Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines

Paper ID 908

Design Considerations for Rotors with Embedded V-Shape Permanent Magnets
Steffen Hahlbeck Daimler AG Dieter Gerling Inst. For Elec. Drives, Univ. of Federal Defense Munich
Abstract- This paper looks into the mechanical and electromagnetic design for rotors with embedded magnets of Permanent-Magnet-Synchronous Machines. In a study it has been investigated in which way a solid bridge between the permanent magnets improves the mechanical stability of the system and if it has an influence on the electromagnetic performance. In the second part a new design process for the rotor is introduced. The aim of this design process is to decouple the calculation of the reluctance torque from the permanent magnet torque and to reduce the complexity of the electromagnetic design for the rotor.
The aim of this paper is to set rules for designing a rotor with V-shape-magnets with low leakage flux within the rotor, which is mechanically robust at maximum speed and has a low torque ripple while fulfilling the torque and power requirements. Therefore it was necessary to carry out mechanical and electromagnetic calculations for different rotor designs, which have been realized in this study by the Finite Elements Method (FEM). II. MECHANICAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS



Electrical machines as synchronous machines with embedded permanent magnets in their rotor (permanentmagnet-synchronous machines, PMSM) are commonly used for electrical drives in automobiles with hybrid or full electrical drives. For this purpose the PMSM is used in a very large speed range from 0 to 15.000 rpm. Arranging the permanent magnets (PM) in a V-magnet shape is a good solution for this kind of application as it produces a high reluctance torque next to the PM torque. This leads to an advantage in efficiency as the field weakening current needed above rated speed is also torque-producing. Additionally, it decreases the dependency of the design on temperature variations according to the temperature dependency of the PM flux. Since the used Rare Earth Magnets have a great effect on the machine costs it is advantageous to reduce the needed magnet volume per torque. This is a motivation to produce a high share of torque through the reluctance effect.
Rad1 Rad3 Gap LFe Z p BetaM BetaB X2 a_0 α LM wmag rB Rotor outer radius Stator outer radius Airgap length Stack length Number of slots Number of pole pairs PM Arc Flux-Barrier Arc Width of bridge between magnet pocket and rotor surface Width of bridge between magnets PM angle Thickness of PM (in direction of magnetization) Width of PM Radius of Flux-Barrier

A. Introduction The design of the PM pole in V-shape has many geometric degrees of freedom (see Fig. 1). With single-layer design it is possible to have a high share of reluctance torque on the produced torque (Saliency Ratio of 2 to 4 [6]). An alteration in one parameter of the pole design can result in a variation of the reluctance torque as well as the PM torque. That is why it is difficult to predict in detail which alteration is causing which effects on each torque component. Additionally to the electromagnetic design it is necessary to review the mechanical robustness of the rotor geometry at maximum speed plus the required safety factor. The mechanical robustness of the rotor often contrasts the needs of the electromagnetic design in terms of leakage flux. A mechanically optimized design could result in a low utilization of the PM flux and therefore leads to high costs for the PMs. In the end one has to find a compromise to fulfil both requirements.

rotor surface X2 α Magn a_0 LM wmag rB Rad1


et Magn

Bridge (air or solid) BetaM BetaB

Fig. 1. Geometry and parameters of magnet pole with magnets in V-shape.

978-1-4244-1736-0/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE


Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines B. Modelling In the first part it is investigated which effects a solid bridge between the magnets building a V-shape has on the torque performance of the electrical machine and on the mechanical robustness of the rotor. A simple machine design with V-magnet shape is chosen (see Fig. 1). In Tab. 1 the geometric data of the model and the chosen materials are summarized. A FEM model is built to perform the mechanical as well as the electromagnetic calculations. Forces of electromagnetic origin and temperature effects were neglected in these simulations [3]. The yield is indicated by planar von Mises stress.
TABLE I GEOMETRIC DATA AND MATERIALS FOR FEM MODEL Symbol Value Symbol Value Rad1 108.5 mm p 8 Rad3 145 mm Z 24 Gap 1 mm wmag 13 mm LM 3,5 mm Lfe 70 mm a_0 0,5 mm Material Material property Value M330-35AP Bending strength 350 N/mm² E-modulus 190000 N/mm² NdFeB 210/250h Bending strength 250 N/mm² E-modulus 150000 N/mm²

Fig. 2. Stress results at 8640 rpm for design without solid bridge.

Fig. 3. Stress results at 8640 rpm for design with solid bridge.

