 11⁄2 Inch Thick, standards-preparing organization by the May 1, D8 Committee on Automotive
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Con- American National Standards Institute Welding. Livonia, Mich. E. Abrams, ext.
dition, Primarily Pipe Applications. 3/11/13. (ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved 307.
B2.1-1/8-229:2002-AMD1 (R2013), by ANSI, require that all standards be May 7–9, D17 Committee on Welding
Standard Welding Procedure Specification open to public review for comment dur- in the Aircraft and Aerospace Industries.
(SWPS) for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding fol- ing the approval process. The above stan- Los Angeles, Calif. A. Diaz, ext. 304.
lowed by Shielded Metal Arc Welding of dards are submitted for public review with May 16, Safety and Health Commit-
Carbon Steel (M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to the closing dates shown. A draft copy may tee. Cleveland, Ohio. S. Hedrick, ext. 305.
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8, Group be obtained from R. O’Neill, May 28–30, D14 Committee on Ma-
1), 1⁄8 through 11⁄2 Inch Thick, ER309(L) and chinery and Equipment. Dallas, Tex. E.
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Con- Abrams, ext. 307.
dition, Primarily Pipe Applications. 3/11/13. ISO Standard for Public Review June 5, C2 Committee on Thermal
B2.1-1/8-230:2002-AMD1 (R2013), ISO/DIS 5826.2, Resistance welding Spraying. Ogden, Utah. E. Abrams, ext.
Standard Welding Procedure Specification equipment — Transformers — General 307.
(SWPS) for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with specifications applicable to all transformers June 18, G2D Subcommittee on Reac-
Consumable Insert Root of Carbon Steel ISO/DIS 17533, Welding for aerospace tive Alloys. Seattle, Wash. A. Diaz, ext.
(M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic applications — Welding data in design 304.
Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8, Group 1), 1⁄16 documents
through 11⁄2 Inch Thick, IN309 and Review copies of the above documents

Share Your Technical Expertise

Volunteers are sought to contribute to the following technical committees

AWS Safety and Health Committee and Cutting, and D8 Committee on Auto- D16 Committee on Robotic and Auto-
seeks educators, users, general interest, motive Welding seek educators, general matic Welding seeks members in the gen-
and consultants to help develop standards interest, and end users to update its doc- eral interest and educational fields to help
on welding safety. S. Hedrick, uments. E. Abrams, revise its documents. B. McGrath, bmc-
A5L Subcommittee on Magnesium
B4 Committee on Mechanical Testing Alloy Filler Metals seeks professionals to G2D Subcommittee on Reactive Alloys
of Welds seeks professionals in the area revised its filler metal document. R. seeks volunteers to update guides for the
of standard methods for tension, shear, Gupta, fusion welding of titanium and titanium
bend, fracture toughness, hardness, weld- alloys, and fusion welding of zirconium
ability, and other mechanical testing of D10P Subcommittee for Local Heat and zirconium alloys. A. Diaz,
welds. B. McGrath, Treating of Pipe seeks heat treating pro-
fessionals to help update its documents.
B2B Subcommittee on Welding Quali- B. McGrath, J1 Committee on Resistance Welding
fications, seeks members to update B2.1, Equipment seeks educators, general in-
Specification for Welding Procedure and D14 Committee on Machinery and terest, and users to develop standards on
Performance Qualification. A. Diaz, Equipment and D14H Subcommittee on controls, installation and maintenance, Surfacing and Reconditioning of Indus- calibration, and resistance welding fact
trial Mill Rolls seeks professionals in de- sheets. E. Abrams,
D17J Subcommittee seeks profession- sign, production, engineering, testing, and
als to update specification for friction stir safe operation of machinery to prepare A5K Subcommittee on Titanium and
welding of aluminum alloys for aerospace recommended practices for surfacing and Zirconium Filler Metals. Seeks profes-
applications. A. Diaz, reconditioning of industrial mill rolls. The sionals in the field to update specifications
next meeting of the D14 Committee is for welding electrodes and rods of tita-
C2 Committee on Thermal Spraying, May 28 in Dallas, Tex. To attend, contact nium, zirconium, and their alloys. A. Diaz,
C4 Committee on Oxyfuel Gas Welding E. Abrams,

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:43 PM Page 68

Three Student Chapter Advisors Announce Awards

Roy Ledford Jr., advisor, Lawson State William Burns, advisor, Savannah Tech- to recognize AWS Student Members whose
Community College Student Chapter, nical College “Southern Welders” Student Student Chapter activities have produced
Bessemer, Ala., has selected Benjamin Vin- Chapter, Savannah, Ga., has selected outstanding school, community, or indus-
ing and Randall Standridge to receive the Dustin Bolgrign to receive the 2012–13 try achievements. This award also provides
Student Chapter Member Award. Vining, Student Chapter Member Award. Bolgrign an opportunity for Student Chapter advi-
who is Chapter treasurer, will represent the served as the 2012–13 Chapter chair and sors, Section officers, and District direc-
college at the 2013 Louisiana State Skills- earned a 3.95 GPA in his final semester in tors to recognize outstanding students af-
USA competition. He has passed several the welding program. He served nine years filiated with AWS Student Chapters, as well
welding procedure qualifications while in the U.S. Army, completing four combat as to enhance the image of welding within
maintaining a 4.0 GPA. He has been named tours, and continues to serve in the Army their communities.
the Outstanding Student in the Welding Reserves. To qualify for this certificate award, the
Technology Program, and is named on this Huck Hughes, advisor, Columbiana individual must be an AWS Student Mem-
year’s President’s List. Standridge, 2012– County Career and Technical Center Stu- ber affiliated with an AWS Student Chap-
13 Student Chapter chair, represented the dent Chapter, Lisbon, Ohio, has selected ter. The criteria and nomination form can
Chapter at the “Meet the President” event. Paige Lawrence, Chapter chair, to receive be downloaded from
He serves as a volunteer tutor for several the Student Chapter Member Award. tions/awards/student_chapter.pdf, or request
subjects, has directed student activities, and The AWS Board of Directors estab- a copy from the Membership Dept. (800)
coordinated field trips and other events. lished the Student Chapter Member Award 443-9353, ext. 260.

Name Your Candidates for These AWS Awards

The deadline for nominating candidates for the following awards is December 31 prior to the year of the awards presentations.
Contact Wendy Sue Reeve,; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 293.
William Irrgang Memorial Award tions with industry and other organizations, and for contribu-
This award is given to the individual who has done the most tions of time and effort on behalf of the Society.
over the past five years to enhance the Society’s goal of advanc- George E. Willis Award
ing the science and technology of welding. It includes a $2500 This award is given to an individual who promoted the ad-
honorarium and a certificate. vancement of welding internationally by fostering coopera-
Honorary Membership Award tive participation in technology transfer, standards rationali-
This award acknowledges eminence in the welding profession, zation, and promotion of industrial goodwill. It includes a
or one who is credited with exceptional accomplishments in the $2500 honorarium.
development of the welding art. Honorary Members have full International Meritorious Certificate Award
rights of membership. This honor recognizes recipients’ significant contributions to
Nat. Meritorious Certificate Award the welding industry for service to the international welding com-
This award recognizes the recipient’s counsel, loyalty, and munity in the broadest terms. The award consists of a certificate
dedication to AWS affairs, assistance in promoting cordial rela- and a one-year AWS membership.

New Award Category Created: AWS Distinguished Welder

The AWS Distinguished Welder Award has been created to and select the awards category or e-mail Wendy Sue Reeve, sen-
recognize professionals with a minimum of 15 years’ experience ior manager, awards programs,
as a welder and/or supervisor whose welding skills and experi- A maximum of ten individuals per year may be selected as
ence warrant this special recognition. August 1 is the deadline Distinguished Welders as determined by the Selection Commit-
for submitting your completed nomination form. tee. Nominations shall remain valid for three years. If the maxi-
The nomination packet should include information address- mum number of Distinguished Welders allowed under the rules
ing the Definition and candidate’s Application Criteria as de- is reached, the remaining candidates will be deferred for consid-
tailed in the AWS Distinguished Welder Award Nomination eration the next year, consistent with their time eligibility. If less
Form. The focus of the nomination packet should include specifics than the maximum number are awarded, the remaining candi-
of the individual’s skills. For details on the full description, se- dates will be deferred for consideration the following year, con-
lection criteria, and nomination form, visit the AWS Web site sistent with their time eligibility.

Candidates Sought for Annual Masubuchi Award

November 1, 2013, is the deadline for submitting nominations didate’s experience, list of publications, honors, and awards, and
for the 2014 Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award. This award includes at least three letters of recommendation from fellow researchers.
a $5000 honorarium. It is presented each year to one person, 40 The award is sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
years old or younger, who has made significant contributions to nology Dept. of Ocean Engineering. E-mail your nomination
the advancement of materials joining through research and de- package to Todd A. Palmer, assistant professor, The Pennsylva-
velopment. Nominations should include a description of the can- nia State University,

68 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:43 PM Page 69

New AWS Supporters

New Sustaining Members Affiliate Companies Educational Institutions

Big B Welding Service ARPEC (Air Conditioning, Refrigera-
Babcock & Wilcox 64016 Arcola Railroad Ln. tion & Pipefitting Education Center)
Nuclear Energy, Inc. Roseland, LA 70456 13201 NW 45th Ave.
11525 N. Community House Rd. Opa-locka, FL 33054
Charlotte, NC 28277 Cab Construction Co.
Representative: Daniel E. Applegate 1532 1st Ave. Birmingham Ironworkers Mankato, MN 56001 Training Program Trust
2828 4th Ave. S.
ESGA Ingenieria en Estructura S.A. de Birmingham, AL 35233
Bluescope Building C.V., Prolongacior de Recursos
North America, Inc. Hidraulicos #6 Carrollton Area Career Center
7440 Doe Ave. La Loma Tlalnepantla 54060, Mexico 305 E. 10th St.
Visalia, CA 93291 Carrollton, MO 64633
Representative: Thomas Andersen FM Stainless, LLC 1524 Ray Mountain Rd. Cerro Coso Community College
Ellijay, GA 30536 3000 College Height Blvd.
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Greenville Technical College JRV Construction Enterprises, Inc.
738 S. Pleasantburg Dr. 891 Aura Rd. Mastbaum AVTS High School
Greenville, SC 29607 Glassboro, NJ 08028 3116 Frankford Ave.
Representative: Jerry D. Norris Philadelphia, PA 19134 Leading Edge Mfg.
Greenville Tech’s welding program de- 303 Chemin Metairie Rd. Midlands Technical College
livers a strong combination of hands-on Youngsville, LA 70592 1260 Lexington Dr.
experience with classroom instruction. Its West Columbia, SC 29170
graduates are fully trained to enter the McMenimen Design and Fabrication
workforce and are prepared to advance 3100 Cedar Bay Dr. Muskegon Community College
into supervisory positions. Melbourne, FL 32934 221 S. Quarterline Rd.
Muskegon, MI 49442
Webb Diving Services
Linear Controls, Inc. 6409 Rutledge Pike Nueces Canyon High School
1071⁄2 Commission Blvd. Knoxville, TN 37924 200 Taylor St.
Lafayette, LA 70508 Barksdale, TX 78828
Representative: Mckenna Bergeron Westar d.b.a. Quik-Shor 13217 Laureldale Ave. Pitt Community College
Downey, CA 90242 2064 Warren Dr.
Winterville, NC 28590
Multi-Contact USA Supporting Companies
100 Market St. Al Yousuf Enterprises Tennessee Technology Center at Crump
Windsor, CA 95492 215, Aisha Bldg., Office No. 1 3070 Hwy. 64, PO Box 89
Representative: Jocelyn Owen SVP Rd., Dongri, Mumbai Crump, TN 38327 Maharashtra 400009, India
White Deer ISD - Agriculture Dept.
Hickey Metal Fabrication 604 Doucette
Pulverman 873 Georgetown Rd. White Deer, TX 79097
1170 Lower Demunds Rd. Salem, OH 44460
Dallas, PA 18612 Welding Distributors
Representative: Scott Stephenson H & R Welding, LLC ACIT (USA), Inc. 307 Drum Point Rd. 6333 Hazelwood Ln. SE
Brick, NJ 08723 Bellevue, WA 98006

The Japan Welding Engineering Soc. Sureway Tool & Engineering Co. Consolidated Steel Services, Inc.
Qualification & Certification Dept. 2959 Hart Dr. 632 Glendale Valley Blvd.
4-20 Kanda Sakuma-Cho,Chiyoda-Ku Franklin Park, IL 60131 Fallentimber, PA 16639
Tokyo 101-0025, Japan
Representative: Masaharu Sato

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:44 PM Page 70

Member-Get-A-Member Campaign

Listed are the members participating in D. Saunders, Lakeshore — 3

the 2012−2013 campaign. Standings as of J. Turcott, Rochester — 3
March 18, 2013. See page 83 of this Weld- A. Winkle, Kansas City — 3 AWS Member Counts
ing Journal for campaign rules and prize list R. Wright, San Antonio — 3 April 1, 2013
or visit For information, R. Zabel, SE Nebraska — 3 Sustaining ......................................573
call the Membership Department Supporting .....................................335
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 480. President’s Honor Roll Educational ...................................619
Winner’s Circle Sponsored 2 Individual Members Affiliate..........................................503
Sponsored 20 or more Individual Mem- G. Cornell, St. Louis Welding Distributor........................53
bers per year since June 1, 1999. The super- M. Depuy, Portland Total Corporate ..........................2,083
script denotes the number of times the mem- D. Hayes Jr., Louisville Individual .................................58,817
ber achieved this status if more than once. J. Helfrich, Tri-River Student + Transitional .................9,471
E. Ezell, Mobile10 P. Host, Chicago Total Members .........................68,288
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley7 H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley
J. Merzthal, Peru2 J. Kline, Northern New York
G. Taylor, Pascagoula2 L. Kvidahl, Pascagoula
L. Taylor, Pascagoula2 W. Larry, Southern Colorado
B. Chin, Auburn G. Lawrence, N. Central Florida J. Russell, Fox Valley — 17
S. Esders, Detroit J. Mansfield, Philadelphia M. Anderson, Indiana — 16
M. Haggard, Inland Empire E. Norman, Ozark E. Norman, Ozark — 16
M. Karagoulis, Detroit A. Sam, Trinidad M. Anderson, Indiana — 16
S. McGill, NE Tennessee D. Saunders, Lakeshore C. Donnell, NW Ohio — 14
B. Mikeska, Houston C. Shepherd, Houston R. Hutchinson, Long Bch./Or. Cty. — 14
W. Shreve, Fox Valley G. Solomon, Central Pennsylvania D. Pickering, Central Arkansas — 13
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona A. Sumal, British Columbia C. Daily, Puget Sound — 12
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona C. Villarreal, Houston J. Daugherty, Louisville — 12
R. Wray, Nebraska J. Vincent, Kansas City C. Morris, Sacramento — 12
A. Vogt, New Jersey S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley — 12
President’s Guild J. Vorstenbosch, International A. Duron, Cumberland Valley — 11
Sponsored 20+ new Individual Members M. Wheeler, Cleveland K. Coxe, Palm Beach — 11
M. Pelegrino, Chicago — 30 L. William, Western Carolina J. Boyer, Lancaster — 10
E. Ezell, Mobile — 22 W. Wilson, New Orleans G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona — 10
J. Winston, St. Louis C. Schiner, Wyoming — 9
President’s Roundtable C. Galbavy, Idaho/Montana — 8
Sponsored 9–19 new Individual Members Student Member Sponsors C. Gilbertson, Northern Plains — 8
R. Fulmer, Twin Tiers — 10 Sponsored 4+ new Student Members R. Vann, South Carolina — 8
W. Blamire, Atlanta — 9 H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley — 106 J. Dawson, Pittsburgh — 7
A. Tous, Costa Rica — 9 A. Theriot, New Orleans — 47 R. Udy, Utah — 7
P. Strother, New Orleans — 9 B. Scherer, Cincinnati — 39 A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C. — 6
D. Saunders, Lakeshore — 36 T. Buckler, Columbus — 6
President’s Club W. England, Western Michigan — 33 R. Fuller, Green & White Mountains — 6
Sponsored 3–8 new Individual Members R. Bulthouse, Western Michigan — 31 T. Shirk, Tidewater — 6
D. Galigher, Detroit — 7 R. Hammond, Greater Huntsville — 28 K. Temme, Philadelphia — 6
W. Komlos, Utah — 7 T. Geisler, Pittsburgh — 24 P. Host, Chicago — 5
J. Smith, San Antonio — 6 S. Siviski, Maine — 24 R. Ledford, Birmingham — 5
C. Becker, Northwest — 5 R. Zabel, SE Nebraska — 24 P. Strother, New Orleans — 5
L. Webb, Lexington — 4 B. Cheatham, Columbia — 23 W. Wilson, New Orleans — 5
D. Wright, Kansas City — 4 C. Kochersperger, Philadelphia — 23 C. Chifici, New Orleans — 4
T. Baber, San Fernando Valley — 3 M. Arand, Louisville — 22 L. Clark, Milwaukee — 4
J. Bain, Mobile — 3 D. Bastian, NW Pennsylvania — 21 J. Ginther, International — 4
A. Bernard, Sabine — 3 G. Gammill, NE Mississippi — 21 C. Griffin, Tulsa — 4
J. Blubaugh, Detroit — 3 F. Oravets, Pittsburgh — 20 J. Johnson, Northern Plains — 4
P. Brown, New Orleans — 3 J. Theberge, Boston — 20 J. Reed, Ozark — 4
D. Buster, Eastern Iowa — 3 J. Johnson, Madison-Beloit — 19 G. Rolla, L.A./Inland Empire — 4
C. Daon, Israel Section — 3 V. Facchiano, Lehigh Valley — 18 E. Shreve, Pittsburgh — 4
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi — 3 J. Falgout, Baton Rouge — 18 G. Siepert, Kansas — 4
B. Hackbarth, Milwaukee — 3 R. Munns, Utah — 18 P. Strother, New Orleans — 4
S. Jaycox, Long Island — 3 S. Lindsey, San Diego — 17 T. Sumerix, Dayton — 4
D. Jessop, Mahoning Valley — 3 R. Richwine, Indiana — 17 R. Zadroga, Philadelphia — 4

70 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:44 PM Page 71


Shown at the Connecticut Section event are Shown at the Central Mass./R.I. Section vendors’ night event are from left (front row) Chair
Treasurer Walter Chojnacki (left) and Weld- Paul Mendez, District 1 Director Tom Ferri, Douglas Desrochers, and Robert Winschel,
ing Instructor Joseph Hanlon. (back row) Brendon Pequita, and Tim Kinnaman.

Shown at the Green & White Section’s tour of Structal-Bridges are (from left) Sherry Morin, Jennifer Eastley, Ann Thompson, Richard
Mann, Gerry Ouelette, Geoff Putnam, District 1 Director Tom Ferri, Ernie Plumb, Rich Fuller, tour guide Daryl Hastings, Gary Buckley,
Phil Witteman, Feona Lund, John Steel, Perley Lund, and Chris Young.

District 1
Thomas Ferri, director
quita, Section chair and vice chair, respec-
tively. District 1 Director Tom Ferri par-
ticipated in the event.
lon, welding department head, and Tom
Ferri, District 1 director.

(508) 527-1884 GREEN & WHITE MTS.
CENTRAL MASS./R.I. FEBRUARY 26 Activity: The Section members toured the
FEBRUARY 28 Activity: The Section held a students’ night Structal-Bridges facility in Claremont,
Activity: The Section held its fourth an- program at Bristol Technical High School N.H., to study its operations. They ob-
nual welders’ and vendors’ night event at in Bristol, Conn., for 65 attendees. The served submerged arc welding of 21⁄2-in.-
Greater New Bedford Vo-Tech High school’s culinary department provided the thick flanges to the web of 8- × 100-ft
School. Featured were hands-on demon- meals. Attending were representatives bridge beams. They also toured the welder
strations of new welding and cutting equip- from local businesses who discussed their training area and an environmentally con-
ment and presentations by local steel and products and services and answered the trolled building for painting and thermal
welding-supply companies. The presenters students’ questions. Assisting with the spraying. The guide was Daryl Hastings,
included New Bedford Vo-Tech welding in- event were Section Chair Steve Goodrow, production trainer.
structors Paul Mendez and Brendon Pe- Treasurer Walter Chojnacki, Joseph Han-

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:44 PM Page 72

District 2
Harland W. Thompson, director
(631) 546-2903

Speaker: Tom Gartland, Section vice chair
Affiliation: Trilogy Lab, LLC
Topic: Welding Kooks headers
Activity: The program was held in Wan-
tagh, N.Y. District 2 Director Harland
Thompson attended the program.

Speaker: Frank Hauser
Affiliation: Divers Academy International
Shown at the Long Island Section program are from left (front row) Tom Gartland, Chair Topic: Techniques for testing underwater
Brian Cassidy, and Alex Duschere, (back row) Barry McQuillan, Ray O’Leary, Jessie Provler, welds
District 2 Director Harland Thompson, and Ken Messemert. Activity: Members of the local chapter of
ASNT attended this program. District 2
Director Harland Thompson and Chair
Ken Temme presented the District Direc-
tor Certificate Award to Mike Chomin, im-
mediate past chair. The program was held
at the Crown Plaza in Trevose, Pa.

Speakers: Dave Schaffer, Airgas East; Bert
Riendeau, Airgas Northeast; Charlie Min-
nick, Miller Electric; and Tim Stott, Miller
Topics: Schaffer discussed AC balance
control; Riendeau spoke on welding codes
made friendly; Minnick talked about tra-
ditional welding machine technology; and
Stott detailed advances in modern inverter
Shown at the March Philadelphia Section program are (from left) District 2 Director Har- Activity: Philadelphia Section Chair Ken
land Thompson, with Dave Schaffer, Bert Riendeau, Charlie Minnick, Chair Ken Temme, Temme presented the District CWI of the
and Tim Stott. Year Award to Bill Mowbray of Scheck
Mechanical Contractors; and Section Ed-
ucator of the Year Awards to Walt Emerle,
training director, Plumbers and Pipefitters
Local 322; Dan Roskiewich, Gloucester
County Institute of Technology; and Char-
lie Minnick from Miller Electric. The
event was hosted by Plumbers and Pipefit-
ters Local 322, a Section supporter, rep-
resented by Jim Kehoe, business manager.

