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Mountain View College

School of Theology

THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE “SON” IN ISAIAH 7:14

A Research Paper

Presented in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Course

Old Testament Prophets

by

Sen Sophal

October 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

1. INTRODUCTION...................................... 3

Statement of the problem....................... 4


Purpose of the study........................... 4
Significance of the study...................... 4

2. EXEGETICAL ANALYSIS OF ISAIAH 7:14.................5

Text and Translation............................5


Best Reading of the Text.....................6
Historical Background of Isaiah 7...............6
General Overview.............................6
Authorship...................................8
Purpose and Theme............................8
Outline.....................................10
Literary Context...............................10
Immediate Context...........................11
Wider Context...............................13
Ultimate Deliverance Isaiah 9:1-7........14
The Unique Nature & Identity of Messiah..14
Lexical Analysis...............................15
General Word Study..........................15
Biblical Context...............................17
Theological Implication........................18

3. CONCLUSION........................................19

BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................20
I. Introduction

Isaiah is known as “the evangelical prophet1”. Because

in His writing we can see the revelation regarding the

life, mission, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ were

being prophesied before His first coming to the planet

Earth. His prophecy concerning the Person and the work of

Christ were found in his book than in any other books in

the Old Testament2.

Isaiah’s name “Yahweh will save or Yahweh is

salvation3” manifests the name, character and the mission of

Jesus. Jesus’s name means “Yahweh saves”. In the book of

the gospel, Matthew 1:21 “She will bear a son, and you

shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from

their sins (ESV). And in Matthew 1:23, the angels of the

Lord quoted directly from Isaiah 7:14 “Therefore the Lord

himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall

conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel

(ESV). This paper seeks to discover, through a thorough

1Bullock, C. Hassel, An introduction to the Old


Testament prophetic books, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986).

2Ibid
3Bullock, C. Hassel. An introduction to the Old
Testament prophetic books, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986).

3
exegetical process, the identification and significance of

the word “Son” in Isaiah 7:14.

Statement of the problem

The identification of the son in Isaiah 7:14 is a

controversial issue, some people considered that this son

was referred to the son of Ahaz and some said that it was

referred to Isaiah’s own son, and others referred this son

to sons of Israelites as a whole. In this paper, the

researcher intends to answer the following questions: (1)

what did Isaiah referrer to when he prophecies “a virgin

will bear a son” who is this son? Does it relate to the son

of Israel born in the ordinary birth during Isaiah’s

lifetime? Or it only refers to the miraculous and

incarnational birth of Christ? (2) What are the unique

identities of Christ being prophesied by Isaiah as the Son

of the virgin? (3) What is the theological implication of

this study?

Purpose of the study

To identify the word “Son” in Isaiah 7:14. Who is this

son? And also study deeper of Isaiah’s writing and His mind

toward the picture of Christ for the salvation of humanity.

Significance of the study

Through this study, it can benefit first to myself as

a researcher to know clearly about the identity of Christ

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in Isaiah 7:14 and also to help other Bible readers to

understand this prophecy without any doubt and

misunderstanding

II. EXEGETICAL ANALYSIS OF ISAIAH 7:14

To disclose the identification of the word “son” in

Isaiah we must know first the historical background of book

of Isaiah: the authorship, date, recipients, themes,

purpose and then we will discover the literary and lexical

contex in Isaiah 7:14. And we will find out the Word “son”

who is this “son” in this contexts of Isaiah 7:14 and also

through exegetical examination in the Old Testament and the

New Testament and other sources which are related to this

matter.

A. TEXT AND TRANSLATION

Table 1. Comparison between Hebrew, Septuagint and best English text


and translation
Isaiah 7:14

‫ָ֠ ָלכֵן יִ ֵֵּ֙תן אֲדֹ נָ ָ֥י ֛הּוא לָכֶ ֶ֖ם ֑אֹות הִ נֵ ֵּ֣ה הָ ַעלְ ָ֗ ָמה הָ ָרהֵּ֙ וְ יֹ לֶ ֵּ֣דֶ ת ֵּ֔ ֵבן וְ קָ ָ ָ֥ראת ְש ֶ֖מֹו עִ ָ ָ֥מנּו ֵ ֵֽאל׃‬
Isaiah(WTT)
Therefore Yahweh Himself will give you a sign,
behold, a maiden/virgin shall conceive, and bear a
son, and he will call his name Immanuel

διὰ τοῦτο δώσει κύριος αὐτὸς ὑμῖν σημεῖον ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει
καὶ τέξεται υἱόν καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Εμμανουηλ
Septuagint(BGT)
Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign,
behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and
you will call his name Immanuel

Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign;


English(KJV) Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and
shall call his name Immanuel.

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Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign; the
English (NAB) young woman, pregnant and about to bear a son, shall
name him Emmanuel.

Best reading of the text

The Septuagint and the King James Version of the English

translation are more preferable, because it is not contrary

to the gospel of Matthew 1:23 which he quoted directly from

the Israel 7:14. Matthew understood the nature of the

Messiah, that His birth is miraculous and unique. His birth

was not as the natural birth of other sons from the young

woman of the Israel, Ahaz’s wife and Isaiah’s wife but of

the Virgin. And surrounding the text we will observe the

key significant words why this son does not identify as the

sons who born during Isaiah’s time. And we will find out by

looking at the key words “the Lord Himself”, “you” as the

plural, “sign”, and the name itself “Immanuel”. Through

this key word of the text and historical background and we

will be able to draw the context and conclusion. Who this

son will be?

B. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

General Overview

Isaiah lived in Jerusalem in the 8th century. Isaiah

prophesied over 40 years through of reign of Jotham4 (godly

4Alexander,Pat and David, The lion Handbook to the


Bible (Oxford: Lion Hudson plc, 1999).

6
king), and Hezekiah, king of Judah (Isaiah 1:1). And He was

called by God in the year of king Uzziah died about 740 BC.

(Isaiah 6:1). In Isaiah’s day there was external pressure

and invasion from Assyrian empire rising power from the

east in 702 BC. And Judah was also threatened by alliance

of Israel and Syria. By this point Isaiah went to meet Ahaz

(worst king) to proclaim God’s message of Hope (Isaiah 3-

9). Ahaz, king of Juda had to choose whom he would trust?

In Human strategies of self-rescue, or in the prophetic

promises of God’s grace5.

Table 2. Simplified Overview of Isaiah6


Isaiah 1-39 Isaiah 40-55 Isaiah 56-66
Date and The eighth Prophecies Prophecies about
Setting century B.C. about the all times and
(700s); the sixth century occasions until
Assyrian threat B.C. (500s); the end
the Babylonian
exile
Audience God's rebellious God's defeated All who hold fast
people craving people under to God's covenant
worldly security worldly
domination
Actions God purifies a God consoles God prepares all
remnant of his his of his true
apostate people discouraged people for his
through judgment people in promised
exile salvation
Message "In returning "the glory of "Keep justice,
and rest you the Lord shall and do

5The
ESV Study Bible, Wheaton, Illinois: (Good News
Publishers, 2008).
6The ESV Study Bible, Wheaton, Illinois: (Good News

Publishers, 2008).

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shall be be revealed" righteousness"
saved; . . . But (40:5) (56:1)
you were
unwilling"
(30:15)

Authorship

Isaiah is the author of the book called by his name7.

He was the son of Amoz (Isaiah). Chapter 6-8; 20; and 37-39

provided the information and background of his public

ministry. And we can find many narrative accounts of Isaiah

both in the Old Testament and New Testament (2 kings 19-20,

2 chronicle 26;32; Matthew 1:23). The whole book of Isaiah

was summed up God’s message and meaning in his own name

Yeshayah "‫“ יְ ַ ֵֽשעְ יָ ֵּ֣הּו‬Yahweh is salvation”8.

Purpose and Theme

Isaiah announces God’s redemptive plan of grace and

glory for His rebellious people and also for the world9.

Isaiah’s message revealed that God’s plan and promise to

Abraham that through his seed the world would be blessed

(Genesis 12:1-3). And this promise will come to pass

7Nichol,
Francis D, the Seventh-day Adventist Bible
Commentary: The Holy Bible With Exegetical and Expository
Comment. Washington, D.C. : Review and Herald Publishing
Association, 1978
8The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, Illinois: Good News

Publishers, 2008.
9The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, Illinois: Good News

Publishers, 2008.

