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advanced mechanics of materials.. perumbavoor note, AMM . mgu s5 note.

advanced mechanics of materials.. perumbavoor note, AMM . mgu s5 note.

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p of superposition

s n

We

W know thatt the rectangu ular stress co

omponents att a point is rrelated to the rectangular strain

componen nts at the sam

me point throu ugh a set of linear equatioons known aas the generallized Hooke’ss law.

But, here we consider Hooke’s law w as applicablle to the elasttic body as a whole, i.e. rrelate the com

mplete

system off forces acting

g on the body to the deform mation of the body as a whhole. Accordinng to Hooke’s law,

‘deflection

ns are proporrtional to the forces

f which produce them m’.

Consider

C that a force F1 iss applied at point 1 and inn

consequennce, point 2 undergoes

u a deflection

d or displacement,

d

which acccording to Hoooke’s law is proportionatee to F1 . Thiss

deflection

n of point 2 may

m take placce in a directtion which iss

quite diffeerent from thaat of F1 . If D2 is the actual deflection,,

we have

D2 F1 or D2 k21 F1

where,

w k21 is a proportionallity constant.

If F1 is in

ncreased, D2 also increasees proportionaately. Let d 2

n. If is thee

mponent of D2 in a speciified direction

be the com

ween D2 and

angle betw d d 2 , then

d 2 D2 cos k21

2 cos F1

p a constan

If we keep nt, i.e. if we keep

k our atten

ntion in a speccified directioon, then,

d 2 a21 F1

where,

w a21 is a proportionaality constant. Therefore oone can consider the displaacement of point 2

in a speciified direction n and apply Hooke’s

H law. Let us consiider the vertiical componeent of deflectiion of

point 2. Iff d 2 is the veertical compon

nent, then from Hooke’s laaw

d 2 a21 F1

where,

w a21 is called the ‘innfluence co-eefficient’ for vertical defleection at poinnt 2 due to a force

applied in

n the specified hat of F1 ) att point 1. If F1 is a unit forrce, then a21 is the actual value

d direction ( th

of the verrtical deflectio qual and opposite to F1 iss applied at 11, then a defleection

on at point 2. If a force eq

equal and

d opposite to the

t earlier defflection takes place.

Principlee of superposition

pplied simultaaneously on a linearly elasstic body, the resultant defflection whichh they

produce at

a any point inn a specified direction

d willl be the resulttant of the defflections in thhat direction w

which

they woulld have produ uced if applied

d separately. This is the prrinciple of supperposition.

Consider

C a forrce F3 acting

g alone at poin

nt 3, and let

d 2 be thee vertical com

mponent of th

he deflection

n of 2. Then

according

g to Hooke’s law,

l

d 2 a23 F3

where,

w a23 is the influencee co-efficient for vertical

deflection

n at point 2 due

d to a forcee applied in th

he specified

direction (that of F3 ) at point 3. The

T question that

t we now

examine is

i whether thee principle off superposition holds true

to two orr more forcess, such as F1 and F3 , which

w act in

different directions

d and

d at different points.

p

L F1 be app

Let nd then F3 . The

plied first an T vertical

deflection

n at 2 is

F3

d 2 a21 F1 a23

where,

w maay be differennt from a23 . This differennce, if it existts, is due to tthe presence of F1

a23

when F3 is applied. Now apply F1 . Then

F3 a21

F1

may be

a21 b different from

f a21 , sinnce F3 is actiing when F1 is applied.. Only F3 is acting now. If we

apply F3 , the deflecttion finally beecomes

F3 a21

F1 a23 F3

i not subjectted to any forcce now, the fiinal deflectionn must be equual to zero. H

Hence,

F3 a21

a21 F1 a23 F1 a23 F3 0

a21 a21 a a

i.ee. 23 23

F3 F1

, if it existts, must be due

the differrence a21 a21 d to the acction of F3 . Hence, the lleft-hand sidee is a

o F3 . Simillarly, if the difference

function of d a23

2 a23 exist s, it must be

e due to the action of F1 and,

therefore, the right-han b a function of F1 alone. Consequentlyy, the equatioon becomes

nd side must be

a21 a21 a a

23 23 k

F3 F1

where,

w k is a constant

c independent of F1 and F3 . Heence

a23 kF1

a23

ght hand side in the above equation is nnon-linear, whhich is contraadictory to Hoooke’s

The last teerm on the rig

law, unlesss k vanishess. Hence, k 0 and

a23 a23 and

d

a21 a21

2

herefore valid

d for two diffferent forcess acting at tw

wo different ppoints.

This can be

b extended by b induction to include a third or any nnumber of otther forces. T This means thhat the

deflection

n at 2 due to any

a number off forces, inclu uding force F2 at 2 is

orresponding

g displacem

ment (work absorbing componen

nt of

displacem

ment)

Consider

C an ellastic body which

w is in eqquilibrium

under the action of external forces F1 , F2 , F3 . . . . . . The

forces of reaction at the

t points off support willl also be

considered as applied forces.

f This is shown in figure. The

ment d1 in a specified direction

displacem d at point

p 1 is

given by

d1 a11 F1 a12

1 F2 a13 F3 a14 F4 ............

If the acttual displacem

direction as shown in figure, then the componeent of this

displacement in the direction of force F1 is called the corresponding displacement at point 1. This

corresponding displacement is denoted by 1 . At every loaded point, a corresponding displacement can

be identified. If the points of support a, b and c do not yield, then at these points, the corresponding

displacements are zero. One can apply Hooke’s law to these corresponding displacements and obtain

from the above equation

where, a11 , a12 , a13 . . . . . . are the influence coefficients of the kind discussed earlier. The

corresponding displacement is also called the work-absorbing component of the displacement.