District 3
Michael Wiswesser, director
(610) 820-9551

Mike Chomin (left) receives the District Di- Shown at the February Philadelphia Section
February meeting are (from left) District 2
District 4
Stewart A. Harris, director
rector Award from District 2 Director Har-
land Thompson at the February Philadel- Director Harland Thompson, Chair Ken (919) 824-0520
phia Section event. Temme, and ASNT Vice Chair Tony Gatti.

72 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:45 PM Page 73

Philadelphia Section members display their awards (from left) Dan Roskiewich, Charlie Frank Hauser (left) receives a speaker gift
Minnick, Bill Mowbray, Chair Ken Temme, Walt Emerle, and Harland Thompson, District from Ken Temme, Philadelphia Section
2 director. chair, at the February program.

Tidewater Section members are shown during their tour of Catalina Cylinders in February.

Attendees are shown at the ASME-Triangle Section career panel program in February.

CHARLOTTE Division, Hampton, Va. Following dinner, TRIANGLE

CALENDAR hosted by the company, Joe Wolff guided FEBRUARY 5
MAY 3 the 22 members on a plant tour. The com- Activity: A career panel consisting of six
13th Annual Intercollegiate pany produces high- and low-pressure alu- senior members of the local chapter of
Welding Competition minum compressed gas cylinders. ASME and Russell Wahrman from the
Central Piedmont C. C., Charlotte, N.C. AWS Triangle Section convened at North
Contact Chair Ray Sosko Carolina University in Raleigh, N.C., to
(704) 330-4487 MARCH 14 share their experiences in the industry and
Speaker: Charlie Pennington answer questions for the college students.
Affiliation: ITW Welding North America District 4 Director and Section Chair Stu-
TIDEWATER Topic: Manufacturing filler metals art Harris expressed an interest in mak-
FEBRUARY 21 Activity: This Tidewater Section program ing the career panel program with ASME
Activity: The Section members visited was held at Smoke BBQ in Newport News, an annual event.
Catalina Cylinders — East, Cliff Impact Va., for 28 attendees.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:45 PM Page 74

Florida West Coast golfers get ready to tee off at the Section’s 21st annual tournament.

Participants are shown at the North Central Florida Section-sponsored welding contest.

The top-scoring welders, student category, in

the North Central Florida Section contest
Working the Florida West Coast Section raffle-ticket fund-raiser were (from left) Walt Arnold, were Jacob Underhill (right) and Tommy
Bill Machnovitz, Raymond Monson, and Al Sedory. Taylor.

First-place team members at the Florida West Coast tournament are (from left) Walt Arnold,
Jack Garrison, Don Chadwell, and Mike Gates.

District 5
Carl Matricardi, director
Dave Parker (left) is shown with speaker
Gerry Crawmer at the Northern New York
(770) 979-6344
Section meeting.


Activity: The Section hosted its 21st an- Activity: The Section conducted a welding
nual golf outing to raise funds for its schol- contest at Community Technical Adult Ed-
arship program to assist local welding stu- ucation Center in Ocala, Fla., for 11 stu-
dents. More than 50 members, guests, and dent and 8 professional welders. Joey Pyles
sponsors participated in the event. The from Townley Industries won the profes-
Joey Pyles and Chair Jennifer Skyles took first-place team members, scoring 14 sional title with runner-up Jennifer Skyles,
top honors in the professional category at the under par, were Walt Arnold, Jack Garri- Section chair, with SPX Industries. Jacob
North Central Florida Section competition. son, Don Chadwell, and Mike Gates. Underhill from Bradford Union Area Ca-

74 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:46 PM Page 75

Pittsburgh Section and ASNT members are shown at the March program.

Shown at the Pittsburgh Section program are

Shown at the Tri-State Boy Scout merit badge training session are (kneeling) Allen Black (from left) Chair John Menhart, speaker Wes
and (from left) Calvin Roach, Xristopher Popoff, Devin Ames, John Saunders, David Hay, Williams, and Robert Saunders, ASNT
Cody Finley, Andy Hall, Sean McKinley, Fred Hammers, and Chad Bowen. Chapter chair.
reer Technical Center earned the top stu- DAYTON TRI-STATE
dent welder honor with Tommy Taylor tak- FEBRUARY 12 JANUARY 8, 10, 15
ing second place. Sebastian Rodriguez Activity: The Section conducted a Boy Activity: Fred Hammers, owner of Ham-
from Tech Simulation showed attendees Scout welding merit badge workshop at mers Industries, and Health and Safety
how to test their skills using a virtual arc Miami Valley Career Technology Center Manager Cody Finley hosted and trained
welding training system. in Clayton, Ohio, for 66 Scouts. Career a Boy Scouts welding merit badge class.
Center students assisted the Section mem- The hands-on shop training was taught by

District 6
Kenneth Phy, director
bers to instruct the Scouts on the proper
welding techniques. Chuck Ford, Section
student affairs chair, and Chair Chris Lan-
Shop Manager Calvin Roach, Andy Hall,
and John Saunders. Earning their weld-
ing badges were David Hay, Xristopher
(315) 218-5297 der led the activity. Popoff, and Chad Bowen of Troop 63, Devin Ames of Troop 790, Sean McKinley
FEBRUARY 16, 17 of Troop 50, and Allen Black of Troop 92.
NORTHERN NEW YORK Activity: The Dayton Section members The training was conducted at the Ham-
MARCH 5 participated in Tech Fest 2013 presented mers Industries facilities near Huntington,
Speaker: Gerry Crawmer, welding engineer by the Affiliated Societies of Dayton to in- W.Va.
Affiliation: General Electric (ret.) terest grade school students in science and
Topic: Welding steam turbine rotors technology. The Section members talked
Activity: The event was held at Shaker to students about careers in welding and
Ridge Country Club in Latham, N.Y. presented live demonstrations of auto-
mated welding using a Motoman robot. District 8
Joe Livesay, director
District 7
Uwe Aschemeier, director PITTSBURGH
(931) 484-7502, ext. 143
(786) 473-9540 MARCH 12 Speaker: Wes Williams, staff engineer CHATTANOOGA
Affiliation: First Energy Corp. FEBRUARY 16
COLUMBUS Topic: Procedure for repair of cracks in the Activity: The Section held its student weld-
MARCH 19 Unit 2 Nuclear Reactor head ing competition at Sequoyah High School
Speaker: Angie Rybalt, outreach manager Activity: Members of the local chapter of in Soddy Daisy, Tenn., hosted by the Se-
Affiliation: American Electric Power ASNT International Chapter, headed by quoyah High School Student Chapter. The
(AEP) Chair Robert Saunders, attended this pro- top scorers in the high school category
Topic: How AEP support services can help gram, held at Springfield Grille in Mars, were Dustin Luthringer, Colton Jones, and
businesses reduce power consumption Pa. Dexter McSpaden. The postsecondary cat-
Activity: The program was held at La Scala egory winners were Mauricio Gayton Jr.,
Restaurant in Columbus, Ohio. Eric Vennie, and Darren Vincent.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:46 PM Page 76

Speaker: Gary Roberts
Affiliation: Airgas, automation specialist
Topic: Airgas University online training
Activity: Nominations for Section officers
were received for presentation at the April
meeting. The program was held at Mama’s
House Restaurant in Kingsport, Tenn.

Shown are the participants in the Chattanooga Section/Sequoyah High School Student
Chapter welding contest. NORTHEAST TENNESSEE
Activity: The Section hosted its annual stu-
dents’ day event at Tennessee Technology
Center (TTC) in Knoxville for about 230
students from local schools. The event in-
cluded talks on welding careers, compli-
mentary lunch, welding demonstrations,
and a tour of the Technology Center. At-
tending were high school welding instruc-
tors Steve Linn (TTC Knoxville), Jeff Han-
kins (Oak Ridge), Jim Thomas (South
Doyle), Rick Johnson (Grainger), Tim
The top-scoring welders in the Chattanooga Section/Sequoyah High School Student Chap-
Steelman (Morgan County), Michael Hurt
ter contest are (from left) Eric Vennie, Dexter McSpaden, Dustin Luthringer, Colton Jones,
(TTC Jacksboro), Mike Russell (TTC
Darren Vincent, and Mauricio Gayton Jr.
Harriman), and District 8 Director Joe
Livesay (TTC Crossville).

Activity: The Section sponsored a stu-
dents’ night and equipment demo event
featuring the Lincoln Electric mobile dis-
play unit. Lincoln salesman Ron Martucci
demonstrated the equipment.

Speaker Gary Roberts (red sweater) is shown with the Holston Valley Section members.

District 9
George Fairbanks Jr., director
(225) 473-6362
Activity: The Birmingham Section and
Lawson State C. C. Student Chapter mem-
bers held a welding seminar at Plumbers
and Pipefitters Local 372 in Duncanville,
Students are shown at the Northeast Tennessee Section’s students’ day event. Ala. Exhibitors included Victor, Lincoln
Electric, Miller Electric, Airgas Welding
Supply, and Harris Equipment.

Central Alabama
Student Chapter
Speaker: Craig Ray
Topic: Jobs in underwater welding and
commercial diving
Activity: The program was held in the Cen-
tral Alabama Community College welding
shop in Alexander, Ala. Attending were D.
J. James, Emily Hatfield, Daniel Arnberg,
Brandon Fraser, Robin Holt, Zack Adams,
Chris Floyd, Walter Whatley, Colton
Steve Linn answers students’ questions at the Northeast Tennessee event.
Stroud, and Craig Ray.

76 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:46 PM Page 77

Ron Martucci is shown at the Northeast Mis-

sissippi Section students program.
Northeast Mississippi Section members and students are shown at the February event.
Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: The welding industry
Activity: Past AWS President John and
wife Donna Bruskotter hosted a reception
for Nancy Cole at their home in Slidell, La.
District 9 Director George Fairbanks was
among the Section’s guests who attended
the event.

Speaker: Jason Lange
Affiliation: Lincoln Automation, Inc.
Topic: Controlling welding fumes Attendees are shown at the Birmingham Section-sponsored welding seminar.
Activity: IWS Gas & Supply, represented
by President Moussy Chassion, provided
the door prizes and sponsored this New
Orleans Section program at Café Hope in
Marrero, La., for 66 members, students,
and guests. Alfred Marshall, an appren-
tice with Ironworkers No. 58, was the 50/50
prize winner.

District 10
Robert E. Brenner, director
(330) 484-3650

District 10 Central Alabama Student Chapter members are shown at their March meeting.
Activity: The District held its second CWI
Roundtable event at Babcock & Wilcox
Commercial in Euclid, Ohio. The event of-
fers CWIs an opportunity to share their
experiences and opinions. The 20 partici-
pants discussed a number of topics, includ-
ing qualification records, welding proce-
dure specifications, welder performance
qualification records, and the proper way
to issue welder certification papers.

Activity: The Section participated in the
SkillsUSA competition hosted by the New Nancy Cole, AWS president, is shown with
Castle School of Trades in New Castle, Pa. Ironworker Alfred Marshall (left) receives a George Fairbanks (left), District 9 director,
The top welders were Joseph Crate, door prize from Aldo Duron, New Orleans and D. J. Berger at the New Orleans Section
Robert Ackerson, and Conner Biggs. Section chair. reception.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:47 PM Page 78

The New Orleans Section attendees are shown at the reception held at the Bruskotter’s home.

District 10 CWIs are shown during their roundtable discussion in March.

Activity: The Drake Well Section mem-
bers discussed the March 9 District 10
Roundtable event and the District 10 con-
ference scheduled for April 19. Dan
Bubenhiem was elected vice chair.

Speaker: Jim Hannahs, PE, CWI
Topic: Metals and processes used to build
NASCAR vehicles
Activity: The meeting, held at Mahoning
County Career & Technical Center in Can-
field, Ohio, was attended by about 90
Shown at the New Orleans Section event are (from left) Tommy Callahan, Mike Massicot,
members and guests.
Jimmy Gibbs, Moussy Chassion, and Chair Aldo Duron.

Speaker: Marty Siddall, technical sales
representative/automation specialist
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: New technologies in robotic weld-
Activity: The meeting was held at Tri State
Business Institute in Erie, Pa.

District 11
Robert P. Wilcox, director
Shown at the New Orleans Section March program are (from left) Moussy Chassion, Matt (734) 721-8272
Howerton, speaker Jason Lange, and Chair Aldo Duron.

78 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:47 PM Page 79

SPEAKER: Curt Wilsoncroft, regional sales
Affiliation: Victor Technologies
Topic: Carbon arc and oxygen lance cutting
Activity: The program was held at Owens
Community College in Perrysburg, Ohio,
for 41 attendees. Following the talk, the
group visited the welding lab where Wilson-
croft demonstrated the cutting processes
and members had a hands-on opportunity Shown at the Drake Well Section SkillsUSA competition are (from left) Robert Ackerson,
to experiment with the equipment. Tyler Hoffman, Joseph Crate, Chad Hajec, Joseph Steiner, and Conner Biggs.

District 12
Daniel J. Roland, director
(715) 735-9341, ext. 6421

Speaker: Chris Boycks, CWI
Topic: The shortage of skilled qualified
welders and fabricators
Activity: The seventh annual District 12 Drake Well Section members are from left (front row) Robert Fugate, Colin Young, Justus
winter meeting was hosted by Jay Manu- Burk, Bailey Hagerty, Dan Bubenhiem, William Brownlee, Travis Crate, and Ward Kiser;
facturing Co. in Oshkosh, Wis. Dan (back row) Rolf Laemmer, Erick Speer, Joe Crate, and Troy Braden.
Roland, District 12 director, presented
Chair Dan Crifase the Dalton E. Hamil-
ton Memorial CWI of the Year Award and
the District Meritorious Award to Vice
Chair Ken Karwowski.

District 13
John Willard, director
(815) 954-4838

Activity: The Section hosted its annual St. Shown at the February Racine-Kenosha Sec-
Valentine’s Day dinner party at Cooper’s Speaker Jim Hannahs (right) is shown with tion event are (from left) Chair Dan Crifase,
Hawk Winery & Restaurant in Chicago, Dave Hughes, Mahoning Valley Section ex- District 12 Director Dan Roland, and Ken
Ill., for 35 attendees. ecutive committee member. Karwowski.

District 14
Robert L. Richwine, director
(765) 378-5378

Activity: The Section conducted the re-
gional SkillsUSA welding contest at J. E.
L. Career Center in Indianapolis, Ind., for
20 participants. Four secondary and four
postsecondary welding contestants were
selected to compete in the state welding
contest. Working the event were Bob Rich- From left, Gary Dugger, Bennie Flynn, and Speaker Marty Siddall (left) is shown with
wine, District 14 director; Chair Bennie Gary Tucker worked the Indiana SkillsUSA Tom Kostreba, Northwestern Pennsylvania
Flynn; Gary Dugger; and Gary Tucker. contest. Section chair.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:48 PM Page 80

Shown at the Lexington Section program are

(from left) Rosa Whitaker, Coy Hall, Rosa
McCallum, and Shawn Gannon.

Activity: The Indiana Section members
SkillsUSA welding contestants are shown during the Indiana Section event. toured the Don Schumacher Racing facil-
ity in Brownsburg, Ind. Mike Lewis, sen-
ior vice president, conducted the tour.

Speaker: Tony Noah
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Pulse welding
Activity: Incoming Chair Coy Hall pre-
sented the Section CWI of the Year Award
to Sherman Cook, an instructor at Rock-
castle County Technical School. Rose
Whitaker and Rosa McCallum were pre-
Shown at the Indiana Section contest are sented $250 scholarship awards. Fifty
(from left) Wilson Smith, Thomas Faucett, Incoming Lexington Section Chair Coy Hall members and guests attended the pro-
and Bob Richwine, District 14 director. (left) is shown with Sherman Cook. gram.

Activity: The Section held its holiday party
at Cee Kay Supply, Inc., in St. Louis, Mo.
Company owner Tom Dunn was cited for
his generous support and the services he
has offered to the Section over the years.
In recognition, Jerry Simpson presented
Dunn the District 14 Meritorious Award.

Angela Harrison is shown with Dennis Pick- Mike Lewis led the Indiana Section mem-
District 15
David Lynnes, director
ering at the Arkansas Welding Expo. bers on a tour of Don Schumacher Racing. (701) 365-0606

District 16
Dennis Wright, director
(913) 782-0635

Shown at the February Central Arkansas Tom Dunn (left) receives the District 14 Mer-
District 17
J. Jones, director
Section program are (from left) Aaron Carr, itorious Award from Jerry Simpson at the St. (832) 506-5986
Karen Cooper, and Dennis Pickering. Louis Section holiday party.

80 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:48 PM Page 81

Speaker Dennis Pickering (kneeling) and attendees are shown at the February Central Arkansas Section meeting.

Activity: The Section participated in the
Arkansas Welding Expo presented by
WELSCO, Inc., at Verizon Arena in Lit-
tle Rock, Ark. Angela Harrison, WELSCO
president, was presented the Section Mer-
itorious Award. More than 700 students
attended the event to learn about job op-
portunities from Monica Pfarr, AWS cor-
porate director, workforce development,
who held presentations for them titled
“Let the Sparks Fly.” Vice Chair Dennis
Pickering, a welding instructor at
Arkansas Career Training Institute, made Attendees are shown at the Central Arkansas Section January program.
presentations at the expo.

Speaker: Dennis Pickering, vice chairman
Affiliation: Arkansas Career Training In-
stitute, welding instructor
Topic: Welding codes and standards
Activity: The program was held at the in-
stitute in Hot Springs, Ark.

Speaker: Dennis Pickering, vice chairman Shown at the East Texas Section program are (from left) Student Chapter Chair Michael
Affiliation: Arkansas Career Training In- Florczykowski, Chair Bryan Baker, Yoni Adonyi, speaker Tom Siewert, Robert Warke, and J.
stitute, welding instructor Jones, District 17 director.
Topic: The AWS scholarship program
Activity: The meeting was held at Arkansas
State University in Heber Springs, Ark.

LeTourneau University S. C.
Speaker: Tom Siewert, AWS director-at-
Affiliation: NIST (ret.)
Topic: Analysis of the collapse of the World Shown at the Tulsa Section program are (from left) AWS President Nancy Cole, Todd Mor-
Trade Center buildings ris, Charles Griffin, Ralph Johnson, Ray Wilsdorf, and J. Jones, District 17 director.
Activity: The program was held at Le-
Tourneau University in Longview, Tex. At-
tending were District 17 Director J. Jones, TULSA Johnson received District Director Certifi-
Chair Bryan Baker, Student Chapter Chair FEBRUARY 9 cate Awards, and Charles Griffin was pre-
Michael Florczykowski, Prof. Materials Activity: The Section hosted a dinner to sented the Private Sector Instructor
Joining Engineering Yoni Adonyi, and celebrate St. Valentine’s day with the Award. Ralph Johnson and Ray Wilsdorf
Robert Warke, associate professor, mate- ladies. Nancy Cole, AWS president, at- received Dalton E. Hamilton Memorial
rials joining. tended the event. Todd Morris and Ralph CWI of the Year Awards.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:49 PM Page 82

Attendees are shown at the Houston Section instructors institute held February 22.

Tac Edwards (left), Lake Charles Section

Shown at the Houston Section booth at the Houstex® show are (from left) Sam Gentry, chair, presents a speaker plaque to John
Luanne Bray, John Stoll, and John Bray, District 18 director. Bray, District 18 director.

Alaska Section members and guests are shown at the February program.

Members and students are shown at the Spokane Section program in January.

District 18
John Bray, director
Activity: The Section held its seventh an-
(281) 997-7273 nual instructors institute hosted by Andre
Shown during the British Columbia Section Horn and the Industrial Welding Academy
tour are Brad Moe and speaker John Shaw. staff. Thirty welding instructors attended

82 MAY 2013
Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:49 PM Page 85

Idaho-Montana Section members are shown during their tour of Spudnik Equipment Co.

Dale Flood (left), an AWS director-at-large,

accepts a speaker gift from Brad Bosworth,
Fresno Section chair. Attendees are shown at the Fresno Section program in February.
the event. The topic for the hands-on class BRITISH COLUMBIA
was flux cored arc welding. Each instruc-
tor had the opportunity to qualify on a sin-
Speaker: John Shaw, VP, government re-
District 22
Kerry E. Shatell, director
gle V-groove butt joint on 3⁄8-in. plate in ei- lations and business development (925) 866-5434
ther the flat or vertical position. The steel Affiliation: Seaspan Vancouver Shipyards
plates were donated by Scott Witkowski Topic: Update on the National Shipbuild-
and Maverick Testing Laboratories. ing Procurement Strategy FRESNO
Activity: Following a catered dinner and FEBRUARY 21
FEBRUARY 26–28 the talk, the Section members were guided Activity: The Section members met for a
Activity: The Section manned a booth at on a tour of the Seaspan Vancouver Ship- demonstration of the Tri Tool AdaptArc
the Houstex® The Art of Manufacturing yards by AWS member Brad Moe. orbital welding system. Dale Flood, Tri
Show presented by the Society of Manu- Tool project manager, an AWS director-
facturing Engineers at George R. Brown at-large, and past District 22 director, con-
Convention Center in Houston, Tex. Par- SPOKANE ducted the program for about 45 atten-
ticipating were Sam Gentry, executive di- JANUARY 16 dees. Attending were District 22 Director
rector, AWS Foundation; Joe Krall, AWS Speaker: Russ Loveland Kerry Shatell, Kent Baucher, a past Dis-
managing director, global exposition sales; Affiliation: Western States Equipment Co. trict 22 director, and Theo Davis, an in-
John Stoll, and Luanne and John Bray, Topic: Maintaining large construction structor at Fresno City College.
District 18 director. equipment
Activity: The program was held at Spokane
Community College in Spokane, Wash., SACRAMENTO VALLEY
LAKE CHARLES for 39 attendees. JANUARY 16
FEBRUARY 20 Speaker: Mark Paavola, administrator of
Speaker: John Bray, District 18 director apprenticeship ad training
Affiliation: Affiliated Machinery
Topic: What’s new at AWS
Activity: The dinner and program were
District 20
William A. Komlos, director
Affiliation: Sheet Metal Workers Assn.
Topic: Employment opportunities in the
sheet metal trade
held at Logan’s Roadhouse Restaurant in (801) 560-2353 Activity: Paavola and David Perez detailed
Lake Charles, La. the training program used by the center.

