Examples
EG2101 / EG2401
March 2015
Dr Rob Thornton
Lecturer in Mechanics of Materials
www.le.ac.uk
Semester 1 example problems
2
Example L11a – AA7074T8
σ
𝐾 = 𝑌𝜎 𝜋𝑎
• A 50mm wide sample plate of 7074T8 aluminium
alloy contains a central throughcrack of length
2a
W
• For 7074T8:
– Kc = 22.2 MN m3/2; σy = 520MPa
1. Under an applied stress of 200 MPa, determine
2a if the plate will fail by fracture with a crack half
length a of:
– 1 mm; 5 mm; 10 mm
2. Determine the critical crack size ac below which
the plate will not fracture under the applied
stress, using an appropriate value of Y
σ
1 3. Determine the limiting crack size ay below which
𝜋𝑎 −2
the plate will fail by yielding (assume Y = 1)
𝑌 = cos
𝑊
3
Solution L11a – AA7074T8
1. Is Y significant? a = 10 mm; Y = ?
2. Setting K = ?; σ = ? MPa; Y = ?
ac = ? [ans = 3.73 mm]
3. Setting K = ?; σ = ? MPa; Y = 1
ay = ? [ans = 0.58 mm]
4
Example L11b – Highstrength steel
6
Example L11b  Graphs
7
Paris Law integration (1)
• Paris’ Law describes the steadystate crack growth
typically seen under cyclic loading
d𝑎 𝑚
• Definition: = 𝐴 ∆𝐾
d𝑁
• We can therefore calculate fatigue life by rearranging
and integrating this relationship:
𝑁𝑓 𝑎𝑓 d𝑎
– 𝑁𝑓 = 0
d𝑁 = 𝑎0 𝐴 ∆𝐾 𝑚
8
Paris Law integration (2)
• Carry out the Paris Law integration:
1 𝑎𝑓 −𝑚
– 𝑁𝑓 = 𝑚 𝑎 𝑎 2 d𝑎 (1)
𝐴 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋 0
9
Paris Law integration (3)
10
Paris Law integration (4)
11
Paris Law integration (5)
• Got it now?
• Great.
• Trying not to refer to your previous 10 pages of
integrations, have a go at the following example…
13
Example L13 – Engine crankshaft (1)
14
Example L13 – Engine crankshaft (2)
• Kc = 45MN m3/2
σmax = 225MPa (tensile), σmin = 60MPa (compressive)
a0 = 2.5mm
A = 1.5 x 1012 m/(MN m3/2)m per cycle, m = 2.5
15
Example L14a – Variable cyclic loading (1)
– N1 = 5.44 x 105
– N2 = 5.35 x 103
𝑁𝑖
– N3 = 3.24 x 104
=1
𝑁𝑓𝑖
𝑖 16
Example L14a – Variable cyclic loading (2)
0.4%C
steel
2000 series
AlCu
17
Example L14a – Variable cyclic loading (3)
𝑁𝑖 𝑁𝑖
% %
Δσi /MPa Ni Nfi 𝑁𝑓𝑖 𝑁𝑓𝑖
𝑖
18
Example L14b – Fatigue + Fracture
d𝑎 𝑚; 𝑁 𝑁𝑓
σ ∆𝐾 = 𝑌∆𝜎 𝜋𝑎; = 𝐴 ∆𝐾 𝑓 = 0
d𝑁
d𝑁
• A 65.4 mm wide aircraft inspection panel is made
of 7074T651 aluminium alloy. The material
W properties are:
– Fracture toughness, Kc = 25.8 MN m3/2
– Yield stress, σy = 505 MPa
• Following inspection, an edge throughcrack of
a length 6.4 mm is found. During flight, this plate is
subjected to a cyclic stress of 90 ± 30 MPa.
1. Ignoring the effect of the mean stress, calculate
the number of cycles to failure (Nf) using Paris’
σ Law and the material constants (in their
standard units):
Y a/W
A = 1.2 x 1012 / m = 2.8 [ans = 4.33 x 106]
1.12 0.0
1.37 0.2
2. Briefly describe what effect would the mean
stress have on the fatigue life of the
2.11 0.4 component?
2.83 0.5 19
Example L14b – Tips
σ • Q1: Calculate fatigue life
– The process to get to the fatigue life is
W much the same as Example L13…
– …except that you must use linear
interpolation for the geometry factor
a (Y) using the values in the table
provided
– In this example you can assume a
σ constant value of Y as the crack grows,
Y a/W but what effect would it have if you
1.12 0.0 accounted for its variation with crack
1.37 0.2
length (a)?
2.11 0.4
2.83 0.5 20
Example L14b – Tips
+ Mean stress ΔK
0 +

0
• Q2: Effect of positive σa
mean stress? σm3 > σm2 > σm1
– Refer back to your
lecture notes
– Sketch some typical
curves for the different
mean stress values
indicated to the right
Nf
21
Exam reminder
22
Good luck!
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