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(1) Find the reduced row echelon form of the following matrices.

1 1 1 1

1 1 2 1

1 1 1

A= 0 B= 2 2 2

1 2 3

1 0 1

0 1 2 3

1 2 1 2 1

1 2 3

C= 2 1 2 1 2 D=

2 3 4

0 1 0 1 0

ANSWER:

(a)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 2 3

→ → →

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3

1 1 1 1 1 0 −1 −2

0 1 2 3

→ 0 1 2 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(b)

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

2 2 2 → 0 −2 0 → 0 −2 0 →

1 0 1 0 −2 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 1 0 1

0 −2 0 → 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

(c)

1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1

2 1 2 1 2 → 0 −1 0 −1 0 → 0 −1 0 −1 0 →

0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

2 PROBLEM SET 14 SOLUTIONS

1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1

0 −1 0 −1 0 → 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(d)

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 0 −1

→ → →

2 3 4 0 −1 −2 0 −1 −2

1 0 −1

0 1 2

(2) Compute the ranks of the following matrices.

1 2 0 5 1 2 1

E= 2 3 1 4 F = −1 3 4

−1 −1 −1 1 2 −1 −3

1 2 1 1 3

G= 0 3 1 H = 2 −1

−2 1 4 −1 −3

ANSWER:

(a)

1 2 0 5 1 2 0 5 1 2 0 5

2 3 1 4 → 0 −1 1 −6 → 0 −1 1 −6

−1 −1 −1 1 0 1 −1 6 0 0 0 0

Two pivots so E has rank 2

(b)

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

−1 3 4 → 0 5 5 → 0 5 5

2 −1 −3 0 −5 −5 0 0 0

Two pivots, so F has rank 2

(c)

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

0 3 1 → 0 3 1 → 0 3 1

−2 1 4 0 5 6 0 0 13

Three pivots, so G has rank 3

(d)

1 3 1 3

2 −1 → 0 −7

−1 −3 0 0

Two pivots, so H has rank 2

PROBLEM SET 14 SOLUTIONS 3

x1

1 3 2 4 −3 x2 −7

2

6 0 −1 −2

x3 =

0

0 0 6 2 −1

x4

12

1 3 −1 4 2 −6

x5

ANSWER:

1 3 2 4 −3 | −7 1 3 2 4 −3 | −7

2

6 0 −1 −2 | 0 → 0 0 −4 −9

4 | 14 →

0 0 6 2 −1 | 12 0 0 6 2 −1 | 12

1 3 −1 4 2 | −6 0 0 −3 0 5 | 1

1 3 2 4 −3 | −7 1 3 2 4 −3 | −7

0

0 −4 −9 4 | → 0 0 −4 −9

14 4 | 14

→

0 0 0 46 −20 | −132 0 0 0 23 −10 | −66

0 0 0 −27 −8 | 38 0 0 0 −27 −8 | 38

1 3 2 4 −3 | −7 1 3 2 4 −3 | −7

0

0 −4 −9 4 | → 0 0 −4 −9

14 4 | 14

→

0 0 0 23 −10 | −66 0 0 0 23 −10 | −66

0 0 0 0 −454 | −908 0 0 0 0 1 | 2

1 3 2 4 0 | −1 1 3 2 4 0 | −1

0 0 −4 −9 0 | 6 0 0 −4 −9 0 | 6

→ →

0 0 0 23 0 | −46 0 0 0 1 0 | −2

0 0 0 0 1 | 2 0 0 0 0 1 | 2

1 3 2 0 0 | 7 1 3 2 0 0 | 7

0 0 −4 0 0 | −12 0 0 1 0 0 | 3

→

0 0 0 1 0 | −2 →

0 0 0 1 0 | −2

0 0 0 0 1 | 2 0 0 0 0 1 | 2

1 3 0 0 0 | 1

0 0 1 0 0 | 3

0 0 0 1 0 | −2

0 0 0 0 1 | 2

So x5 = 2 , x4 = −2, x3 = 3, x2 = C, x1 = 1 − 3C, which may

be rewritten as,

1 −3

0 1

3 +C 0

−2 0

2 0

4 PROBLEM SET 14 SOLUTIONS

(4) Find a matrix with the following property, or say why you can-

not have one.

1

1

(a) The complete solution to B · x = 2 is x =

.

0

4

1

5

(b) The complete solution to C · x = is x = 4 .

1

−2

ANSWER:

(a)

1 1

2 0

4 0

or any other

1 a

2 b

4 c

as long as the second column is not a multiple of the first.

(b) There is no such matrix. It would have to have two rows

and three columns. This would mean there would have to

be at least one free variable, and so there would have to be

more than one vector in the complete solution.

(5) The complete solution to

A·x = b

is

1 0 0

x = 0 + c1 1 + c2 0

0 0 1

What is A?

ANSWER: There is some ambiguity in the question. It is not

clear what the dimensions of b are. Assuming that b equals

b1

b2

b3

.

..

bn

PROBLEM SET 14 SOLUTIONS 5

b1 0 0

b2 0 0

b3 0 0 .

. . ..

.. .. .

bn 0 0

Note that

the

second and third columns are zero because the

0 0

vectors 1 and 0 are in the null space of A.

0 1

(6) Consider the set P2 = {ax2 + bx + c | a, b, c ∈ R} of all polyno-

mials of degree less than or equal to 2.