District 19 Activity: The Section members visited

Spudnik Equipment Co., in Blackfoot, International
Ken Johnson, director Idaho, to tour the facility. The facility de-
(425) 957-3553 signs and manufactures potato planting, GERMANY cultivating, harvesting, and handling CALENDAR
equipment. Wes Woodland, shift supervi- Essen, Germany
ALASKA sor, led the program. SEPT. 11–17
FEBRUARY 20 66th IIW Annual Assembly
Speaker: Marty Anderson, chair, ASNT 2013 Int’l Trade Fair
Alaska chapter Joining, Cutting, Surfacing
SEPT. 16, 17
Affiliation: Alaska Technical Training, Inc.
Topic: Nondestructive welding inspection District 21
Nanette Samanich, director
Int’l Conf. on Automation in Welding
SEPT. 16–21
Activity: The program was held for 21 at- (702) 429-5017 Young Welders’ Competitions
tendees in Anchorage, Alaska.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:49 PM Page 86

Guide to AWS Services

American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166
(800/305) 443-9353; FAX (305) 443-7559;
Staff phone extensions are shown in parentheses.


Nancy C. Cole Managing Director, Global Exposition Sales Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340) Joe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297) Managing Director
NCC Engineering Andrew R. Davis.. . . . . . . .(466)
2735 Robert Oliver Ave. Corporate Director, International Sales International Standards Activities, American Coun-
Fernandina Beach, FL 32034 Jeff P. . . . . . . .(233) cil of the International Institute of Welding (IIW)
Oversees international business activities involving
ADMINISTRATION certification, publication, and membership. Director, National Standards Activities
Executive Director Annette Alonso.. . . . . . . .(299)
Ray W. Shook.. . . . . . . . . . .(210)
PUBLICATION SERVICES Manager, Safety and Health
Sr. Associate Executive Director Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275) Stephen P. Hedrick.. . . . . . .(305)
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . . .(253) Managing Director Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plas-
Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . .(249) tics and Composites, Welding Iron Castings, Per-
Chief Financial Officer sonnel and Facilities Qualification
Gesana Villegas.. . . . . . .(252) Welding Journal
Publisher Managing Engineer, Standards
VP Sales and Marketing Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . .(249) Brian McGrath .... . . . . .(311)
Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . .(211) Structural Welding, Methods of Inspection, Me-
Editor chanical Testing of Welds, Welding in Marine Con-
VP Technology and Business Development Mary Ruth Johnsen.. . .(238) struction, Piping and Tubing
Dennis . . . . . . . . .(213)
National Sales Director Senior Staff Engineer
Executive Assistant for Board Services Rob Saltzstein.. . . . . . . . . . . .(243) Rakesh Gupta.. . . . . . . . . . .(301)
Gricelda Manalich.. . . . . .(294) Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Society and Section News Editor Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc
Administrative Services Howard . .(244) Welding and Cutting Processes
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214) Welding Handbook Standards Program Managers
Editor Efram Abrams.. . . . . . . . .(307)
IT Network Director Annette O’Brien.. . . . . . . .(303) Thermal Spray, Automotive, Resistance Welding,
Armando . .(296) Machinery and Equipment
Director MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Stephen Borrero... . . . . .(334)
Hidail Nuñ . . . . . . . . . . . .(287) Director Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Ross Hancock.. . . . . . . .(226) Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook,
Director of IT Operations Railroad Welding, Definitions and Symbols
Natalia . . . . . . . . . .(245) Public Relations Manager
Cindy . . . . . . . . . . . .(416) Alex Diaz.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)
Human Resources Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Air-
Director, Compensation and Benefits Webmaster craft and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys
Luisa Hernandez.. . . . . . . . . .(266) Jose . . . . . . . . .(456)
Patrick Henry.. . . . . . . . . . .(215)
Director, Human Resources Section Web Editor Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cut-
Dora A. Shade.. . . . . . . . . .(235) Henry . . . . . . . . .(452) ting, High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Weld-
ing, Welding in Sanitary Applications
International Institute of Welding
Senior Coordinator MEMBER SERVICES Senior Manager, Technical Publications
Sissibeth Lopez . . . . . . . . . . .(319) Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480) Rosalinda O’Neill.. . . . . . . .(451)
Liaison services with other national and international Sr. Associate Executive Director AWS publishes about 200 documents widely used
societies and standards organizations. Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . . .(253) throughout the welding industry
Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . . Rhenda A. Kenny... . . . . . .(260) Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C., Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS may be obtained only by sending a request in writ-
(202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors fed- headquarters. ing to Andrew R. Davis, managing director, Tech-
eral issues of importance to the industry. nical Services,
CERTIFICATION SERVICES Oral opinions on AWS standards may be ren-
CONVENTION and EXPOSITIONS Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Director, Convention and Meeting Services Managing Director dered, however, oral opinions do not constitute of-
Matthew . . . . . . .(239) John L. Gayler.. . . . . . . . . . .(472) ficial or unofficial opinions or interpretations of
Oversees all certification activities including all inter- AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and
ITSA — International Thermal national certification programs. should not be used as a substitute for an official
Spray Association interpretation.
Senior Manager and Editor Director, Certification Operations
Kathy . . .(232) Terry . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam AWS FOUNDATION, Inc.
RWMA — Resistance Welding scoring.
Manufacturing Alliance General Information
Management Specialist Director, Certification Programs (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212,
Keila . . . .(444) Linda . . . . . . .(298)
Oversees the development of new certification pro- Chairman, Board of Trustees
grams, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and Gerald D. Uttrachi
WEMCO — Association of AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.
Welding Manufacturers Executive Director, Foundation
Management Specialist Sam Gentry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)
Keila . . . .(444) EDUCATION SERVICES
Director, Operations Corporate Director, Workforce Development
Brazing and Soldering Martica Ventura.. . . . . . .(224) Monica Pfarr.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461)
Manufacturers’ Committee
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246) Director, Education Development The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corpora-
David Hernandez.. . . .(219) tion established to provide support for the educa-
GAWDA — Gases and Welding tional and scientific endeavors of the American Weld-
Distributors Association ing Society.
John Ospina.. . . . . . . . . . .(462) Senior Manager Promote the Foundation’s work with your financial
Wendy S. Reeve.. . . . . . . . .(293) support. Call (800) 443-9353, ext. 212, for complete
Operations Manager Coordinates AWS awards, Fellow, Counselor nom- information.
Natasha Alexis.. . . . . . . . . .(401) inees.

86 MAY 2013
codes conference_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:20 AM Page 87
Personnel MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:39 PM Page 88


Eriez® Names Two to Key senior manager exports, and John Blicha
Positions to director of corporate communications.
Goldner will manage the company’s sales
offices in Central and South America and
Eriez®, Erie, Pa., a supplier of mag- the Middle East. Most recently, Goldner
netic lift, conveying, metal-detection, served as export market development
X-ray, controlling, and inspection equip- manager, targeting industrial markets in
ment, has promoted Andrew Goldner to Central and South America. Blicha has

Andrew Goldner John Blicha

served as marketing communications

manager since joining the company last

Tuchscherer Elected AWS

Foundation Trustee

6 6 6 The American Welding Society Foun-

dation, Inc., Doral, Fla., has elected Becky
Tuchscherer to serve on its board of
trustees. Her term runs through 2015.
6 6 66 Tuchscherer is group vice president, com-
mercial welding, for Miller Electric Mfg.
6 6 6 6 Co., where she has worked since 1988. She
is an AWS member and has served on the
AWS Finance Committee. The AWS
6 6 6 Foundation was es-
tablished in 1991 to
6 6 6 6 support programs
that ensure the
6 6 growth and develop-
ment of the welding
6 6 6 6 industry. Its focus is
on providing scholar-
6 6 ships for welding stu-
dents and pursuing
2% Thoriated welder workforce de-
velopment issues. Becky Tuchscherer
E3® Electrodes were tested
on +624%-346-2*.3 +)64)./06
! $!34%6+/64246-"/63-6
Wall Colmonoy Announces
)+!36+36)4+!36  6)-/0426./6 New Controller and CFO
3.!6'+2 3.")+26+'').+3.-/6
w h e n co m p a r e d t o Wall Colmonoy Corp., Madison

6 6 6 6 6 Heights, Mich., a supplier of surfacing and
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 brazing products, castings, and engi-
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 neered components, has named Michael
6 6 6 6 6 Edwards chief financial officer, and
6 6 6 Michael Safford controller for the com-
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 pany’s U.S. operations. Edwards has ex-
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6

63-2.+34 E3®
after 3 passes after 8 passes


62+/6+''2-6 6)./4+263
E3®62+/6+''2-6 6)./4+263

Mike Edwards Mike Safford

For info go to
— continued on page 90
88 MAY 2013
general corporate_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 8:22 AM Page 89
Personnel MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:39 PM Page 90

— continued from page 88 Sales Director Hired at Adept Technology Appoints

Caster Concepts Global Marketing VP
tensive experience in accounting with De-
loitte and in manufacturing where he has Caster Concepts, Albion, Mich., a sup- Adept Technol-
held senior finance and operations man- plier of heavy-duty casters and wheels, has ogy, Inc., Pleasanton,
agement positions with a machine manu- named Jamie Long Calif., a provider of
facturer and a provider of injection- director of sales. intelligent robots,
molded PVC pipe fittings. Safford is a cer- Prior to joining the has named Glenn
tified managerial accountant, with Six company, Long Hewson senior vice
Sigma Green Belt training. served as national president of global
sales manager for marketing. Hewson,
Centerline® Names RW Hotsy Corp., a divi- with 25 years of prod-
sion of Karcher uct line and market-
Account Manager North America, a ing experience, most Glenn Hewson
manufacturer of recently served as
Centerline® (Windsor) Ltd., Windsor,
Jamie Long high-pressure clean- vice president of global marketing at
Ont., Canada, has named Greg Van Dyke
ing systems. Avure Technologies, Inc.
account manager specializing in resist-
ance welding con-
sumables and au- TRUMPF Designates West
tomation component Coast Sales Manager
products. Van Dyke
has ten years of expe- TRUMPF, Inc., Laser Technology
Member Milestones
rience in the resist- Center, Farmington, Conn., has named
ance welding field, Gene Bonacum west coast regional sales
most recently with manager to handle accounts in Oregon, Damian J. Kotecki
Resistance Welding Washington, California, Idaho, Montana,
Products Ltd., and and Wyoming. Bonacum has more than Damian J. Kotecki, an AWS Fellow,
the Tuffaloy Group of 20 years of experience in the field, most PE, a past AWS president, and world-
Greg Van Dyke companies. recently with Newport Corp. renowned authority on welding stainless
steels, has been ap-
pointed to the Board
of Advisors of
Abakan, Inc., Miami,
Fla. The announce-
ment states in part,
“Dr. Kotecki brings
43 years of welding
expertise as well as
his extensive techni-
cal and business net-
Damian Kotecki work to the Board of
Advisors, as Abakan
transitions its CermaClad™ large-area
cladding technology into full commercial
production. Dr. Kotecki’s extensive expe-
rience in welding research, pipeline fail-
ure analyses, welding training and specifi-
cations, welding procedure development,
quality assurance, and stainless/high-alloy
For info go to
welding filler metal and product develop-
ment will help assure the company’s prod-
ucts incorporate the highest levels of
technical excellence.” Kotecki chairs the
A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
Welding and the International Standards
Activities Committee. He is also a past
chair of the IIW Commission II Arc
Welding and Filler Metals, and authors
the bimonthly Stainless Q&A column in
the Welding Journal. He conducted weld-
ing research projects and pipeline failure
analyses for the Battelle Memorial Insti-
tute, served as director of research for
Teledyne McKay, and most recently re-
tired as the technical director for stainless
and high-alloy product development for
The Lincoln Electric Co.◆
For info go to

90 MAY 2013
awo welding symbols_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:06 AM Page 91

Welding Symbols
Knowledge of weld joint terminology is essential for all levels of the welding design and production process. Use
of proper terms makes it much easier for welding personnel to communicate about various fit-up and welding
problems encountered during the fabrication process. A welding inspector
inspecto ’s ability to read and interpret welding
plans correctly is essential to properly inspecting a piece or part.

This in-depth course walks the user through AWS 2.4:2012, starting with a module on orthographic views, joint
types, and weld types. Then the course dives into the various types of welds and clarifies the rules and usage of
welding symbols.

geometry,, groove welds, fillet welds, plug and slot welds, spot and
This self-paced course covers basic joint geometry
projection welds, and stud, seam, surfacing, and edge welds. Rounding out the seminar is a module on brazing
terms and symbols and non-destructive testing symbols. Interactive practice problems include an explanation of
each solution, and chapter quizzes will solidify the knowledge and prepare you for the proficiency exam.

The seminar is approximately 12 hours long and concludes with a final test.

Sample seminar at

Counselor Letter 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:11 AM Page 92

Friends and Colleagues:

The American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize individual
members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the image and
impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an individual’s career of
outstanding accomplishment.

To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in the
welding industry by one or more of the following:

• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the welding
industry. The individual’s organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as
evidenced by support of participation of its employees in industry activities.

• Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to training and
vocational education in the welding industry. The individual’s organization shall have shown an
ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees in
industry activities.

For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Counselor nomination form in this
issue of the Welding Journal. The deadline for submission is July 1, 2013. The committee looks
forward to receiving these nominations for 2014 consideration.


Lee Kvidahl
Chair, Counselor Selection Committee
MAY 2013 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 4/16/13 8:41 AM Page 95





We manufacture tank turning rolls
Welding Engineering 3-ton through 120-ton rolls
Technology Faculty
(9 mos. Full-Time, Tenure Track)
Teach undergraduate-level lecture and
laboratory course work in a process
oriented, “hands-on” A.A.S. and B.S.
degree program. Required: Bachelor of
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strate proficiency in GMAW, SMAW, GTAW, Fax: (281) 290-6184
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Additional requirements include knowledge
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MAY 2013 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 4/16/13 8:42 AM Page 96


ALM Materials Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Harris Products Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 544-5438 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 733-4043

ArcOne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Hobart Inst. of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 223-4685 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448

Arcos Industries, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC Image of Welding/WEMCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 233-8460 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353

Astaras Welding Accessories, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Intercon Enterprises, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .web contact only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 665-6655

Atlas Welding Accessories, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Lincoln Electric Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 962-9353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(216) 481-8100

AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59, 64, 87, 91 Masterweld Products USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 433-3454

AWS Membership Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63, 89 Midalloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 776-3300

Bellingham Technical College Welding Rodeo . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 National Bronze & Metals, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(360) 752-7000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(713) 869-9600

Camfil Air Pollution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Netbraze LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 479-6801 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(855) 444-1440

Champion Welding Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 OTC Daihen, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 321-9353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 682-7626

Commercial Diving Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Red-D-Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 974-2232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(866) 733-3272

Cor-Met . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Schaefer Ventilation Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 848-2719 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 779-3267

Diamond Ground Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Select Arc, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(805) 498-3837 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 295-5215

Electron Beam Technologies, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Tianjin Leigong Welding Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(815) 935-2211 . . . . . . . . . . . .+86–13752201959

ESAB Welding and Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Triangle Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 372-2123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 878-1500

ESSEN Germany International Trade Fair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 TRUMPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 . . . . . . . . . . . .001-914-962-1310 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .web contact only

FABTECH 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Victor Technologies International, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 297 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 426-1888

Fischer Engineering Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Weld Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 754-1750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 935-3243

Fronius USA, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Weld Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(877) 376-6487 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(508) 842-2224

Gedik Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Weld Hugger, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+90 216 378 50 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(877) 935-3447

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Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Prediction of σ-Phase Embrittlement in

Type 316FR Weld Metal
Precipitation behavior and impact toughness were studied for 316FR weld metal
subjected to the high operating temperatures and sodium environment of
fast breeder reactors


cialization of future FBRs in Japan can be-

ABSTRACT come a reality, discovering the effects of
the sodium environment and the relatively
Through aging treatments at 873 to 1023 K, sigma- (σ) phase embrittlement in Type high operating temperature on the repair
316FR stainless steel weld metal was predicted at service-exposure temperatures (773–823 weldability of components made of
K) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) based on a kinetic approach to σ-phase precipitation.

austenitic stainless steel (Types 304, 316,
Microstructural examination by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and 321), the alloy usually chosen due to
and TEM) revealed that the dominant precipitated phases were σ and chi (χ), nucleated at its superior corrosion resistance, ductility,
δ-ferrite/austenite (γ) interfaces or in the interior of the δ-ferrite grains, thereby consuming strength, formability, and weldability
the δ-ferrite during isothermal holds at each aging temperature. The total amount of pre- (Refs. 6, 7), are very significant issues. Fur-
cipitated phases during isothermal aging sigmoidally increased as a function of the aging thermore, an advanced 316FR stainless
time. The kinetics of the appearance of these intermetallic phases could be expressed ap- steel structural material, which has im-
proximately by a Johnson-Mehl type equation. Based on the determined kinetic equation, proved creep fatigue behavior over other
the precipitation behavior of intermetallic phases and the degradation of impact toughness austenitic stainless steels, and which pos-
at 773 and 823 K could be successfully predicted. sesses a higher phase stability during high
temperature at longer exposure times by
Introduction Monju from the 1970s to the present day using the concept of solid-solution hard-
(Refs. 1–5). For future commercial FBR ening with low-carbon and medium nitro-
plants, further research on welding mate- gen as compared to conventional
Recently, society’s most important mis- austenitic stainless steel, is likely to be
rials will need to be performed. In addi-
sion and goal is to secure an effective en- used for the next generation of commer-
tion, as present nuclear plants have been
ergy source that will contribute to a cial FBRs in Japan. However, to the best
in operation for a long time, repairs of
reduction in global warming and replace- of the authors’ knowledge, research on
their aging parts, which mainly involve
ment of the fossil fuels that are gradually these issues has not been reported to date.
welding, are becoming necessary.
running short worldwide. Among various A particular result of the high-tem-
Prior to discussing repair welding
possible energy sources, one that is in- perature operation of a FBR is the need
processes for the FBR, it is important to
creasingly coming into the spotlight is nu- for weld repairs to the various main com-
understand the typical differences be-
clear power generation, due to its merits ponents in the nuclear plant. Such prob-
tween a FBR and other general types of
of providing a stable and efficient energy lems arise because welds have poorer
reactors (i.e., light water-cooled reactor).
supply system despite its known liabilities quality than the base metals due to solute
First, a FBR cannot use water as a moder-
of dangerous radioactivity and nuclear segregation or microstructural inhomo-
ator, rather molten sodium metal is em-
waste concerns. Among the diverse types geneity (to avoid hot cracking, the weld
ployed as a coolant, because of its high
of nuclear power generation, the fast metal for austenitic stainless steel is often
thermal conductivity. Second, a FBR has
breeder reactor (FBR, using fast neutrons intentionally rendered inhomogeneous
a higher operating temperature of
that breed Pu-239 from U-238) is well by introducing some amount of δ−ferrite
773–823 K compared to other reactors,
known as the most advanced thanks to its as a result of the rapid solidification rate
due to its high degree of heat generation
superior fuel economy. Thus, much re- during the welding process). These issues
(Ref. 4). Therefore, before the commer-
search has been performed in Japan on promote the transformation of inter-
the metallurgical behavior, as well as the metallic phases, which affect various me-
structural properties, of materials for the chanical and chemical properties (Ref. 8).
Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor KEYWORDS Therefore, in anticipation of the need for
welding repairs to FBRs, the study and
E. J. CHUN, H. BABA, K. TERASHIMA, and Embrittlement
prediction of the aging behavior of the
K. SAIDA are with Division of Materials and Type 316FR
Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of En-
weld metal is an absolutely necessary
Weld Metal
gineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. prerequisite.
Sigma Phase
K. NISHIMOTO is with Department of the Ap- Consequently, as a first research step
plication of Nuclear Technology, Fukui University toward developing a process for weld re-
of Technology, Fukui, Japan. pairs in the newly developed 316FR stain-


Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 134

Fig. 1 — Schematic illustration of the machining and detailed dimensions


of specimens for the Charpy impact test.

less steel needed for the future generation AF solidification

of FBRs, the objective of the present study mode, solidifying as
is to clarify the prediction of σ-phase em- primary austenite (γ),
brittlement behavior. This is achieved which is generally re-
through study of the precipitation kinetics garded as having a
of the σ-phase in the weld metal at the pronounced high-tem-
general service exposure temperature of a perature cracking Fig. 2 — SEM micrographs of a cross section of bead-on-plate one-pass
FBR. In particular, the weld metal of typ- susceptibility. weld metal.
ical austenitic stainless steels can contain
different final microstructure characteris- Materials and
tics that are determined by solidification plate material for the Charpy impact tests.
Experimental Procedures The chemical compositions of these mate-
and subsequent phase transformation, typ-
ically through the AF and FA solidification rials are given in Table 1.
modes (Refs. 8, 9). Different solidification Materials
modes strongly affect various properties Aging Treatment of Weld Metal
such as corrosion resistance, high-temper- The base metal used in this study for
ature cracking behavior, and microstruc- aging treatments and Charpy impact tests Prior to performing aging treatments,
tural properties, etc. (Refs. 8–12). In this was Type 316FR austenitic stainless steel. bead-on-plate welds were prepared using
study, we first examined weld metal in the The 316L types were only employed by the a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

Table 1 — Chemical Compositions of Materials Used (mass-%)

C S P Cr Ni Mo Si Mn N Al O Fe
Type 0.0085 0.0009 0.023 17.56 12.02 2.15 0.44 0.79 0.088 0.011 0.007 Bal.
Type 0.0150 0.0040 0.031 17.28 12.11 2.04 0.70 0.92 0.024 — — Bal.

Table 2 — Aging Conditions Used in the Present Study

Temperature (K) Aging Time (h)

873 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 394 — 526 — 1127 —
923 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 — 500 — 1000 — 1532
973 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 — 500 — — — —
1023 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 — — — — — —

134-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 135

process. The dimensions were 120 × 40 ×

3 mm. Detailed GTAW conditions were as
follows: arc current, 110 A; arc voltage, 14
V; and welding speed, 1.67 mm/s. We spec-
imens were aged by heating as indicated in
Table 2, and after the aging treatment,
they were quenched with water.

