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Hooke’s law

l and the principle


p of superposition
s n

We
W know thatt the rectangu ular stress co
omponents att a point is rrelated to the rectangular strain
componen nts at the sam
me point throu ugh a set of linear equatioons known aas the generallized Hooke’ss law.
But, here we consider Hooke’s law w as applicablle to the elasttic body as a whole, i.e. rrelate the com
mplete
system off forces acting
g on the body to the deform mation of the body as a whhole. Accordinng to Hooke’s law,
‘deflection
ns are proporrtional to the forces
f which produce them m’.

Consider
C that a force F1 iss applied at point 1 and inn
consequennce, point 2 undergoes
u a deflection
d or displacement,
d
which acccording to Hoooke’s law is proportionatee to F1 . Thiss
deflection
n of point 2 may
m take placce in a directtion which iss
quite diffeerent from thaat of F1 . If D2 is the actual deflection,,
we have

D2  F1 or D2  k21 F1

where,
w k21 is a proportionallity constant.

If F1 is in
ncreased, D2 also increasees proportionaately. Let d 2
n. If  is thee
mponent of D2 in a speciified direction
be the com
ween D2 and
angle betw d d 2 , then

d 2  D2 cos   k21
2 cos  F1

p  a constan
If we keep nt, i.e. if we keep
k our atten
ntion in a speccified directioon, then,

d 2  a21 F1

where,
w a21 is a proportionaality constant. Therefore oone can consider the displaacement of point 2
in a speciified direction n and apply Hooke’s
H law. Let us consiider the vertiical componeent of deflectiion of
point 2. Iff d 2 is the veertical compon
nent, then from Hooke’s laaw

d 2  a21 F1

where,
w a21 is called the ‘innfluence co-eefficient’ for vertical defleection at poinnt 2 due to a force
applied in
n the specified hat of F1 ) att point 1. If F1 is a unit forrce, then a21 is the actual value
d direction ( th
of the verrtical deflectio qual and opposite to F1 iss applied at 11, then a defleection
on at point 2. If a force eq
equal and
d opposite to the
t earlier defflection takes place.
Principlee of superposition

If several forces are ap


pplied simultaaneously on a linearly elasstic body, the resultant defflection whichh they
produce at
a any point inn a specified direction
d willl be the resulttant of the defflections in thhat direction w
which
they woulld have produ uced if applied
d separately. This is the prrinciple of supperposition.

Consider
C a forrce F3 acting
g alone at poin
nt 3, and let
d 2 be thee vertical com
mponent of th
he deflection
n of 2. Then
according
g to Hooke’s law,
l

d 2  a23 F3

where,
w a23 is the influencee co-efficient for vertical
deflection
n at point 2 due
d to a forcee applied in th
he specified
direction (that of F3 ) at point 3. The
T question that
t we now
examine is
i whether thee principle off superposition holds true
to two orr more forcess, such as F1 and F3 , which
w act in
different directions
d and
d at different points.
p

L F1 be app
Let nd then F3 . The
plied first an T vertical
deflection
n at 2 is

 F3
d 2  a21 F1  a23

where,
w  maay be differennt from a23 . This differennce, if it existts, is due to tthe presence of F1
a23
when F3 is applied. Now apply  F1 . Then

d 2  a21 F1  a23


 F3  a21
 F1

 may be
a21 b different from
f a21 , sinnce F3 is actiing when  F1 is applied.. Only F3 is acting now. If we
apply  F3 , the deflecttion finally beecomes

d 2  a21 F1  a23


 F3  a21
 F1  a23 F3

Since the elastic body is


i not subjectted to any forcce now, the fiinal deflectionn must be equual to zero. H
Hence,

 F3  a21
a21 F1  a23  F1  a23 F3  0


a21  a21 a  a
i.ee.  23 23
F3 F1
 , if it existts, must be due
the differrence a21  a21 d to the acction of F3 . Hence, the lleft-hand sidee is a
o F3 . Simillarly, if the difference
function of d a23 
2  a23 exist s, it must be
e due to the action of F1 and,
therefore, the right-han b a function of F1 alone. Consequentlyy, the equatioon becomes
nd side must be


a21  a21 a  a
 23 23  k
F3 F1

where,
w k is a constant
c independent of F1 and F3 . Heence

  a23  kF1
a23

Substituting this in the above equatiion, we get

d 2  a21 F1  a23 F3  kF1 F3

ght hand side in the above equation is nnon-linear, whhich is contraadictory to Hoooke’s
The last teerm on the rig
law, unlesss k vanishess. Hence, k  0 and


a23  a23 and
d 
a21  a21
2

The princciple of superrposition is th


herefore valid
d for two diffferent forcess acting at tw
wo different ppoints.
This can be
b extended by b induction to include a third or any nnumber of otther forces. T This means thhat the
deflection
n at 2 due to any
a number off forces, inclu uding force F2 at 2 is

d 2  a21 F1  a22 F2  a23 F3  a244 F4  .............

Correspoonding forcce and Co


orresponding
g displacem
ment (work absorbing componen
nt of
displacem
ment)

Consider
C an ellastic body which
w is in eqquilibrium
under the action of external forces F1 , F2 , F3 . . . . . . The
forces of reaction at the
t points off support willl also be
considered as applied forces.
f This is shown in figure. The
ment d1 in a specified direction
displacem d at point
p 1 is
given by

d1  a11 F1  a12
1 F2  a13 F3  a14 F4  ............

ment is D1 and takes place in a


If the acttual displacem
direction as shown in figure, then the componeent of this
displacement in the direction of force F1 is called the corresponding displacement at point 1. This
corresponding displacement is denoted by 1 . At every loaded point, a corresponding displacement can
be identified. If the points of support a, b and c do not yield, then at these points, the corresponding
displacements are zero. One can apply Hooke’s law to these corresponding displacements and obtain
from the above equation

1  a11 F1  a12 F2  a13 F3  a14 F4  ............

 2  a21 F1  a22 F2  a23 F3  a24 F4  ............ ……………..……………… (8)

where, a11 , a12 , a13 . . . . . . are the influence coefficients of the kind discussed earlier. The
corresponding displacement is also called the work-absorbing component of the displacement.