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through Davidic dynasty that was prophesied in the book of

2 Samuel 12, “I will set up thy seed after thee, which

shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his

kingdom”. Isaiah pictured God as the “Holy one of Israel”

who is highly exalted and who is in control of everything,

And He is the Saviour and Redeemer, He is able to deliver

the nation from the Syro-Ephraimite coalition (8:1–14),

from Assyria (17:10; 11:10–12:3), and from Babylon (45:17;

48:14, 20; 49:25–2610. And most of all, He will save His

people from sin (Isaiah 1:18). And lastly the central theme

of Book of the Isaiah is God Himself11, who does all things

for the sake of His rebellious people by giving them the

message of Hope through Isaiah that the Messiah will come

and His name is Immanuel. He is “God with us”. Ellen G.

While penned about Him said, “The light of the knowledge of

the glory of God is seen in the face of Jesus Christ. From

the days of eternity the Lord Jesus Christ was one with the

Father; He was "the image of God," the image of His

greatness and majesty, "the outshining of His glory." It

was to manifest this glory that He came to our world. To

this sin-darkened earth He came to reveal the light of

Bullock, C. Hassel, An introduction to the Old


10

Testament prophetic books, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986).


11The ESV Study Bible, Wheaton, Illinois: (Good News

Publishers, 2008).

9
God's love Therefore it was prophesied of Him, "His name

shall be called Immanuel”.12

Outline

Table 3. Structural outline of Isaiah13


Volume 1 Volume 2
1. Ruin and restoration of 1. Paradise lost and
Judah (1–5) regained (34–35)
2. Narrative (6–8) 2. Narrative (36–39)
3. Agents of blessing and 3. Agents of deliverance and
judgment (9–12) judgment (40–45)
4. Oracles against foreign 4. Oracles against Babylon
nations (13–23) (46–48)
5. Judgment and deliverance 5. Redemption through the
of God’s Lord’s servant;
people (24–27) glorification
of Israel (49–55)
6. Ethical sermons (28–31) 6. Ethical sermons (56–59)
7. Restoration of Judah and 7. Paradise regained (55–66)
Davidic kingdom (32–33)
Source: Longman III, Raymond B. Dillard, An Introduction to Old Testament

C. LITERARY CONTEXT

The Book of Isaiah is on the section of the “Prophets”

in Hebrew original Scriptures (Torah, Prophets, the

Writings) in the Old Testament. Overall genre of the book

of Isaiah is the prophecy14. Even though the prophet Isaiah

prophesied primarily in time of four kings of Judah and to

the people of Israel, God’s message through Isaiah still

12White,
Ellen G. The Desire of Ages, (Mountain
View, CA: Pacific Press), 1898.
13Bullock, C. Hassel. An introduction to the Old

Testament prophetic books. Chicago: (Moody Press, 1986).


14The ESV Study Bible, Wheaton, Illinois: (Good
News Publishers), 2008.

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always forthtell about God’s will for the future. The

future coming the Son of God born through the virgin, the

Prince of peace, the Servant of the Lord, The Anointed One,

the seed of David’s dynasty, and the Anointed preacher. And

He is the Messiah who is coming to redeem and restore God’s

people from the bondage of sin and provide them the way,

light and truth to salvation (John 14:6).

The book is quite large, it was not arranged in

chronological order but an anthology (collection of

individual compositions)15. And the message of God’s

judgment and salvation runs throughout the book itself.

God’s judgment upon Israel and Judah through the means of

foreign nations such as Syro-Ephraimite coalition, Assyria

and Babylon empire and God’s salvation and grace through

His Son, Jesus Christ. And people of Israel were looking

forward to see this supernatural and miraculous birth of

this Son as they waited, read and study the literature of

Isaiah’s scroll.

Immediate Context

The immediate context of Isaiah 7:14 begins the

historical description of military threat of The Syiran-

15TheESV Study Bible. Wheaton, Illinois: (Good News


Publishers), 2008.

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Israelite coalition against Judah (Jerusalem). This threat

took place in the year 733 BC. So at this point, the Lord

sent the prophets Isaiah with the Good News that Ahaz, king

of Judah must not be afraid of that military war.

The whole context of Isaiah 7 portrays of great

national crisis, the kingdom of Judah was threatened with

conquest by the northern alliance of apostate Samaria and

pagan Damascus16. Ahaz, king of Juda was being with fear of

Rezin (Syria) and Pekah (Samaria).