Equation (8) shows that the displacements 1 , 2 , 3 ,. . . etc. depend on all the forces F1 , F2 ,

F3 , . . . etc. If we slowly increase the magnitudes of F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . etc. from zero to their full

magnitudes, the deflections also increase similarly. For example, when the forces F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . etc. are

one half of their full magnitudes, the deflections are

1 1 1 1 1

1 a11 F1 a12 F2 a13 F3 a14 F4 ............

2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1

2 a21 F1 a22 F2 a23 F3 a24 F4 ............ etc

2 2 2 2 2

i.e. the deflections reached are also equal to half their full magnitudes. Similarly, when F1 , F2 , F3 , . .

etc. reach two-thirds of their full magnitudes, the deflections reached are also equal to two-thirds of their

full magnitudes. Assuming that the forces are increased in constant proportion and the increase is gradual,

the work done by F1 at its point of application will be

1

W1 F11

2

1

F1 a11 F1 a12 F2 a13 F3 a14 F4 ............ …………………………..… (9)

2

Similar expressions hold good for other forces also. The total work done by external forces is, therefore

given by

1

W1 W2 W3 ............ F11 F2 2 F3 3 ............

2

If the supports are rigid, then no work is done by the support reactions. When the forces are gradually

reduced to zero, keeping their ratios constant, negative work will be done and the total work will be

recovered. This shows that the work done is stored as potential energy and its magnitude should be

independent of the order in which the forces are applied. If it were not so, it would be possible to store or

extract energy by merely changing the order of loading and unloading. This would be contradictory to the

principle of conservation of energy.

The potential energy that is stored as a consequence of the deformation of any elastic body is

termed as elastic strain energy. If F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . . are the forces in a particular configuration and 1 ,

2 , 3 , . . . . etc. are the corresponding displacements, then the elastic strain energy stored is

1

U F11 F2 2 F3 3 ................. …………………………… (10)

2

It must be noted that though this expression has been obtained on the assumption that the forces F1 , F2 ,

F3 , . . . .etc. are increased in constant proportion, the conservation of energy principle and the

superposition principle dictate that this expression for U must hold without restriction on the manner or

order of the application of these forces.

Reciprocal relations

It is very easy to show that the influence co-efficient a12 in equation (8) is equal to the influence co-

efficient a21 . In general, aij a ji . To show this, consider a force F1 applied at point 1 and let 1 be the

corresponding displacement. The energy stored is

1 1

U1 F11 a11 F12 1 a11F1

2 2

Next, apply force F2 at point 2. The corresponding deflection at point 2 is a22 F2 and that at point 1 is

a12 F2 . During this displacement, the force F1 is fully acting and hence, the additional energy stored is

1

U2 F2 a22 F2 F1 a12 F2

2

1 1

U U1 U 2 a11 F12 a22 F2 2 a12 F1 F2

2 2

1 1

U a22 F2 2 a11 F12 a21 F1 F2

2 2

Since the elastic strain energy stored is independent of the order of application of F1 and F2 , U and U

must be equal. Consequently,

a12 a21

or in general, aij a ji

One can obtain an expression for the elastic strain energy in terms of the applied forces, using the

above reciprocal relationship. From equation (10),

1

U F11 F2 2 F3 3 ................. Fn n

2

1

F1 a11 F1 a12 F2 ............ a1n Fn

2

1

F2 a21 F1 a22 F2 ............ a2 n Fn

2

.

.

.

1

Fn an1 F1 an 2 F2 ............ ann Fn

2

U

1

2

a11 F12 a22 F12 2 ........... ann Fn 2

That is U

1

2

a11 F12 a12 F1 F2 ………………………….………… (12)

Consider two system of forces F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . and F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . , both systems having

the same points of application and the same directions. Let 1 , 2 , 3 , . . . . be the corresponding

caused by F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . Then making use of the reciprocal relation given by equation (11), we have

F1 a11 F1 a12 F2 ............. a1n Fn

a12 F1 F2 F2 F1 a13 F1 F3 F3 F1 ............ a1n F1 Fn Fn F1 ....

The symm metry of the expression between

b the primed

p and uunprimed quaantities in thee above expreession

shows thaat it tis equal to

t

i.ee. F11 F2 2 ................. Fn n F11 F2 2 ................ Fn n -------------- (14)

In words:

‘T F1 , F2 , F3 ,.....,, etc. actingg through tthe correspoonding

ments produceed by any seccond system F1 , F2 , F3 ,.........., etc. ddo the same aamount of woork as

displacem

fo acting through

t the coorrespondingg displacemennts produced bby the

first system of forces’. This is the reeciprocal relattion of Maxwwell, Betti andd Rayleigh.

Generalizzed forces an

nd displacem

ments

In the ab

nd 1 , 2 , 3 , . . . etc. the

concentraated forces an t corresponnding

linear disp

placements. It

I is possiblee to extend thhe term ‘forcce’ to

include not

n only a co oncentrated fo orce, but also

o a moment or a

torque. Similarly, the term ‘displaacement’ may mean lineaar or

angular diisplacement.

ody subjected ntrated force F1 at

d to a concen

nd a couple F2 M at point

point 1 an p 2 . 1 now

n will stannd for

ment of point 1 and 2 foor the

the corressponding lineear displacem

correspon

nding angularr rotation at point

p 2 . If F1 is a unit force

one, then a11 gives the liinear displacement of poiint 1

acting alo

correspon

nding to the direction

d of F1 . Similarly a12 stands ffor the correspponding lineaar displacemeent of

nit couple F2 applied at point

point 1 caaused by a un p 2 . a21 gives the corresponding aangular rotatiion of

point 2 caused

c nit concentratted force F1 at

by a un a point 1 .

procal relation nterpreted ass the linear ddisplacement at point 1 iin the

c also be in

direction of F1 caused uple acting allone at point 2 is equal too the angular rrotation at pooint 2

d by a unit cou

ment F2 caused by a unit load acting aloone at point 1 .

in the direection of mom

Frrom equation

n (12), the exp

pression for ellastic strain eenergy is

U

1

2

a11 F12 a222 F12 2 ........... ann Fn 2

ove expressio

forces, i.e.i concentrrated loads, moments or torques.

a11 , a12 ,......etc. are the corressponding influence co--

efficients.. The rate at which

w U incrreases with F1 is given byy

U

. From the above expression

e or U ,

fo

F1

U

a11 F1 a12 F2 a13 F3 ........... a1n Fn

F1

he correspond

Hence, iff 1 stands fo

or the generallized displaceement (linearr

or angularr) correspond neralized forcce F1 , then

ding to the gen

U

1 -------------------------------------------------------- (15)

F1

In exactly

y the same waay, one can sh

how that

U U

2, 3 , . . . . .etc.