(a) Show that this is a vector space.

ANSWER: We have to show two things. First, that any

constant multiple of a polynomial of degree at most two is

again of degree at most two. This is easy since

d(ax2 + bx + c) = (da)x2 + (db)x + (dc),

which is a polynomial of degree at most two. Second, we

have to show that the sum of any two polynomials of degree

at most two is again a polynomial of degree at most two.

Again this is easy since

(ax2 + bx + c) + (dx2 + ex + f ) = (a + d)x2 + (b + e)x + (c + f ),

which is a polynomial of degree at most two. Therefore,

P2 satisfies the axioms of a vector space.

(b) Show that the function

Z 1

L(p(x)) = p(x) dx

0

is a linear transformation L : P2 → R.

ANSWER: By definition, L takes in a polynomial and

spits out a number. In fact,

a b

L(ax2 + bx + c) = + +c

3 2

What we have to show is that it does so in a linear way.

The easy answer is to say that a3 + 2b + c is a linear function

of the coefficients, end of story. But just for the sake of

it, let’s also see how to do this by checking the rules for

6 PROBLEM SET 14 SOLUTIONS

the multiplicativity of L, i.e. that

L(d(ax2 + bx + c)) = dL(ax2 + bx + c)

This is easy to check by computation

da db

L((da)x2 + (db)x + (dc)) = + + dc

3 2

and

a b

dL(ax2 + bx + c) = d( + + c)

3 2

Second, the additivity of L, i.e. that

L((ax2 + bx + c) + (dx2 + ex + f )) = L(ax2 + bx + c) + L(dx2 + ex + f )

This follows since the left hand side is

a+d b+e

L((a + d)x2 + (b + e)x + (c + f )) = + + (c + f )

3 2

and since the right hand side is

a b d e

( + + c) + ( + + f )

3 2 3 2

Therefore, L is a linear transformation.

(c) What is the null space of L? (That is, what polynomials

does L map to 0?)

ANSWER: All the polynomials ax2 + bx + c that satisfy

a b

+ +c=0

3 2

(d) What is the range of L?

ANSWER: The range is all the possible values that a3 + 2b + c

could take, so

Range = R,

since a, b, c are arbitrary.

(7) (a) Mike, Shai, and Tara all decide that they are unhappy

with the color scheme at ADUni, and they do something

about it. They go down to the paint store, and each buy

some paint. Mike wants to paint the lab aqua, so he buys

one gallon of red paint, six gallons of blue paint, and one

gallon of yellow paint. He spends $44.00. Shai, on the

other hand, wants to paint the front office green. He buys

no red paint, two gallons of blue paint and three gallons

of yellow paint. He spends $24.00. Tara finally decides

to paint the classroom purple. She buys one gallon of red

PROBLEM SET 14 SOLUTIONS 7

How much does each color of paint cost?

ANSWER: Let r be the cost per gallon of the red paint,

b be the cost per gallon of the blue paint, y be the cost

per gallon of the yellow paint. We get the following three

equations for each person’s expenses

1r + 6b + 1y = 44

0r + 2b + 3y = 24

1r + 5b + 0y = 33,

y = 2, b = 9, r = −12

When Mike, Shai and Tara compare receipts, they realize

that one of them was charged $4.00 too little. Who was it?

ANSWER:

Old Economy Answer: The store is paying people $12 per gal-

lon to take its red paint. Something doesn’t make sense. We

can figure out who was undercharged by trial and error. We

have to add $4 to the right hand side of one of the three equa-

tions above, and then solve it again. After some computation,

we find that the only way we can get a nonzero solution is if we

add $4 to the second equation. Therefore Shai was overcharged.

the previous problem.

(8) Heather and Tony decide to start a cookie business. Heather is

going to contribute chocolate chip cookies and Tony is going to

make Tony’s Special Secret Recipe cookies. Heather’s cookies

take 34 of an hour of preparation time, and one hour in the oven

(to make 100 cookies). Tony’s Special Secret Recipe cookies

take one hour of prep time and a full two hours in the oven

(for 100 cookies). Combined, Heather and Tony are willing to

put in 30 hours of prep time, and 50 hours of oven time. They

figure they can make $60.00 on each 100 of Heather’s cookies

and $90.00 on each 100 of Tony’s cookies. How many cookies of

each type do they make in order to maximize profits? (Hint:

8 PROBLEM SET 14 SOLUTIONS

tion, and solve it geometrically by graphing the constraints and

determining on which extreme values the profits are maximal.)

ANSWER: Let H stand for the number of batches (of 100)

of Heather’s cookies and T stand for the number of batches of

Tony’s cookies. The objective function we are trying to maxi-

mize is

PROFIT = 60H + 90T

The constraints we have are

POSITIVITY H, T ≥ 0

3

PREP TIME H + T ≤ 30

4

OVEN TIME H + 2T ≤ 50

The region described by the inequalities is four sided and has

corners at (H, T ) = (0, 0), (40, 0), (0, 25), (20, 15). By the prin-

ciples of linear programming, profit will be maximized at one

of these corner points. Plugging in the different possibilities

gives profits of $0, $2400, $2250, $2550, respectively. Therefore

profits are maximized with 20 batches (= 2000) of Heather’s

cookies and 15 batches (= 1500) of Tony’s.

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