Work done by forces and elastic strain energy stored

Equation (8) shows that the displacements 1 ,  2 ,  3 ,. . . etc. depend on all the forces F1 , F2 ,
F3 , . . . etc. If we slowly increase the magnitudes of F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . etc. from zero to their full
magnitudes, the deflections also increase similarly. For example, when the forces F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . etc. are
one half of their full magnitudes, the deflections are

1 1  1  1  1 
1  a11  F1   a12  F2   a13  F3   a14  F4   ............
2 2  2  2  2 

1 1  1  1  1 
 2  a21  F1   a22  F2   a23  F3   a24  F4   ............ etc
2 2  2  2  2 

i.e. the deflections reached are also equal to half their full magnitudes. Similarly, when F1 , F2 , F3 , . .
etc. reach two-thirds of their full magnitudes, the deflections reached are also equal to two-thirds of their
full magnitudes. Assuming that the forces are increased in constant proportion and the increase is gradual,
the work done by F1 at its point of application will be

1
W1  F11
2

1
 F1  a11 F1  a12 F2  a13 F3  a14 F4  ............ …………………………..… (9)
2

Similar expressions hold good for other forces also. The total work done by external forces is, therefore
given by

1
W1  W2  W3  ............   F11  F2 2  F3 3  ............
2
If the supports are rigid, then no work is done by the support reactions. When the forces are gradually
reduced to zero, keeping their ratios constant, negative work will be done and the total work will be
recovered. This shows that the work done is stored as potential energy and its magnitude should be
independent of the order in which the forces are applied. If it were not so, it would be possible to store or
extract energy by merely changing the order of loading and unloading. This would be contradictory to the
principle of conservation of energy.

The potential energy that is stored as a consequence of the deformation of any elastic body is
termed as elastic strain energy. If F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . . are the forces in a particular configuration and 1 ,
 2 ,  3 , . . . . etc. are the corresponding displacements, then the elastic strain energy stored is

1
U  F11  F2 2  F3 3  ................. …………………………… (10)
2

It must be noted that though this expression has been obtained on the assumption that the forces F1 , F2 ,
F3 , . . . .etc. are increased in constant proportion, the conservation of energy principle and the
superposition principle dictate that this expression for U must hold without restriction on the manner or
order of the application of these forces.

Reciprocal relations

It is very easy to show that the influence co-efficient a12 in equation (8) is equal to the influence co-
efficient a21 . In general, aij  a ji . To show this, consider a force F1 applied at point 1 and let 1 be the
corresponding displacement. The energy stored is

1 1
U1  F11  a11 F12  1  a11F1 
2 2

Next, apply force F2 at point 2. The corresponding deflection at point 2 is a22 F2 and that at point 1 is
a12 F2 . During this displacement, the force F1 is fully acting and hence, the additional energy stored is

1
U2  F2  a22 F2   F1  a12 F2 
2

The total elastic strain energy stored is therefore

1 1
U  U1  U 2  a11 F12  a22 F2 2  a12 F1 F2
2 2

Now, if F2 is applied before F1 , the elastic strain energy stored is

1 1
U  a22 F2 2  a11 F12  a21 F1 F2
2 2
Since the elastic strain energy stored is independent of the order of application of F1 and F2 , U and U 
must be equal. Consequently,

a12  a21

or in general, aij  a ji

The above result has great importance in mechanics of solids.

One can obtain an expression for the elastic strain energy in terms of the applied forces, using the
above reciprocal relationship. From equation (10),

1
U  F11  F2 2  F3 3  .................  Fn n 
2

1
 F1  a11 F1  a12 F2  ............  a1n Fn 
2
1
 F2  a21 F1  a22 F2  ............  a2 n Fn 
2
.
.
.
1
 Fn  an1 F1  an 2 F2  ............  ann Fn 
2

U
1
2
 a11 F12  a22 F12 2  ...........  ann Fn 2 

  a12 F1 F2  a13 F1 F3  ...........  a12 F1 F2  ..........

That is U
1
2
  a11 F12     a12 F1 F2  ………………………….………… (12)

Maxwell-Betti-Reyleigh reciprocal theorem

Consider two system of forces F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . and F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . , both systems having
the same points of application and the same directions. Let 1 ,  2 ,  3 , . . . . be the corresponding

displacement caused by F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . and 1 ,  2 ,  3 , . . . . ., the corresponding dispalcements

caused by F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . Then making use of the reciprocal relation given by equation (11), we have

F11  F2 2  ................  Fn n


 F1  a11 F1  a12 F2  .............  a1n Fn 

 F2  a21F1  a22 F2  ..............  a2 n Fn 

..........  Fn  an1 F1  an 2 F2  ..............  ann Fn 

 a11 F1 F1  a22 F2 F2  ...............  ann Fn Fn

    
 a12 F1 F2  F2 F1  a13 F1 F3  F3 F1  ............  a1n F1 Fn  Fn F1  .... 
The symm metry of the expression between
b the primed
p and uunprimed quaantities in thee above expreession
shows thaat it tis equal to
t

F11  F2 2  .................  Fn n

i.ee. F11  F2 2  .................  Fn n  F11  F2 2  ................  Fn n -------------- (14)

In words:

The forces of the first system


‘T  F1 , F2 , F3 ,.....,, etc. actingg through tthe correspoonding

 
ments produceed by any seccond system F1 , F2 , F3 ,.........., etc. ddo the same aamount of woork as
displacem

that done by the second d system of forces


fo acting through
t the coorrespondingg displacemennts produced bby the
first system of forces’. This is the reeciprocal relattion of Maxwwell, Betti andd Rayleigh.

Generalizzed forces an
nd displacem
ments

bove discussiions, F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . . etc. represeented


In the ab
nd 1 ,  2 ,  3 , . . . etc. the
concentraated forces an t corresponnding
linear disp
placements. It
I is possiblee to extend thhe term ‘forcce’ to
include not
n only a co oncentrated fo orce, but also
o a moment or a
torque. Similarly, the term ‘displaacement’ may mean lineaar or
angular diisplacement.

Consider the elastic bo


ody subjected ntrated force F1 at
d to a concen
nd a couple F2  M at point
point 1 an p 2 . 1 now
n will stannd for
ment of point 1 and  2 foor the
the corressponding lineear displacem
correspon
nding angularr rotation at point
p 2 . If F1 is a unit force
one, then a11 gives the liinear displacement of poiint 1
acting alo
correspon
nding to the direction
d of F1 . Similarly a12 stands ffor the correspponding lineaar displacemeent of
nit couple F2 applied at point
point 1 caaused by a un p 2 . a21 gives the corresponding aangular rotatiion of
point 2 caused
c nit concentratted force F1 at
by a un a point 1 .

The recip n a12  a21 can


procal relation nterpreted ass the linear ddisplacement at point 1 iin the
c also be in
direction of F1 caused uple acting allone at point 2 is equal too the angular rrotation at pooint 2
d by a unit cou
ment F2 caused by a unit load acting aloone at point 1 .
in the direection of mom

First Theeorem of Casstigliano

Frrom equation
n (12), the exp
pression for ellastic strain eenergy is

U
1
2
 a11 F12  a222 F12 2  ...........  ann Fn 2 

  a12 F1 F2  a13 F1 F3  ...........  a12 F1 F2  ..........