F2 F3

That is, ‘the partial diifferential co--efficient of the strain ennergy functionn with respecct to Fr givees the

displacem nding with Fr ’. This is Caastigliano’s fiirst theorem.

ment correspon

In

n the form as derived in eqquation (15), the theorem is applicablee only to lineaarly elastic bodies,

i.e. bodiess satisfying Hooke’s

H law.

This

T theorem is i extremely useful

u in deteermining the displacementts of structurees as well as in the

solutions of many statiically indeterm

minate structuures.

Expressio

ons for strain

n energy

In

n this section n, we shall develop exprressions for strain energgy when an elastic membber is

subjected to axial forcce, shear force, bending moment

m and toorsion. The ffigure shows an elastic meember

subjected to several forces.

f Considder a section

n of the memmber at C . IIn general thhis section wwill be

nd Fz and thrree moments M x , M y andd M z .the forrce Fx is thee axial

subjected to three forcces Fx , Fy an

d forces Fy and

force and a Fz are shear

s ment M x is tthe torque T and

forces across the s ection. Mom

moments M y and M z are the beending momeents about y and z axees respectively. Let s be an

elementarry length of th

he member; then

t when s is small, wee can assumee that these foorces and momments

onstant over s . At the leeft hand sectiion of this ellementary meember, the foorces and mom

remain co ments

have oppo used by the axxial force Fx alone, the rem

osite signs. During the defformation cau maining forcees and

uring the twisst caused by thhe torque T M x no worrk is assumedd to be

moments do not work. Similarly, du

done (sincce the deform

mations are exttremely smalll) by the otheer forces and m

moments.

Consequen

C

tly, the work

w done

by each of these

forces and

moments can be

determineed

individuallly and

added to ogether to

determinee the total

elastic strain

energy stored

s by

s while

w it

undergoess

deformatiion. We

shall mak ke use of

the formulas

available from

elementarry strength

of materiaals.

1. Energy

E storedd due to axiall force:

If x is

i the axial ex t Fx , then

xtension due to

1

U Fx x

2

1 F

Fx . x s (usinng Hooke’s laaw)

2 AE

Fx 2

Thereffore, U s -------------------------------------------- (16)

2 AE

2. Elastic

E strain energy due to

t shear force:

hear force Fy

The sh or Fz iss distributed aacross the seection in a coomplicated m

manner

deepending on the shape off the cross-seection. If wee assume thatt the shear fforce is distriibuted

un

niformly acro

oss the section

n (which is not ment will be s

n strictly corrrect), the sheear displacem

a the work done by Fy will

(ffrom figure) and w be

1

U Fy s

2

Fy

AG

G - Shear moduulus

ubstituting th

Su his,

1 F

U Fy s y

2 AGG

Fy 2

Or

O U s -------------------------------------------------------- (17)

2 AG

wn that the strrain energy du

ue to shear deeformation is extremely smmall, which iss often

ig

gnored. Hencce, the error caused in asssuming unifform distribuution of sheaar force acrosss the

seection will bee very small. However, to o take into acccount the diifferent cross-sections andd non-

un niform distrib or k is introd

bution, a facto duced. With thhis,

k Fy 2

U s

2 AG

s force Fz .

3. Elastic

E energy

y due to bend

ding momentt:

Makin

ng reference to

t the figure below,

b if is the anglee of rotation ddue to the mooment

M z (or M y ), the work donne is

1

U M z

2

mentary flexure formula, wee have

Mz E

Iz R

1 Mz

orr

R EI

E z

a the z aaxis.

Hence,

H

s Mz

s

R EII z

Su

ubstituting th

his,

M z2

U s -------------------------------------------------------- (18)

2 EI z

4. Elastic

E energy

y due to torque:

th

he formula forr a circular seection

T G

Ip s

T

i.ee. s

GI p

m of ineertia

The

T work donee due to this twist

t is

1

U T

2

Su or from above,

ubstituting fo a

T2

U s -------------------------------------------- (19)

2GI p

Equations

E (16)-(19) give im pressions for the strain ennergy stored in the elemeentary

mportant exp

leength s of the

t elastic member. The elaastic strain ennergy for the eentire membeer is thereforee

s

Fx 2

(ii) Due to

o axial force U1 ds ------------------------- (20)

0

2 AEE

s

k y Fy 2

(iii) Due to

o shear force U2 ds ------------------------- (21)

0

2A

AG

s

k z Fz 2

U3 ds ------------------------- (22)

0

2 AG

s

M y2

(iiii) Due to

o bending mom

ment U4 ds ------------------------- (23)

0

2 EII y

s

M z2

U5 ds ------------------------- (24)

0

2 EII z

s

T2

(iiv) Due to

o torque U6 ds ------------------------- (25)