C. Mechanical Calculations According to the geometric data in Tab. 1 two different rotor geometries are built. One model is built without a bridge between the magnets; the other one has the solid bridge. The spacing between the magnets (a_0) stays equal. Stress simulations are done with FEM at the overload speed of 8640 rpm. At this speed the yield stress of the electrical steel should not exceed 350 N/mm². Calculations are performed for both models. The length of X2 is adjusted until the permitted yield stress is kept. In Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 the von Mises stress at maximum speed is shown. The resulting length of X2 for the model with a solid bridge between the magnets is 0.82 mm. This is in contrast to the model without the solid bridge where a length of 1.75 mm is required for X2. With these values the resulting area for the leakage flux in each model is calculated. This is carried out by multiplying X2 with the active length. The model with solid bridge has one more path which is the solid bridge between the magnets. However, the model with the solid bridge reaches its mechanical robustness with 61 % of the leakage flux area compared to the model without this bridge. D. Electromagnetic Calculations In a second step the electromagnetic calculations with the two models were carried out. For both designs the electromagnetic torque for different load angles (see Fig. 4), the induced phase voltage and the cogging torque were calculated. In Tab. 2 the results are shown.

The torque performance is 9% higher when reducing the area for leakage flux in the rotor by using a solid bridge between the PMs building the V-shape. But at the same time the torque ripple and cogging torque increase as well. The comparison of the induced voltages shows that the design with solid bridge couples more permanent magnet flux with the stator due to the lower leakage flux and the higher saturation of the leakage flux paths. Consequently, the utilization of the PM flux is better when using a solid bridge between the magnets.
TABLE II RESULTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CALCULATIONS Design without Design with Quantity solid bridge solid bridge Maximum Torque 214 Nm 233 Nm TMAX Torque Ripple 65,8 Nmpp 80,1 Nmpp TRP Cogging Torque 8,1 Nmpp 11,6 Nmpp TCG Induced Voltage 210 Vpeak 250 Vpeak UPH

Difference 19 Nm +9 % 14,3 Nm +22 % 3,5 Nm +43 % 40 V +19 %


Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines
250 200 150 T [Nm] 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 load angle [°el] 60 70 80 90

Proposed geometry for rotor lamination with V-magnet shape

Optimization of reluctance torque performance
with solid bridge without solid bridge

optional: optimization of PM-torque performance Optimization of full-torque performance

Rotor geometry with V-magnet shape
Fig. 5. Proposed electromagnetic design process.

Fig. 4. Torque vs. load angle of both designs.

E. Summary It is shown that the utilization of the electrical machine is better using a V-magnet shape with a solid bridge between the magnets. The main reasons for the higher utilization are the smaller and consequently higher saturated paths for leakage flux when still achieving the mechanical robustness of the rotor at overload speed. Nevertheless, the rotor design does not meet the requirements as the results show that torque ripple and cogging torque increase with the better torque performance. It is also to be mentioned that a solid bridge between the PMs results in a higher cross-coupling effect [2]. III. ELECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN PROCESS FOR THE ROTOR A. Introduction To simplify the design process for rotors with magnet poles in V-shape, an electromagnetic investigation is carried out. A design procedure (see Fig. 5) is proposed wherein at first the machine is designed as a reluctance machine. In other words the V-shape is investigated without the influence of the PM flux. After optimizing the reluctance torque in terms of torque ripple and mean value of the produced torque, the magnets are added to the FEM model and the whole torque performance is investigated. It is expected that the design process is less complex by this method instead of optimizing both torque components at the same time. If the design process still does not reveal the expected results, a further step could be added to the process. This optional step is the investigation of the PM torque component without the influence of reluctance torque. B. Investigation of reluctance torque As an example, a machine design with 20 poles and 24 slots is chosen. For this pole and slot combination very low cogging torque and torque ripple caused by the PM flux is expected [5]. The parameters wmag and α are designated as degrees of freedom for the investigation of reluctance torque. The size of the PM slots is kept constant. The two parameters will be adjusted with the aim to maximize the reluctance torque while obtaining a small torque ripple. At first a known configuration is chosen and the torque versus rotor position is calculated.