In the abo on, F1 , F2 ,.......etc. are thee generalizedd


ove expressio
forces, i.e.i concentrrated loads, moments or torques.
a11 , a12 ,......etc. are the corressponding influence co--
efficients.. The rate at which
w U incrreases with F1 is given byy
U
. From the above expression
e or U ,
fo
F1

U
 a11 F1  a12 F2  a13 F3  ...........  a1n Fn
F1

This is nothing but th ding displaceement at F1 .


he correspond
Hence, iff 1 stands fo
or the generallized displaceement (linearr
or angularr) correspond neralized forcce F1 , then
ding to the gen

U
 1 -------------------------------------------------------- (15)
F1

In exactly
y the same waay, one can sh
how that

U U
 2,   3 , . . . . .etc.
F2 F3
That is, ‘the partial diifferential co--efficient of the strain ennergy functionn with respecct to Fr givees the
displacem nding with Fr ’. This is Caastigliano’s fiirst theorem.
ment correspon

In
n the form as derived in eqquation (15), the theorem is applicablee only to lineaarly elastic bodies,
i.e. bodiess satisfying Hooke’s
H law.

This
T theorem is i extremely useful
u in deteermining the displacementts of structurees as well as in the
solutions of many statiically indeterm
minate structuures.

Expressio
ons for strain
n energy

In
n this section n, we shall develop exprressions for strain energgy when an elastic membber is
subjected to axial forcce, shear force, bending moment
m and toorsion. The ffigure shows an elastic meember
subjected to several forces.
f Considder a section
n of the memmber at C . IIn general thhis section wwill be
nd Fz and thrree moments M x , M y andd M z .the forrce Fx is thee axial
subjected to three forcces Fx , Fy an
d forces Fy and
force and a Fz are shear
s ment M x is tthe torque T and
forces across the s ection. Mom
moments M y and M z are the beending momeents about y and z axees respectively. Let s be an
elementarry length of th
he member; then
t when s is small, wee can assumee that these foorces and momments
onstant over s . At the leeft hand sectiion of this ellementary meember, the foorces and mom
remain co ments
have oppo used by the axxial force Fx alone, the rem
osite signs. During the defformation cau maining forcees and
uring the twisst caused by thhe torque T  M x no worrk is assumedd to be
moments do not work. Similarly, du
done (sincce the deform
mations are exttremely smalll) by the otheer forces and m
moments.

Consequen
C
tly, the work
w done
by each of these
forces and
moments can be
determineed
individuallly and
added to ogether to
determinee the total
elastic strain
energy stored
s by
s while
w it
undergoess
deformatiion. We
shall mak ke use of
the formulas
available from
elementarry strength
of materiaals.
1. Energy
E storedd due to axiall force:
If  x is
i the axial ex t Fx , then
xtension due to

1
U  Fx x
2

1 F
 Fx . x s (usinng Hooke’s laaw)
2 AE

Fx 2
Thereffore, U  s -------------------------------------------- (16)
2 AE

2. Elastic
E strain energy due to
t shear force:

hear force Fy
The sh  or Fz  iss distributed aacross the seection in a coomplicated m
manner
deepending on the shape off the cross-seection. If wee assume thatt the shear fforce is distriibuted
un
niformly acro
oss the section
n (which is not ment will be s
n strictly corrrect), the sheear displacem
a the work done by Fy will
(ffrom figure) and w be

1
U  Fy s
2

Frrom Hooke’s law,

Fy
 
AG

where, A - Area of crosss section

G - Shear moduulus

ubstituting th
Su his,

1 F
U  Fy s y
2 AGG

Fy 2
Or
O U  s -------------------------------------------------------- (17)
2 AG

Itt will be show


wn that the strrain energy du
ue to shear deeformation is extremely smmall, which iss often
ig
gnored. Hencce, the error caused in asssuming unifform distribuution of sheaar force acrosss the
seection will bee very small. However, to o take into acccount the diifferent cross-sections andd non-
un niform distrib or k is introd
bution, a facto duced. With thhis,
k Fy 2
U  s
2 AG

A similar expression is obtaained for the shear


s force Fz .

3. Elastic
E energy
y due to bend
ding momentt:

Makin
ng reference to
t the figure below,
b if  is the anglee of rotation ddue to the mooment
M z (or M y ), the work donne is

1
U  M z 
2

Frrom the elem


mentary flexure formula, wee have

Mz E

Iz R

1 Mz
orr 
R EI
E z

where,, R - Radius of curvature and

I z - Momeent of inertia about


a the z aaxis.

Hence,
H

s Mz
   s
R EII z

Su
ubstituting th
his,

M z2
U  s -------------------------------------------------------- (18)
2 EI z

A similar expression can bee obtained forr the moment M y .

4. Elastic
E energy
y due to torque:

Because of torque T , the elemeentary membeer rotates throough an anglee  according to


th
he formula forr a circular seection

T G 

Ip s
T
i.ee.   s
GI p

where I p - Polar moment


m of ineertia

The
T work donee due to this twist
t is

1
U  T 
2

Su or  from above,
ubstituting fo a

T2
U  s -------------------------------------------- (19)
2GI p

Equations
E (16)-(19) give im pressions for the strain ennergy stored in the elemeentary
mportant exp
leength s of the
t elastic member. The elaastic strain ennergy for the eentire membeer is thereforee

s
Fx 2
(ii) Due to
o axial force U1   ds ------------------------- (20)
0
2 AEE
s
k y Fy 2
(iii) Due to
o shear force U2   ds ------------------------- (21)
0
2A
AG
s
k z Fz 2
U3   ds ------------------------- (22)
0
2 AG
s
M y2
(iiii) Due to
o bending mom
ment U4   ds ------------------------- (23)
0
2 EII y
s
M z2
U5   ds ------------------------- (24)
0
2 EII z
s
T2
(iiv) Due to
o torque U6   ds ------------------------- (25)
0
2GII p

EXAMPL
LE – 1

on at the end A of the can


Determinee the deflectio ntilever beam as shown in figure

SOLUTIO
ON

The bending moment at n x is given


a any section
by

M Px
Thereforee the elastic en
nergy due to bending
b mom
ment is given bby

 Px 
L 2
dx P 2 L3
U1   
0
2 EI 6 EI

The elastiic strain energ


gy due to sheaar force is giv ming the valuee of k  1 )
ven by (assum

L
P 2 dx P2 L
U2  0 2 AG 2 AG

c show thatt U 2 is very small as com


We now can mpared to U1 . If the beam
m is made of rrectangular seection,
then

bd 3
Ab d, I and E  2G
12

Substituting these

U2 P 2 L 6bd 3
 2G
U1 2bdG 122 P 2 L3

d2

2 L2

For a meember to be designated


d ass a beam, thee length musst be fairly large as comppared to its ccross-
sectional dimensions. Hence L  d and the ab bove ratio is eextremely sm mall. Hence w we can neglect the
shear enerrgy as compaared to the ben
nding energy.. Therefore thhe total elasticc strain energyy

P 2 L3
U
6 EI

According
g to Castigliano’s first theo
orem

U PL3
  A
P 3EI

EXAMPL
LE – 2

otal length L as shown in


For the caantilever of to flection at endd A . Neglect shear
n figure, deterrmine the defl
energy.