0

2GII p

EXAMPL

LE – 1

Determinee the deflectio ntilever beam as shown in figure

SOLUTIO

ON

a any section

by

M Px

Thereforee the elastic en

nergy due to bending

b mom

ment is given bby

Px

L 2

dx P 2 L3

U1

0

2 EI 6 EI

gy due to sheaar force is giv ming the valuee of k 1 )

ven by (assum

L

P 2 dx P2 L

U2 0 2 AG 2 AG

We now can mpared to U1 . If the beam

m is made of rrectangular seection,

then

bd 3

Ab d, I and E 2G

12

Substituting these

U2 P 2 L 6bd 3

2G

U1 2bdG 122 P 2 L3

d2

2 L2

d ass a beam, thee length musst be fairly large as comppared to its ccross-

sectional dimensions. Hence L d and the ab bove ratio is eextremely sm mall. Hence w we can neglect the

shear enerrgy as compaared to the ben

nding energy.. Therefore thhe total elasticc strain energyy

P 2 L3

U

6 EI

According

g to Castigliano’s first theo

orem

U PL3

A

P 3EI

EXAMPL

LE – 2

For the caantilever of to flection at endd A . Neglect shear

n figure, deterrmine the defl

energy.

SOLUTIO

ON

Px Px

L1 2 L 2

U 0

2 EI

dx

L1

2 EI

d

dx

P 2 L13

6 EI1

+

P

6 EI 2

L3 L13

U PL13

Thereforee, A

P

2 EI1

P

3EI 2

L L

3

1

3

Theorem

m of virtual work

w

Consider

C an ellastic system subjected to a number of fforces (includding moments) F1 , F2 ,. . . . . . .

etc. Let 1 , 2 ,. . . . . etc. be the corresponding displacem

ments. Remem

mber that thhese are the work

g components (linear and angular

absorbing a displaacements) in tthe corresponnding directioons of the forcces as

shown in figure.

L one of thee displacemen

displacem

ment, all otherr displacemen

nts where forcces are actingg are held fixeed, which meeans that addiitional

forces maay be necesssary to mainttain such a condition.

c Fuurther, the smmall displaceement 1 thhat is

imposed must

m be consistent with th he constraintss acting. For example, if ppoint 1 is connstrained in ssuch a

manner th ve only in a paarticular direcction, then 1 must be coonsistent withh such a consttraint.

hat it can mov

A hypothhetical displaccement of su uch a kind iss called a virrtual displaceement. In appplying this vvirtual

ment, the forcces F1 , F2 ,............, etc. (except

displacem ( F1 ) ddo not workk at all becauuse their poinnts of

applicatio

on do not mo ove (at least in the work

k absorbing

orce doing work is F1 by an amount

direction). The only fo

F1 1 plus n of F1 1 , caused by the change

p a fraction

in F1 . Th nergy U .

his additional work is storeed as strain en

Hence

U

orr F1 k F1

1

U U

an

nd lim F1

1 0 1

1

th

his is the theo orem of virtuaal work. Notee that in this case, the straain energy muust be expresssed in

terms of 1 , 2 ,..........etc. whereas in the appliccation of Casttigliano’s theoorem U had to be expresssed in

terms of F1 , F2 ,...........etc.

it is importantt to observe that in obtain ning the abovve equation, we have nott assumed that the

material is linearly elaastic, i.e. that it obeys Hoooke’s law. Thhe theorem is applicable too any elastic body,

linear or non-linear,

n whereas Castig gliano’s first theorem

t is strrictly applicaable to linear elastic or Hoookean

materials.

Second Theorem

T of Castigliano

C orr Menabrea’s Theorem

This

T theorem is of great importance

i n the solutionn of redundaant structuress or frames. Let a

in

frameworrk consists of m number of

o members annd j numberr of joints. Thhen, if

m 3j6

Castiglian

no’s second th

heorem (also known as Meenabrea’s theoorem) can be stated as folllows:

The

T forces dev

veloped in a redundant fraamework are such that thee total elasticc strain energgy is a

minimum

m.

Thus,

T if F1 , F2 and Fr aree the forces in work and U is the

i the redunddant memberss of s framew

elastic straain energy, th

hen

U U U

0, 0,. . . . . . . , 0

F1 F2 Fr

p of leeast work and

d can be proveen as follows:

Let r be the number of redundant members. Remove the latter and replace their actions by their

respective forces, as shown in figure. Assuming that the values of these redundant forces

F1 , F2 , . . . . . . ., Fr are known, the framework will have become statically determinate and the elastic

strain energy of the remaining members can be determined. Let U s be the strain energy of these

members. Then by Castigliano’s first theorem, the increase in the distance between the joints a and b is

given as

U s

ab ------------------------------------------- (26)

Fi

The negative sign appears because of the direction of Fi . The reactive force on the redundant member

ab being Fi , its length will increase by

Fi li

ab ------------------------------------------- (27)

Ai Ei

where, li is the length and Ai is the area of cross section of the member. The increase in distance

is given by equation (26) must be equal to the increase in length of the member ab given by equation

(27). Hence

U s Fi li

------------------------------------------- (28)

Fi Ai Ei

F12 l1 F2 2 l2 Fr 2 lr

U1 , U2 ,.........., U r

2 A1 E1 2 A2 E2 2 Ar Er

F12 l1 F2 2 l2 Fr 2 lr

U1 U 2 ........... U r ..................

2 A1 E1 2 A2 E2 2 Ar Er

F2 l

U1 U 2 ........... U r i i

Fi 2 Ai Ei

since all terms, other than the i th term on the right hand side, will vanish when

differentiated with respect to Fi . Substituting this in equation (28)

U s

U1 U 2 ........... Ur

Fi Fi

or U1 U 2 ........... Ur Us 0

Fi

the sum of the terms inside the parentheses is the total energy of the entire framework including the

redundant members. If U is the total energy

U

0

Fi

U U U

0, 0,. . . . . . . , 0

F1 F2 Fr

Torsion

T off non-circular prism

matic solid

d shafts

The torsion

t of non n-circular shaafts can be analyzed

a by eeither St. Veenant’s semi-inverse methhod or

Prandtle’ss stress functiion approach.

