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SHRI RAMDEOBABA COLLEGE OF

ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT


PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTENT
WHAT IS PROCESS?
WHAT IS CONTROL?
TYPES OF IS
 WHAT PROCESS
PROCESS?
PROCESS CONTROL
 WHAT IS CONTROL?
PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM(PCS)
 TYPES VARIABLES
PROCESS OF PROCESS
COMPONENTS OF PCS
 BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL
PRIMARY DEVICES
 PROCESS VARIABLE OF PCS
TYPES OF PCS
 PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
APPLICATION
 TYPES
FUTURE SCOPE
OF PCS
CONCLUSION
 APPLICATION OF PCS
REFERENCES
WHAT IS PROCESS?

 A sequence of interdependent and linked


procedures
 At every stage it consume one or more
type of resources (employee time,
energy, machines, money etc.) into
outputs
 These outputs then serve as inputs for the
next stage until a known goal or end
result is reached
What is control?

Control in process
industries refers
to the regulation
of all aspects of
the process.
TYPES OF PROCESS
CONTINUOUS
PROCESS
BATCH PRODUCTION
INDIVIDUAL OR
DISCRETE PRODUCTS
PRODUCTION
TYPES OF PROCESSES
1.Continuous process-
process itself runs continuously and uninterrupted in time.
Example: Production of chemicals, plastics
2.Batch process-
operation is performed on the batch to produce a finished
product. Example: Production of adhesive and glues
3.Individual or discrete process-
a series of operations produces a useful output product.
Example: involves the production of discrete pieces of
product such as metal stamping.
PROCESS
CONTROL
 An engineering discipline that deals with
architectures, mechanism and algorithms for
maintaining the output of a specific process
within a desired range’s extensively used in
industry
 enables mass production of consistent
products from continuously operated
processes such as oil refining, paper
manufacturing etc.
 enables automation by which a small staff
of operating personnel can operate a
complex process from a central control
room.
WHY????
Manufacturers control the
production process for
three reasons:
a) Reduce variability
b) Increase efficiency
c) Ensure safety
Process control
system
 A process control system an be
defined as the functions and
operations necessary to change
material either physically or
chemically.
 Process control normally refers to
the manufacturing or processing of
products in industry.
PROCESS VARIABLES
 A condition of the process fluid (a liquid or gas)
that can change the manufacturing process in
some way.
Common process variables include:
 Pressure
 Flow
 Level
 Temperature
 Density
 Liquid interface
 Mass
 Conductivity
Components of process control system
Operator-machine interface

operator

External External
sensors actuators
Input Output
controller Signal
signal
condi- Condi-
tioning tioning
Process Process
sensors actuators

Controlled
process computer
ff
Programmable logic control Distributed control system
PRIMARY DEVICES OF
PCS-
1.Programmable Control Logic
 Best for controlling machines with several
discrete devices such as motor starters, limit
switches, etc
 Uses a programmable memory to store
instructions and execute specific functions that
include on/off control, timing, counting,
sequencing, etc
 It is equipped with special input/output
interfaces and a control programming
language.
2. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM
 Central control systems which are good at
controlling analog devices.
 In this control elements are distributed throughout
the system.
 A hierarchy of controllers is connected by
communications networks for command and
monitoring.
 Dedicated systems used to control manufacturing
processes that are continuous or batch-oriented
such as oil refining, petrochemicals, central station
power generation, fertilizers etc.
TYPES OF PROCESS CONTROL
SYSTEM
1. open-loop control system
2. closed loop control system
1.Open loop system
 A control action is applied on the output of the system
 It does not receive any feedback signal to control or alter the output status
 Set Point-
 Controller-
 Actuators-
 Process-
 Disturbance-
2.Closed loop system
 the output of the process affects the input control signal.
 The system measures the actual output of the process and compares it to the desired
output.
1. Comparator-
2. Error Amplifier
3. Controller-
4. Output attenuator-
5. Sensor Feedback -
APPLICATIONS OF PCS
Food Production

Telecommunication and IT sector

Car wheel manufacturing process

Waste water treatment

Continuous filling operation


WATER BOTTLE PLANT
Future scope
 Improved process modelling technique, more capable
performance monitoring tools will produce the “next”
generation of PCS with greater economic benefits and
improved reliability.
 Many automation projects will be implemented within the so
called SMART CITY.
 In transportation, buildings, and health care will have closer
proximity to process control system.
CONCLUSION
 PCS leads to automation in various fields of
industry.
 It also provides more reliability and
improvement in product.
 Lots of work can be done in single minute of
time which reduces more time required for that
work.
 It enables manufacturers to keep their operations
running within specified limits and to set more
precise limits to maximize profitability, ensure
quality and safety.
REFERENCES
www.electroniceforyou.com
www.http.//.nibusinessinfo.com
www.IEEE.org
www.wikipedia.org
Presented by-
Renuka Deshkar
Kanchan Sahu
Kanchan Sontakke
Pranali Wankhede