Microstructure Analysis

The content of δ−ferrite in the as- Fig. 3 — SEM micrographs of the weld metal after aging at 873 K for 10 and 100 h, and 1023 K for 1 h.
welded and aged specimens was measured
using the magnetic induction method
(Feritscope®) in the central area of the
bead surface. To clarify microstructural
changes caused by the aging treatments,
specimens were observed by scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with
electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)
under an acceleration voltage of 20 kV
after electrolytic etching with a 10% aque-
ous solution of KOH using an applied volt-
age of 100 mV. The specimens were also
observed by transmission microscopy
(TEM) under an acceleration voltage of

200 kV after jet polishing with a solution
of perchloric acid (5%) and acetic acid
(95%), using an applied voltage of 50 V.

Charpy Impact Test

Details of the machining and the di-

mensions of welding specimen are indi-
cated in Fig. 1. Smaller Charpy impact test Fig. 4 — TEM micrographs and diffraction patterns of intermetallic phases (σ and χ phases).
specimens of size 55 × 10 × 3 mm were
machined from welded plate as also indi-
cated in Fig. 1. The aging treatment for
Charpy impact test specimens was heating
at 1023 K for 0, 0.5, 1, and 10 h to differ- precipitation behavior during aging at 873 tified as the sigma phase (σ: FeCr) and the
entiate δ−ferrite decomposition behavior, and 1023 K for various holding times. The chi phase ( χ: Fe18Cr6Mo5) through bright
while the tests themselves were conducted precipitates appeared in the interior of the and dark images, selected area diffraction
on the as-welded and aged samples at δ-ferrite, and increased in number with an pattern, and its key diagram analysis. It
room temperature according to JIS Z increase in aging time. The precipitates follows that the predominant precipitates
2242, Method for Charpy pendulum impact were mainly classified as belonging to two in 316FR stainless steel weld metal during
test of metallic materials. Four specimens types, one nucleated at the δ-ferrite/γ in- long-term aging were σ and χ phases.
were tested for each aging time and their terface and one within the δ-ferrite. These Based on these results, EBSD analysis was
average taken as the absorbed impact en- precipitates can be easily identified on the performed. Figure 5 shows representative
ergy value. After the impact test, the frac- basis of backscattered electrons (BSE) BSE micrographs of SEM and EBSD mi-
tured surfaces of the specimens were contrast in SEM. As reported elsewhere, crographs. Therefore, one type nucleated
observed using SEM. these precipitation behaviors may totally at the δ-ferrite/γ interface was σ-phase and
consume the δ-ferrite. another within the δ-ferrite was χ-phase
Change in Microstructure with Figure 4 presents TEM micrographs in Type 316FR weld metal during aging
Aging Treatment that reveal two types of precipitates iden- treatment.

Figure 2 shows typical microstructures

for Type 316FR weld metal after the Table 3 — Kinetic Parameters Determined for the Prediction of Aging Behavior
GTAW process. The cell morphology as-
sociated with the solidification behavior is
clearly visible. All the δ-ferrite was located Determined Prediction Parameters
at the cell boundaries or triple points of Temperature (K)
austenite (γ) with elongated or globular k (/s) n k0 (/s) Q (kJ/mol)
shape. These δ-ferrite distributions were
generally identified as being diagnostic of 873 1.2 × 10–6
the AF solidification mode, and the aver- 923 2.9 × 10–6 0.320 2.1 × 109 258
age volume fraction of δ-ferrite was about 973 3.0 × 10–5
3 % (FN < 3), measured by a Feritscope. 1023 1.8 × 10–4
Figure 3 shows SEM micrographs of


Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/17/13 9:45 AM Page 136

Fig. 5 — Backscattered electron micrographs of SEM and EBSD micrographs of the weld metal after
aging at 873 K for 100 h.

Fig. 6 — Fractional change of decomposed δ-ferrite

with aging time at various aging temperatures.

where fi is the initial amount of the δ-fer-

rite prior to aging and ff is final amount
of the δ-ferrite after aging. Based on this
relationship, Fig. 6 shows the change in
the decomposed δ-ferrite fraction as a

function of the aging temperatures and

holding times. The fraction of the inter-
metallic phases increased sigmoidally
with an increase in the aging time at any
aging temperature, and approached the
saturation point for long-term aging at
973 and 1023 K.

Kinetic Equation for the δ-Ferrite


In order to determine the kinetics of

decomposition in δ-ferrite, we employed
three approaches commonly used to de-
scribe the phase transformation kinetics in
Fig. 7 — Applicability of kinetic approaches for the decomposition behavior of δ-ferrite. various nucleation and growth systems
(Refs. 15–22): a parabolic law (the diffu-
sion-controlled growth theory proposed
Fig. 3, σ- and χ-phases were dominantly originally by Zener), and the Johnson-
Prediction of Intermetallic Phase
precipitated in the δ-ferrite grains, thereby Mehl and Austin-Rickett equations.
Precipitation In the first case, the parabolic law is ex-
decomposing the δ-ferrite. They are also
In order to predict the precipitation of representative intermetallics, which is as- pressed by
intermetallic phases in Type 316FR weld sociated with degradation of impact
metal during the practical operation of a toughness. Therefore, the amount of in- y=k t
FBR, we have adopted a kinetic approach termetallic phases both σ and χ precipi- (2)
to the isothermal aging treatments. tated could be approximated by the
decomposed fraction of δ-ferrite (y) ex- where y is the decomposed fraction of δ-
Effect of Aging Conditions on pressed as follows: ferrite indicated in Equation 1, k is the
Intermetallic Phases Precipitation parabolic rate constant, and t is the ex-
f f − fi posure time (aging time in the present
As mentioned above with reference to fi (1) study).
On the other hand, the kinetic equa-
tion of phase transformations in metals
can be also generally expressed as
Table 4 — Activation Energy for Diffusion of Alloying Elements in δ-Ferrite

Activation Energy (kJ/mol) dy

= k n t n −1 (1 − y )
Diffusion of Cr in δ−ferrite 267 dt (3)
Diffusion of Ni in δ−ferrite 262
Diffusion of Mo in δ−ferrite 283
Diffusion of Fe in δ−ferrite 296 where y is the decomposed fraction of δ-
ferrite indicated in Equation 1, k is the

136-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 137

Fig. 8 — Plot to determine the activation energy for Fig. 9 — Prediction of the decomposition behavior Fig. 10 — Change of impact toughness as a func-
decomposition of δ-ferrite at various aging temper- of δ-ferrite in the weld metal at practical operating tion of the amount of decomposed δ-ferrite (aging
atures. temperatures of a FBR. at 1023 K).

temperature-dependent rate constant, t is Johnson-Mehl plot in Fig. 7. Moreover, it tion results, showing a sigmoidal relation-
the time (ageing time in the present is well known that the dependence of the ship between operating time and the de-
study), n is the time exponent parameter precipitation rate k in Equation 4 can be composed fraction of δ-ferrite. There was
calculated by regression analysis depend- generally expressed by an Arrhenius equa- a large difference in the decomposition

ing on the nucleation mechanism and the tion as follows: behavior between operating temperatures
growth processes, and m is the impinge- ⎛ −Q ⎞ of 773 and 823 K. Specifically, it took 15
k = k0 exp ⎜ months to reach 50% δ-ferrite decompo-
⎝ RT ⎟⎠
ment exponent. Equation 3 with m = 1
and m = 2 corresponds to the Johnson- (6) sition at 773 K, but it took only 1 month at
Mehl equation (Equation 4) and the where k0 is the frequency factor; Q is the an operating temperature of 823 K to ar-
Austin-Rickett equation (Equation 5): activation energy; T is the temperature; rive at the same point. In other words, a
and R is the gas constant. 50 K difference in the operating tempera-
y = 1 − exp − ( kt )
} (4)
Equation 6 can be transformed into the
following to describe an Arrhenius plot:
ture caused about a 15 times faster de-
composition rate. The decomposed
y fraction of δ ferrite at other points on the
= ( kt )
ln k = − + 1nk0 aging time curve is also listed in Table 5.
1− y (5) RT (7) According to these predictions, about
Figure 8 shows the Arrhenius plot, 90% of the δ-ferrite will have decomposed
The applicability of these kinetic equa- showing a simple linear relationship be- after only 5 years of operation of a FBR at
tions can be confirmed by parabolic, John- tween the reciprocal temperature and the 823 K, while about 66% of the δ-ferrite
son-Mehl (log ln (1/1–y) = n log t+n logarithm of k, allowing the determination will have decomposed at an operating
log k) and Austin-Rickett (log (y/(1–y) = of the activation energy for the decompo- temperature of 773 K. Furthermore, after
n log t+n log k) plots. sition of δ-ferrite and the k0 constant. 50 years of FBR operation, in Type 316FR
Figure 7 shows the results of applying All the parameters determined in this weld metal, δ-ferrite will be completely
the three kinds of kinetic approaches. way are shown in Table 3. The fitting con- decomposed at 823 K. Consequently, the
There was a good linear relationship be- stant n was independent of the aging tem- operating temperature of the FBR should
tween the aging time and the fraction of perature, but the precipitation rate be closely considered from the viewpoint
decomposed δ-ferrite in the Type 316FR constant k increased as a function of aging of δ-ferrite decomposition behavior, be-
weld metal in the Johnson-Mehl plot re- temperature. cause it could seriously affect not only var-
gardless of aging temperature, while the Literature report (Ref. 23) of the acti- ious mechanical and chemical properties
other plots failed to adequately describe vation energy for diffusion of the main al- during service, but also the weldability of
the δ-ferrite decomposition behavior. In loying elements present within the any required repairs.
particular, the Austin-Rickett plot devi- δ-ferrite is shown in Table 4. Their similar
ated from a linear relationship in the final activation energies suggest that the de- Prediction of Impact Toughness Behavior
stages of precipitation, and the parabolic composition of δ-ferrite in this study in Weld Metal
plot showed also totally nonlinear behav- would be strongly influenced by the diffu-
ior at every aging temperature. In other sion of these alloying elements. In order to predict the embrittlement be-
words, δ-ferrite decomposition behavior havior resulting from the decomposition of
during aging of Type 316FR weld metal Prediction of δ-Ferrite Decomposition at δ-ferrite in Type 316FR weld metal during
was best described by the Johnson-Mehl Service-Exposure Temperatures of a FBR practical operation of a FBR, Charpy im-
kinetic equation. pact tests were performed for specimens
To predict the decomposition behavior Using the determined kinetics of the with different fractions of decomposed δ-
during long-term service exposure of a Johnson-Mehl equation, the decomposi- ferrite. To predict this behavior, one as-
FBR, the remaining constants in the John- tion behavior of δ-ferrite during in-ser- sumption that impact toughness of weld
son-Mehl equation (n and k) need to be vice exposure of FBR at practical metal is only governed by fractional change
determined. These values were found operation temperatures (773 and 823 K) of δ-ferrite decomposition was employed in
from a simple regression analysis of the was predicted. Figure 9 shows the predic- this study.


Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/17/13 3:54 PM Page 138

Fig. 11 — SEM fractographs after Charpy impact tests as a function of decomposed fraction of δ-ferrite Fig. 12 — Predicted results of the absorbed impact
(aging at 1023 K). energy during long-term operation of a FBR.

Effect of δ-Ferrite Decomposition on


shallow dimpled fracture surface. The creased sigmoidally with an increase in

Impact Toughness fraction of brittle fracture also increased the operating time. It takes approxi-
with an increase in the decomposed frac- mately 3 months to reach an absorbed im-
tion of δ-ferrite. In particular, as the pact energy of 32 J at 823 K, while
Figure 10 shows the variation of im-
isothermal holding time increased, the approximately 32 months will be needed
pact absorbed energy as a function of
fractographs of the brittle fracture areas to reach the same absorbed energy at 773
aging time (i.e., decomposed fraction of
revealed that the fracture surface was K. Therefore, it was clear that impact
δ-ferrite). The impact energy of the weld
largely composed of a dendrite morphol- toughness behavior is also affected by dif-
metal gradually decreased with increas-
ogy. These fractographs show that the brit- ferences in the operating temperature.
ing isothermal holding time, namely, the
tle fracture was initiated in a dendrite
absorbed energy decreased with an in-
region by the precipitation of intermetallic
crease in the fraction of decomposed δ- Conclusions
phases (σ- and χ-phases) in δ-ferrite.
ferrite. Particularly, the energy value of
Thus, it was clear that the presence of in- In this study, the precipitation behav-
weld metal aged for 10 h was about 22 J,
termetallic phases significantly decreased ior and changes in impact toughness dur-
a drastic decline by a factor of two com-
the impact toughness of the weld metal. ing actual operation of FBR was predicted
pared with an as-welded specimen. This
is the well-known σ-phase embrittlement Predicted Impact Test Results at the
for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metal,
found in stainless steel weld metal (Refs. Service-Exposure Temperature of a FBR based on the kinetics of δ-ferrite decom-
6, 7, 19, 24). position. The main conclusions of this
Figure 11 compares SEM fractographs By substituting the results of the work can be summarized as follows:
of as-welded and aged weld metal after the Charpy impact tests shown in Fig. 10 into 1) Type 316FR stainless steel weld
impact test to characterize the differences the predictions of precipitation behavior metal contained approximately 3% (FN <
in failure mechanism. In the as-welded shown in Fig. 9, we were able to predict 3) of δ-ferrite formed in the AF solidifica-
specimen, all the failure essentially oc- the impact toughness during long-term tion mode. Intermetallic σ- and χ- phases
curred in the shallow dimpled fracture service exposure in a FBR. Figure 12 were precipitated inside δ-ferrite during
mode. However, in the aged specimens shows the predicted results of the ab- aging treatments at 823, 873, 923, and
(decomposed fraction of δ-ferrite: 0.35, sorbed impact energy. As the result of the 1023 K, consuming the δ-ferrite (i.e., frac-
0.60, and 0.90), some brittle fracture area precipitation behavior shown in Fig. 8, tion of decomposed δ-ferrite = fraction of
was also detected in the surface, although the absorbed impact energy also de- precipitated intermetallic phases). As the
the majority of the surface had suffered aging temperature and isothermal hold
time increased, the amount of intermetal-
lic phases increased sigmoidally.
Table 5 — Predicted Results of the Decomposed Fraction of δ-Ferrite at Some Major Time 2) The decomposition of δ-ferrite was
Points in Fig. 9 examined by three types of kinetic ap-
proaches — the parabolic law, Austin-Rick-
Decomposed Fraction of δ−Ferrite ett, and Johnson-Mehl equations. Among
these kinetic approaches, the decomposi-
Operating time (years)
tion behavior was best described by the
773 K 823 K
5 0.66 0.90
Johnson-Mehl type equation. The kinetic
10 0.74 0.95 parameters in the Johnson-Mehl type equa-
30 0.85 0.98 tion were determined to be n = 0.320, Q =
50 0.89 0.99 258 kJ/mol, and k0 = 2.1 × 109/s, regardless
of the aging temperature.

138-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

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11. Inoue, H., Koseki, T., Okita, S., and Fuji, 5748 to 5758.
1. Furukawa, T., Kato, S., and Yoshida, E. M. 1998. Solidification and transformation be- 23. Magnabosco, R. 2009. Kinetics of sigma
2009. Compatibility of FBR materials with havior of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals with phase formation in a duplex stainless steel. Ma-
sodium. Journal of Nuclear Materials 392(2): 249 ferritic single phase solidification mode: Study terials Research 12(3): 321 to 327.
to 254. of solidification and transformation of Cr-Ni 24. Lee, D. J., Byun, J. C., Sung, J. H., and
2. Iida, K., Asada, Y., Okabayashi, K., and stainless steel weld metals — 4th report. Weld- Lee, H. W. 2009. The dependence of crack
Nagata, T. 1987. Construction codes developed ing International 12(3): 282 to 296. properties on the Cr/Ni equivalent ratio in AISI
for prototype FBR Monju. Nuclear Engineering 12. Kou, S. 2003. Welding Metallurgy, second 304L austenitic stainless steel weld metals. Ma-
and Design 98 (3): 283 to 288. edition. P. 216-232, A John Wiley & Sons, Inc. terials Science and Engineering A 513–514(15):
3. Iida, K., Asada, Y., Okabayashi, K., and 13. Hsieh, C. C., and Wu, W. 2012. Overview 154 to 159.

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Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 140

Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical

Properties of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones
in an Iron-Copper Based
Multicomponent Steel
A combination of dilatometry, HAZ simulations, and mechanical testing were used
to determine the mechanical properties that develop in the HAZ of NUCu-140


significant cost savings as a result of 1)

ABSTRACT minimization of expensive alloying ele-
ments; 2) simple production using inex-
NUCu-140 is a recently developed steel that relies on nano-scale Cu-rich precip- pensive processing techniques; and 3)
itates to achieve yield strength levels in excess of 825 MPa (120 ksi). In order for construction of structurally sound designs
NUCu-140 to be utilized as a structural material, a comprehensive welding strategy

using less material due to higher yield

must be developed. Since NUCu-140 is a precipitation-strengthened material, this strength. It has been estimated that the
strategy must include a detailed understanding of the precipitate evolution that oc- utilization of NUCu-140 can produce a
curs in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) as a result of welding thermal cycles. A combi- fabrication cost savings of 20–35% (Ref.
nation of dilatometry, HAZ simulations, and mechanical testing are presented to de- 10).
termine the mechanical properties that develop in the HAZ of NUCu-140. MatCalc In order for NUCu-140 to be utilized as
kinetic simulations and Russell-Brown strengthening calculations were conducted to a structural material, a comprehensive
model the observed precipitate and mechanical property trends. The microhardness welding strategy must be developed. Since
and tensile testing results reveal that local softening is expected in the HAZ of NUCu- NUCu-140 is a precipitation-strength-
140 welds. MatCalc simulations show that a combination of partial dissolution, full ened material, this strategy must include a
dissolution, and re-precipitation of the Cu-rich precipitates is expected to occur in the detailed understanding of the precipitate
various HAZ regions. The predicted precipitate parameters are used as input to the evolution that occurs in the heat-affected
Russell-Brown strengthening model to estimate the changes in strength expected due zone (HAZ). There are four distinct re-
to changes in precipitate features. The measured and predicted strength levels exhibit gions that typically develop in the HAZ of
very good quantitative agreement for the low-heat-input simulations and reasonable steel welds: 1) the subcritical HAZ region;
qualitative agreement for the high-heat-input weld simulations. 2) the intercritical HAZ region; 3) the
fine-grained austenite HAZ region; and 4)
the coarse-grained austenite HAZ region
(Ref. 11). These regions are defined by the
els [≥ 825 MPa (120 ksi)], while maintain- peak temperatures that they experience
Introduction ing suitable toughness. Recent research relative to the austenization temperatures
conducted at Northwestern University has of the material, Ac1 and Ac3. The subcrit-
Copper precipitation-strengthened produced a candidate structural material ical HAZ experiences a peak temperature
materials such as high-strength, low-alloy that achieves yield strength levels in excess during the weld thermal cycle that does
(HSLA) 80 and 100 have been used ex- of 825 MPa while retaining toughness lev- not exceed the austenite start temperature
tensively in naval and structural applica- els that would exceed the requirements for (Ac1). Therefore, the subcritical region
tions due to their excellent combination of most naval and structural applications does not undergo any transformation to
strength and toughness. As a result of the (Refs. 1–9). NUCu-140 is a copper precip- austenite. The intercritical region experi-
ever increasing need to minimize cost, it is itation-strengthened steel that is com- ences a peak temperature between the
desirable to develop a HSLA variant that posed of a nominally ferritic microstruc- Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures that results in
can achieve even higher yield strength lev- ture with nano-scale Cu-rich precipitates partial transformation to austenite during
that strengthen the material, and NbC the weld thermal cycle. The fine-grained
precipitates that limit the austenite grain HAZ region experiences a peak tempera-
J. D. FARREN is with Naval Surface Warfare
Center – Carderock Division, West Bethesda, Md. growth. The use of NUCu-140 can offer ture that exceeds the Ac3 temperature and
A. H. HUNTER and D. N. SEIDMAN are with therefore causes full transformation to
Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, austenite during welding. In this region,
Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. J. N. the thermal cycle only minimally exceeds
DUPONT ( is with Dept. of
the Ac3 temperature, which prevents sig-
Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh Uni-
versity, Bethlehem, Pa. C. V. ROBINO is with San- High-Strength Steels nificant austenite grain growth. The final
dia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.Mex. Fracture HAZ region is the coarse-grained HAZ.
E. KOZESCHNIK is with Dept. of Materials Sci- Weld Process Simulation In this region, the Ac3 temperature is sig-
ence and Technology, Vienna University of Tech- nificantly exceeded, which leads to austen-
nology, Vienna, Austria.

