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1.

Meyer-Garder
a. Gas Coning
𝜌𝑜− 𝜌𝑔 𝑘𝑜
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.246 𝑥 10−4 [ ]( ) [ℎ2 − (ℎ − 𝐷𝑡 )²]
ln(𝑟𝑒 /𝑟𝑤 µ0 𝐵𝑜

Qoc = Critical Oil Rate, STB/day


𝜌0 − 𝜌𝑔 = density of gas and oil, respectively, lb/ft³
Kₒ = effective oil permeability, md
𝑟𝑒 , 𝑟𝑤 = drainage and wellbore radius, respectively, ft
h = oil column thickness, ft
Dt = distance from the gas-oil contact to the top of the perforations, ft

b. Water Coning
𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑜 𝑘𝑜
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.246 𝑥 10−4 [ ]( ) ℎ2 − ℎ𝑝2
ln(𝑟𝑒 /𝑟𝑤 µ0 𝐵𝑜

𝜌𝑤 = water density, lb/ft³


ℎ𝑝 = perforated interval, ft

c. Simultaneous gas and water coning

2
−4
𝑘𝑜 ℎ2 − ℎ𝑝2 𝜌𝑜− 𝜌𝑔
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.246 𝑥 10 [ ] 𝑥 [(𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑜 ) ( )
µ0 𝐵𝑜 ln(𝑟𝑒 /𝑟𝑤 𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑔
2
𝜌𝑜− 𝜌𝑔
+ (𝜌𝑜− 𝜌𝑔 ) (1 − ( ) )]
𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑔

2. Chierici-Ciucci
Chierici and coauthors proposed that the oil-water and gas-oil contacts
are stable only if the oil production rate of the well is not higher than the
following rates:
ℎ2 (𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑜 )
𝑄𝑜𝑤 = 0.492 𝑥 10−4 (𝐾𝑟𝑜 𝐾ℎ) 𝜓𝑤 (𝑟𝐷𝑒, Ԑ, 𝛿𝑤 ) (1)
𝐵0 µ𝑜

ℎ2 (𝜌𝑜− 𝜌𝑔 )
𝑄𝑜𝑔 = 0.492 𝑥 10−4 (𝐾𝑟𝑜 𝐾ℎ) 𝜓𝑔 (𝑟𝐷𝑒, Ԑ, 𝛿𝑔 ) (2)
𝐵0 µ𝑜

Qow critical oil flow rate in oil-water system, STB/day


Qog critical oil flow rate in gas-oil system, STB/day
o, w, g densities in lb/ft3
w water dimensionless function
g gas dimensionless function
kh horizontal permeability, md

3. Hoyland-Papatzacos
 The Analytical Solution Method
−4
ℎ2 (𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑜 ) 𝐾ℎ
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.246 𝑥 10 [ ] 𝑞𝐶𝐷
µ0 B𝑜
Qoc critical oil rate, STB/day
h total thickness of the oil zone, ft
w, o water and oil density, lb/ft3
kh horizontal permeability, md
qCD dimensionless critical flow rate

The authors correlated the dimensionless critical rate qCD with the
dimensionless radius rD and the fractional well penetration ratio hP/h as
shown as follows :
𝑟𝑒 𝐾𝑣
𝑅𝐷 = √
ℎ 𝐾ℎ

re drainage radius, ft
kv vertical permeability, md
kh horizontal permeability, md

 The Numerical Solution Method


1.325
𝐾𝑜 (𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑜 ) ℎ𝑝 2
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.924 𝑥 10−4 [1 − ( ) ] 𝑥 ℎ2.238 [ln (𝑟𝑒 )]−1.99
µ0 B𝑜 ℎ

4. Chaney et al
 In oil-water systems
𝐾𝑜 (𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑜 )
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.5288 𝑥 10−4 [ ] 𝑄𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒
µ0 B𝑜

o oil density, lb/ft3


w water density, lb/ft3
Qoc critical oil flow rate, STB/day
ko effective oil permeability, md

 In gas-water systems
𝐾𝑔 (𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑔 )
𝑄𝑔𝑐 = 0.5288 𝑥 10−4 [ ] 𝑄𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒
µ0 B𝑔

g gas density, lb/ft3


w water density, lb/ft3
Qgc critical gas flow rate, Mscf/day
g gas FVF, bbl/Mscf
kg effective gas permeability, md

 In gas-oil systems
𝐾𝑜 (𝜌𝑜− 𝜌𝑔 )
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.2676 𝑥 10−4 [ ] 𝑄𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑒
µ0 B𝑜

5. Chaperson
𝐾ℎ (ℎ − ℎ𝑝 )2
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.0783 𝑥 10−4 [𝛥𝑝]𝑞𝑐
µ0 B𝑜
Qoc critical oil rate, STB/day
kh horizontal permeability, md
w o, density difference, lb/ft3
h oil column thickness, ft
hp perforated interval, ft

6. Schols
(𝜌𝑤− 𝜌𝑜 )𝑘𝑜 (ℎ2 − ℎ𝑝2 3.142
𝑄𝑜𝑐 = 0.0783 𝑥 10−4 [ ] 𝑥 [0.432 + ] (ℎ/𝑟𝑒 )0.14
µ0 B𝑜 ln(𝑟𝑒 /𝑟𝑤

ko = effective oil permeability, md


rw = wellbore radius, ft
hp = perforated interval, ft
r = density, lb/ft3