Although, Judah was governed by a wicked and ungodly

king Ahaz, the Lord had no intention of allowing the

dynasty of David to become extinct. Therefore God sent

Isaiah to the king to inform him His purpose of deliverance

to preserve Judah and to defeat its invaders. With the help

of the Lord of heaven there was no need to fear. But the

king refused to trust in God, and consequently gave way to

despair and faithless. Then God wanted to strengthen his

faith by allow him to ask a sign. And still he did not to

believe and to ask, because he was already determined to

carry out his fixed policy by seeking help from Assyria,

not from God.17

16Archer, Gleason L. Encyclopedia of Bible


Difficulties. Chicago: Moody Press, 1994.
17Nichol, Francis D, the Seventh-day Adventist Bible

Commentary: The Holy Bible With Exegetical and Expository

12
In spite of Ahaz faithlessness and rebellious God Himself

still gave him a sing son. Isaiah said, “The Lord will

indeed give you a sign,” The word “you” is plural.

Therefore, it speaks not only to Ahaz, but to all humanity

through all of history18 and to Ahaz as representative of

the dynasty of David19. And this sign is about the Son who

being born by a virgin and His name shall call Immanuel

which means “God with us”—the assurance of victory20,

deliverance and salvation that God always with His people.

Wider Context

By the wider context some scholars made four arguments

and proposals regarding the identification the Immanuel Son

and His virgin mother in Isaiah 7:14:

(a) she was Ahaz‘s wife or concubine, thus making the


child a prince, possiblyHezekiah;64 (b) she was Isaiah‘s
wife, the prophetess mentioned in chapter 8, thus making
thechild Isaiah‘s son born in chapter 8;65 (c) hm'l.[;'
is a general term that referred to all pregnant women at
the time, thus
making the child a reference to all babies born at that
time who would be
young children by the time the Syro-Ephraimite threat
would be gone;66 (d) she is Mary, the mother of Jesus,
and therefore Immanuel is Jesus.21

18Courson, Jon: Jon Courson's Application Commentary


: Volume Two : Psalms-Malachi. Nashville, TN : Thomas
Nelson, 2006, S. 349
19Fleming, Don. he Concise Bible Commentary .

Brisbane, Australia: AMG Publishers , 1994


20Knowles, Andrew. The Bible guide. Augsburg: Lion

Publishing, 2001.
21Anderson, Joel Edmund. "Isaiah 7:14 Identity and

Function within the Bookend Structure of Proto-Isaiah."


Pretoria, 2008.

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By seeing these four views, let us find out the

identification of the Son Immanuel throughout the book of

Isaiah. And then, we will compare which of these four views

fit into the text of Isaiah 7:14.

a. Ultimate deliverance Isaiah 9:1–7.

a great light,The mind of the prophet was carried forward to


the coming of the world’s Messiah. Broken the yoke, Christ
came to break the bonds of sin and to relieve men of the
pressing burden of guilt and care that rested so heavily
upon them. Unto us a child, Isaiah concludes his picture of
the coming era of peace with a striking prophecy of the
great Prince of Peace. Peace is never to be realized in this
world by the efforts of men. In his description of earth’s
coming King, who will reign in righteousness and holiness,
Isaiah employs terms that cannot belong to any earthly. The
government, Christ will rule over all heaven and earth.
Mighty God, Jesus the Son is no less God than is the Father.
He was one with the Father from the days of eternity.
Everlasting Father, as God the Father is eternal, so also is
Christ. Isaiah calls Him the Father because He is Father to
all mankind in a special sense, being the Creator of men and
of the world. Prince of Peace, Peace comes only with
righteousness and Jesus is the righteous King,He came to the
world to bring peace. The throne of David (Isaiah 9:7),
David was a type of Christ, and it is through Christ that
the throne of David will be established forever.22

b. The unique nature and identity of Messiah

As a "Suffering Servant" (52:12-53:12), but also in

His royal heritage, as the "shoot ... from the stem of

Jesse" (11:1); as the "the cornerstone" (28:16-17); as the

"king [who] will reign righteously" (32:1); as God's

"chosen servant with God’s Spirit in whom [He] delights"

22Nichol, Francis D, the Seventh-day Adventist Bible


Commentary: The Holy Bible With Exegetical and Expository
Comment, (Washington, D.C. : Review and Herald Publishing
Association), 1978

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(42:1-3)23; as the suffering Servant on whom the Lord laid

"the iniquity of us all" (53:6); as the resurrected One who

"will prolong His days" (53:10); and as the Anointed

Proclaimer of "the favorable year of the Lord" (61:1-3).