SOLUTIO
ON

The bendiing energy is given by


 Px   Px 
L1 2 L 2

U  0
2 EI
dx  
L1
2 EI
d
dx

P 2 L13

6 EI1
+
P
6 EI 2
 L3  L13 

U PL13
Thereforee, A 
P

2 EI1

P
3EI 2
L  L 
3
1
3

Theorem
m of virtual work
w

Consider
C an ellastic system subjected to a number of fforces (includding moments) F1 , F2 ,. . . . . . .
etc. Let 1 ,  2 ,. . . . . etc. be the corresponding displacem
ments. Remem
mber that thhese are the work
g components (linear and angular
absorbing a displaacements) in tthe corresponnding directioons of the forcces as
shown in figure.

Let nts 1 be inccreased by a small quantiity 1 . Durring this addiitional


L one of thee displacemen
displacem
ment, all otherr displacemen
nts where forcces are actingg are held fixeed, which meeans that addiitional
forces maay be necesssary to mainttain such a condition.
c Fuurther, the smmall displaceement 1 thhat is
imposed must
m be consistent with th he constraintss acting. For example, if ppoint 1 is connstrained in ssuch a
manner th ve only in a paarticular direcction, then  1 must be coonsistent withh such a consttraint.
hat it can mov
A hypothhetical displaccement of su uch a kind iss called a virrtual displaceement. In appplying this vvirtual
ment, the forcces F1 , F2 ,............, etc. (except
displacem ( F1 ) ddo not workk at all becauuse their poinnts of
applicatio
on do not mo ove (at least in the work
k absorbing
orce doing work is F1 by an amount
direction). The only fo
F1 1 plus n of F1 1 , caused by the change
p a fraction
in F1 . Th nergy U .
his additional work is storeed as strain en
Hence

U  F1 1  k F1 1

U
orr  F1  k F1
 1

U U
an
nd lim   F1
1  0  1
1
th
his is the theo orem of virtuaal work. Notee that in this case, the straain energy muust be expresssed in
terms of 1 ,  2 ,..........etc. whereas in the appliccation of Casttigliano’s theoorem U had to be expresssed in
terms of F1 , F2 ,...........etc.

it is importantt to observe that in obtain ning the abovve equation, we have nott assumed that the
material is linearly elaastic, i.e. that it obeys Hoooke’s law. Thhe theorem is applicable too any elastic body,
linear or non-linear,
n whereas Castig gliano’s first theorem
t is strrictly applicaable to linear elastic or Hoookean
materials.

Second Theorem
T of Castigliano
C orr Menabrea’s Theorem

This
T theorem is of great importance
i n the solutionn of redundaant structuress or frames. Let a
in
frameworrk consists of m number of
o members annd j numberr of joints. Thhen, if

m 3j6

Castiglian
no’s second th
heorem (also known as Meenabrea’s theoorem) can be stated as folllows:

The
T forces dev
veloped in a redundant fraamework are such that thee total elasticc strain energgy is a
minimum
m.

Thus,
T if F1 , F2 and Fr aree the forces in work and U is the
i the redunddant memberss of s framew
elastic straain energy, th
hen

U U U
 0,  0,. . . . . . . , 0
F1 F2 Fr

This is alsso called the principle


p of leeast work and
d can be proveen as follows:
Let r be the number of redundant members. Remove the latter and replace their actions by their
respective forces, as shown in figure. Assuming that the values of these redundant forces
F1 , F2 , . . . . . . ., Fr are known, the framework will have become statically determinate and the elastic
strain energy of the remaining members can be determined. Let U s be the strain energy of these
members. Then by Castigliano’s first theorem, the increase in the distance between the joints a and b is
given as

U s
 ab   ------------------------------------------- (26)
Fi

The negative sign appears because of the direction of Fi . The reactive force on the redundant member
ab being Fi , its length will increase by

Fi li
 ab  ------------------------------------------- (27)
Ai Ei

where, li is the length and Ai is the area of cross section of the member. The increase in distance
is given by equation (26) must be equal to the increase in length of the member ab given by equation
(27). Hence

U s Fi li
  ------------------------------------------- (28)
Fi Ai Ei

The elastic strain energies of the redundant members are

F12 l1 F2 2 l2 Fr 2 lr
U1  , U2  ,.........., U r 
2 A1 E1 2 A2 E2 2 Ar Er

Hence the total elastic strain energy of all redundant members is

F12 l1 F2 2 l2 Fr 2 lr
U1  U 2  ...........  U r    .................. 
2 A1 E1 2 A2 E2 2 Ar Er

 F2 l
 U1  U 2  ...........  U r   i i
Fi 2 Ai Ei

since all terms, other than the i th term on the right hand side, will vanish when
differentiated with respect to Fi . Substituting this in equation (28)

U s 
  U1  U 2  ...........  Ur 
Fi Fi

or U1  U 2  ...........  Ur Us   0
Fi

the sum of the terms inside the parentheses is the total energy of the entire framework including the
redundant members. If U is the total energy

U
 0
Fi

Similarly, by considering the redundant members one by one, we get

U U U
 0,  0,. . . . . . . , 0
F1 F2 Fr

This is the principle of least work.


Torsion
T off non-circular prism
matic solid
d shafts
The torsion
t of non n-circular shaafts can be analyzed
a by eeither St. Veenant’s semi-inverse methhod or
Prandtle’ss stress functiion approach.