Consider

C a solid

prismatic bar of any y cross

section ass shown in figure.

fi It

is assumeed that theree is no

hole paralllel to the axiis of the

shaft. Let the axis of the

t shaft

be along the z direction. Let

the anglee of twist per p unit

length bee . It is assumed

a

that the cross

c section

ns rotate

about the axis of rotation

during torrsion. The rottation of

a cross section at a disttance z

from the fixed end will be

z . The total displaceement of a pooint P x, y on this crosss section willl be PP ' r z where r is the

radial disttance of the point

p m the axis of the shaft. Thhe componentts of this dispplacement aloong x

P from

and y dirrections are given

g by

u r z sin

v r z cos

y x

ure,

From figu sin and cos

r r

p P is PP

P ' which haas got the x and y com

mponents u aand v . Apartt from

these x and

a y compoonent of displacements, thee point P cann have an z component oof displacemennt w .

This is known

k he z displaceement is a ffunction of oonly

as warrping; we assume that th x, y aand is

independeent of z . Th

his means thaat warping is the same forr all normal cross sectionns. Substitutinng for

sin andd cos , St. Venant’s

V disp

placement com

mponents aree

u yz

y --------------------------------------------------------- (1)

v xz --------------------------------------------------------- (2)

w x, y --------------------------------------------------------- (3)

x, y is called the warping function. From these displacement components, we can calculate the

associated strain components as

u yz

x 0 (Since for a given torque T , is a constant)

x x

v xz

y 0

y y

w x, y

z 0

z y

u v yz xz

xy z z 0

y x y x

w v

zy

y z

x, y xz

x

y z y

zy x

y

w u

zx

x z

x, y yz

y

x z x

zy x

y

x y z xy 0

yz x ------------------------------------------------------ (4)

y

zx y ------------------------------------------------------ (5)

x

From Hooke’s law, we get

E E

x v x

1 1 2 1

E E

y v y

1 1 2 1

E E

z v z

1 1 2 1

xy G xy , yz G yz , zx G zx

where, v x y z

x y z xy 0

zx G y

x

-------------------------------------------- (6)

zy G x

y

The above stress components are the ones corresponding to the assumed displacement

components. These stress components should satisfy the equations of equilibrium equations given as

x yx xx

0

x y z

xy y zy

0 ----------------------------------- (7)

x y z

xz yz z

0

x y z

Substituting the stress components, the first two equations are satisfied identically. From the third

equation, we obtain

2 2

G 2 0

x y 2

2 2

i.ee. 2 0 --------------------------------------------- (8)

x 2

y 2

Hence,

H on is harm

the warping functio monic (i.e. it s atisfies Laplaace equation) everywhere in the

region R .

Now

N let us consider the

boundary conditions. If

S x , S y an

nd S z are thee componentss of

the stresss on a planee with outwaard

normal n l , m, n att a point on the

surface, th

hen

S x l x m yx n zx

S y l xy m y n zy --------------------------------------------- (9)

S z l xz m yz n z

In t g on the bouundary and thhe normal n to the surfa

are no forces acting face is

perpendiccular to the z axis, i.e. m 0 . Using thhe stress commponents from m equations (44) and (5), wwe find

that the first two equatiions in the bo

oundary condiitions are idenntically satisffied. The thirdd equation yieelds

G y l G x m 0

x y

dy dx

l , m ------------------------------------ (10)

ds ds

Substituting

dy ddx

y x 0 ------------------------- (11)

x ds y dds

Therefore,

T eacch problem off torsion is reeduced to thee problem of finding a funnction whhich is

8) in region R and satisfiees equation (111) on the bouundary s .

harmonic,, i.e. it satisfiees equation (8

Next,

N on the twwo end faces, the stresses as

a given by eqquation (6) m

must be equivaalent to the appplied

torque. In orces in the x and y dire ctions shouldd vanish. Thatt is

n addition, thee equivalent fo

R

zx dx dy G

R

x

y dx dy 0

----------------------- (12)

R

zy dx dy G

R

y

+ x dx dy 0

T zy x zx y dx dy

R

2

G x y x y

2

dxdy

R y x

J x 2 y 2 x y dxdy --------------------- (12 a)

R

y x

the above equation shows that the torque T is proportional to the angle of twist per unit length with a

proportionality constant GJ , which is usually called the torsional rigidity of the shaft. For a circular cross

section, the quantity J reduces to the familiar polar moment of inertia. For non-circular shafts, the

product GJ is retained as the torsional rigidity.

equation (11). In this method, the principal unknowns are the stress components rather than the

displacement components as in the previous approach. Based on the result of the torsion of the circular

shaft, let the non-vanishing stress components be zx and zy . The remaining stress components

x , y , z and xy are assumed to be zero. Inorder to satisfy the equations of equilibrium we should

have

zx zy zx zy

0, 0, 0 ----------------------- (13)

z z x y

It is assumed that in the case of pure torsion, the stresses are the same in every normal cross section, i.e.

independent of z , then the first two conditions above are automatically satisfied. Inorder to satisfy the

third condition, we assume a function x, y called the stress function, such that

zx , zy ----------------------- (14)

y x

With this stress function (called Prandtl’s torsion stress function), the third condition is also satisfied. The

assumed stress components, if they are to be proper elastic solutions, have to satisfy the compatibility

conditions. We can substitute these directly into the stress equations of compatibility. The strain

components from Hooke’s law are

xx 0, xx 0, xx 0

1 1 ----------------------- (15)

xy 0, zx zx , zy zy

G G

1 1

zx , zy

G x G y

zy zx

0

x x y

zy zx

0

y x y

2 2 2 2

i.e. 0; 0

x x 2 y 2 y x 2 y 2

2 2

Hence, 2

2 a constant F --------------------------------- (15)

x y

2

The stress function, therefore, should satisfy Poisson’s equation. The constant F is yet unknown. Next,

we consider the boundary conditions [equations (9)]. The first two of these are identically satisfied. The

third equation gives

l m 0

y x

dy dx

0

y ds x ds

d

i.e. 0 --------------------------------- (16)

ds

Therefore, is a constant around the boundary. Since the stress components depend only on the

differentials of , for a simply connected region, no generality is involved in assuming

0 on s --------------------------------- (17)

For a multi-connected region R (i.e. a shaft having holes), certain additional conditions of compatibility

are imposed. This will be discussed under the heading ‘Torsion of Thin-walled Multiple-cell Closed

Sections’.