Therefore by observing the larger context in the book

of Isiah regarding the promise of the Son Immanuel, The

Ahaz’s son, Isaiah’s son, all Israelite’s son could not fit

the identity of this prophecy but this prophecy of Immanuel

was fulfilled only in Jesus Christ, the Messiah born of the

Virgin Mary. And this prophecy was fulfilled firmly in the

New Testament in Matthew 1:23 “"Behold, the virgin shall

conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name

Immanuel" (which means, God with us).

D. LEXICAL ANALYSIS
Observing the identification of the Son, there some
words that make The “Son” unique and miraculous.

General Word Study


1. ‫( אֲדֹ נָ ָ֥י ֛הּוא‬The Lord Himself)
‫ אֲדֹ נָ ָ֥י‬means LORD, master, owner. No doubt exists about the
meaning of this word. The Ugaritic °adn means "lord" or
"father" and the Akkadian adannu carries a similar
meaning, "mighty." The Messiah bears this title in Psa
110:124. “The LORD saith unto my lord, Sit thou at my
right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool”

23Beaulieu,
Stéphane, "Isaiah’s Messiah: Adventist
Identity for the Last Days." Journal of the Adventist
Theological Society, (2016), 3-23.
24Harris,
R. Laird, Theological Wordbook of the Old
Testament, (Chicago: Moody Press), 1980.

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substituting the Hebrew words for “Lord” we have the
following, “Yahweh said unto ’adoni”. According to Jesus’
statement the conversation occurred between God the
Father and God the Son. Christ is seated in the place of
highest honor in the universe, the right hand of His
Father.25
2. ‫( לָכֶ ֶ֖ם‬to you)
“To you” here is not singular but it is plural.
Therefore this promise and prophecy did not referred to
only Ahaz alone but to all people of Israel and humanity.
3. ‫( ֑אֹות‬Sign)
The word "sign" either signifies the unusual event
itself or in someway points to that unusual event. Or it
may point backward to a historical event such as the stones
in the Jordan (Josh 4:6), or even forward to such a promise
as a thornless future world (Isa 55:13). Sign in Hebrew can
be referred to mark, token, ensign, standard, miracle,
miraculous sign, proof, warning.26
4. ‫( הִ נֵ ֵּ֣ה‬Behold, lol, surely, certainly)
An interjection demanding attention, "look!" "see!".
mainly used to emphasize the information which follows it,
"behold, I have bought you" (Gen 47:23), although sometimes
the emphasis is on a person, "behold my servant" (Isa
42:1).27
5. ‫( הָ עַלְ ָ֗ ָמה‬Young woman, virgin)
Some translators interpret Mt 1:22-23 as being simply
a comment by Matthew, but it is more reasonable to consider
that the argument that convinced Joseph was the fact,
pointed out to him by the angel, that such an event had
already been predicted by Isaiah. There is no instance
where it can be proved that ±almâ designates a young woman
who is not a virgin. The fact of virginity is obvious in
Gen 24:43 where ±almâ is used of one who was being sought
as a bride for Isaac. Also obvious is Exo 2:8. Song 6:8
refers to three types of women, two of whom are called
queens and concubines. It could be only reasonable to

25Nichol,
Francis D, The Seventh-day Adventist Bible
Commentary : The Holy Bible With Exegetical and Expository
Comment. Washington, D.C. : Review and Herald Publishing
Association, 1978 (Commentary Reference Series), S. Ps
110:1
26Harris, R. Laird. Theological Wordbook of the Old

Testament. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.


27Harris, R. Laird. Theological Wordbook of the Old

Testament. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.

16
understand the name of the third group, for which the
plural of ±almâ is used, as meaning "virgins." In Ugaritic
the word is used in poetic parallel with the cognate of
b®tûlâ.28
6. ‫( ֵּ֔ ֵבן‬son)
Male child, born of the woman. Most striking is the
promise to Isaiah: "Behold a young woman shall conceive and
bear a son (b¢n)" (Isa 7:14), see ±alma which some hold had
immediate fulfillment, but which was unquestionably
fulfilled eventually in the coming of Jesus Christ (Mt
1:23; cf. Isa 9:6 [H 5])
7. ‫( עִ מָ נּואֵ ל‬Immanuel, God is with us)
Name of Jesus, symbolizing presence of ‫ י׳‬to deliver His
people, declaration of trust and confidence that He is God
with us!29 . At Christ’s ascendance to heaven He said to His
disciples, “And behold, I am with you always, to the end of
the age" (Matt. 28:20 ESV)