The parameters were adjusted to obtain a high Saliency Ratio with the rotor design and consequently a high reluctance torque. In this example the iterative optimization was stopped at the seventh step (see Fig 6). From step 1 to step 7 the reluctance torque was increased by 34% while the Torque Ripple Factor was decreased by 8%. For better evaluation of torque ripple TRP, the Torque Ripple Factor is used in this context.
TRF = TRP ⋅100% T


The resulting rotor design parameters after all 7 iterations are shown in Tab. 3. This rotor design is used for the further steps of the design process.
120,0 100,0 80,0 T [Nm] 60,0 40,0 20,0 0,0 1 2 3 4 Design Step 5 6 7 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 TRP [Nmpp] ; TRF [%]

Torque Torque Ripple Torque Ripple Factor

Fig. 6. Iterative optimization of reluctance torque. TABLE III GEOMETRIC DATA OF ROTOR MODEL (STEP 7) Value Symbol Value 114 mm p 10 145 mm Z 24 1 mm wmag 13.2 mm 4 mm Lfe 70 mm 16° 0,5 mm α

Symbol Rad1 Rad3 Gap LM a_0


Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines C. Investigation of PM and reluctance torque For the calculation of the combined PM and reluctance torque performance the PMs are added to the FEM model and the torque is calculated for several load angles δ versus rotor position (see Fig. 7). The results show a strong variation of the torque ripple with the load angle. The highest torque ripple is calculated for a load angle of δ=20°el. The lowest torque ripple is found for δ=0°el. Here, δ=0°el. means there is only current in q-axis. Since Id=0 A there is no reluctance torque according to (2).
400 350 300 250 T [Nm] 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 60 120 180 rotor position [°el] 240 300
30 25 20 T RP [Nmpp] 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 load angle [°el]

delta=0 delta=10 delta=20 delta=30 delta=40 delta=50 delta=60 delta=70 delta=80 delta=90

Fig. 8. Torque ripple vs. load angle.

within seven iterative steps, the PM and reluctance torque performance was calculated. It is shown that the reluctance torque is here the main reason for torque ripple. Therefore it is recommended to optimize the reluctance design once more in terms of torque ripple. The proposed design process was proved to reduce the complexity of finding a suitable rotor design in terms of maximizing the reluctance torque while achieving a low torque ripple. IV. CONCLUSION In this paper the design of rotors for PMSM with embedded magnets in a V-shape was investigated. In particular, the mechanical requirements were taken into consideration. The advantages of a solid bridge between the magnets were analyzed. A new electromagnetic design process was proposed. The aim to decouple the PM torque from the reluctance torque is to reduce the complexity for the optimization of the rotor design. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] Y. Honda, et al., “Rotor design optimization of a multi-layer interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor”, IEEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 119-124, March 1998. N. Bianchi, et al., “Influence of Rotor Geometry of an IPM Motor on Sensorless Control Feasibility”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 87-96, January/February 2007. E. Lovelace, et al., “Mechanical Design Considerations for Conventionally Laminated, High-Speed, Interior PM Synchronous Machine Rotors”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 40, no. 3,pp. 806-812, May/June 2004. N. Matsumoto, et al., “Torque Performance and Permanent Magnet Arrangement for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor”, IEE Japan, 2004. F. Magnussen, et al., “Parasitic Effects in PM Machines With Concentrated Windings”, IEEE Transactions On Industry Applications, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1223-1232, Sep./Oct. 2007 W. L. Soong, “Design and Modelling of Axially-Laminated Interior Permanent Magnet Motor Drives for Field Weakening Applications”, Doctoral Thesis, University of Glasgow, September 1993 J. Salo, et al., “New Low-Speed High-Torque Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Buried Magnets”, ICEM 2000, Finland, August 2000

Fig. 7. Combined PM and reluctance torque versus rotor position.

Te =

3 ⋅ p ⋅ (Ld − Lq )⋅ id ⋅ iq + Ψdm ⋅ iq 2




One can conclude that torque ripple is mainly caused by reluctance torque. This is further proved when comparing the calculated values with maximum torque ripple at the load angle of δ=30°el. The torque ripple calculated for the design without PMs is 23.9 Nmpp. At the same load step with PM torque a torque ripple of 25.5 Nmpp is obtained. This shows a strong influence of the reluctance torque on the torque ripple but at the same time also a strong dependency of the total torque ripple on the load angle which is shown in Fig. 8. According to [7] torque ripple can be reduced by increasing the magnetic air gap in the q-axis. This means reducing the mean value of reluctance torque which is somehow counterproductive to the approach of reducing permanent magnet material by maximizing the reluctance torque. Since it was shown here that the main reason for the torque ripple is produced by variation of reluctance torque versus rotor position and load angle, the lamination shape without PMs should be revised. D. Summary The proposed design process is once performed with a machine design with 20 rotor poles and 24 stator slots. After retrieving a suitable design regarding the reluctance torque

[4] [5] [6] [7]


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful