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GraspIT Questions – Edexcel GCSE Separate Chemistry 1

A. Transition metals, alloys and corrosion


1. Describe the chemical and physical differences of the transition metals compared with
Group 1. (4)

Maximum three from:


Physical – the transition metals are
Stronger (1)
Harder (1)
Denser (1)
Have higher melting points (1)

Maximum two from:


Chemical – the transition metals are
Less reactive
Some e.g. platinum do not react (any 4 points)

2. Give two examples of why transition metals are useful as catalysts. (2)

Any two of:


Platinum/palladium/rhodium are used in catalytic convertors
Iron is used in the Haber process
Nickel is used to produce margarine

3. Copper can be mixed with zinc to make the alloy brass. Brass is much harder than copper.
Explain why. (2)
Zinc atoms are a different size from copper atoms (1) and they disrupt the
structure/making it more difficult to slide/move (1)

4. Explain how rusting can be prevented. (3)

Applying a coat that acts as a barrier [1]; e.g. greasing [1], painting [1] or electroplating
[1]; Galvanising [1]; sacrificial protection [1]

5. Explain why aluminium does not corrode in the same way as iron (2).

Oxygen reacts with aluminium at surface [1]; forms an oxide coating [1]; prevents further
corrosion [1]

6. Explain what is meant by sacrificial protection. (2)

Coating in a more reactive metal [1]; e.g. zinc [1]; galvanising [1]

7. Design an investigation to show that both air and water are necessary for rusting. (4)

Nail in air and water [1]; nail in water only – boiled water, oil on top [1]; nail in dry air only
[1] – anhydrous CaCl [1];

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GraspIT Questions – Edexcel GCSE Separate Chemistry 1
8. Explain how to galvanise iron and why this helps to prevent corrosion. (4)

Coat in more reactive metal [1]; e.g. zinc [1]; provides sacrificial protection [1]; the zinc
oxidises not the iron [1]

9. Steels are alloys of iron containing specific amounts of carbon and other metals. Different
steels have different properties and can therefore have different uses. Describe the
properties of the following steels and give a use for each. (6)

a. High carbon steel Strong and brittle [1]; tools and cutters [1]
b. Low carbon steel Soft and easily shaped [1]; construction/ buildings/ ships/
vehicles [1]
c. Steel containing chromium and nickel Stainless steel/ does not corrode, hard [1];
cutlery, cookware [1]

B. Quantitative analysis: Titrations and unknown concentrations (HT)


1. What is the concentration of a solution that has 0.25 mol of solute in 135cm3 of solution? (1)
Concentration = number of moles ÷ volume = 0.25 mol ÷ 0.135 dm3 = 1.85 mol/dm3 (1)

2. How many moles of copper sulfate are there in 40cm3 of a 0.1 mol/dm3 solution? (1)
Number of moles = 0.1 mol/dm3 × 0.040 dm3 = 0.0040 mol/dm3 (1)

3. Calculate the concentration in mol/dm3 of a solution that has 2 mol of an alkali in 250 cm3 of
solution. (2)
Concentration = number of moles ÷ volume = 2 mol ÷ 0.250 dm3 (1) = 8 mol/dm3 (1)

4. What mass of sodium fluoride (NaF) is in 250cm3 of a 2 mol/dm3 solution? (2)


Mass of 1 mole of NaF = 23 + 19 = 42 g
In 1 dm3 of a 2 mol/dm3 solution, there are (42 × 2) = 84 g of NaF (1)
In 250 cm3, there are 84 g × (250 cm3 ÷ 1000 cm3) = 21 g (1)

5. It takes 27.00cm3 of hydrochloric acid to neutralise 25.00am3 of sodium hydroxide at a


concentration on 1.0 mol/dm3. Calculate the concentration of hydrochloric acid in g/cm3. (4)
Number of moles of sodium hydroxide = concentration × volume
= 1 mol/dm3 × (25 ÷ 1000) dm3 = 0.025 mol (1)
The equation for the reaction shows that 1 mole of sodium hydroxide reacts with 1 mole of
hydrochloric acid. So there is 0.025 mol of HCl in 27 cm3 of solution.
So the concentration of HCl in mol/dm3 = number of moles ÷ volume
= 0.025 mol ÷ (27 ÷ 1000) dm3 = 0.925 mol/dm3 (1)
The mass of 1 mole of HCl is (1 + 35.5) = 36.5 g (1)
So the concentration in g/dm3 = 36.5 g/mol × 0.925 mol/dm3 = 33.8 g/dm3 (1)

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GraspIT Questions – Edexcel GCSE Separate Chemistry 1

C. Quantitative analysis: Percentage yield and atom economy


1. Give two possible reasons for the actual yield in a reaction being less that the maximum
theoretical yield. (2)
ANY TWO OF:
Some of the product may have been lost when it was separated from the reaction mixture,
the reactants may have reacted in a different way to the expected reaction,
the reaction may be reversible,
Not all the reactants reacted.

