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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Cookbook

Cookbook is a book that contains the variety of ingredient and the tutorial how to
making food. Cookbook is very helpful to someone who like cook because usually the contain of
cookbook have some tips for common problems that people encountered while cooking and kind
of the things that reader prepared when the reader want to cooking.

2.2 Snack Food

Snack food is the one of type of food that is usually eaten in relax time. According to
Beckley & Moskowitz (2002) studied the expanded definition of snack foods of both salty and
sweet foods to assess a number of components of a single food, as the consumer might see them.
Previous and subsequent eating occasions therefore tended to be at mealtimes, but again less so
for a snack. It is a popular belief that people who snack frequently have a bad diet and they a re
either overweight or will become overweight. Snacking is viewed as being food that is eaten in
addition to 3 standard meals and therefore it is perceived as providing extra calories. A small
amount of food eaten approximately an hour before a meal is unlikely to decrease intake at the
next meal (Booth, 1980). According to Chamontin,Pretzer & Booth (2003) a snack also differed
from snacking or eating snack food in eliciting more reports by women of eating in the home
than out, and more eating alone than in company. It is proved that snacking was best defined as
food or drink eaten between main meals.
According to Drummond (1995) found no difference in energy intake between frequent
and infrequent snackers, so there is little evidence to suggest that increased consumption of
snacks leads to an excess of “empty” calories. But according to Metzner (1977) who ate 6 meals
per day with those who ate 2 meals . No significant differences were found with respect to Body
Mass Index (BMI). This contradicts the belief that increased snacking leads to an increase in
weight (Booth,1988). It is argued that increased snacking can be beneficial as long as an energy
balance is maintained.
In Indonesia snack usually not eat in mealtimes but many people in Indonesia eat snack
in breakfast but sometimes salty snack can be food for lunch. According to the studies released
by YouGov (2015) Indonesia is one of the top two countries within the Asia Pacific region
with the biggest snacking habit, it also reveals that Indonesia’s snacking habit is not only the
biggest, but it also grows and possibly have the most potential in cultivating a healthy snack
market. The demand for both savory and sweet snacks continues to increase because of more
affordable prices, and smaller, more attractive packaging. It is a competitive industry and ranges
from small to large scale manufactures. The volumes of ingredients required may increase three
to five times more prior to and during the Ramadan period. Snacks are popular during the fasting
month and are exchanged as gifts during Ramadan among all Indonesians. According to Pekerti
(2010) Indonesia’s 82 million children and teenagers are the targeted consumers for snack
manufactures. Medium and low-end manufactures produce snacks for almost exclusively for
traditional markets, as these outlets have lower quality and packaging requirements. About five
to ten percent of the products go to modern retailers.

2.3 Black glutinous rice


Black rice is a type of the rice species Oryza sativa L. Black glutinous rice is one
commodity with huge potential as a source of carbohydrates, antioxidants, bioactive compounds,
and fiber that are important for health (Nailufar, 2012). According to Soemartono (1980) in black
glutinous rice (Oryza sativa glutinosa) contained anthocyanin dye can be used as natural dyes in
food. Colour black sticky rice is caused by cells in the epidermis that contain anthocyanin.
Anthocyanins are pigments of red, purple and blue are commonly found in higher plants.

Many people assume this rice as a panacea of many culinary diseases because of its high
nutritive value and curative effect. This rice is supposed to enhance the longivity of life, hence it
is also known as long life rice. This rice includes several varieties with a long history of
cultivation in Southeast Asian countries such as China, India and Thailand (Kong et al. 2008).
Black rice has long been consumed in Asia especially in China, Japan, and Indonesia and is
considered to be a healthy food because a lot of benefits contained in black rice, and it is proved
that black rice has a double function, namely as a source of staple food with good taste, fluffier
and fragrance, as well as an efficacious medicine to cure various illnesses (Kristamtini, 2009).
Moreover, pigment in black rice has many benefits for body:
1. Prevent cancer and tumors
2. Increase endurance
3. Repair damaged liver cell
4. Prevent disfunction of kidney
5. Make people be stay young
6. As an antioxidant
7. Clean up cholesterol in the blood
8. Prevent anemia
9. Adjust body weight
According to Ujjawal (2016), a strain of rice that has currency as both a food and medicine.
It owes its dark colour to the high concentration of anthocyanins, which are potent antioxidants.
It is regarded as ‘a superfood’ that may lower the risk of cancer due to its high concentrations of
fibre, B vitamins, niacin, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc.

Picture 2.1. Black glutinous rice


Table 2.1. Nutrient content of Black glutinous rice
Number Content value Total gr
1 Amylopectin 12.0
2 Calorie 356
3 Protein 7,0
4 Fat 0,7
5 Fiber 3,1
6 Vitamin Ca 1,0
7 Vitamin B1 0,2

Source: (Soeharto, Iman 2004:28)