On the two end faces, the resultants in the x and y directions should vanish and the moment

about O should be equal to the applied torque T . The resultant in the x direction is

R

zx dx dy

R

y

dx dy

dx dy

y

0

since is constant around the boundary. Similarly, the resultant in the y direction also vanishes.

Regarding the moment, from figure

T x zy y zx dx dy

R

R

x

x

y dx dy

y

x

R

x

dx dy y

R

y

dx dy

Integrating by parts and observing that 0 of the boundary, we find that each integral gives

dx dy

Thus, T 2 dx dy --------------------------------- (18)

Hence, we observe that half the torque is due to zx and the other half due to zy .

Thus, all the differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied if the stress function

obeys equations (15), (17), and (18). But there remains an indeterminate constant in equation (15). To

determine this, we observe from equation (14)

2 2 zx zy

x 2

y 2

y x

zy

G zx

y x

u w v w

G

y z x x z y

u v

G

z y x

G 2z

z

where z is the rotation of the element at x, y about the z axis. z is the rotation per

z

unit length. Here, we termed it as twist per unit length and denoted it by . Hence

2 2

2 2G --------------------------------- (19)

x 2

y 2

constant c --------------------------------- (20)

dy dx

y x 0

ds ds

d x2 y 2

or 0

ds 2

i.e. x 2 y 2 constant

where x, y are the co-ordinates of any point on the boundary. Hence, the boundary is a circle. From

equation (3), w c . From equation (12 a)

J x y 2 dx dy I p

2

m of in

nertia of the seection. Hencee form equatioon (12 b)

T GI P

T

orr

GI P

T c

Thereforee, w c

GI P

which is constant.

c e has zero w at least att one point, w is zero at eevery cross seection

Sincce the fixed end

(other thaan rigid body displacementt). Thus, the cross section does not warrp. The shearr stresses are given

by equatio on (6) as

T x

zy G x

IP

T y

zx G y

IP

Thereforee, the direction

zy G x x

taan

zx G y y

hear is perpen

ndicular to the

radius. Fu

urther

T 2 x2 y 2

2

zy zx

2 2

IP2

T r

orr

IP

where r is

i the radial distance

d of thee point x, y .

Torsion of Elliptical Shaft

Axy --------------------------------- (21)

where A is a constant.

This also satisfies the Laplace equation. The boundary condition, equation (11) gives,

dy dx

Ay y Ax x 0

ds ds

dy dx

or y A 1 x A 1 0

ds ds

dx dy

1 A 2x + 1 A 2 y 0

ds ds

d

or 1 A x 2 + 1 A y 2 0

ds

or

1 A x2 +

1 A y2 1

c c

x2 y2

or + 1

c c

1 A 1 A

This is of the form

x2 y2

1

a2 b2

c

1 A

1 A

2

a

b2 c 1 A

1 A

b2 a2

or A 2

b a2

b2 a 2

xy

b2 a 2

represents the warping function for an elliptical cylinder with semi-major axis and semi-minor axis a and

b respectively under torsion. The value of J as given by equation (12 a), is

J x y 2 Ax 2 Ay 2 dx dy

2

A 1 x 2 dx dy 1 A y 2 dx dy

A 1 I y 1 A I x

ab3 a 3b

Substituting I x and I y , one gets

4 4

a 3b 3

J

a2 b2

a 3b3

T GJ G

a 2 b2

T a 2 b2

or --------------------------------- (23)

G a 3b3

zy G x

y

a 2 b2 b2 a 2

T 2 1 x

a b b a

3 3 2

2T x

------------------------------- (23 a)

a 3b

and similarly

2T y

zx --------------------------------- ((23 b)

ab3

1 2T 1

zy 2 zx 2 2

b 4 2

x a 4 2

y 2

---------------------- ((23 c)

a 3b 3

mine where th

To determ he maximum shear

s stress occcurs, we subbstitute for x 2 from

x2 y2 y2

1, or x 2 a 2 1 2

a2 b2 b

1

2T

giving

3 3

a 2 2

b a 2

a 2

b 2

y 2

2

a b

Since all terms under the power 1 2 ) arre positive, thhe maximum

t radical (p m shear stress occurs whenn y is

m, i.e. when y b . Thus, max occurs att the ends of tthe minor axiis and its valuue is

maximum

2T 1 2T

max

3 3

a 4 2

b

2

------------------------- (24)

a b ab 2

With the warping

w functtion known, the ment w can eaasily be determ

t displacem mined. We haave

T b2 a 2

w xy

a 3b3G

The

T contourr lines giv ving

w consstant are the hyperbbolas

shown in n figure. For a torque T as

shown, thhe convex porrtions of the cross

c

section, i.e. where w is positive,, are

indicated by solid liness and the conccave

portions or

o where the surface is deepressed, are shown by dootted lines. Iff the ends aree free, there aare no

normal strresses. Howeever, if one en nd is built-in

n, the warpingg is preventedd at that end and consequuently,

normal strresses are ind

duced which are

a positive in n one quadrannt and negativve in anotherr. These are siimilar

to bendingg stresses and

d are thereforee called the bending stressees induced beecause of torssion.

