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21a – Fracture and Fatigue Revision

Examples

EG2101 / EG2401
March 2015

Dr Rob Thornton
Lecturer in Mechanics of Materials

www.le.ac.uk
Semester 1 example problems

• The following examples are similar to those covered


in lectures last semester
• Parameters (material properties, geometries etc.)
have been changed and only incomplete solutions
and numerical answers provided:
– Shows good ‘structure’ for answers
– Gives you target values to aim for
– Always show your working
• ‘Model’ answers of questions of the same type can
be found in the previous lectures identified

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Example L11a – AA7074-T8
σ
𝐾 = 𝑌𝜎 𝜋𝑎
• A 50mm wide sample plate of 7074-T8 aluminium
alloy contains a central through-crack of length
2a
W
• For 7074-T8:
– Kc = 22.2 MN m-3/2; σy = 520MPa
1. Under an applied stress of 200 MPa, determine
2a if the plate will fail by fracture with a crack half-
length a of:
– 1 mm; 5 mm; 10 mm
2. Determine the critical crack size ac below which
the plate will not fracture under the applied
stress, using an appropriate value of Y
σ
1 3. Determine the limiting crack size ay below which
𝜋𝑎 −2
the plate will fail by yielding (assume Y = 1)
𝑌 = cos
𝑊
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Solution L11a – AA7074-T8
1. Is Y significant? a = 10 mm; Y = ?

Kc = 22.2 MN m-3/2  Is 𝐾 = 𝑌𝜎 𝜋𝑎 < 𝐾𝑐 ?

a = 1 mm K = 11.2 MN m-3/2  Safe as K ? Kc


a = 5 mm K = ? MN m-3/2  Safe?
a = 10 mm K = ? MN m-3/2  Safe?

2. Setting K = ?; σ = ? MPa; Y = ?
ac = ? [ans = 3.73 mm]

3. Setting K = ?; σ = ? MPa; Y = 1
ay = ? [ans = 0.58 mm]

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Example L11b – High-strength steel

• A high-strength steel has the following material properties:


– E = 206 GPa; σy = 1400 MPa; Gc = 15.5 kJ m-2
• On inspection of an industrial storage tank, a thin plate made
of this steel, with a width of 85mm, is found to contain an
edge-crack, with length a
1. Plot a graph of stress intensities against crack lengths,
assuming an applied stress of 150MPa and crack lengths of
0.5, 10, 20, 25 mm
2. Estimate the critical crack size for fracture under the applied
stress [ans = 20.8 mm]
3. For a = 20mm, calculate the radius of plasticity around the
crack tip under the applied stress [ans = 0.24 mm]
4. Estimate the critical crack size below which yielding will
always occur before fracture [ans = 0.41 mm]
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Example L11b – Tips

1. Values for Y can be found in Ashby and Jones,


Engineering Materials 1, Ch13 p198-203 (accessible
online through the Library)
Try plotting Y against a/W to understand how the
correction factor changes
2. Estimate critical crack size for fracture using your graph
3. Try plotting these for each stress intensity as well
4. Estimate the critical crack size for yielding by plotting
stress intensities against small crack sizes (<1 mm)
when the applied stress is equal to the yield stress

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Example L11b - Graphs

• Note non-linear trend


between Y and a/W
• Often we approximate Y by
linear interpolation:
– What effect does this
have on ac or Kc
calculations?

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Paris Law integration (1)
• Paris’ Law describes the steady-state crack growth
typically seen under cyclic loading
d𝑎 𝑚
• Definition: = 𝐴 ∆𝐾
d𝑁
• We can therefore calculate fatigue life by rearranging
and integrating this relationship:
𝑁𝑓 𝑎𝑓 d𝑎
– 𝑁𝑓 = 0
d𝑁 = 𝑎0 𝐴 ∆𝐾 𝑚

• Ignoring the fact that 𝑌 = 𝑓 𝑎 (as it is often an


empirical relationship):
𝑎𝑓 d𝑎 1 𝑎𝑓 −𝑚
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑎0 𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋𝑎 𝑚
= 𝑚 𝑎 𝑎 2 d𝑎
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 0

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Paris Law integration (2)
• Carry out the Paris Law integration:
1 𝑎𝑓 −𝑚
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚 𝑎 𝑎 2 d𝑎 (1)
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 0

• Show that you can obtain:


𝑎𝑓
1 𝑎−𝑚 2+1
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 −𝑚 2+1
𝑎0
𝑚 𝑚
1 1 − 2 +1 − 2 +1
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚 𝑎𝑓 − 𝑎0 (2)
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 −𝑚 2+1

• This can be rearranged into a more convenient form:


1 1 1 1
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚 𝑚 − 𝑚 (3)
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 𝑚 2−1 −1 −1
𝑎0 2 𝑎𝑓 2

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Paris Law integration (3)

• Did you get it?


• If you didn’t, try again.
• If you did, turn over the page and do it again.

• Carry out the Paris Law integration:


1 𝑎𝑓 −𝑚
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚 𝑎 𝑎 2 d𝑎 (1)
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 0

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Paris Law integration (4)

• How about this time?


• They say that practice makes perfect…
• …and seeing as good Engineers listen to wise words…
• …turn over the page / cover your notes and…
• …you guessed it, try again.