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Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 10:00 AM Page 141

Fig. 2 — Dilatometry results for NUCu-140 heated at 1°, 10°, 100°, and 1000°C/s.

in <R> and φ while showing a concomi-

tant increase in Nv. This results from par- Table 1 — Composition of Copper

tial dissolution of the precipitates on heat- Precipitation-Strengthened NUCu-140 Steel
ing, followed by re-precipitation of new (all values in wt-%)
and smaller Cu-rich precipitates during Element NUCu-140
cooling. The region labeled HAZ 2 expe-
rienced a peak temperature of ~910°C Al 0.65
and exhibits a further decrease of the C 0.04
Fig. 1 — LEAP tomography data collected from <R> and φ with an even greater increase Cu 1.35
in Nv. It was determined that full precipi- Fe Bal.
NUCu-140 GMAW showing the evolution of the
tate dissolution occurs in HAZ 2 on heat- Mn 0.47
average precipitate radius (<R>), number den-
Nb 0.07
sity, and volume fraction (φ) across the base ing, followed by re-precipitation on cool- Ni 2.75
metal, HAZ, and FZ of the weld. ing. The fusion zone also undergoes full P 0.009
dissolution of the Cu-rich precipitates on S 0.002
heating but exhibits only minimal Si 0.47
ite grain growth. The intercritical, fine- re-precipitation during the cooling por-
grained, and coarse-grained HAZ regions tion of the weld cycle. Therefore, the fu-
all experience transformation to austenite sion zone exhibits the lowest <R>, Nv,
during the weld thermal cycle. Therefore, and φ of any weld region. The overall 140 was vacuum melted, cast into ingots,
both the microstructural and precipitate trends in <R>, Nv, φ are consistent with and homogenized at 1150°C for 3 h. The
evolution needs to be investigated to un- the observed local softening that occurs in ingots were hot rolled at approximately
derstand the mechanical properties in the HAZ as a result of the fusion welding 950°C to a final plate thickness of 25.4 mm
these regions. process. The current research focuses on a and air cooled. The plates were solution-
A preliminary investigation of the mi- more detailed investigation of the me- ized at 900°C for 1 h, water quenched to
crostructural evolution and mechanical chanical properties of each of the four crit- room temperature, aged at 550°C for 2 h,
properties in NUCu-140 gas metal arc ical regions of the HAZ using simulated and air cooled to room temperature. Crit-
welds (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc HAZ samples. ical transformation temperatures at vari-
welds (GTAW) was recently conducted ous heating and cooling rates were deter-
(Ref. 12). Microhardness traces revealed Experimental Procedure mined by dilatometric methods using a
that a locally softened HAZ region Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simula-
formed as a result of the fusion welding The chemical composition of the tor equipped with an Anritsu SLB laser
process. Average precipitate radius NUCu-140 steel investigated in this study dilatometer. Diametral dilatometry was
(<R>), number density (Nv), and volume was measured using inductively coupled conducted on 6.35-mm-diameter solid
fraction measurements (φ) conducted plasma-optical emission spectroscopy samples oriented such that the diameter
using local electrode atom probe (LEAP) (ICP-OES) and the results are shown in measurements corresponded with the
tomography confirmed that the observed Table 1. The composition of NUCu-140 is through-thickness direction in the original
decrease in microhardness occurred as a similar to HSLA-100 Comp II, with plate. Samples were taken from approxi-
result of the precipitate evolution that oc- slightly increased C and Al levels and mately the ¼ thickness position in the
curs in the HAZ. Figure 1 shows a sum- slightly decreased Cr and Mo levels. The plate. A freespan of 25 mm and a low-
mary of the results. The base metal region Al content is relatively high compared to force jaw carrier were used to minimize
shows the initial precipitate parameters traditional structural steels, but Al has constraint during the determinations. The
that develop as a result of the solution and been shown to segregate to the interface Ac1 and Ac3 determinations generally fol-
aging thermal treatment. The region la- of the Cu-rich precipitates in NUCu-140 lowed ASTM A1033, although some devi-
beled HAZ 1 experienced a peak temper- and is believed to limit the coarsening ki- ations from recommended heating rates
ature of ~ 675°C and exhibits a reduction netics during aging (Ref. 3). The NUCu- and conditioning temperatures were used.


Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 10:02 AM Page 142

Table 2 — Summary of the Precipitate Evolution Predicted Using MatCalc Kinetic Simulation

Sample Peak MatCalc MatCalc MatCalc

Temperature Radius Number Density Phase
(°C) (nm) (m–3) Fraction

Base Metal (BM) 150 4.25 2.53 × 1022 0.0099

LH675 675 1.11 1.10 × 1023 0.0064
LH800 800 0.56 5.86 × 1024 0.0042
LH900 900 0.54 5.95 × 1024 0.0041
B LH1350 1350 0.46 7.51 × 1024 0.0030
HH675 675 0.96 1.24 × 1023 0.0068
HH800 800 0.60 5.19 × 1024 0.0051
HH900 900 0.60 5.17 × 1024 0.0051
HH1350 1350 0.60 5.19 × 1024 0.0051

The simulated HAZ samples were taken a 1000°C/s heating rate. The Ac3 temper-
in the T-L orientation and were 11 × 11 × ature exhibits a much narrower range,
60 mm. The samples were outfitted with 824° to 839°C, indicating that the ferrite-
multiple thermocouples to determine the to-austenite transformation finish tem-
Fig. 3 — Summary of the thermal cycles pre- width of the uniformly heated region perature is not as dependent on heating
dicted using SOAR for the following samples: A within the freespan (10 mm). Specimens rate as the ferrite-to-austenite transfor-
— Low heat input (1.5 J/m); B — high heat input were prepared for light optical microscopy mation start temperature. The transfor-

(3.75 J/m).
(LOM) using standard metallographic mation start temperatures increase di-
techniques and etched using a 3% Nital rectly with the heating rate since the
solution. Grain size measurements were ferrite to austenite transformation is dif-
conducted according to ASTM Standard fusion controlled. Increased heating rates
E112-96(2004)ε2, and five fields were provide less time for diffusion to occur,
measured per sample. Microhardness which causes a concomitant delay in the
measurements were conducted using a transformation start temperatures. These
Vickers diamond indenter, a 1-kg load, results were used to select peak tempera-
and a 15-s dwell time. Charpy impact test- tures to simulate the four critical regions
ing was conducted at –40°C according to of the HAZ. A peak temperature of 675°C
ASTM E23 on 10- × 10- × 50-mm speci- was selected for the subcritical HAZ re-
mens. Tensile testing was performed ac- gion since it is below the Ac1 temperature
cording to ASTM E8 on subsized samples over the entire range of heating rates in-
with a diameter of 6.35 mm and a 25.4-mm vestigated. An 800°C peak temperature
gauge length. Charpy impact testing was was selected for the intercritical HAZ re-
Fig. 4 — LOM micrograph showing the NUCu- performed on two specimens per condi- gion since it falls inside the Ac1 and Ac3
140 base metal microstructure. tion while tensile testing was conducted on range for all four dilatometry curves. A
a single specimen per condition due to ma- 900°C peak temperature was selected for
terial limitations. Post-fracture analysis the fine-grained austenite region since
In order to be more consistent with the was conducted on all of the Charpy impact 900°C minimally exceeds the maximum
NUCu140 aging temperature, the samples and tensile specimens to ensure that crack measured Ac3 temperature of 839°C. Fi-
were preconditioned at 450°C rather than propagation and subsequent failure oc- nally, a 1350°C peak temperature was se-
600°C. Preliminary experiments indicated curred within the uniformly heated region lected for the coarse-grained austenite
that Ac1 in this steel is below 700°C, so the of the simulated HAZ sample. If failure HAZ region since 1350°C significantly ex-
heating rate change for the Ac3 determi- was not contained entirely within the uni- ceeds the Ac3 temperature but is still
nations was conducted at 590°C rather formly heated region, the results of the below the melting temperature of the
than the 700°C recommended by ASTM sample were discarded and a replacement alloy.
A1033. specimen was prepared and tested. The Smartweld Optimization and
This information was then used to for- Analysis Routine (SOAR) software (Ref.
mulate an experimental matrix of simu- Results and Discussion 13) was used to determine thermal cycles
lated HAZ samples that would represent associated with the various peak tempera-
each of the four critical regions of the In order to simulate the four critical re- tures identified previously. An 85% trans-
HAZ. The HAZ simulations were con- gions of the HAZ, it is first necessary to fer efficiency, representative of the
ducted using a Gleeble 3500 thermome- identify the critical transformation tem- GMAW process, was assumed in the cal-
chanical simulator, and the heating and peratures, Ac1 and Ac3, for the NUCu- culations (Ref. 14). Weld thermal cycles
cooling rates were controlled using the 140 substrate material. Dilatometry heat- for each peak temperature were estimated
QuikSim software package supplied with ing rates ranging from 1° to 1000°C/s were for both a low (1.5 kJ/mm) and a high (3.75
the Gleeble 3500. Thermal cycles associ- investigated and the results are shown in kJ/mm) heat input to determine the effect
ated with a high (3.75 kJ/mm) and low (1.5 Fig. 2. The dilatometry curves show that of heat input on HAZ mechanical proper-
kJ/mm) heat input were utilized to repre- the Ac1 temperature increases directly ties. The weld thermal cycles associated
sent the range of arc welding conditions with heating rate and ranges from 706°C with the 675°, 800°, 900°, and 1350°C peak
expected during the joining of NUCu-140. with a 1°C/s heating rate up to 759°C with temperatures are shown in Fig. 3A, B for

142-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

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Fig. 6 — Microhardness data collected from NUCu-140 base metal and simulated
B HAZ samples.

nificant austenite grain cular ferrite, Widmanstätten ferrite, bai-

coarsening. This can nite, and low-carbon martensite.

be attributed to the Figure 6 shows the average microhard-
short time and slight ness values for both the high and low heat
increase in tempera- input simulated HAZ samples. The low
ture above Ac3. The heat input results show a noticeable re-
presence of NbC parti- duction in hardness for the LH675 (280
cles also aids in re- HV), LH800 (235 HV), and LH900 (225
stricting austenite HV) samples as compared to the base
grain growth. The mi- metal (300 HV). The observed softening
crostructure of the in these simulated HAZ samples occurs as
LH1350 sample con- a result of evolution of the Cu-rich pre-
sists of acicular ferrite cipitates (Ref. 12). The LEAP tomogra-
and a combination of phy data shown in Fig. 1 exhibit a linear
either Widmanstätten decrease in both the average precipitate
ferrite, bainite, or low- radius (<R>) and precipitate volume
Fig. 5 — LOM micrographs of the following simulated samples: A — Low carbon martensite. fraction (φ) as the weld interface is ap-
heat input; B — high heat input simulated HAZ samples.
The presence of acicu- proached (i.e., increasing peak tempera-
lar ferrite in the ture). This is consistent with the reduction
LH1350 sample indi- in hardness that is observed in the low heat
the low and high input matrix, respec- cates that significant input matrix. The LH1350 sample (290
tively. Each thermal cycle was subse- grain coarsening occurred during the sim- HV) exhibits only a minimal reduction in
quently linearized and input directly into ulated HAZ thermal cycle since acicular microhardness even though it is expected
the Gleeble 3500 QuikSim software to ferrite nucleates intragranularly on het- to have undergone full dissolution of the
produce simulated HAZ samples. erogeneous nucleation sites such as oxide Cu-rich precipitates. The relatively high
Figure 4 shows the NUCu-140 base inclusions, and its formation is enhanced hardness of the LH1350 sample is attrib-
metal microstructure while Fig. 5A, B when the austenite grain size increases uted to the acicular-type microstructure
shows the microstructure of the low heat (Refs. 15–18). The grain coarsening also (mixture of acicular ferrite, Widmanstät-
input and high heat input simulated HAZ suggests that a 1350°C peak temperature ten ferrite, bainite, and low-carbon
samples, respectively. The low heat input, is high enough to dissolve the NbC parti- martensite) observed in this region. The
675°C (LH675) peak temperature sample cles. This is consistent with thermody- high heat input microhardness results ex-
exhibits a predominantly equiaxed ferritic namic calculations performed on similar hibit a similar trend where there is local
microstructure that is nearly identical to Fe-Cu steels that indicate the NbC parti- softening in each of the four simulated
the base metal microstructure. Both the cles will dissolve between approximately HAZ samples. The slightly lower hardness
LH800 and LH900 samples also exhibit an 1050° and 1100°C (Ref. 7). The high heat values observed for the high heat input
equiaxed ferritic microstructure with little input samples exhibit very similar mi- 675°, 800°, and 900°C peak temperatures,
to no change from the base metal mi- crostructures when compared to the low relative to the low heat input samples, are
crostructure. Each of these simulated heat input counterparts, where the probably the result of increased coarsen-
HAZ microstructures has a similar grain HH675, HH800, and HH900 samples all ing/dissolution that is associated with the
size to the base material, which indicates contain equiaxed ferrite. The HH1350 longer heating and cooling times of the
that no significant grain coarsening oc- sample is also similar to its LH1350 coun- high heat input thermal cycle. The
curred as a result of the thermal cycle. The terpart in that it exhibits austenite grain HH1350 sample (260 HV) again shows a
LH900 sample is fully austenitized during coarsening leading to an acicular-type mi- slight hardness recovery as compared to
the thermal cycle, but does not exhibit sig- crostructure that contains a mixture of aci- the observed minimums that occurred in


Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 144

Fig. 8 — Charpy data collected for NUCu-140 at –40°C.

C properties is observed in the LH1350 sam- samples tested at –40°C. The Charpy im-
ple, which agrees with the observed mi- pact energy generally increases relative to
crohardness trends. These strength trends the base metal value for the 675°, 800°, and
are consistent with the observed micro- 900°C peak temperature samples. This is

hardness results discussed previously. The consistent with the microhardness and
elongation values only range from 18 to yield strength results, since a decrease in
21% across the base metal and all four strength/hardness typically produces an
simulated HAZ samples, with the ductility increase in toughness. The high heat input
decreasing in the 675° and 800°C samples. 1350°C peak temperature sample exhibits
This observation is unexpected since the only a very slight reduction in impact
675° and 800°C samples have decreased toughness relative to the base metal, while
strength levels compared to the base the impact toughness of the low heat input
metal, which would typically lead to higher sample is higher than that of the base
Fig. 7 — Tensile testing results for both low and high ductility. However, it must be noted that metal. The difference in impact toughness
heat input samples showing the following: A — the specimen gauge length contains between the LH1350 and HH1350 sam-
Yield; B — tensile; C — elongation. NUCu-140 material that was heated to a ples can be attributed to the prior austen-
range of different peak temperatures dur- ite grain size in each region. The LH1350
ing the Gleeble thermal cycle. The uni- sample has a prior austenite grain size of
the HH800 and HH900 samples. formly heated region in the simulated 32 µm while the HH1350 sample has a
Figure 7 shows the yield strength, ten- HAZ sample is shorter than the specimen prior austenite grain size of 42 μm. The re-
sile strength, and elongation results for the gauge length and so the elongation results duced prior austenite grain size and cor-
high and low heat input samples. Each represent some average elongation behav- responding increase in grain boundary
simulated HAZ data point presented in ior of each peak temperature/microstruc- area in the low heat input sample results
Figure 7 was generated from a sample that tural region. As a result, the elongation in a concomitant increase in the impact
failed within the uniformly heated region. value reported for each condition is actu- toughness. It is interesting to note that all
This was verified through direct tempera- ally a composite measurement and the re- regions of the HAZ exhibit relatively good
ture measurements during the simulation sulting trends are insignificant. Nearly impact toughness relative to the base
cycle and postfracture analysis. The low identical trends in yield strength and ten- metal, regardless of the location or heat
heat input yield and tensile strength values sile strength are observed for the high input.
decrease as the HAZ thermal cycle peak heat input sample matrix. In order to better understand the ob-
temperature increases up to the LH900 Figure 8 shows the Charpy impact val- served mechanical property trends, the ex-
sample. Partial recovery of the tensile ues for both the low and high heat input pected precipitate evolution in the base

Table 3 — Calculated Precipitate Parameters and Measured and Predicted Strength Change for LH800, LH900, HH800, and HH900 Samples

Average Precipitate Interprecipitate Predicted Measured

Precipitate Volume Spacing L Strength Strength
Radius Fraction φ (nm) Change (MPa) Change (MPa)
<R> (nm)
Base Metal 4.25 0.0099 75.5 — —
LH800 0.56 0.0042 15.1 –162 –165
LH900 0.55 0.0041 15.0 –185 –183
HH800 0.60 0.0051 15.0 –52 –176
HH900 0.60 0.0051 14.9 –53 –176

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Fig. 10 — Measured vs. predicted strength change of 800° and 900°C simulated HAZ
samples using MatCalc as input to the Russell-Brown model.

ume fraction (φ). The excess solute from mate the change in strength expected from
the recently dissolved precipitates causes changes in the Cu-rich precipitates. The
re-precipitation of new, smaller Cu-rich Russell-Brown model assumes a random
precipitates during the cooling portion of distribution of spherical precipitates that
the cycle, which leads to a resultant in- are elastically softer than the surrounding

crease in the precipitate number density. matrix. These two assumptions are gener-
MatCalc simulations were also produced ally acceptable for NUCu-140 since the
for the LH800, LH900, and LH1350 sam- Cu-rich precipitates are roughly spherical
ples and in all three cases the Cu-rich pre- and are elastically softer than the nomi-
cipitates fully dissolved on heating, fol- nally ferritic matrix (Ref. 23). The Russell-
lowed by re-precipitation of the Cu-rich Brown model defines the shear strength of
precipitates on cooling. An identical set of the material as the following:
MatCalc simulations was performed for 1
the high heat input samples and similar ⎡ 2 ⎤2
Gb ⎢ E ⎥
trends were observed. A summary of the τ = 0.8 ⎢1 − P ⎥
predicted precipitate parameters for the L ⎢ E2 ⎥⎦
⎣ M
base metal and each of the simulated
HAZ samples can be seen in Table 2. E
Fig. 9 — MatCalc kinetic simulation for the LH675 Comparison of the base metal precipitate when sin–1 ≤ 50 deg (1)
simulated HAZ sample. E
parameters generated using MatCalc and M
LEAP tomography reveals that generally
good agreement is achieved for the <R> 3
metal and HAZ regions was modeled and Nv. However, the MatCalc predicted ⎡ 2 ⎤4
using MatCalc kinetic simulations (Refs. φ (~0.0099) is more than three times less Gb ⎢ E P ⎥
τ= ⎢1 − 2 ⎥
12, 19–22). The MatCalc method esti- than the φ measured using LEAP tomog- L⎢ E ⎥⎦
⎣ M
mates precipitate nucleation and growth raphy (~ 0.032). Previous work by the au-
kinetics in multicomponent and multi- thors (Ref. 12) demonstrated that the sig- E
when sin–1 ≥ 50 deg (2)
phase alloys and can deal with complex nificantly higher φ values measured using E
systems and precipitation sequences. The LEAP tomography can be explained by
MatCalc method accounts for the compo- uncertainty in determining the true Cu
concentration of the Cu-rich precipitates. r
sitional dependence of interfacial energy E ∞ log R
and chemical driving force, which pro- A combination of empirical Cu solubility E P
r log
vides a significant improvement to the data, published precipitate Cu concentra- P = 0 + r (3)
classical nucleation, growth, and coarsen- tions, and lever law calculations demon- M E∞ log log
ing models when applied to the Fe-Cu sys- strated that for the binary Fe-Cu system M
r r
0 0
tem. The simulations show the expected the expected φ of Cu-rich precipitates for
evolution of the Cu-rich precipitates in NUCu-140 is approximately 0.013, which
terms of average precipitate radius <R>, is in very good agreement with the Mat-
number density (Nv), and precipitate vol- Calc prediction of 0.0099. Based on this L= (4)
ume fraction (φ). An example MatCalc analysis (Ref. 12), it was decided that the φ
simulation result for the LH675 sample is MatCalc precipitate parameters would be
presented in Fig. 9. The LH675 sample be- used as input for the strengthening calcu- where G is the shear modulus of the ma-
gins to undergo partial dissolution of the lations (discussed below). trix (77 GPa); b is the Burgers vector (0.25
Cu-rich precipitates at the end of the heat- Using the predicted precipitate param- nm); L is the interprecipitate spacing
ing portion of the HAZ thermal cycle as eters generated using MatCalc, the (Equation 4 ); EP is the dislocation energy
evidenced by the reduction in average pre- strengthening model proposed by Russell in the precipitate; EM is the dislocation en-
cipitate radius <R> and precipitate vol- and Brown (Ref. 23) can be used to esti- ergy in the matrix; EP∞ is the dislocation


Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 146

A gions are composed of an equiaxed ferritic crease in strength is approximately 50

microstructure with nearly identical grain MPa as opposed to nearly 175 MPa for the
sizes. The coarse-grained HAZ region measured values. The predicted precipi-
therefore cannot be compared using this tate parameters and strength changes are
method due to the acicular-type mi- shown in Table 3 for each heat input. Note
crostructure that results from the HAZ that MatCalc predicts only slight differ-
thermal cycle. ences in the precipitate parameters for the
Figure 10 shows the measured vs. pre- low and high heat input samples. This
dicted yield strength change for the 800° agrees with the experimentally measured
and 900°C peak temperature simulated strength levels, which show only minimal
HAZ samples for both the low and high differences in the resultant strength. This
B heat input. The calculated shear strength suggests that MatCalc is accurately cap-
values were converted into yield strength turing the precipitate evolution for the
values by applying the relationship that various HAZ thermal cycles. This also im-
shear yield strength is approximately plies that NUCu-140 is not very sensitive
equal to 0.6 times the tensile yield strength to heat input over the range of heat inputs
in steel (Ref. 25). The 1350°C samples evaluated in this study. The large variation
were not included in the strength calcula- in predicted strength calculated with only
tions since they exhibit acicular-type mi- minor differences in <R> and φ suggest
crostructures and therefore cannot be di- that the Russell-Brown model is very sen-
rectly compared to the equiaxed ferritic sitive to the input parameters of <R> and
structures. The 675°C peak temperature φ. Figure 11A, B shows a sensitivity analy-
samples were included in the calculation sis that plots the increase in yield strength
but were not included in Fig. 10 since the predicted by the Russell-Brown model as
Fig. 11 — Sensitivity analysis of the Russell-Brown strengthening model predicts an increase a function of <R> for three representa-
model showing predicted increase in yield strength in yield strength of greater than 160 MPa tive φ values. The yield strength initially in-

as a function of radius for constant volume frac- for the low heat input sample, while the creases with increasing precipitate radius
tions. A — Full scale; B — enlarged view. measured yield strength exhibits a de- for a fixed volume fraction (Fig. 11A) up
crease of approximately 60 MPa. This de- to approximately 1 nm, after which the
viation can be explained as a result of the yield strength is expected to decrease
energy in the precipitate per unit length; partial dissolution and re-precipitation (Ref. 26). This is consistent with a coars-
EM∞ is the dislocation energy in the matrix predicted for the 675°C peak temperature ening phenomenon where the overall pre-
per unit length; r is the radius; r0 is the samples (Fig. 9), as well as how the inter- cipitate strength contribution decreases
inner cut-off radius (2.5 b); R is the outer particle spacing (L) is calculated. L is cal- when the precipitates coarsen past the
cut-off radius (1000r0); and φ is the pre- culated as a function of the average pre- peak aged condition. Figure 11B shows an
cipitate volume fraction. The shear modu- cipitate radius (<R>) and the precipitate enlarged view of Fig. 11A for precipitate
lus of body-centered cubic (bcc) Cu is as- volume fraction (φ) through Equation 4, radii up to 1 nm. The MatCalc-predicted
sumed to be equivalent to that of but does not account for the precipitate low heat input and high heat input precip-
face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu. The ratio of number density directly. This is typically itate parameters are labeled along with
dislocation energy per unit length in the not a problem since all three of these pre- the associated strengthening contribution
precipitate and matrix (EP∞)⁄(EM∞) is ap- cipitate parameters are interrelated. How- predicted by the Russell-Brown model.
proximately 0.6 (Ref. 23). The shear ever, for the case of the 675°C peak tem- The slope of the strength vs. <R> curve
strength in each simulated HAZ region is perature simulated HAZ sample, in the vicinity of the low heat input and
calculated by substituting in the precipi- re-precipitation of new, smaller Cu-rich high heat input precipitate parameters are
tate parameters predicted using the Mat- precipitates is predicted during cooling. 1590 and 2275 MPa/nm, respectively.
Calc simulations (Table 2) and applying a This leads to a bimodal precipitate distri- Note that, within this region, very large
Schmid factor of 2.5 (Ref. 23). The pre- bution where the new, smaller precipitates strength increases are predicted with only
dicted shear strength change is then cal- are not correctly accounted for in the cal- minor increases in precipitate radii for this
culated by comparing the calculated base culation of L. The new precipitates cause model. MatCalc simulations or LEAP to-
metal strength to the calculated strength <R> to decrease significantly, which re- mographic measurements are probably
in each simulated HAZ region. Applica- sults in a calculated L value that is too low not accurate enough to expect valid quan-
tion of the Russell-Brown model does and which leads to a predicted strength titative comparisons with the R-B model
have several limitations which include the value that is too high. at the low end of the <R> range when
assumption that the shear modulus of fcc The measured vs. predicted strength such small variations in precipitate pa-
Cu and bcc Cu have the same value, the change for the LH800 and LH900 samples rameters can cause large differences in the
calculation of L based on radius and pre- exhibit very good quantitative agreement predicted strength. This effect probably
cipitate volume fraction is subject to sig- where there is an almost one-to-one rela- accounts for the disagreement between
nificant error (Ref. 23), and the cut-off ra- tionship between the measured and pre- the measured and calculated strength
dius values are geometric approximations. dicted values. However, the quantitative changes shown in Fig. 10.
However, recent research has demon- agreement breaks down for the high heat
strated that the model provides good input samples. The calculations for the Conclusions
agreement between calculation and ex- high heat input condition accurately re-
periment for similar Fe-Cu based alloys flect that there is little difference between Microstructural evolution and me-
(Ref. 24). This calculation is assumed to the HH800 and HH900 strength levels, chanical properties of simulated heat-
be a valid indicator of the overall strength which was observed experimentally in Fig. affected zones in NUCu-140 steel was in-
change since the matrix microstructure of 7A, but the magnitude of the measured vestigated via light optical microscopy,
the base metal, subcritical HAZ, inter- and predicted strength changes show sig- dilatometry, Gleeble HAZ simulations,
critical HAZ, and fine-grained HAZ re- nificant disagreement. The predicted de- mechanical testing, and modeling tech-

146-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 147

niques. The following conclusions can be lar precipitate parameters and equiaxed zones in NUCu-140 steel. Welding Journal
drawn from this research. ferrite microstructure would be expected 91(2): 53-s to 58-s.
1. Dilatometry experiments over a wide to produce similar strength levels for each 10. Fine, M. E., Ramanathan, R., Vaynman,
range of heating rates show that the Ac1 of these samples. This is consistent with S., and Bhat, S. P. 1993. International Sympo-
sium on Low Carbon Steels for the ‘90s, p. 511.
temperature ranges from 706°C with a the measured mechanical properties 11. Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H., and Honey-
1°C/s heating rate up to 759°C with a where there are only minor variations in combe, R. W. K. 2006. Steels: Microstructure and
1000°C/s heating rate. The Ac3 tempera- the yield strength for these conditions as a Properties. Elsevier, p. 287.
ture exhibits a narrower range of 824° to function of heat input. This indicates that 12. Farren, J. D., Hunter, A. H., DuPont, J.
839°C. NUCu-140 is insensitive to heat input over N., Seidman, D. N., Robino, C. V., and
2. The subcritical, intercritical, and the range of heat inputs (1.5–3.75 kJ/mm) Kozeschnik, E. 2012. Submitted to Metallurgical
fine-grained HAZ regions exhibit an investigated in this study. and Materials Transactions A.
equiaxed ferritic microstructure that is 13. Fuerschbach, P. W., and Eisler, G. R.
very similar to the NUCu-140 base metal Acknowledgments 2002. 6th International Trends in Welding Re-
search Conference Proceedings.
microstructure. The coarse-grained HAZ
14. DuPont, J. N., and Marder, A. R. 1995.
exhibits a predominantly acicular-type The authors gratefully acknowledge fi-
Thermal efficiency of arc welding processes.
matrix microstructure composed of a com- nancial support of this research by the Of- Welding Journal 749(12): 406-s.
bination of acicular ferrite, Widmanstät- fice of Naval Research through Grant 15. Babu, S. S. 2004. Current Opinion in
ten ferrite, bainite, and low-carbon Number N00014-07-1-0331 and useful dis- Solid State and Materials Science 8: 267.
martensite. cussions with the program manager, Dr. 16.Babu, S. S., and Bhadeshia, H. 1992. Ma-
3. Microhardness and tensile testing William Mullins, of the Office of Naval terials Science and Engineering A A156: 1.
results demonstrate that local softening Research. 17. Babu, S. S., and Bhadeshia, H. 1990 Ma-
occurs in the HAZ, with the minimum terials Science and Technology 6: 1005.
18. Babu, S. S., and David, S. A. 2002. ISIJ
strength and hardness occurring in the in- References International 42: 1344.
tercritical and fine-grained HAZ regions. 19. Holzer, I., and Kozeschnik, E. 2010.
The strength loss in these regions is at- 1. Isheim, D., and Seidman, D. N. 2004. Sur- Mater. Sci. Forum 638–642: 2579.
tributed to complete dissolution and only face and Interface Analysis 36: 569. 20. Kozeschnik, E., Svoboda, J., Fratzl, P.,

partial re-precipitation of Cu precipitates, 2. Isheim, D., Gagliano, M. S., Fine, M. E., and Fischer, F. D. 2004. Materials Science and
as shown by precipitate simulation. The and Seidman, D. N. 2006. Acta Materialia 54: Engineering A — Structural Materials Properties,
coarse-grained HAZ exhibits a slight re- 841. Microstructure and Processing 385: 157.
covery of strength and hardness as a result 3. Kolli, R. P., and Seidman, D. N. 2007. Mi- 21. Kozeschnik, E. 2008. Scripta Materialia
croscopy and Microanalysis 13: 272. 59: 1018.
of the acicular-type structure that forms in 4. Gagliano, M. S., and Fine, M. E. 2004.
this region. 22. Svoboda, J., Fischer, F. D., Fratzl, P., and
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 35A:
4. The Charpy impact energy at –40°C Kozeschnik, E. 2004. Materials Science and En-
for each HAZ region was equal to or bet- 5. Isheim, D., Kolli, R. P., Fine, M. E., and gineering A — Structural Materials Properties,
ter than the unaffected base metal. This is Seidman, D. N. 2006. Scripta Materialia 55: 35. Microstructure and Processing 385: 166.
consistent with the microhardness and 6. Kolli, R. P., and Seidman, D. N. 2008. Acta 23. Russell, K. C., and Brown, L. M. 1972.
Materialia 56: 2073. Acta Metallurgica 20: 969.
yield strength results, since the HAZ re-
7. Kolli, R. P., Wojes, R. M., Zaucha, S., and 24. Yu, X., Caron, J. L., Babu, S. S., Lippold,
gions exhibited a decrease in J. C., Isheim, D., and Seidman, D. N. 2010. Acta
strength/hardness, which typically pro- Seidman, D. N. 2008. International Journal for
Materials Research (formerly Zeitschrift fur Met- Mater. 58: 5596.
duces an increase in toughness. 25. Deutschman, A. D., Michels, W. J., and
allkunde) 99: 513.
5. Similar values of precipitate radii, 8. Kolli, R. P., and Seidman, D. N. 2011. In- Wilson, C. E. 1975. Machine Design: Theory and
number density, and phase fraction were ternational Journal for Materials Research (for- Practice.
calculated for the 675°, 800°, and 900°C merly Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde). 26. Kolli, R. P., and Seidman, D. N. 2011. In-
peak temperature samples for both low 9. Leister, B. M., and DuPont, J. N. 2012. ternational Journal for Materials Research (for-
and high heat input conditions. The simi- Fracture toughness of simulated heat-affected merly Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde) 102: 1115.

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Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 148

Preliminary Investigation on Ultrasonic-

Assisted Brazing of Titanium and
Titanium/Stainless Steel Joints
Aluminum-based brazing filler metal can be used for brazing titanium to steel in air


the oxide layer at the interaction interface

ABSTRACT was first lifted up by the undermining
Preliminary investigations of the microstructure and fracture behavior of ultrasonic- alloy, suspending in the liquid filler metal,
assisted brazing of CP titanium to itself and to AISI 304 stainless steel was conducted, before being broken up by the ultrasonic
using an aluminum-based filler. Test joints were processed at a temperature of 670°C excitation (Ref. 10). In the case of nonul-
and with a holding time of 3 min, followed by ultrasonic vibrations for 6 s. The resultant trasonic-assisted brazing of titanium, a sta-
joints were characterized in order to determine the brittle intermetallic compound ble oxide film grows on the surface of
titanium alloys when heated in air. The
(IMC) in the interfacial layer. The shear strength of the joints was tested as well. The pre-
oxide film presents a barrier for important
liminary experimental results showed that sound joints with good wetting quality, with-
interactions during the brazing process

out pores and cracks can be achieved. Intermetallic Ti-Al phases were detected at the and resulted in incomplete wetting at the
titanium/aluminum-based filler metal in both similar and dissimilar joints. Both joints titanium interface.
fractured after shear strength tests in the area containing this intermetallic compound. The filler metals mostly used for
The titanium/titanium joints achieved a higher shear strength of 64 MPa. Meanwhile, the brazed titanium are silver-based (Refs.
titanium/stainless steel joint obtained 46 MPa. 11–15), titanium-based (Refs. 16–18), and
aluminum-based filler metals (Refs.
Introduction resultant layer has to be removed prior to 19–21). Aluminum-based filler metals
joining because it melts at a much higher have the potential to braze titanium with
Titanium and its alloys exhibit a unique temperature than the base metal (Ref. 4). sufficient properties. Their melting tem-
combination of mechanical and physical Brazing is one of the most inexpensive perature ranges substantially below the
properties as well as corrosion resistance, and convenient methods for joining tita- beta transus, which make them a strong
which make them desirable for several in- nium and titanium to dissimilar metals. competitor to other filler metals. Other
dustrial sectors such as power generation, Joining in a vacuum environment in- useful characteristics include lower densi-
chemical processing, aerospace, and med- creases the cost of production and also re- ties and a good metallurgical compatibil-
ical applications. On the other hand, steel duces the design flexibility (Refs. 5, 6). ity with titanium alloys to be brazed,
and steel alloys represent the most impor- Therefore, vacuum-free joining processes, particularly good wetting and flow in cap-
tant and widely used materials in industrial which are assisted by external mechanical illary gaps. On the other hand, a lower
applications. Gradually, composite struc- energy to disrupt the oxide layer in air, shear strength of titanium brazed joints
tures of dissimilar metals were accepted in have been developed and investigated. using aluminum filler metals can be gen-
national defense and civil industrial fields, Ultrasonic waves have been applied for erated by increasing the overlap area in
such as aeronautics and astronautics, and soldering and brazing aluminum and tita- order to achieve a load-carrying capability
energy and electric power industries. nium in air (Refs. 10–12). Ultrasonic vi- close to that of the base metal (Ref. 22).
Composite components of titanium alloy brations imposed on metal surfaces cause The main purpose of this study is to ex-
and steel can take advantage of these two a high cavitation intensity in the liquid plore and evaluate the preliminary exper-
materials simultaneously. A partial re- filler metal, which disrupts and flakes off iments related to brazing commercially
placement of steel components with tita- surface oxides, thereby allowing the filler pure titanium (CP Ti) and Cp Ti to stain-
nium alloys will become an important way metal to wet the surfaces and form a met- less steel by using an aluminum-based
to reduce the mass of spacecrafts (Refs. allurgical bond. When undermining phe- filler metal (Al2.5Mg-0.3Cr) in open air
1−3). nomena occurred during the interaction, utilizing an ultrasonic-assisted induction
Titanium belongs to a family of metals heating system. The focus is hereby on the
called reactive metals that have a strong interfacial microstructure and strengths of
affinity for oxygen. At room temperature, the joints.
titanium reacts with oxygen to form tita-
nium dioxide. This passive, impervious Experimental Work
coating resists further interactions with the
surrounding atmosphere, and gives tita- Stainless Steel The base metals used in this work were
nium its famous corrosion resistance. The Brazing 2-mm-thick commercially pure titanium
Ultrasonic (CP Ti) Grade 2 and 2-mm-thick
Joint Microstructure austenitic stainless steel AISI 304. The
A. ELREFAEY, L. WOJARSKI (lukas.wo- chemical compositions of the base metals
Shear Strength, J. PFEIFFER, and W. TILL-
MANN are with the Institute of Materials Engi-
are presented in Table 1. The stainless
neering, TU Dortman, Dortman, Germany. steel plate was cut into 25 × 25 mm chips,

148-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 149

and the titanium plate was cut into 10 ×

10 mm chips, for shear strength testing
and microstructure analyses. Additionally,
the samples were first polished with SiC
papers up to 1000 grit and subsequently
cleaned by an ultrasonic bath using ace-
tone as a solvent, prior to the brazing
process. The filler metal used was a 50 μm
thick TiBrazeAl-665A (Al-2.5Mg-0.3Cr,
wt-%) designed for brazing thin-walled ti-
tanium articles and titanium matrix com-
posites. This filler metal has a liquidus of
650°C, which is significantly lower than the
beta transus temperature of CP Ti. The
brazing foils, cleaned in acetone before
brazing, were sandwiched between the
overlapping areas of the base metals.
The ultrasonic-assisted brazing appa-
ratus used in this study is schematically il-
lustrated in Fig. 1. A horn was installed in
the vertical direction, and the test pieces Fig. 1 — Schematic illustration of the ultrasonic- Fig. 2 — Schematic illustration of the lap shear test.
assisted brazing apparatus.
were mounted into a steel holder. Initially,
the samples were heated up to a tempera-
ture 50 K below the solidus temperature was carried out at room temperature, and Brazing of Titanium/Al-2.5Mg-0.3Cr/
of the filler metal for a dwell time of 5 min, the displacement speed was 0.1 mm/s. Titanium Joint
using a high-frequency induction coil in

Three samples were used to calculate the
air. This step aimed at achieving the ther- average shear strength. After the shear Figure 4A displays SEM microstruc-
mal equilibrium of the couple. The induc- test, the fracture surfaces were analyzed by ture features of the joint. Obviously a
tion heating system has an output power SEM and EDS analyses. sound joint was obtained since a homoge-
of 15 kW and operating frequency of 13 neous microstructure without voids or
KHz. The sample was then continuously Results and Discussion cracks was observed along the joint. The
heated up to 670°C with a holding time at titanium showed no change in the mi-
this temperature of 3 min. The specimen The characteristic microstructures of crostructure since the brazing temperature
temperature was measured by a K-type the base metals are shown in Fig. 3. The is much lower than the β-Ti transforma-
thermocouple, installed to touch a groove microstructure of the stainless steel is tion temperature. According to the Ti-Al
in the sample as close as possible to the composed of austenitic equiaxed grains binary phase diagram (Ref. 23), the solu-
joining interfaces. The horn was kept out- with annealing twins in the grain interiors. bility of Al in α Ti at the brazing tempera-
side the heating region without preheating Inclusions of the size of several microme- ture is about 8 wt-%. Therefore, the
till the temperature of the samples was ters can also be detected, while the mi- titanium base metal was enriched by alu-
reached, and then it was moved manually crostructure of CP Ti possesses equiaxed minum. The EDX analyses of the titanium
to touch the surface of the sample before α-phase grains. base metal, close to the interfacial-brazed
it started to work. Ultrasonic vibration
with 120-W power at a frequency of 25
kHz was applied for 6 s and propagated in Table 1 — Chemical Composition of Base Metals
a direction perpendicular to brazing sur-
faces. This duration was recommended to
completely destroy the oxide layer (Ref. Materials Wt-%
10). The samples were subjected to an
C Fe Ti Cr Ni Si P N H O
equal pressure of nearly 0.2 MPa, which
was a result of the weight of the horn. The CP Ti 0.02 0.03 Bal. — — — — 0.03 0.01 0.25
average heating rate was 2.3 K/s, and the AISI 304 0.06 Bal. — 17.88 8.52 0.31 0.009 — —
samples were cooled in air to room tem-
perature after brazing.
Selected samples were cut, mounted,
polished, and etched for microscopic eval- Table 3 — Chemical Analyses at Areas
Table 2 — Chemical Analyses at Areas
uation. A light optical microscope and Shown in Fig. 4 Shown in Fig. 7
scanning electron microscope (SEM),
equipped with an energy-dispersive spec- Area Average Chemical Analyses (at.-%) Area Average Chemical Analyses (at.-%)
trometer (EDS), were used to character- Ti Al Mg Cr Ti Al Mg Cr
ize the joints. A metallographic
1 98.76 1.24 — — 1 5.55 91.36 2.96 0.13
examination was carried out on the cross
2 99.61 0.39 — — 2 6.33 90.71 2.85 0.10
section. Hardness measurements were
3 0.37 97.35 2.17 0.11 3 97.09 2.51 0.40 —
performed with the help of a Vickers hard- 4 92.51 6.24 1.25 —
ness testing machine with 25-g load and 4 74.60 21.99 2.41 —
5 61.46 36.58 1.87 0.09 5 69.35 27.53 3.04 0.08
25-s impressing time. Additionally, lap 6 69.97 26.42 3.49 0.12
6 68.70 30.12 1.18 —
shear tests were performed to evaluate the 7 66.70 23.75 9.48 0.07
7 68.63 29.96 1.30 0.11
bonding strength of the specimen as 8 61.06 32.09 6.83 0.02
schematically illustrated in Fig. 2. The test


Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/17/13 10:11 AM Page 150


Fig. 3 — Microstructures of base metals. A — Stainless steel AISI 304; Fig. 4 — SEM microstructure features of the titanium/titanium joint.
B — CP titanium. A — General view of the cross section; B — close-up view at the interfacial

Fig. 5 — Hardness distribution in the titanium/titanium joint. Fig. 6 — Fracture path of the titanium/titanium joint.

area, contained a considerable amount of the layer indicates that it is almost a Ti3Al measured as well. In spite of the formation
titanium as shown in Fig. 4A, Areas 1 and phase — Area 4. This layer has a maxi- of the hard and brittle Ti3Al phase at the
2. Table 2 lists the chemical analyses of all mum thickness of less than 2 μm and is interfacial brazed area, the presence of
phases at the brazed joint. The brazed formed discontinuously at the interface. this phase is preferred to as the TiAl phase
area mainly consists of a solid solution of Owing to the low ductility and toughness since Ti3Al has much better strength and
aluminum dissolving a few percentages of of Ti3Al at room temperature, this phase is ductility than TiAl (Ref. 24).
magnesium, titanium, and chrome (Area continuously crushed during sample The hardness distribution in the joint is
3). It is worth noting that there was no in- preparations for metallographic investiga- shown in Fig. 5. The hardness of the
dication of an oxide layer at the interfacial tions, and hence, scattered to the soft alu- brazed area showed lower values than in
area. Ultrasonic vibration disrupted and minum brazed area. The scattered phase the titanium base metal. Additionally, the
flaked off the surface oxides as was ex- .can be easily detected in the brazed area hardness close to the interfacial area in the
plained in detail by Xu et al. (Ref. 10). as clearly shown in Fig. 4A, Areas 5 and 6, titanium side was higher than in the base
The titanium/aluminum-based brazing and the close-up view in Fig. 4B, Area 7. metal far from the interface, owing to the
interface is planar in nature, and a thin in- Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses diffusion of aluminum into the base metal.
teraction layer was revealed at the inter- of the scattered Ti3Al reflected more alu- However, the hardness at the interfacial
face area as shown in Fig. 4B. The minum content since the phase is too thin, area, which is expected to present the
stoichiometric ratio between Al and Ti of and its aluminum background area was highest values, could not be assessed due
to the very thin interfacial area.
The fracture shear strength was calcu-
Table 4 — Chemical Analyses at Areas Shown in Fig. 8 lated as the failure load, divided by the
overlap area. The achieved average shear
strength of the joints is 64 MPa with a
Area Average Chemical Analyses (at-%)
standard deviation of ±2.7 MPa. This re-
Ti Al Mg Cr Fe Ni Si sult is comparable or a little lower than re-
1 70.19 22.93 6.00 0.36 0.43 0.09 — sults from our previous work, related to
2 20.19 73.98 3.58 0.67 0.32 0.06 1.20 brazing titanium in a vacuum, using a sil-
3 73.72 19.28 3.85 1.15 0.82 0.08 1.10 ver-based alloy (Ref. 15). The strength of
4 1.94 83.91 4.91 1.31 7.17 0.76 — the joint could be improved by optimizing
5 30.19 63.98 3.58 0.67 0.32 0.06 1.20
the brazing parameters such as the braz-
6 0.19 86.73 — 5.51 5.26 2.31 —
ing temperature, holding time, and ultra-
7 0.99 80.31 0.65 3.19 13.58 1.28 —
8 99.53 0.47 — — — — — sonic time. Figure 6 shows that the joints
9 0.17 2.71 0.20 19.20 68.73 7.77 1.22 failed mainly at the titanium/aluminum-
based filler metal interface owing to the

150-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 151

formation of the hard and brittle Ti3Al in-

termetallic compound. The fracture mor-
phology of the joints after the shear test is
presented in Fig. 7A. Chemical analyses of
the corresponding fracture area (Table 3)
showed a high probability of a Ti3Al phase
at the surface of the aluminum-based filler
metal — Areas 5 and 6 in Fig. 7B, and the
titanium base metal as well, Areas 7 and 8
in Fig. 7C. This implies that the Ti3Al in-
termetallic compound is the most harmful
phase in the joint. Aluminum-based filler A
metal is shown in the fracture surface by
the Areas 1 and 2, while the titanium base
metal is presented by the Areas 3 and 4.
The fractography of these fracture sur-
faces basically showed cleavages in addi-
tion to tearing regions. The fracture
direction took the same direction as in the
shear test.