1. Saint-Venant’’s semi-inverrse method

Consider
C a solid
prismatic bar of any y cross
section ass shown in figure.
fi It
is assumeed that theree is no
hole paralllel to the axiis of the
shaft. Let the axis of the
t shaft
be along the z direction. Let
the anglee of twist per p unit
length bee  . It is assumed
a
that the cross
c section
ns rotate
about the axis of rotation
during torrsion. The rottation of
a cross section at a disttance z
from the fixed end will be
 z . The total displaceement of a pooint P  x, y  on this crosss section willl be PP '  r z where r is the
radial disttance of the point
p m the axis of the shaft. Thhe componentts of this dispplacement aloong x
P from
and y dirrections are given
g by

u   r z sin 

v  r z cos 

y x
ure,
From figu sin   and cos  
r r

The displlacement of point


p P is PP
P ' which haas got the x and y com
mponents u aand v . Apartt from
these x and
a y compoonent of displacements, thee point P cann have an z component oof displacemennt w .
This is known
k he z displaceement is a ffunction of oonly
as warrping; we assume that th  x, y  aand is
independeent of z . Th
his means thaat warping is the same forr all normal cross sectionns. Substitutinng for
sin  andd cos  , St. Venant’s
V disp
placement com
mponents aree

u    yz
y --------------------------------------------------------- (1)

v   xz --------------------------------------------------------- (2)

w     x, y  --------------------------------------------------------- (3)
  x, y  is called the warping function. From these displacement components, we can calculate the
associated strain components as

u     yz 
x   0 (Since for a given torque T ,  is a constant)
x x

v   xz 
y   0
y y

w     x, y  
z    0
z y

u v    yz    xz 
 xy       z   z  0
y x y x

w v
 zy  
y z
   x, y     xz    
      x
y z  y 

  
 zy     x
 y 

w u
 zx  
x z
   x, y      yz    
      y
x z  x 

  
 zy     x
 y 

Using equations (1), (2) and (3)

 x   y   z   xy  0

  
 yz     x ------------------------------------------------------ (4)
 y 

  
 zx     y ------------------------------------------------------ (5)
 x 
From Hooke’s law, we get

E E
x  v  x
1  1  2  1 

E E
y  v  y
1  1  2  1 

E E
z  v  z
1  1  2  1 

 xy  G  xy ,  yz  G  yz ,  zx  G  zx

where, v   x   y   z

Substituting equation (4) in the above set of equations

 x   y   z   xy  0

  
 zx  G   y
 x 
-------------------------------------------- (6)
  
 zy  G   x
 y 

The above stress components are the ones corresponding to the assumed displacement
components. These stress components should satisfy the equations of equilibrium equations given as

 x  yx  xx
   0
x y z
 xy  y  zy
   0 ----------------------------------- (7)
x y z
 xz  yz  z
   0
x y z

Substituting the stress components, the first two equations are satisfied identically. From the third
equation, we obtain

  2  2 
G  2    0
 x y 2 
 2  2
i.ee.    2  0 --------------------------------------------- (8)
x 2
y 2

Hence,
H on  is harm
the warping functio monic (i.e. it s atisfies Laplaace equation) everywhere in the
region R .

Now
N let us consider the
boundary conditions. If
S x , S y an
nd S z are thee componentss of
the stresss on a planee with outwaard
normal n  l , m, n  att a point on the
surface, th
hen

S x  l  x  m  yx  n  zx
S y  l  xy  m  y  n  zy --------------------------------------------- (9)
S z  l  xz  m  yz  n  z

n this case, there


In t g on the bouundary and thhe normal n to the surfa
are no forces acting face is
perpendiccular to the z axis, i.e. m  0 . Using thhe stress commponents from m equations (44) and (5), wwe find
that the first two equatiions in the bo
oundary condiitions are idenntically satisffied. The thirdd equation yieelds

     
G   y  l  G   x m  0
 x   y 

From the above figure

dy dx
l  , m   ------------------------------------ (10)
ds ds

Substituting

   dy    ddx
  y    x  0 ------------------------- (11)
 x  ds  y  dds

Therefore,
T eacch problem off torsion is reeduced to thee problem of finding a funnction  whhich is
8) in region R and satisfiees equation (111) on the bouundary s .
harmonic,, i.e. it satisfiees equation (8

Next,
N on the twwo end faces, the stresses as
a given by eqquation (6) m
must be equivaalent to the appplied
torque. In orces in the x and y dire ctions shouldd vanish. Thatt is
n addition, thee equivalent fo
  
 
R
zx dx dy  G 
R

 x
 y  dx dy  0

----------------------- (12)
  
 
R
zy dx dy  G 
R

 y
+ x  dx dy  0

Now, coming to the moment, referring to the figure

T    zy x   zx y  dx dy
R

 2   
 G  x  y  x  y
2
 dxdy
R  y x 

Writing J for the integral

   
J    x 2  y 2  x  y  dxdy --------------------- (12 a)
R 
y x 

we have T  GJ ------------------------------- (12 b)

the above equation shows that the torque T is proportional to the angle of twist per unit length with a
proportionality constant GJ , which is usually called the torsional rigidity of the shaft. For a circular cross
section, the quantity J reduces to the familiar polar moment of inertia. For non-circular shafts, the
product GJ is retained as the torsional rigidity.

Prandtl’s stress function approach

An alternate approach proposed by Prandtl leads to a simpler boundary condition as compared to


equation (11). In this method, the principal unknowns are the stress components rather than the
displacement components as in the previous approach. Based on the result of the torsion of the circular
shaft, let the non-vanishing stress components be  zx and  zy . The remaining stress components
 x ,  y ,  z and  xy are assumed to be zero. Inorder to satisfy the equations of equilibrium we should
have

 zx  zy  zx  zy
 0,  0,   0 ----------------------- (13)
z z x y

It is assumed that in the case of pure torsion, the stresses are the same in every normal cross section, i.e.
independent of z , then the first two conditions above are automatically satisfied. Inorder to satisfy the
third condition, we assume a function   x, y  called the stress function, such that
 
 zx  ,  zy   ----------------------- (14)
y x

With this stress function (called Prandtl’s torsion stress function), the third condition is also satisfied. The
assumed stress components, if they are to be proper elastic solutions, have to satisfy the compatibility
conditions. We can substitute these directly into the stress equations of compatibility. The strain
components from Hooke’s law are

 xx  0,  xx  0,  xx  0
1 1 ----------------------- (15)
 xy  0,  zx   zx ,  zy   zy
G G

Substituting from equation (13)

1  1 
 zx   ,  zy 
G x G y

The non-vanishing strain compatibility conditions are (observe that  is independent of z )

   zy  zx 
    0
x  x y 

   zy  zx 
    0
y  x y 

   2  2     2  2 
i.e.     0;     0
x  x 2 y 2  y  x 2 y 2 

  2  2 
Hence,   2 
  2  a constant F --------------------------------- (15)
 x y 
2

The stress function, therefore, should satisfy Poisson’s equation. The constant F is yet unknown. Next,
we consider the boundary conditions [equations (9)]. The first two of these are identically satisfied. The
third equation gives

 
l  m  0
y x

Substituting for l and m from equations (10)

 dy  dx
  0
y ds x ds
d
i.e.  0 --------------------------------- (16)
ds

Therefore,  is a constant around the boundary. Since the stress components depend only on the
differentials of  , for a simply connected region, no generality is involved in assuming

  0 on s --------------------------------- (17)

For a multi-connected region R (i.e. a shaft having holes), certain additional conditions of compatibility
are imposed. This will be discussed under the heading ‘Torsion of Thin-walled Multiple-cell Closed
Sections’.