Membran

ne Analogy

From the example wo orked out in n the previou us sections, iit became evvident that foor bars with more

complicatted cross-secttional shapes, analytical solutions tendd to become m more involveed and difficuult. In

such situaations, it is desirable to reesort to other techniques – experimentaal or otherwise. The mem mbrane

analogy inntroduced by Prandtl has proved

p very valuable

v in thhis regard. Lett a thin homoogenous mem mbrane

like a thin

n rubber sheett be stretched with uniform m tension and fixed at its eddge, which iss a given curvve (the

cross-secttion of the shaaft) in the xy -plane as sho

own in figure..

When

W the meembrane is subjected

s to a uniform llateral pressuure p , it uundergoes a small

ment z wheree z is a functtion of x and

displacem d y . Consideer the equilibrrium of an inffinitesimal eleement

ABCD ofo the memb brane after deformation.

d Let F be tthe uniform ttension per uunit length oof the

membranee. The value of

o the initial tension

t F is large enoughh to ignore itss change wheen the membrrane is

O face AD , the force actting is F y . This is inclined at an anggle

blown up by a small pressure p . On

to the x -axis. tan is a is equal too z x . Hennce, the compponent of F y in

i slope of thee face AB and

z

the z dirrection is F y . The C is also F y but is innclined at an angle

T force on the face BC

x

to the x -ax

xis. Its slope is

i therefore

z z

x

x x x

and the co

omponent of the he z direction

t force in th n is

z z

F y x

x x x

D are

z z z

F x and F x y

y y y y

z z 2 z z z 2 z

F y F y x x F x F x y y

x x 2

y y 2

2 z 2 z

F 2 x y

x y 2

The force p acting upward on the membrane element ABCD is p x y , assuming that the membrane

deflection is small. For equilibrium, therefore

2 z 2 z

F 2 x y p x y

x y 2

2 z 2 z p

or --------------------------------- (25)

x 2

y 2

F

p

Now, if we adjust the membrane tension F or the air pressure p such that becomes numerically

F

equal to 2G , then equation (29) of the membrane becomes identical to equation (19) of the torsion

stress function . Further, if the membrane height z remains zero at the boundary contour of the section,

then the height z of the membrane becomes numerically equal to torsion stress function [equation (17)].

The slopes of the membrane are then equal to the shear stresses and these are in a direction perpendicular

to that of the slope. The twisting moment is numerically equivalent to twice the volume under the

membrane.

Consider a thin-walled tube subjected to torsion. The thickness of the tube need not be uniform. Since the

thickness is small and the boundaries are free, the shear stresses will be essentially parallel to the

boundary. Let be the magnitude of shear stress and t the thickness.

Consider the equilibrium of an element of length l , as shown. The areas of the cut faces AB

and CD are respectively t1 l and t2 l . The shear stresses (complimentary shears) are 1 and 2 . For

equilibrium in the z direction, we should have

1t1 l 2t2 l 0

he quantity t is a constan

Hence, th nt. This is called the shearr flow q , sinnce the equation is similar to the

n incompressiible liquid in a tube of varrying area. Foor continuity, we should haave V1 A1 V2 A2 ,

flow of an

nd V the corrresponding veelocity of fluiid there.

where A is the area an

Consider next the torqu

t tube is

F t s q s

The mom ut O is h and

d hence, the to

orque is

T q s h 2 q A ------------------------------------ (27)

where

w A is the area of the

t triangle enclosed

e by thhe centre linne of the tubee. Equation (227) is

generally known as Bredt-Batho forrmula.

To determ m. Referring tto figure, the shear

force on the element iss t s q s . Because of shear straain , the forrce does workk equal to

1

U t s

2

1

t s l

2

1

t s l

2 G

q 2 l s

--------------------------------- (28)

2G t

T 2 l s

--------------------------------- (29)

8 A2 G t

T 2 l ds

U

8 A2 G t

--------------------------------- (30)

U T ds

T

4 A2 G t

--------------------------------- (31)

q ds

2 AG t

--------------------------------- (32)

We can extend the analysis of the previous section to torsion of multiple-cell sections. Consider a two-cell

section as shown in figure.

Consider the equilibrium of an element at the junction, as shown in figure. In the direction of the axis of

the tube

This is again equivalent to a fluid flow dividing itself into two streams. Choose any moment axis, such as

point O as shown in figure

w can be considered to be made up oof q1 and q2 , since q3 q1 q2 . The

The shearr flow in the web

moment about

a O due to

t q1 flowing

g in cell 1 (wiith web includded) is [equattion (31)]

T1 2 q1 A1

where A1 is area of cell ment about O due to q2 flowing in cell 2 (withh web

c 1 . Similaarly, the mom

included),, with A as the osed at O outtside cell 2 , is

t area enclo

T2 2 q2 A 2 A1 2 q2 A1

nd term with the negative sign on the riight hand sidde is the mom

the middlee web. Hencee, the total torrque is

c th

he twist of eaach cell shouuld be the saame. Accordiing to

equation (26),

( the twistt of each cell is given by

1 q ds

2G

A t

ds

Let a1 t

for ceell 1 includin

ng the web

ds

a2 t

c 2 including the web

for cell

ds

a12 t

for the

t web

1

2G a1q1 a12 q2 ------------------------------------ (35)

A1

For cell 2

1

2G a2 q2 a12 q1 ------------------------------------ (36)

A2

nd (36) are su

Example – 1

w thicknessses are as shoown. If the member is subjjected

to a torque T , determiine the shear flows

f and ang

gle of twist off the memberr per unit lenggth.