Brazing of Titanium/Al-2.5Mg-0.3Cr/
Stainless Steel Joint
Figure 8A displays SEM microstruc-
ture features of the joint. It is clear that

Fig. 7 — Fracture morphology of the titanium/titanium joint. A — General view of the fracture surface;
the brazed filler metal wets the titanium
B — close-up view at the surface of aluminum-based filler; C — close-up view at the surface of titanium
and stainless steel base metals well, and no base metal.
defects are observed at the interface. The
brazed area is mainly composed of three
zones. The first zone is the interfacial thin Fig. 9A and B, respectively. Energy-dis- percentages of titanium caused the forma-
reaction layer at the titanium/aluminum- persive X-ray analyses at the interfacial tion of Ti3Al phase only at the interface
based filler metal. Energy-dispersive X-ray area suggest the presence of the three- since titanium has limited solubility in
analyses of this layer showed that it is the phase υ + (Al13Fe4) + (Al) in spite of the molten aluminum. On the other hand,
Ti-Al intermetallic phase, either a Ti3Al or low accuracy of the analyses due to the iron has a high solubility in molten alu-
an Al3Ti or a mix of them — Fig. 8B, minute size of the phases. The three-phase minum and is easily dissolved at the
Areas 1–3. Table 4 lists the chemical analy- are shown in Fig. 8C, Area 6 (grey grains molten stage (Refs. 29, 30). During cool-
ses of areas shown in Fig. 8. It is difficult to of phase υ surrounded by black solid solu- ing, iron has a very low solubility in the
exactly identify the content of this phase tion Al) and Area 7 (Al13Fe4 intermetallic solid state and is therefore present mostly
since it is very thin and fragmented at the phase). as a coarse intermetallic phase in the
interface. The second zone is close to the Similar to the titanium/titanium joint, brazed zone.
previous interaction layer and basically the diffusion of aluminum into the tita- The hardness distribution in the joint is
consists of aluminum-based matrix (Area nium base metal in the titanium/stainless shown in Fig. 10. In contrast to the tita-
4) with fragments of Ti-Al intermetallic steel joint was shown in Fig. 8, Area 8. On nium/titanium joint, the hardness of the
phases (Area 5) separated from the inter- the other side of the joints, the solubility brazed area showed the highest values.
facial area similar to the titanium/Al- of Al in the austenitic matrix is on the The brazed area close to the stainless steel
2.5Mg-0.3Cr/titanium joint. The third order of about 2 to 2.5 wt-% Al. There- side showed the peak hardness in respect
zone is the one close to the stainless fore, EDX analyses detected a few per- to other areas in the brazed zone. It was
steel/aluminum-based filler metal. In this centages of aluminum in the stainless steel also noted that the stainless steel showed a
area, the solubility of iron into the alu- side of the joint — Fig. 8, Area 9. higher average hardness than titanium.
minum is almost zero, which results in a It is to be noted that the size and dis- The average shear strength of the joints
very early interfacial phase formation tribution of intermetallic compounds were achieved 46 MPa with a standard deviation
when iron is dissolved into aluminum. Iron different from the Ti/Ti joint to the of ± 3.1 MPa. The strength was lower than
and chromium diffusion from the stainless Ti/stainless steel joint. The solubility of Ti the titanium/titanium joint, since an Al-Fe
steel side constitute several phases with in aluminum at brazing temperature is al- intermetallic compound was detected in
the aluminum-based filler metal. The most neglected (Ref. 23). Therefore, high the brazed area in addition to Al-Ti. Addi-
isothermal section in the Al-Fe-Cr ternary
phase diagram at 600°C and the partial Table 5 — Chemical Analyses at Areas Shown in Fig. 11
isothermal section at the aluminum-rich
corner (more than 75 at.-% Al) confirm Area Average Chemical Analyses (at.-%)
the existence of three-phase(1) υ +(2) θ +
(Al) and υ + (Al13Fe4) + (Al) (25–28) — Ti Al Mg Cr Ni Fe
1 5.98 85.69 6.16 0.79 0.25 1.13
2 7.58 84.52 3.30 0.59 0.31 3.70
(1) The stoichiometric chemical composition of 3 11.52 75.57 6.91 0.82 0.52 4.66
this phase is Cr10.71 Fe8.68 Al80.61, and it is some- 4 22.52 56.55 18.45 0.53 — 1.95
times called H-CrFeAl.
5 26.77 53.49 16.77 0.78 — 2.19
(2) The stoichiometric chemical composition of
this phase is Cr2Al13 and sometimes called CrAl7 6 31.32 61.01 7.55 0.12 — —
in the literature.


Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 152

brazed area mainly consisted of solid so-

A lution aluminum with a Ti3Al intermetal-
lic compound at the interfacial area.
During shear tests, the crack pass propa-
gated at this intermetallic compound has
almost no ductility to withstand thermal
stresses. The average shear strength of
the joints was 64 MPa.
2) For the titanium/stainless steel
joint, Ti-Al intermetallic compounds
were formed at the titanium/aluminum-
B C based filler metal interfacial area. Mean-
while, three-phase υ + (Al13Fe4) + (Al)
were formed at the stainless steel/alu-
minum-based filler metal interfacial area.
In spite of the high hardness of this area
in respect to the titanium/aluminum-
based filler metal interfacial area, the
crack pass during shear tests was close to
the Ti-Al intermetallic compound. The
average shear strength of the joints was
46 MPa.
Fig. 8 — SEM microstructure features of the titanium/stainless steel joint. A — General view of the cross
section; B — close-up view at the titanium/aluminum-based filler metal interfacial area; C — close-up References
view at the stainless steel/aluminum-based filler metal interfacial area.
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2. Yuan, X. J., Sheng, G. M., and Qin, B.
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tionally, extra internal stresses are ex- Figure 12B and D showed enlarged im- trix composites during vibration. Journal of
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7. Watanabe, T. 2000. Soldering of high
ilar titanium joint. Surprisingly, Fig. 11 sides, respectively. The microscope frac- strength aluminum alloys with the aid of ultra-
shows the joints failed mainly at the tita- tography of these fracture surfaces basi- sonic vibration. Proc. Int. Brazing & Soldering
nium/aluminum-based filler metal inter- cally showed cleavage morphologies in Conf. pp. 523. Albuquerque, N.Mex.
face in spite of the thinner intermetallic both sides of the joint with more tearing 8. Watanabe, T., Yanagiswa, A., Furkawa,
compound of this area, compared with the regions in the stainless steel side of the A., and Onuma, S. 1993. Soldering of Al-Mg
area close to the stainless steel/aluminum- fracture and more flat areas and shearing alloy with the aid of ultrasonic vibration. Quar-
based filler metal, which showed thick and directions in the titanium side. terly Journal of Japan Welding Society 11(4):
different intermetallic compounds. 484–489.
9. Zhao, W. W., Yan, J. C., Yang, W., and
Fracture surface, corresponding to the Conclusions
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nium sides, respectively. Chemical analy- ments of CP titanium to itself and to AISI 10. Xu, Z. W., Yan, J. C., Zhang, B. Y.,
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surface generally showed high aluminum an aluminum-based filler metal. The joints oxide film at the ultrasonic aided interaction in-
content in the stainless steel side (Table 5, were successfully brazed without voids, terface of Zn-Al alloy and Al2O3p/6061Al com-
Areas 1–3). Meanwhile, at the titanium cracks, or surface oxides disturbing the posites in air. Materials Science and Engineering
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2011. Interfacial reaction of intermetallic com-
composition of different areas did not con- joints and the microstructure of the brazed pounds of ultrasonic-assisted brazed joints be-
firm the occurrence of any Al-Ti inter- layers was examined. The results obtained tween dissimilar alloys of Ti6Al4V and
metallic compound at the fracture surface can be summarized as follows: Al4Cu1Mg. Ultrason Sonochemistry 18(5):
in contrast to the titanium/titanium joint. 1) For the titanium/titanium joint, the 1062–1067.

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Fig. 10 — Hardness distribution in the titanium/stainless steel joint. Fig. 11 — Fracture path of the titanium/stainless steel joint.

12. Chan, H. Y., Liaw, D. W., and Shiue, R.

K. 2004. Microstructural evolution of brazing
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alloy. Materials Letters 58: 1141–1146.
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2003. Infrared brazing of TiAl using Al-based
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fect of brazing parameters on microstructure A C
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18. Knepper, P., and Lohwasser, D. 2001. B D
High-temperature brazing of titanium struc-
tures. DVS-Berichte 208: 83–88. Fig. 12 — Fracture morphology of the titanium/stainless steel joint. A — General view of the fracture sur-
19. Wells, R. R. 1975. Low-temperature face at the stainless steel side; B — enlarged view at the fracture surface at the stainless steel side; C —
large area brazing of damage tolerant titanium general view of the fracture surface at the titanium side; D — enlarged view at the fracture surface at the
structures. Welding Journal 54(10): 348-s to titanium side.
20. Sohn, W. H., Bong, H. H., and Hong, S.
H. 2003. Microstructure and bonding mecha- and applications of titanium aluminides. Jour- 27. Cornish, L., Saltykov, P., Cacciamani, G.,
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DVS-Berichte 243: 254–267. 26. Mo, Z. M., Zhou, H. Y., and Kuo, K. H. 29. Dybkov, V. I. 1990. Interaction of 18Cr-
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Dynamic Control of the GTAW Process

Using a Human Welder Response Model

A model was implemented to adjust the welding current in response to the

characteristic parameters of the 3D weld pool surface to maintain consistent,
complete joint penetration in GTAW


rapidly and accurately. Inconsistent con-

ABSTRACT centration, fatigue, and stress build up
such that welders’ capabilities degrade
In the modern welding industry where automated welding tends to be the during daily operations. Moreover, expe-
mainstream, manual welding is still not replaceable when human experience and rience and skills needed for critical opera-
skills are critical to produce quality welds. Yet the mechanization and transfor- tions typically require years to develop
mation of a human welder’s intelligence into robotic welding have not been ex-

while the manufacturing industry is expe-

plored. In our previous study to understand a human welder’s behavior, the riencing an insufficient number of skilled
welder’s adjustments on welding current were modeled as a response to charac- welders for a long time (Ref. 1).
teristic parameters of the three-dimensional weld pool surface. In this work, the The mechanism of welders’ experi-
response model is implemented to feedback control the gas tungsten arc welding ence-based behavior, i.e., how welders re-
(GTAW) process to maintain consistent, complete joint penetration. Experiments spond to the information they acquire
were designed to start welding using different welding conditions (arc length, from their sensory system, should be ex-
welding speed, and root opening) along with initial current. After the initial open- plored and utilized to develop intelligent
loop control period, the welding current is adjusted by the controller that uses the robotic welding systems that combine in-
welder’s response model to determine how to adjust the welding current based telligence and physical capabilities for the
on the measured weld pool surface characteristic parameters. The resultant cur- next generation of manufacturing. Explor-
rent waveform and its backside weld bead width were recorded/measured and an- ing the mechanism may also be utilized to
alyzed. It was found that the human welder response model can adjust the cur- understand why less skilled welders are
rent appropriately to control the welding process to a desired penetration level not performing as well as skilled welders
despite the difference in the welding conditions and initial current. The desired and help train welders faster to help re-
backside width of the weld bead, 5.2 mm, was produced with a 0.4 mm variation solve the skilled welder shortage issue the
successfully in all experiments despite their diverse welding conditions and initial manufacturing industry is facing (Ref. 2).
current. However, developing a model of the
welders’ experience-based behavior and
control the desired weld state. Because of
adapting it as a controller in automated
Introduction their experience-based behavior in re-
welding is so far a challenging task. Nu-
sponse to the information they sense,
merous studies have been conducted with
Manual gas tungsten arc welding human welders may be preferred over
different sensing techniques mimicking
(GTAW) is thought by many as an opera- mechanized welding control systems in
welders’ sensing capability to the weld
tion that requires the highest skills, yet is certain applications.
pool. Various types of information about
commonly used in the industry, especially Although welders’ experience and
the weld pool have been extracted and in-
for applications requiring assured weld skills are crucial to producing quality
terpreted to describe the state of the weld-
quality. A human welder can hear the welds, human welders have limitations.
ing process (Refs. 3–9).
sounds of the arc, sense the reactive forces Critical welding operations require
Although successes in monitoring the
from the torch, and observe the weld pool welders concentrate consistently to react
weld pool continue to be made in the aca-
surfaces. Using such feedback informa- demic community, the intelligent behavior
tion, a welder can appraise the welding of a human welder has not yet been suc-
process with respect to the desired state, KEYWORDS cessfully transferred to automated weld-
then intelligently adjust the welding pa- ing. This is because welders, in the role of
rameters (e.g., current, welding speed, arc Human Welder Response human controller in the welding process,
length), and maintain appropriate torch Joint Penetration Control make decisions primarily based on past
orientation and distance in an effort to Intelligent Welding and learned experiences, which might not in-
Control volve a fundamental understanding of the
Weld Pool Surface laws of physics. Also, a skilled welder as-
Complete Joint Penetration sesses and controls a welding process
( are with the Institute
for Sustainable Manufacturing and Department Gas Tungsten Arc Welding using a humanistic approach where the
of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univer- (GTAW) feedback sensory information acquired by
sity of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.

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the welder is imprecise and can only re-

flect partial truths about the instant status
of the weld process. An automated weld-
ing control system requires both mecha-
nistic methods for the welding phenom-
ena that are physically well understood
and mathematically feasible for both sen-
sors and control algorithms.
The theory of modeling for the human
controller dynamics has been extensively
studied since the 1940s. Great progress
was achieved in the 1960s and 1970s (Ref.
10), such as linear crossover model (Ref.
11) and the optimal control model (Ref.
12). The physical nature of a human oper-
ator indicates that the human controller is
naturally dynamic, stochastic, nonlinear,
and time varying. In this sense, nonlinear
methods were introduced to model the
human action neural networks, and
neuro-fuzzy or adaptive models (Refs.
Although nonlinear methods typically
improve the prediction performance to Fig. 1 — Demonstration of a manual control system of the GTAW process. It is not a typical manual
some extent, it is still very appealing to use GTAW process. The human welder only adjusts the welding current based on his observation of the 3D
weld pool surface. The pipe rotates during the experiment while the torch, imaging plane, laser, and cam-
linear models due to their convenience for

era are stationary.
analysis and design. Instead of taking real
industrial processes, most of the literature
in this area took certain benchmarks as
control objects, such as the pendulum, joy- geometry of the weld pool has been stud- for the penetration state. The effective-
stick, etc. Besides, those developed mod- ied (Refs. 22–26) as a means of monitor- ness and robustness of the model-based
els tend to be too complex to understand ing and controlling the weld joint penetra- control are evaluated and verified in this
and difficult to apply to the practical con- tion. A vision-based sensing system has paper.
trol systems. been developed to simultaneously meas- Modeling of the human welder re-
In our first study on human welder re- ure the 3D weld pool surface and record sponse is briefly reviewed in the next sec-
sponses (Refs. 18, 19), dynamic models of the responses the human welder made to tion. In the experimental system and
a novice human welder’s behavior were the surface. A dynamic model that corre- methods section, a vision-based sensing
developed. The studied behavior of the lates the welder responses (model out- system is detailed as well as the experi-
welder is focused on the adjustment of puts) to the characteristic parameters ment method for implementation of the
welding current in response to the ob- (model inputs) of the 3D weld pool sur- model. The results of the model-based
served three-dimensional (3D) weld pool face has been established. control is presented and analyzed in the
surface during the complete-joint-pene- This paper is the first of this kind ad- human welder response model control
tration process. The weld pool geometry is dressing implementation of the human section. The human welder response
used as the sensory feedback information welder response model as a controller in model is further improved in the improve-
since it is believed to provide valuable in- the automated GTAW process. In particu- ment of the human welder response
sights into the welding process state. lar, this study focuses on how this model model section. The robustness of the con-
Important information such as weld controls the current to achieve consistent trol using the improved model is then an-
defects and penetration are contained in complete joint penetration under differ- alyzed in the results and analysis of ro-
the surface deformation of the weld pool ent welding parameters. The backside bustness experiments section. The
in the GTAW process (Refs. 20, 21). The weld bead width is used as a measurement conclusion is then given.

Table 1 — Experimental Parameters

Welding Parameters

Root opening/mm/s Arc length/mm Welding speed mm/s Initial welding current/A Argon flow rate/L/min
[0, 5] [2, 5] 1.0 [50, 62] 11.8

Monitoring Parameters

Project angle/deg Laser to weld pool distance/mm Imaging plane to tungsten axis distance/mm
35.5 24.7 101

Camera Parameters

Shutter speed/ms Frame rate/fps Camera to imaging plane distance/mm

4 30 57.8


Zhang and Zhang Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:55 PM Page 156

12 o’clock without a filler metal. A human

welder observes the weld pool and adjusts
the welding current using an amperage re-
mote control installed on the torch. The
use of the remote controller for the weld-
ing current shown in the figure is for
demonstration purposes only. The actual
current remote controller is a thumb turn
knob on the torch. It adjusts the current
setting for the power supply.

Vision-Based Sensing Subsystem

The 3D weld pool surface being ob-

served by the human welder is also simul-
taneously measured by a vision system.
The system includes the low-power, 20-
mW illumination laser generator at a
wavelength of 685 nm with variable focus,
a 19×19 dot matrix structured light pat-
A B tern (Lasiris SNF-519X (0.77)-685-20) at-
tached to the head of the laser, an imaging
plane made by a piece of glass attached by
a sheet of paper, and a camera (Point Grey
Flea 3). The laser projects the 19 × 19 dot
matrix on the melting region. Part of the

dot matrix projected inside the weld pool

is reflected by the specular weld pool sur-
face. Then a reflection pattern of the dot
matrix is intercepted by the imaging plane.
Because of the plasma impact, the surface
of the weld pool is depressed and distorted
in GTAW. Therefore, no matter which
shape (concave or convex) the weld pool
C D presents, the alignment of the reflected
laser dot matrix is distorted by the de-
formed specular weld pool surface. The
Fig. 2 — Results of image processing and three- distortion of the reflected dot matrix is de-
dimensional reconstruction. A — Captured image termined by the shape of the three-
using the sensing system; B — resultant dots in the
captured image using image processing. The aster-
dimensional weld pool surface and con-
isk in the figure is the reference dot matching the tains the 3D geometry information about
dot at the 10th row and 10th column in the pro- the weld pool surface. The camera cap-
jected laser dot matrix. C — Projected dots on the tures the images of the reflected laser dot
3D weld pool surface; D — interpolated 3D weld matrix from the imaging plane. A com-
pool surface; E — weld pool boundary and the pro- puter connected to the camera processes
jected dots in oxy plane. The pentagrams are the re- the images and reconstructs the 3D weld
flected laser dots, and the stars are the boundary
pool surface in real time (Ref. 27).
dots of the weld pool. The blue curve is a fitted 2D
weld pool boundary in literature (Ref. 28). Taking Fig. 2A, an acquired image in the
imaging plane, as an example, the results
of image processing and reconstruction
E are shown in Fig. 2B–E. The time for the
image capturing, processing, and weld
Human Welder Response Model between the current and desired states of pool reconstruction is about 30 ms, which
the welding process. Ideally, is fast enough for monitoring the weld
Principle of Human Welderʼs Behavior qualified/skilled welders make similar pool dynamics in GTAW.
welds that meet the requirements be-
A skilled welder starts a welding cause they all possess the ability to sense Human Welder Response Model
process with initial welding parameters the process and make a decision using the
that are considered optimal based on past sensed process feedback. Having the 3D weld pool surfaces
experiences. After observing the weld recorded together with the current adjust-
pool surface until enough feedback in- Manual GTAW Experimental System ment made by the human welder, the
formation is perceived, the welder as- human welder response model establishes
sesses the process and adjusts the welding With the principle of the human the correlation between the current adjust-
parameters accordingly to produce desir- welders’ behavior, an experimental system ment and weld pool characteristics param-
able welds. Skilled human welders are be- has been developed (Refs. 18, 19) as eters, i.e., the length (L), width (W), and
lieved to make an optimal or nearly opti- shown in Fig. 1. The pipe is rotated and convexity (C) of the 3D weld pool
mal control to minimize the error butt joint welded using DCEN GTAW at surface.

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Fig. 3 — Weld pool boundary and parameters. A — 2D boundary; B — longitudinal intercepted area.

Table 2 —Welding Parameters Used in
Experiments with Different Initial Currents

Welding current/A 50, 54

Arc length/mm 3

Table 3 — Welding Parameters for Initial

Current Robustness Experiments

Welding current/A 50, 54, 58, 62

Arc length/mm 3

Table 4 — Welding Parameters for Arc Length

Robustness Experiments
Fig. 4 — Demonstration of experimental setup. The sensing system for the experiment is identical with that
Welding current/A 54 in Fig. 1. A computer connected to the camera is used for image processing, weld pool reconstruction,
Arc length/mm 2, 3, 4, 5 characterization, and to calculate the current output using the human welder response model.