2. Magnesium is burnt in air. The theoretical yield of magnesium oxide is 5g, but only 4.5g is
produced. What is the percentage yield? (1)
90%

4. Lead nitrate and potassium iodide solutions are mixed to make solid lead iodide. The solid is
then separated using the following equipment:

Suggest why the actual yield is less than the theoretical yield. (1)
Some of the product might have stuck to the filter paper/may have been lost (1)

5. Higher:
100g of magnesium carbonate is heated. It decomposes to make magnesium oxide and
carbon dioxide. Calculate the theoretical yield of magnesium oxide made. (2)

MgCO3  MgO + CO2


Mr of MgCO3 = 24 + 12 + (16x3) = 84
Mr of MgO = 24 + 16 = 40
84g of MgCO3 would make 40 g of MgO (1)
So 200g would make 47.6g (1)

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GraspIT Questions – Edexcel GCSE Separate Chemistry 1
6. Calculate the atom economy for making hydrogen from the following reaction: (1)

C(s) + 2H2O(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2(g)


4/48 x 100 = 8.3%

7. Suggest why industrial processes need as high an atom economy as possible? (2)
ANY TWO OF:
Reduces the production of unwanted products,
Makes the process more sustainable,
So that they can sell it to make money.

D. Quantitative analysis: Molar volume of gas (HT)


1. What is the molar volume of any gas at room temperature and pressure? (2)
Volume occupied by 1 mole of molecules [1] 24 dm3 or 24000 cm3 [1]

2. Calculate the volume of 0.7 mol of carbon dioxide gas at RTP. (1)
0.7 x 24 = 16.8 dm3 (1)

3. What is the volume 12.3g of butane gas (C4H10) at RTP? (3)


Mr = 58 (1)
Moles = 12.3/58 = 0.21 mol (1)
Volume = 0.21x24= 5.09 dm3 (1)

4. Ammonia gas is made during an experiment.


2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2  CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H2O
20g of ammonium chloride is added to an excess of calcium hydroxide. Calculate the
maximum volume of ammonia gas that would be formed. (3)
One mole of gas occupies 24dm3 at RTP.
Relative atomic masses: H 1; N 14; O 16; Cl 35.5; Ca 40
Moles = mass ÷ RFM
RFM ammonium chloride = 14 + (4 x 1) + 35.5 = 53.5 [1]
Moles ammonium chloride = 20 ÷ 53.5 = 0.374 [1]
Ratio ammonium chloride to ammonia 1:1 therefore maximum moles ammonia = 0.374
Volume ammonia = 0.374 x 24 = 8.98 [1] dm3 [1]

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GraspIT Questions – Edexcel GCSE Separate Chemistry 1

E. Dynamic equilibria: Haber process, factors affecting the rate of attainment


of equilibria (HT) and fertilisers
1. Explain what NPK fertilisers are, include the names of the three main elements they contain.
(3)
Formulations of salts [1]; containing nitrogen [1]; phosphorus and potassium [1]

2. Describe how ammonia is used in industry. Write a balanced symbol equation for the
production of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) from ammonia and nitric acid. (3)
Manufacture ammonium salts and nitric acid [1]
NH3 + HNO3  NH4NO3 [2]

3. Calculate the percentage (%) of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). (3)


Relative atomic masses: N 14; H 1; O 16
Relative formula mass of ammonium nitrate = (2 x 14) + (4 x 1) + (3 x 16) = 80 [1]
Relative mass of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate = (2 x 14) = 28 [1]
Percentage of iron in ammonium nitrate = (28 ÷ 80) x 100 = 35% [1]

4. Explain the impact of a catalyst on a reversible reaction. (2)


Rate of forward and backward reaction increased [1]; rate of attainment of equilibrium
increased [1]

5. Describe and compare the laboratory preparation of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 on a small
scale and the industrial production used as a fertiliser. Your response should include an
equation for the reaction. (6)
Ammonia + sulfuric acid  ammonium sulfate [1]
NH3 + H2SO4  (NH4)2SO4 [1]
4 comparative statements from table:
Laboratory Industrial
 Large scale
 Reactants: natural gas, air, water,
 Small scale
sulfur
 Reactants: ammonia solution and
 Manufacture ammonia solution
dilute sulfuric acid
and sulfuric acid
 Titration
 React with accurate volumes
 Crystallisation
 Evaporate

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GraspIT Questions – Edexcel GCSE Separate Chemistry 1

F. Chemical cells and fuels cells


1. (HT) Write the half equations for the electrode reactions in a hydrogen fuel cell.

Cathode (2)
2H2 (g)  4H+ (aq) + 4e- correct chemicals including electrons [1] balanced [1]

Anode (2)
4H+ (aq) + O2 (g) + 4e-  2H2O (g) correct chemicals including electrons [1]balanced [1]

2. Hydrogen fuel cells are used on space craft to produce electricity. Give an advantage and a
disadvantage of using hydrogen fuel cells on a space craft. (2)
One advantage – no pollution/ water can be drunk by astronauts [1]
One disadvantage – hydrogen fuel takes a lot of space/explosive [1]

3. What normally causes a chemical cell to stop producing voltage? (1)


When one of the reactants has been used up [1]

4. Hydrogen – oxygen fuel cells produce water which is not considered a pollutant. Suggest
how fuel cells can cause pollution. (2)
Any two from:
Poisonous catalysts that need to be disposed of [1]
Burning fossil fuels during manufacture [1]
Waste when thrown away [1]
Mining for some raw materials [1]

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