On the two end faces, the resultants in the x and y directions should vanish and the moment
about O should be equal to the applied torque T . The resultant in the x direction is


 
R
zx dx dy  
R
y
dx dy


  dx  dy
y

0

since  is constant around the boundary. Similarly, the resultant in the y direction also vanishes.
Regarding the moment, from figure

T   x  zy  y  zx  dx dy
R

   
  
R
x
 x
y  dx dy
y 

 
   x
R
x
dx dy   y
R
y
dx dy

Integrating by parts and observing that   0 of the boundary, we find that each integral gives

  dx dy
Thus, T  2   dx dy --------------------------------- (18)

Hence, we observe that half the torque is due to  zx and the other half due to  zy .
Thus, all the differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied if the stress function 
obeys equations (15), (17), and (18). But there remains an indeterminate constant in equation (15). To
determine this, we observe from equation (14)

 2  2  zx  zy
  
x 2
y 2
y x

   zy 
 G  zx  
 y x 

   u w    v w  
 G        
 y  z x  x  z y  

  u v 
 G   
z  y x 


 G  2z 
z


where z is the rotation of the element at  x, y  about the z axis. z  is the rotation per
z
unit length. Here, we termed it as twist per unit length and denoted it by  . Hence

 2  2
   2   2G --------------------------------- (19)
x 2
y 2

Torsion of Circular Shaft

(i) The simplest solution to the Laplace equation is


  constant  c --------------------------------- (20)

With   c , the boundary condition given by equation (11) becomes

dy dx
y  x  0
ds ds

d x2  y 2
or  0
ds 2

i.e. x 2  y 2  constant

where  x, y  are the co-ordinates of any point on the boundary. Hence, the boundary is a circle. From
equation (3), w   c . From equation (12 a)
J    x  y 2  dx dy  I p
2

the polar moment


m of in
nertia of the seection. Hencee form equatioon (12 b)

T  GI P

T
orr  
GI P

T c
Thereforee, w   c 
GI P

which is constant.
c e has zero w at least att one point, w is zero at eevery cross seection
Sincce the fixed end
(other thaan rigid body displacementt). Thus, the cross section does not warrp. The shearr stresses are given
by equatio on (6) as

T x
 zy  G x 
IP

T y
 zx   G y  
IP

n of the resulttant shear  is such that, ffrom figure


Thereforee, the direction

 zy G x x
taan      
 zx G y y

Hence, thhe resultant sh


hear is perpen
ndicular to the
radius. Fu
urther

T 2  x2  y 2 
 2
  zy   zx 
2 2

IP2

T r
orr  
IP

where r is
i the radial distance
d of thee point  x, y  .
Torsion of Elliptical Shaft

(ii) The next case in the order of simplicity is to assume that


  Axy --------------------------------- (21)

where A is a constant.

This also satisfies the Laplace equation. The boundary condition, equation (11) gives,

dy dx
 Ay  y    Ax  x   0
ds ds

dy dx
or y  A  1  x  A  1  0
ds ds

Multi[lying by 1 on both sides and rearranging, we get

dx dy
1  A  2x + 1  A  2 y  0
ds ds

d
or 1  A  x 2 + 1  A  y 2   0
ds

which on integration, yields

1  A x2 + 1  A y 2  c, constant ----------------------- (22)

or
1  A x2 +
1  A y2  1
c c

x2 y2
or +  1
c c
1  A 1  A 
This is of the form

x2 y2
  1
a2 b2

These two are identical if

 c 
  1 A
1 A 
2
 
a

b2  c  1 A
 
 1 A 
b2  a2
or A  2
b  a2

Therefore, the function

b2  a 2
  xy
b2  a 2

represents the warping function for an elliptical cylinder with semi-major axis and semi-minor axis a and
b respectively under torsion. The value of J as given by equation (12 a), is

J    x  y 2  Ax 2  Ay 2  dx dy
2

  A  1  x 2 dx dy  1  A   y 2 dx dy

  A  1 I y  1  A I x

 ab3  a 3b
Substituting I x  and I y  , one gets
4 4

 a 3b 3
J 
a2  b2

Hence from equation (12 b)

 a 3b3
T  GJ  G
a 2  b2

T a 2  b2
or   --------------------------------- (23)
G  a 3b3

The shearing stresses are given by equation (6) as

  
 zy  G   x
 y 

a 2  b2  b2  a 2 
 T  2  1 x
a b  b  a
3 3 2

2T x
 ------------------------------- (23 a)
 a 3b
and similarly
2T y
 zx   --------------------------------- ((23 b)
 ab3

The resulttant shearing stress at any point  x, y  is

1 2T 1
   zy 2   zx 2  2
  b 4 2
x  a 4 2
y  2
---------------------- ((23 c)
 a 3b 3  

mine where th
To determ he maximum shear
s stress occcurs, we subbstitute for x 2 from

x2 y2  y2 
  1, or x 2  a 2 1  2 
a2 b2  b 

 
1
2T
giving   
3 3 
a 2 2
b  a 2
a 2
 b 2
y 2
 2

a b 

Since all terms under the power 1 2 ) arre positive, thhe maximum
t radical (p m shear stress occurs whenn y is
m, i.e. when y  b . Thus,  max occurs att the ends of tthe minor axiis and its valuue is
maximum

2T 1 2T
 max  
3 3 
a 4 2
b 

2
 ------------------------- (24)
a b  ab 2
With the warping
w functtion known, the ment w can eaasily be determ
t displacem mined. We haave

T b2  a 2 
w     xy
 a 3b3G
The
T contourr lines giv ving
w  consstant are the hyperbbolas
shown in n figure. For a torque T as
shown, thhe convex porrtions of the cross
c
section, i.e. where w is positive,, are
indicated by solid liness and the conccave
portions or
o where the surface is deepressed, are shown by dootted lines. Iff the ends aree free, there aare no
normal strresses. Howeever, if one en nd is built-in
n, the warpingg is preventedd at that end and consequuently,
normal strresses are ind
duced which are
a positive in n one quadrannt and negativve in anotherr. These are siimilar
to bendingg stresses and
d are thereforee called the bending stressees induced beecause of torssion.

Membran
ne Analogy

From the example wo orked out in n the previou us sections, iit became evvident that foor bars with more
complicatted cross-secttional shapes, analytical solutions tendd to become m more involveed and difficuult. In
such situaations, it is desirable to reesort to other techniques – experimentaal or otherwise. The mem mbrane
analogy inntroduced by Prandtl has proved
p very valuable
v in thhis regard. Lett a thin homoogenous mem mbrane
like a thin
n rubber sheett be stretched with uniform m tension and fixed at its eddge, which iss a given curvve (the
cross-secttion of the shaaft) in the xy -plane as sho
own in figure..