Figure 3B shows the longitudinal inter-

To define these parameters, the 2D ΔI − 0.4725 ΔI + 0.1366ΔI
cepted area of the weld pool in oxy plane. k k −1 k −2
parametric model of the weld pool shown
The convexity is defined as the intercepted = 0.6097L − 2.2283L
in Fig. 3A k −3 k −4
area divided by the length of the weld pool.
Modeling the human welder response + 1.6137 L − 1.2675 W + 1.7667 W
k −5 k −3 k −4
x = ± ay b (1 − y ) , (a > 0, 1 ≥ b > 0) (1) is then to correlate his adjustment ΔIk as
r r r
a function of the characteristic parame- +0.0930 W − 0.6088 W
k −5 k −6
ters in different instants around instant + 30.3658C + 19.6357C
k. This can be done using the standard k −3 k −4
is adopted (Ref. 28). This model uses xr = least squares algorithm. To obtain this −67.6373C + 18.7761C (3)
x/L and yr = y/L. Once this model is ob- k −5 k −6
optimal model, F-test (Ref. 31) has also
tained, the width of the weld pool is then been used to determine the instant range where ΔIk–j is the current adjustment at in-
calculated that needs to be included in the model stant k–j with a 0.5-s sampling period. It
⎡ b ⎤b ⎛ b ⎞ for each of the characteristic parameters. can be found the human welder adjusts
w = w × L = 2 aL ⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ (2)
⎜ ⎟ As a result, the following model was ob- the current based on the previous current
⎣⎢ 1 + b ⎦⎥ ⎝ 1 + b ⎠
tained (Refs. 18, 19): adjustments and weld pool surfaces. That


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Fig. 5 — Results from experiment with initial current of 50 A. A — The cur- Fig. 6 — Results from experiment with initial current of 54 A. A — The cur-
rent and voltage; B — the backside weld bead width; C — the backside weld rent and voltage; B — the backside weld bead width; C — the backside weld
bead (the unit of x and y axis is pixel). bead (the unit of x and y axis is pixel).

is, the adjustment on the welding current

by the human welder requires the length,
width, and convexity of the weld pool sur-
face to model adequately. In addition, the
human welder makes the adjustment on
the welding current based also on the pre-
vious adjustments he made 1 s ago.

Experimental System and


In this section, the experimental setup

and methods used to implement the
Fig. 7 — Diagram of control system of the human welder response model with additional low-pass filter. human welder response model-based con-
trol are summarized.

Experimental Setup

The configuration of the experimen-

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Fig. 8 — Current and voltage of the experiments. A — Initial current of 50 A; B — initial current of 54 A; C — initial current of 58 A; D — initial current of 62 A.

tal system is shown in Fig. 4. As men-

tioned in the human welder response Table 5 — Welding Parameters for Root Opening Robustness Experiments
model section on a vision-based sensing
subsystem, having the laser pattern pro- Welding parameters Experiments
jecting the dot matrix on the weld pool 1 2 3
surface, part of the dot matrix pattern is Root opening/mm 0 2 [0, 5]
specularly reflected from it. Intercepted Arc length/mm 3
by the imaging plane, the reflection pat- Initial current/A 54 58 54
tern is then captured by the camera. A
computer connected to the camera is re-
sponsible for processing the captured
image, reconstructing the weld pool sur- havior, in each experiment of the study, spe- Experimental Approach
face, and extracting the characteristic pa- cific welding conditions (welding conditions
rameters. Based on the obtained charac- and parameters that are not changed/ad- In a manual welding process, a quali-
teristic parameters of the weld pool justed on purpose in each particular exper- fied welder can control the welding
surface, the adjustment needed for the iment including welding speed, arc length, process to obtain a nearly uniform pene-
welding current is calculated by the etc.) and an initial current are first applied tration (backside weld bead width) that
human welder response model. for the weld pool to grow freely to complete he/she desires, even with different welding
According to the principle of welders’ be- joint penetration. Then the welding process conditions. To this end, a number of ex-
havior briefed previously, a welder starts a is manually switched to control mode, i.e., periments were conducted with different
welding performance with an optimal esti- the human welder response model starts to welding conditions and initial welding cur-
mation of the welding parameters based on adjust the current for consistent complete rent in this study. At the beginning of each
past experience. To imitate the welder’s be- joint penetration. experiment, the weld pool grows freely.


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Fig. 9 — The backside appearance of the weld bead. A — Initial current of 50 Fig. 10 — The backside width of weld beads with a different initial current.
A; B — initial current of 54 A; C — initial current of 58 A; D — initial current
of 62 A.

With specific welding conditions and ini- mates an initial welding current to start a rent quickly and accurately to maintain
tial current, the welding process is able to manual welding operation. The past expe- uniform penetration, or produce an un-
reach to complete joint penetration. Yet, rience-based estimation might vary within qualified weld with a same failure pattern.
the dimension of the weld pool at com- a reasonable range. Also, the arc length Therefore, to verify the effectiveness of
plete joint penetration in each experiment maintained by the welder might not always the model is to check if it is able to control
is expected to be different. Then the ex- be the same during manual welding, as the welding process to a comparatively
periment is manually switched to control well as the root opening. The welding consistent penetration, i.e., the backside
mode, that is, to apply the human welder speed, on the other hand, does not change width of the weld bead under different
response model to control the process. much when controlled by the welder, al- welding conditions and initial current can
Specifically, the model adjusts the welding though it might vary within a small range. converge to a constant within a small vari-
current based on the geometry of the 3D The welding speed is constant for the ex- ation margin.
weld pool surface such that the adjusted periments in this study. The welder’s be- There are several types of relevant data
welding current controls the process to ob- havior under large welding speed varia- in this study. For the process, such data in-
tain a desired penetration that is evaluated tion is the authors’ future work and clude welding current, arc length, and
by the backside weld bead width. After beyond the scope of the first study of this welding speed. Since the human welder
each experiment, the width of the ob- kind. response model under this specific study
tained backside weld bead is measured to As presented in the introduction, the controls the welding process only by ad-
verify the effectiveness of the human response model is developed based on the justing the welding current, such data are
welder response model-based control. behavior of a human welder with limited especially concerned with analyzing the
The experimental parameters used skills. Given the physical limitation as a performance of the control. Second, for
here are listed in Table 1. The pipe used in human, the welder might feel stress, fa- the weld pool surface, the data include all
this study is 4-in. nom. stainless T- tigue, and lack of concentration in manual its characteristic parameters, i.e., the
304/304L Schedule 5. welding. Because of the possible inconsis- length, width, and convexity. Studying the
The initial current is in 50, 62 A, the arc tent welding behavior, the welder’s re- current adjustment and variation in the
length varies within 2, 5 mm, and the joint sponse data used to develop the model characteristic parameters can reveal how
opening changes from 0 to 5 mm. The ro- cannot represent the prime performance the model controls the welding process. At
tation speed of the pipe, i.e., the welding of the welder. In this sense, the model is last for the weld bead, the backside width
speed and up-down motion of the torch only able to present an average perform- is the major data of interest.
are controlled by the computer to achieve ance of the human welder. All these data, except the backside
the required welding speed and arc length. However, the control based on the weld bead width, are acquired/recorded in
The effectiveness and robustness of the human response model should be able to real time. The backside bead width is
human welder response model-based con- get rid of the inconsistency, which is a measured with one sample/s interval off-
trol will be evaluated against those weld- major issue with manual welding. The line. For example, if the welding speed in
ing parameter variations in this paper. model is expected to either consistently one experiment is 1 mm/s, then the bead
As mentioned before, a welder esti- produce a good weld by adjusting the cur- width is measured every 1 mm while it is

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Fig. 11 — Current and voltage from arc length robustness experiments. A — Arc length of 2 mm; B — arc length of 3 mm; C — arc length of 4 mm; D — arc
length of 5 mm.

measured every 1.5 mm if the welding The data acquisition starts before the be determined as shown by the red verti-
speed is 1.5 mm/s, etc. In this sense, the welding process begins. It is found that at cal line in the middle of Fig. 5C.
bead width measurement can be matched the beginning of the two experiments, By the start position of the model con-
with the time scale for other types of data. there are about 13-s (shown in Fig. 5A) trol, each of the weld beads in the two ex-
and 12-s (shown in Fig. 6A) periods dur- periments is divided into two zones as
Human Welder Response ing which the current is 0, and the voltage shown in Figs. 5C and 6C. In zone A, the
Model Control is the open-circuit one at approximately backside bead width is determined by the
70 V. welding conditions used and initial cur-
In this section, the results from the ex- The red vertical dash line in Fig. 5A in- rent. In the first experiment, the initial
periments with initial current are pre- dicates the time instant when the process current is 50 A. The average width of the
sented and analyzed. As the first time to is switched to the model-based control backside bead in this zone, shown in Fig.
implement the human welder response mode, i.e., the human welder response 5B, is about 1.7 mm. With a greater initial
model-based control, we focused on how model is applied to adjust the current current (54 A) in the second experiment,
the model controls the process to consis- based on the 3D weld pool surface. From the average width becomes 3.2 mm in zone
tent complete joint penetration. Major the figure, the control begins at 40 s and A as can be seen in Fig. 6B. In zone B, the
welding parameters used in the experi- ends at approximately 96 s. The length of human welder response model starts to
ments are listed in Table 2; the rest are the the weld bead obtained in this period can control the process for a desired and con-
same as in Table 1. be easily calculated using the known weld- sistent penetration. Despite the fluctua-
Results from the two experiments, in- ing speed. Since the position of the end of tion, the average width for the first exper-
cluding the current, backside bead ap- the welding is clearly seen in Fig. 5C, the iment, shown in Fig. 5B as about 4.8 mm,
pearance, and its width, are presented in position where the welding process begins and that in the second experiment, shown
Figs. 5 and 6, respectively. to be controlled on the produced weld can in Fig. 6B as about 4.7 mm, are considered


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tem and methods section, the model rep-

A resents the average performance of a
welder with limited skill. As a result, it
shows in the human welder response
model control section that the model is
not able to adjust the current accurately
enough to reduce the oscillation although
a comparatively consistent penetration is
obtained. It is known that a skilled welder
can avoid the current ripple with smooth
B current adjustment. In this sense, to
smooth the model’s adjustment is to filter
out the high-frequency part of the calcu-
lated current adjustment, i.e., to neutral-
ize the dynamics associated with the over-
reaction in the response model. A simple
method is to adapt a digital low-pass filter
after the model in the control system as
shown in Fig. 7.
C The low-pass filter used in this study
can be written in Equation 4.

ΔI′k = αΔIk–1 + (1 – α)ΔI′k, 0<α<1 (4)

where ΔI′k and ΔI′k–1 are the filtered cur-

rent adjustment at time instant k and k–1,

respectively, and ΔIk is the current adjust-

ment calculated by the welder response
D model at time instant k. Coefficient α con-
trols the frequency bandwidth of the filter.
A greater α gives a wider bandwidth. In
this study, α is selected to be 0.5.
Since the filter blocks high-frequency
components in the current output, its
function would be pronounced during the
Fig. 12 — The backside weld beads from arc length robustness experiments. A — Arc length of 2 mm; transition period. However, when the cur-
B — arc length of 3 mm; C — arc length of 4 mm; D — arc length of 5 mm. rent approaches its steady state, the high-
frequency components become insignifi-
cant. The steady-state value of the current
the same. avoid the fluctuation by smoothing the be- for a particular experiment is not affected
It can be found there are current fluc- havior on the current adjustment. by the filter. Moreover, since the current
tuations during the control period in both Although there are similar current adjustment is smoothed by the filter, the
experiments, shown in Figs. 5A and 6A. fluctuations shown in both experiments, it current ripple is expected to be mini-
That means the model is able to adjust the can be found that the current, controlled mized. The backside weld bead width is
current quickly but not skilled enough to by the model, is settled down within a cer- expected to be more consistent. The tran-
reduce the current ripples. That leads to tain amount of time. This is because the siting period also should be reduced sig-
noticeable oscillations of the backside human welder response model is stable nificantly. In this sense, adapting a low-
bead width, which are clearly shown in since all the poles of the model (Equation pass filter to the human welder response
Figs. 5B, C and 6B, C. The current fluctu- 3) are inside the unit circle in the Z plane model makes the model function like a
ates between 64 and 55 A in the first ex- (Ref. 29). That means the model can con- more skilled welder.
periment, and 64 and 54 A in the second. trol the process to a steady state. This is
Correspondingly, the backside bead width understandable that any welder with lim- Results and Analysis of
changes from about 5.8 to 3.5 mm in the ited skill should be able to produce a Robustness Experiments
first experiment, and 5.2 to 3.7 mm in the steady welding process. Difference in the
second experiment. width of the backside bead in the two ex- The human weld response model-
The fluctuation of the current adjusted periments in zone A indicates the differ- based control is now improved simply by
by the model is understandable since the ent characteristic parameters of the 3D adding a low-pass filter as schematically il-
model is developed using the data from weld pool surface are obtained. Despite lustrated in Fig. 7. To confirm its effec-
the behavior of a novice welder with lim- the difference, the welding processes in tiveness in controlling the process to
ited skills. The reason for using an un- the two experiments reach a nearly identi- achieve the desired weld penetration, var-
skilled welder is that the authors intend to cal backside bead width (4.8 and 4.7 mm) ious experiments were designed and con-
study and follow the development of after the control of the human welder re- ducted in this section using this improved
welder skills and responses. It is a common sponse model. system to examine its performance/ro-
welding scenario that an unskilled welder bustness under different welding condi-
cannot predict the process quickly and ac- Improvement of the Human tions and initial welding currents.
curately so that he/she would frequently Welder Response Model In the first subsection, the experi-
overreact or underreact to the welding ments with different initial current am-
process. A seasoned welder can easily As discussed in the experimental sys- perages are conducted. The robustness of

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Fig. 13 — The backside width of weld beads from arc length robustness exper-

the human welder response model-based periments are close to

control with respect to the initial current each other, only with 1

is analyzed. In the next subsection, the s difference, despite
arc length changes from 2 to 5 mm in the the difference in the
conducted experiments. The root open- initial current used. As
ing is designed to vary from 0 to 5 mm in discussed in the D
the last subsection. human welder re-
sponse model section
Robustness with Respect to Initial Current under the principle of Fig. 14 — Front side of the weld joint before experiment for root opening ro-
bustness experiments. A — 0 nominal root opening; B — 2-mm nominal
human welder’s be- root opening; C — nominal root opening increases from 0 to 5 mm (0.21
Experiments with different initial havior, a welder would in.); D — close review of the wide opening for marked area in C.
welding currents are conducted again but start to weld with an
with the improved control system. Since optimally estimated
the purpose is to examine the effective- initial current (initial
ness of the improved control, more initial welding parameters) tween the welding current and backside
currents (Table 3) in a greater range are based on past experiences. A skilled welder bead width is understandable. There are
used to examine the system’s robustness might adjust the initial current close to the two dynamic processes involved, and each
against the initial current used. The results steady-state current that produces a desired of them has a settling time. First, after the
are shown in Figs. 8 to 10. Figure 8 shows penetration. The effect from the transition current settles down reaching its steady
the current and voltage from these four ex- period on the result then can be minimized. state, the weld pool surface will take an ad-
periments; the backside weld beads ob- An unskilled welder, on the other hand, ditional transition period to reach the cor-
tained are demonstrated in Fig. 9; and the might not be able to predict the initial cur- responding dimension. The first dynamic
measurements of the backside width of rent close to a current that leads to the de- process is the transfer from the welding
the weld beads are presented in Fig. 10. sired penetration. current (parameters) to the weld pool sur-
Since the initial welding current deter- The transition period for the backside face. Second, after the 3D weld pool sur-
mines the backside width of weld bead in weld bead is different such that the settling face (front side) is settled down and
zone A, with different initial currents, the time for the backside bead width differs reaches its steady state, the 3D weld pool
obtained weld beads have different back- from that of the welding current. From surface on the backside that determines
side widths. Specifically, the backside Fig. 8C and D, the initial current is close the backside bead width will take extra
bead width in the experiment with the ini- enough to the steady-state current. There- time to reach its corresponding steady
tial current 50 A is 3.2 mm; with greater fore, the width of the backside bead in state. The transition period associated
initial current (54 A) in the second exper- each of the two experiments only increases with the backside width of weld bead is
iment, the backside width is 3.7 mm; the about 0.2 mm after the control is applied longer than the transition time of the
backside width obtained in the third ex- as shown in Fig. 10. The effect from the welding current.
periment (initial current 58 A) and fourth settling time on the welds produced for Figure 8 shows the steady-state current
(initial current 62 A) are 4.7 and 5 mm. these two experiments is negligible. How- corresponding to the penetration ob-
The settling time (set the error margin ever, the settling time for the backside tained by the human welder response
5%) (Ref. 30) for the process to achieve the bead width observed from the experi- model varies from 59.5 to 61.5 A. And the
steady state is in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 s. ments with an initial current of 50 and 54 steady-state width of the obtained weld
For the experiment with an initial current of A is about 13 and 10 s, respectively. The beads, shown in Fig. 10, converges within
62 A, the steady-state current is only about backside weld beads take a longer time the range from 5.0 to 5.3 mm in zone B. A
0.5 A less than the initial current. The tran- than the welding current to reach the 0.3-mm deviation in the backside bead
sition period is negligible from Fig. 8D. Be- steady state. width is considered acceptable. It is known
sides that, the settling times of the other ex- The difference in the settling time be- that the weld pool is dynamic and vibrat-


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Fig. 15 — Current and voltage from joint opening robustness experiments. A

C — 0 nominal joint opening; B — 2-mm nominal joint opening; C — nomi-
nal joint opening increases from 0 to 5 mm (0.21 in.).

only the arc length V in the arc voltage is observed between 5

differs in the four and 2 mm arc length. As for the settling
experiments to be time for the current in the four experi-
conducted while ments, it is similar to each other, which is
other parameters about 5 s, as can be seen from Fig. 11. The
are the same. The transition period for the backside width is
resultant current, also similar to each other, as shown in Fig.
backside weld bead, 13. The arc length difference does not af-
and backside width fect that transition period of the current or
measurements are backside width of the weld bead.
presented in Figs. From Fig. 13, the backside width of
11–13, respectively. the weld bead in the four experiments
With an increase converges to about 5.2 mm in zone B.
in the arc length, the Among the four weld beads, the one with
arc distribution be- 2 mm arc length reaches the largest
comes broader, and steady-state width (5.4 mm), and the weld
the arc energy inten- beads with 3 and 4 mm arc length have
sity decreases. The the smallest steady-state width, which is
ing through the welding process. Even a penetration capability thus reduces. From about 5.0 mm. From Figs. 13 and 10, one
constant welding input might cause the Figs. 12 and 13, the width of the four weld can find that a nearly identical backside
backside bead width varies within a small beads in zone A reduces down from 3.7 to width, which is about 5.2 mm with a 0.4-
range. It is possible that the difference of 2.5 mm. To obtain a consistent penetra- mm variation margin is obtained despite
the weld pool dimension generated by the tion, the model-based control increases a difference in arc length and initial cur-
current varying from 59.5 to 61.5 A is un- the steady-state current from 61 to 64 A in rent. That means the human welder re-
perceivable to the human welder response the experiments with the arc length chang- sponse model is able to control the weld-
model. In this sense, despite the different ing from 2 to 5 mm. As mentioned in the ing process to achieve a consistent
backside width obtained at the beginning results and analysis of robustness experi- penetration under different arc length
of those experiments, because of different ments section under robustness with re- and initial current. It is reasonable be-
initial current, a consistent penetration spect to initial current, a 2A deviation of cause the model changes the current
with only a 0.3-mm width variation is the steady-state current is considered a based on its previous current adjustments
achieved using the model-based control. reasonable margin for the control of the and the 3D weld pool geometry, as dis-
human welder response mode. Only a 3A cussed in the human welder response
Robustness with Respect to Arc Length deviation is obtained here because of the model heading under the human welder
difference in arc lengths. Therefore, the response model section.
Arc length is another variation whose arc length does not significantly affect the Differences in weld pool dimension
effect on the control system needs to be value of steady-state current during the caused by different initial currents or arc
examined. Hence, experiments with dif- control using the human welder response lengths might not be undetectable for the
ferent arc lengths are conducted. The ini- model. human welder response model. There-
tial current, arc length, and welding speed It is noticed that the voltage in Fig. 13 fore, the model is able to maintain a con-
are listed in Table 4; the rest are the same increases from 9 to 9.8 V due to the in- sistent penetration despite the different
as in Table 1. As can be seen from Table 4, crease in the arc length. A difference of 0.8 arc length and initial current.

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Root Opening Robustness

Root opening is difficult to be precisely

controlled in production. The effective-
ness of the human welder response model-
based control needs to be examined under
varying/different openings. In this subsec- A
tion, experiments with different root
opening conditions/variations are con-
ducted. The root opening, arc length, and
welding speed are listed in Table 5; the rest
are the same as in Table 1.
There are three experiments. The
nominal/intentional root opening in the
first experiment is 0 mm as shown in Fig.
14A. As demonstrated in Fig. 14B, a 2-mm B
root opening is used in the second experi-
ment. In the third experiment, the nomi-
nal opening gradually increases from 0 to
about 5 mm as shown in Fig. 14C and D.
The resultant current, backside weld bead,
and their widths are presented in Figs.
15–17, respectively. C
The steady-state current differs in
these three experiments. The root open- Fig. 16 — The backside appearance of the weld beads from root opening robustness experiments. A — 0
ing is close to zero in the first experiment. nominal root opening; B — 2-mm nominal root opening; C — nominal root opening increases from 0 to

The welding process is close to those in the 5 mm (0.21 in.).
results and analysis of robustness experi-
ments section under robustness with re-
spect to initial current and robustness with pool surface for maintaining consistent, will be analyzed and used to help train and
respect to arc length. Therefore, the complete joint penetration in GTAW. improve less skilled welders.
steady-state current (63 A) is close to the The effectiveness and robustness of the
resultant steady-state current obtained in human welder response model-based con- Acknowledgments
the last two subsections. However, as the trol are verified in the experiments with
root opening increases, the weld pool sur- different welding conditions and the ini- This work is funded by the National Sci-
face tends to be more concave, which tial current. The material used in the ex- ence Foundation under grant CMMI-
means the convexity of the weld pool is periments is stainless steel pipe (4-in. 0927707. We wish to thank Yi Lu and
smaller. The current adjustment con- nom. stainless T-304/304L Schedule 5). Yukang Liu for their assistance on experi-
trolled by the human welder response For the initial conditions, the current ments and graphics, and Lee Kvidahl for his
model (Equation 3) tends to be smaller ac- varies from 50 to 62 A, arc length is within technical guidance on manual pipe welding.
cordingly. The penetration capability of [2, 5 mm], and the root opening changes
the arc also increases with the opening. from 0 to 5 mm. References
Therefore, less heat input is required to Under the experimental conditions
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(800) 443-9353, ext. 243 (800) 443-9353, ext. 220 (800) 443-9353, ext. 254 A Second Course, Third Edition. Routledge

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