• Carry out the Paris Law integration:


1 𝑎𝑓 −𝑚
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚 𝑎 𝑎 2 d𝑎 (1)
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 0

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Paris Law integration (5)

• You might be getting the idea by now that being able


to do this integration is important.
• It is.
• In fact, you should aim to be able to do this in your
sleep.
• Once you begin to have nightmares pleasant dreams
about integrating to calculate fatigue lives, you’ll
know you’re ready.
• Actually, while you’ve been reading this your
memory might’ve started to fade a bit so…
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Paris Law integration (6)
• …try again.

• Carry out the Paris Law integration:


1 𝑎𝑓 −𝑚
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚 𝑎 𝑎 2 d𝑎 (1)
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 0

• Got it now?
• Great.
• Trying not to refer to your previous 10 pages of
integrations, have a go at the following example…

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Example L13 – Engine crankshaft (1)

• A large steel crankshaft (Kc = 45 MN m-3/2) undergoes


cyclic tensile (225 MPa) and compressive (60 MPa)
stresses during use
• Prior to use, it was inspected using ultrasonic
techniques, from which the largest surface crack
found was 2.5 mm in length
• For the steel in question, the Paris Law constants
are: Units!!!
– A = 1.5 x 10-12 m/(MN m-3/2)m per cycle
– m = 2.5
• Calculate the number of cycles to failure

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Example L13 – Engine crankshaft (2)

• Kc = 45MN m-3/2
σmax = 225MPa (tensile), σmin = 60MPa (compressive)
a0 = 2.5mm
A = 1.5 x 10-12 m/(MN m-3/2)m per cycle, m = 2.5

1) Calculate critical crack length (ac = af):


𝐾𝑐 = 𝑌𝜎 𝜋𝑎𝑐 (assume Y = 1) [ans = 12.7 mm]
2) Determine number of cycles to failure (Nf):
d𝑎
= 𝐴 ∆𝐾 𝑚
d𝑁
𝑁𝑓
𝑁𝑓 = 0
d𝑁 [ans = 1.26 x 106 cycles)

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Example L14a – Variable cyclic loading (1)

• An aircraft panel made of a 0.4%C steel is subjected


to a fully reversed variable cyclic stress during
operation:
σ N1 N2 N3 • Stress amplitudes:
– Δσ1/2 = 360MPa
– Δσ2/2 = 500MPa
– Δσ3/2 = 440MPa
• Cycles:
Δσ3
Δσ2
Δσ1

– N1 = 5.44 x 105
– N2 = 5.35 x 103
𝑁𝑖
– N3 = 3.24 x 104
=1
𝑁𝑓𝑖
𝑖 16
Example L14a – Variable cyclic loading (2)

0.4%C
steel

2000 series
Al-Cu

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Example L14a – Variable cyclic loading (3)

𝑁𝑖 𝑁𝑖
% %
Δσi /MPa Ni Nfi 𝑁𝑓𝑖 𝑁𝑓𝑖
𝑖

360 5.44 x 105 ? ? ?


500 5.35 x 103 ? 26.8 ?
440 3.24 x 104 6 x 104 ? ?
Complete the table:
1. Using the S-N diagram determine the fatigue life of the 0.4%C steel under
the three different stress regimes
2. Using Miner’s Rule, calculate the fractional damage caused by each stress
regime to the fatigue life of the component and thus determine under
which stress regime it is predicted to fail
3. How many cycles will the component sustain under the failure stress
regime and therefore how many cycles in total will the component have
sustained when it fails? [ans = 27,600; 577,000 ]

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Example L14b – Fatigue + Fracture
d𝑎 𝑚; 𝑁 𝑁𝑓
σ ∆𝐾 = 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋𝑎; = 𝐴 ∆𝐾 𝑓 = 0
d𝑁
d𝑁
• A 65.4 mm wide aircraft inspection panel is made
of 7074-T651 aluminium alloy. The material
W properties are:
– Fracture toughness, Kc = 25.8 MN m-3/2
– Yield stress, σy = 505 MPa
• Following inspection, an edge through-crack of
a length 6.4 mm is found. During flight, this plate is
subjected to a cyclic stress of 90 ± 30 MPa.
1. Ignoring the effect of the mean stress, calculate
the number of cycles to failure (Nf) using Paris’
σ Law and the material constants (in their
standard units):
Y a/W
A = 1.2 x 10-12 / m = 2.8 [ans = 4.33 x 106]
1.12 0.0
1.37 0.2
2. Briefly describe what effect would the mean
stress have on the fatigue life of the
2.11 0.4 component?
2.83 0.5 19
Example L14b – Tips
σ • Q1: Calculate fatigue life
– The process to get to the fatigue life is
W much the same as Example L13…
– …except that you must use linear
interpolation for the geometry factor
a (Y) using the values in the table
provided
– In this example you can assume a
σ constant value of Y as the crack grows,
Y a/W but what effect would it have if you
1.12 0.0 accounted for its variation with crack
1.37 0.2
length (a)?
2.11 0.4
2.83 0.5 20
Example L14b – Tips

+ Mean stress ΔK
0 +
-
0
• Q2: Effect of positive σa
mean stress? σm3 > σm2 > σm1
– Refer back to your
lecture notes
– Sketch some typical
curves for the different
mean stress values
indicated to the right

Nf
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Exam reminder

• Two and a half hours:


– 6 questions in two sections; answer 4 in total
– Part A – Answer one question out of two
– Part B – Answer three questions out of four

• Questions in Part A do not follow style of previous


years’ examples:
– New lecturer, new content – new example slides!

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Good luck!

www.le.ac.uk