When
W the meembrane is subjected
s to a uniform llateral pressuure p , it uundergoes a small
ment z wheree z is a functtion of x and
displacem d y . Consideer the equilibrrium of an inffinitesimal eleement
ABCD ofo the memb brane after deformation.
d Let F be tthe uniform ttension per uunit length oof the
membranee. The value of
o the initial tension
t F is large enoughh to ignore itss change wheen the membrrane is
O face AD , the force actting is F y . This is inclined at an anggle 
blown up by a small pressure p . On
to the x -axis. tan  is a is equal too z x . Hennce, the compponent of F y in
i slope of thee face AB and
 z 
the z dirrection is   F y  . The C is also F  y but is innclined at an angle
T force on the face BC
 x 
     to the x -ax
xis. Its slope is
i therefore

z   z 
   x
x x  x 

and the co
omponent of the he z direction
t force in th n is

 z   z  
F y     x 
 x x  x  

Similarly,, the componeents of the forrces F x actting on faces AB and CD


D are
z  z   z  
 F x and F x     y 
y  y y  y  

Therefore, the resultant force in the z direction due to tension F is

z  z 2 z  z  z 2 z 
 F y  F y  x  x   F x  F x  y  y 
x  x 2
 y  y 2

 2 z 2 z 
 F  2   x y
 x y 2 

The force p acting upward on the membrane element ABCD is p x y , assuming that the membrane
deflection is small. For equilibrium, therefore

 2 z 2 z 
F  2   x y   p x y
 x y 2 

2 z 2 z p
or    --------------------------------- (25)
x 2
y 2
F

p
Now, if we adjust the membrane tension F or the air pressure p such that becomes numerically
F
equal to 2G , then equation (29) of the membrane becomes identical to equation (19) of the torsion
stress function  . Further, if the membrane height z remains zero at the boundary contour of the section,
then the height z of the membrane becomes numerically equal to torsion stress function [equation (17)].
The slopes of the membrane are then equal to the shear stresses and these are in a direction perpendicular
to that of the slope. The twisting moment is numerically equivalent to twice the volume under the
membrane.

Torsion of Thin-Walled Tubes

Consider a thin-walled tube subjected to torsion. The thickness of the tube need not be uniform. Since the
thickness is small and the boundaries are free, the shear stresses will be essentially parallel to the
boundary. Let  be the magnitude of shear stress and t the thickness.

Consider the equilibrium of an element of length l , as shown. The areas of the cut faces AB
and CD are respectively t1 l and t2 l . The shear stresses (complimentary shears) are  1 and  2 . For
equilibrium in the z direction, we should have

  1t1 l   2t2 l  0

or  1t1   2t2  q, a constant --------------------------------- (26)


he quantity  t is a constan
Hence, th nt. This is called the shearr flow q , sinnce the equation is similar to the
n incompressiible liquid in a tube of varrying area. Foor continuity, we should haave V1 A1  V2 A2 ,
flow of an
nd V the corrresponding veelocity of fluiid there.
where A is the area an

ue of the sheaar about pointt O .


Consider next the torqu

The force acting on an elementary leength s of the


t tube is

F   t s  q  s

ment arm abou


The mom ut O is h and
d hence, the to
orque is

T  q s h  2 q A ------------------------------------ (27)

where
w A is the area of the
t triangle enclosed
e by thhe centre linne of the tubee. Equation (227) is
generally known as Bredt-Batho forrmula.

mine the twistt of the tube, we make usee of Castigliaano’s theorem


To determ m. Referring tto figure, the shear
force on the element iss  t s  q s . Because of shear straain  , the forrce does workk equal to

1
U   t s  
2
1
  t s   l
2

1 
  t s  l
2 G

q 2 l s
 --------------------------------- (28)
2G t

T 2 l s
 --------------------------------- (29)
8 A2 G t

using equation (31). The total elastic strain energy is therefore

T 2 l ds
U
8 A2 G  t
--------------------------------- (30)

Hence, the twist or rotation per unit length  l  1 is

U T ds
 
T

4 A2 G  t
--------------------------------- (31)

Using once again equation (31)

q ds
 
2 AG  t
--------------------------------- (32)

Torsion of Thin-Walled Multiple Cell Closed Sections

We can extend the analysis of the previous section to torsion of multiple-cell sections. Consider a two-cell
section as shown in figure.

Consider the equilibrium of an element at the junction, as shown in figure. In the direction of the axis of
the tube

  1t1 l   2t2 l   3t3 l  0

or  1t1   2t2   3t3

i.e. q1  q2  q3 --------------------------------- (33)

This is again equivalent to a fluid flow dividing itself into two streams. Choose any moment axis, such as
point O as shown in figure
w can be considered to be made up oof q1 and  q2 , since q3  q1  q2 . The
The shearr flow in the web
moment about
a O due to
t q1 flowing
g in cell 1 (wiith web includded) is [equattion (31)]

T1  2 q1 A1

where A1 is area of cell ment about O due to q2 flowing in cell 2 (withh web
c 1 . Similaarly, the mom
included),, with A as the osed at O outtside cell 2 , is
t area enclo

T2  2 q2 A 2  A1   2 q2 A1

The secon ment due to thhe shear flow q2 in


nd term with the negative sign on the riight hand sidde is the mom
the middlee web. Hencee, the total torrque is

T  T1  T2  2q1 A1  2q2 A2 ------------------------------------ (34)

A1 and A2 aree the areas of cell 1 and 2 respectively..

Next, we consider thee twist. For continuity,


c th
he twist of eaach cell shouuld be the saame. Accordiing to
equation (26),
( the twistt of each cell is given by
1 q ds
2G 
A  t

ds
Let a1   t
for ceell 1 includin
ng the web

ds
a2   t
c 2 including the web
for cell

ds
a12   t
for the
t web

Then, for cell 1

1
2G   a1q1  a12 q2  ------------------------------------ (35)
A1

For cell 2

1
2G   a2 q2  a12 q1  ------------------------------------ (36)
A2

Equationss (34), (35) an ufficient to sollve for q1 , q2 and  .


nd (36) are su

Example – 1

Figure shoows a two ceell tubular secction whose wall


w thicknessses are as shoown. If the member is subjjected
to a torque T , determiine the shear flows
f and ang
gle of twist off the memberr per unit lenggth.

Solution

For cell 1,
ds a a a a 7a
 t
    
t 2t t t 2t
 a1

For cell 2,
ds a a a 2 a 5a
 t
   
t t t t

t
 a2

ds a
For web,  t

t
 a12

uation (39)
From equ

1
For cell 1, 2G   a1q1  a122 q2 
A1
1  7a a  1 7 
 2 
q1  q2    q1  q2 
a  2t t  at  2 

1
For cell 2, 2G   a2 q2  a12 q1 
A2

1  5a a  1
 2 
q2  q1    5q2  q1 
a  t t  at

7 3
Equating, q1  q2  5q2  q1 or q2  q1
2 4

From equation (34)

T  2q1a1  2q2 a2

 3  7
 2a 2  q1  q1   a 2 q1
 4  2

2T 3T
Therefore, q1  and q2 
7a 2 14a 2

1
2G   5q2  q1 
at

1  15  11
   1 q1  q1
at  4  4at

1  11   2T 
Or     
2G  4at   7 a 2 

11 T

28 a 3tG

Example – 2

Figure shows a two-cell tubular section as formed by a conventional airfoil shape, and having one interior
web. An external torque of 10, 000 Nm is acting in a clockwise direction. Determine the internal shear
flow distribution. The cell areas are as follows:
A1  680 cm2
A2  2000 cm
m2

Solution

For cell 1,

67
7 33
a1    1483
0.0
06 0.09

For cell 2,

33
3 63 48 67
a1  +    2409
0.0
09 0.09 0.09
0 0.08

33
For the web, a12   366
9
0.09

From equ
uations (35) an
nd (36)

1
For cell 1, 2G   a1q1  a122 q2 
A1

1
 1483q1  366q2 
680

 2.189q1  0..54q2

1
For cell 2, 2G   a2 q2  a12 q1 
A2

1
  2409q2  366q1 
2
2000

 1.2q2  0.18
8q1

o values
Equating the above two

q1  0.54q2  1.2q2  0.118q1


2.19q

orr q1  1.74q2  0
2.37q

i.ee. q2  1.36q
1 1
The torqu
ue due to sheaar flows shoulld be equal to the applied ttorque. Hencee from equatioon (34)

T  2q1 A1  2q2 A2

orr 10, 000  100  2q1  680  2q2  2000

 1360
0q1  4000q2

Substituting for q2

106  1360q1  54
440q1  680
00q1

q1  147 N cm q2  20
00 N cm

Torsion of
o bars with thin
t rectangu
ular sections

hows the secttion of a recttangular bar subjected to a torque T . Let the thicckness t be small
Figure sh
compared h b . The section consists of
d to the width o only one bboundary and the value of the stress funnction
 around this boundary is constant. Let
  0.

From equ
uation (19)

 2  2
   2G
x 2 y 2

D and BC , the
Except at the ends AD nction is fairlyy uniform annd independennt of x . Hence we
t stress fun
can take   x, y     y  . Thereffore the abovee equation becomes

 2
  2G
y 2

Integratin
ng the above equation,
e we get
g

   G y 2  a1 y  a2

t
Since  is d the boundarry, one has   0 at y  
i zero around . Substtituting these
2

G T 2
a1  0 and
d a2 
4
 t2 
an
nd   G   y2  -------------------------------------------- (37)
4 

From equ
uation (14)


 zx  G y
  2G ------------------------------------------ ((38 a)
y


 xy    0
x

These sheears are as sho


own in figure. The above equations
e are not valid neaar the ends. Thhe maximum shear
t
stresses arre at the surfaaces y   , and
2

 maxx   G t -------------------- (38 b)

uation (18)
From equ

T  2   dx
d dy

 b 2  t 2
 t2 
G
 2G 
 b 2
dx 
 t 2

4
 y 2  dy

G 3
orr T  bt ---------------------------- (39)
3

The resultts are

1 3T 6T 3T
  ,  zxx   y,  zx max   ------------------------- (40)
G bt 3 bt 3 bbt 2

For the ab
bove cross-secctional shapes, if the thickn
ness is small,, the equationns (37) and (39) become

 ti 2 
  G   y2   i  1, 22,3 etc 
4 

G
T 
3
b t
11
3
 b2t23  b3t33  -------------------------------------------- (41)

This is ob
btained by add
ding the effecct of each recttangular piecee.
EXAMPL
LE – 1

Analyze the
t torsion of a closed tu ubular section
n of a tube o f the same raadius and thiickness but w
with a
longitudin
nal slit as show
wn in figure.

SOLUTIO
ON

For the closed tube, if  is the sheaar stress, the from


fr Breadt-B
Batho formulaa, we have


T  2qA  2  r 2   t and  
Gr

Substituting for   G r  in the above equatiion for T , wee have

T  2 r 3tG

For the sliit tube, there is only one bo o this bounddary   0 . F


oundary and on From equationn (39),

1 3 1
T  bt G  2 rt 3G
3 3

From the analysis of th


hin rectangulaar section,  max   G  t

The shearr stress directiions in the slit tube is as sh


hown in figuree.

Now, the ratio of torsio


onal rigiditiess is given by

T1

 2 r 3tG  r
 3 
3

T2 1
3
 2 rt G 
3 t

r
For a thin
n tube with  10 , the closed
c tube is 300 times sttiffer than thee slit tube.
t
EXAMPLE – 2

1. A 30 cm I beam with flanges and with a web 1.25 cm thick, is subjected to a torque of
T  4900 Nm . Find the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist per unit length.
2. Inorder to reduce the stress and the angle of twist, 1.25 cm thick flat plates are welded onto the
sides of the section as shown by the dotted lines in figure. Find the maximum shear stress and the
angle of twist.

SOLUTION

1. The maximum shear stress can be found out using the formula

3T
 max 
 bi ti 2

3  4900
 2 2 2
5 5 5
30     30      30  1.25    
4 4 4

 63.602 MPa

Now the angle of twist can be found by using the formula

1  3T 
   
G   bi ti 3 

3  4900 1
 3 3 3

5 5 5 G
30     30      30  1.25    
4 4 4

1503
 radians per cm length
G

2. When the two plates are welded, the section becomes a two cell structure for which

ds 1  28.75 28.75 
a1  a2   t
 
1.25  2

2
 28.75  28.75 

 69

ds 28.75
a12   t

1.25
 23

T  2q1 A1  2q2 A2  4q1 A1  a1  a2 & A1  A2 


1 28.75
 4    28.75
1.25 2

or T  1322.5 

T 4900 102
Therefore,     370.51 N cm2
1322.5 1322.5

 3705.1 kPa

1
2G   a1q1  a12 q2 
A1

1 1
Therefore,     a1q1  a12 q2 
2G A1

1 1
i.e.    69  370.511.25  23  370.511.25 
2G 28.75  28.75
2

25.7746
i.e.   radians per cm length
G