Solution

For cell 1,

ds a a a a 7a

t

t 2t t t 2t

a1

For cell 2,

ds a a a 2 a 5a

t

t t t t

t

a2

ds a

For web, t

t

a12

uation (39)

From equ

1

For cell 1, 2G a1q1 a122 q2

A1

1 7a a 1 7

2

q1 q2 q1 q2

a 2t t at 2

1

For cell 2, 2G a2 q2 a12 q1

A2

1 5a a 1

2

q2 q1 5q2 q1

a t t at

7 3

Equating, q1 q2 5q2 q1 or q2 q1

2 4

T 2q1a1 2q2 a2

3 7

2a 2 q1 q1 a 2 q1

4 2

2T 3T

Therefore, q1 and q2

7a 2 14a 2

1

2G 5q2 q1

at

1 15 11

1 q1 q1

at 4 4at

1 11 2T

Or

2G 4at 7 a 2

11 T

28 a 3tG

Example – 2

Figure shows a two-cell tubular section as formed by a conventional airfoil shape, and having one interior

web. An external torque of 10, 000 Nm is acting in a clockwise direction. Determine the internal shear

flow distribution. The cell areas are as follows:

A1 680 cm2

A2 2000 cm

m2

Solution

For cell 1,

67

7 33

a1 1483

0.0

06 0.09

For cell 2,

33

3 63 48 67

a1 + 2409

0.0

09 0.09 0.09

0 0.08

33

For the web, a12 366

9

0.09

From equ

uations (35) an

nd (36)

1

For cell 1, 2G a1q1 a122 q2

A1

1

1483q1 366q2

680

2.189q1 0..54q2

1

For cell 2, 2G a2 q2 a12 q1

A2

1

2409q2 366q1

2

2000

1.2q2 0.18

8q1

o values

Equating the above two

2.19q

orr q1 1.74q2 0

2.37q

i.ee. q2 1.36q

1 1

The torqu

ue due to sheaar flows shoulld be equal to the applied ttorque. Hencee from equatioon (34)

T 2q1 A1 2q2 A2

1360

0q1 4000q2

Substituting for q2

106 1360q1 54

440q1 680

00q1

q1 147 N cm q2 20

00 N cm

Torsion of

o bars with thin

t rectangu

ular sections

hows the secttion of a recttangular bar subjected to a torque T . Let the thicckness t be small

Figure sh

compared h b . The section consists of

d to the width o only one bboundary and the value of the stress funnction

around this boundary is constant. Let

0.

From equ

uation (19)

2 2

2G

x 2 y 2

D and BC , the

Except at the ends AD nction is fairlyy uniform annd independennt of x . Hence we

t stress fun

can take x, y y . Thereffore the abovee equation becomes

2

2G

y 2

Integratin

ng the above equation,

e we get

g

G y 2 a1 y a2

t

Since is d the boundarry, one has 0 at y

i zero around . Substtituting these

2

G T 2

a1 0 and

d a2

4

t2

an

nd G y2 -------------------------------------------- (37)

4

From equ

uation (14)

zx G y

2G ------------------------------------------ ((38 a)

y

xy 0

x

own in figure. The above equations

e are not valid neaar the ends. Thhe maximum shear

t

stresses arre at the surfaaces y , and

2

uation (18)

From equ

T 2 dx

d dy

b 2 t 2

t2

G

2G

b 2

dx

t 2

4

y 2 dy

G 3

orr T bt ---------------------------- (39)

3

1 3T 6T 3T

, zxx y, zx max ------------------------- (40)

G bt 3 bt 3 bbt 2

For the ab

bove cross-secctional shapes, if the thickn

ness is small,, the equationns (37) and (39) become

ti 2

G y2 i 1, 22,3 etc

4

G

T

3

b t

11

3

b2t23 b3t33 -------------------------------------------- (41)

This is ob

btained by add

ding the effecct of each recttangular piecee.

EXAMPL

LE – 1

Analyze the

t torsion of a closed tu ubular section

n of a tube o f the same raadius and thiickness but w

with a

longitudin

nal slit as show

wn in figure.

SOLUTIO

ON

fr Breadt-B

Batho formulaa, we have

T 2qA 2 r 2 t and

Gr

T 2 r 3tG

oundary and on From equationn (39),

1 3 1

T bt G 2 rt 3G

3 3

hin rectangulaar section, max G t

hown in figuree.

onal rigiditiess is given by

T1

2 r 3tG r

3

3

T2 1

3

2 rt G

3 t

r

For a thin

n tube with 10 , the closed

c tube is 300 times sttiffer than thee slit tube.

t

EXAMPLE – 2

1. A 30 cm I beam with flanges and with a web 1.25 cm thick, is subjected to a torque of

T 4900 Nm . Find the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist per unit length.

2. Inorder to reduce the stress and the angle of twist, 1.25 cm thick flat plates are welded onto the

sides of the section as shown by the dotted lines in figure. Find the maximum shear stress and the

angle of twist.

SOLUTION

1. The maximum shear stress can be found out using the formula

3T

max

bi ti 2

3 4900

2 2 2

5 5 5

30 30 30 1.25

4 4 4

63.602 MPa

1 3T

G bi ti 3

3 4900 1

3 3 3

5 5 5 G

30 30 30 1.25

4 4 4

1503

radians per cm length

G

2. When the two plates are welded, the section becomes a two cell structure for which

ds 1 28.75 28.75

a1 a2 t

1.25 2

2

28.75 28.75

69

ds 28.75

a12 t

1.25

23

1 28.75

4 28.75

1.25 2

or T 1322.5

T 4900 102

Therefore, 370.51 N cm2

1322.5 1322.5

3705.1 kPa

1

2G a1q1 a12 q2

A1

1 1

Therefore, a1q1 a12 q2

2G A1

1 1

i.e. 69 370.511.25 23 370.511.25

2G 28.75 28.75

2

25.7746

i.e. radians per cm length

G

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