E. BIBLICAL CONTEXT

Through the historical and lexical context we can draw

the light of Word of God in its context. In spite of Ahaz,

king of Judah unbelieving and doubt of God’s grace in

deliverance his people. God Himself voluntarily provided

the miraculous sing of deliverance to all the house of

Israel and humanity. This promise and prophecy certainly

and surely that God will always with His people of all ages

and in the fullness of time it will come to pass and

fulfill in His Son Jesus born of the Virgin Mary. This

prophecy of Immanuel link the Bible together between the

28Harris, R. Laird. Theological Wordbook of the Old


Testament. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.
29Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles Briggs,

Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, (Houghton,


1906).

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Old Testament and the New Testament. And if we reject this

prophecy of Immanuel the Son of God in the Old Testament

and we also will reject the Immanuel in the New Testament.

The Scripture was inspired by God (2 Timothy 3:16) and It

cannot contradict by itself. Therefore the Son in Isaiah

7:14 truly identify as Christ born of the Virgin Mary.

F. THEOLOGICAL IMPLICATION

After the study of Isaiah 7:14 we can now draw the two

theological implications. This implications are centered on

Christology and soteriology. Christ is the omnipresent God,

He is “God with us”. He was the image of invisible God,

came into to world and pitched His tent (Tabernacle) among

us. He wanted to be with His people and to deliver them

from the bondage of sin to be His saints. According to

Denis Fortin, he said, “God ultimate purpose in the plan of

Salvation is to unify all things through Christ and this

purpose of deliverance will be made fully manifest only at

the end of the age”30.

III. CONCLUSION
30Fortin,
Denis, Oneness in Christ, Silver, MD: (Pacific
Press, 2018), 207.

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The prophecy of Isaiah 7:14 regarding the

identification of the “Son” of God truly was fulfilled in

the Person of Jesus Christ and it is valid prophecy.

Isaiah’s own name “The Lord is salvation” and his book

internally prophesied about Christ, the Messiah, the

Deliverer and Hope of Israel and humanity is going to come.

Look at the outline of Isaiah’s book: The sign of

deliverance (7:10–25), ultimate deliverance through the

coming of Messiah(9:1–7), the Messianic kingdom(11; 12; 32-

35), God’s “servant,” Christ (42), God’s suffering

“servant,” the Messiah (52:13 to 53:12). Through this

messages we can understand that “Son” in Isaiah 7:14 is no

other than Christ Himself, and also for our firm stand

point, Isaiah asked each one of us to compare the

Scriptures, “for percept must be upon precept, line upon

line, here a little and here a little” (Isaiah 28:10). By

his advice why do we not compare God’s prophecy in Isaiah

7:14 in Matthew 1:23? The Bible is the final authority of

our decision and analysis toward every issues.

Therefore, the identification toward Christ as the

“Son” named Immanuel in Isaiah 7:14 is clear, valid and

unquestionable.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexander, Pat and David. The lion Handbook to the Bible.


Oxford: Lion Hudson plc, 1999.
Anderson, Joel Edmund. "Isaiah 7:14 Identity and Function
within the Bookend Structure of Proto-Isaiah."
Pretoria, 2008.
Archer, Gleason L. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties.
Chicago: Moody Press, 1994.
Beaulieu, Stéphane. "Isaiah’s Messiah: Adventist Identity
for the Last Days." Journal of the Adventist
Theological Society, 2016: 3-23.
Bullock, C. Hassel. An introduction to the Old Testament
prophetic books. Chicago: Moody Press, 1986.
Constable, Thomas L. Expository Notes on the Bible. 2014.
Fleming, Don. he Concise Bible Commentary . Brisbane,
Australia: AMG Publishers , 1994 .
Fortin, Denis. Oneness in Christ. Silver, MD: Pacific
Press, 2018.
Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles Briggs. Hebrew and
English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Houghton, 1906.
Harris, R. Laird. Theological Wordbook of the Old
Testament. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.
Knowles, Andrew. The Bible guide. Augsburg: Lion
Publishing, 2001.
Longman III, Raymond B. Dillard. An introduction to the Old
Testament . Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 2006.
The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, Illinois: Good News
Publishers, 2008.
White, Ellen G. The Desire of Ages. Mountain View, CA:
Pacific Press, 1898.

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