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TENSION-STIFFENING MODEL BASED ON TEST DATA OF RC BEAMS

Aleksandr Sokolov 1, Gintaris Kaklauskas 2, Siim Idnurm 3, Viktor Gribniak 4, Darius Bacinskas 5

Dept. of Bridges and Spec. Structures, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,

Saulėtekio ave. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania. E-mails: 1 Aleksandr.Sokolov@vgtu.lt;

2

Gintaris.Kaklauskas@vgtu.lt; 4 Viktor.Gribniak@vgtu.lt; 5 Darius.Bacinskas@vgtu.lt

3

Department of Bridge Constructions, Tallinn University of Technology,

Ehitajate 5, Tallinn, 19086 Estonia, E-mail: Siim.Idnurm@ttu.ee

Abstract. Based on a method proposed by the authors, a new tension-stiffening law has been proposed for short-term

deformational analysis of flexural reinforced concrete members. It was derived from experimental moment-curvature

diagrams of RC beams reported by the authors. A quantitative dependence has been established between the length of

the descending branch and the reinforcement ratio. The proposed relationship has been applied in a simple engineeing

technique based on layered approach and principles of strength of materials. To assess accuracy of the technique, def-

lections/curvatures have been calculated for a large number of experimental reinforced concrete beams reported in the

literature. Comparison has been carried out with proposed relationship and design code methods such as the ACI 318,

Eurocode 2 and SP 52-101 (new Russian code).

Keywords: reinforced concrete beams, tension stiffening, shrinkage, experimental tests, short-term loading.

cracking resistance and deformations of RC members

At a cracked section of reinforced (RC) member, all subjected to short-term loading. The necessity to assess

tension is carried by reinforcement. However, the con- shrinkage influence on deformation behaviour of cracked

crete continues to carry tensile stresses between the RC members has been recognised in the beginning of the

cracks because of bond action, which effectively stiffens 2nd half of XX century. However, in most cases, tension-

the member response and reduces deflections. The phe- stiffening relationships were derived from shrunk expe-

nomenon, commonly known as tension-stiffening, is rimental RC members. Therefore, tension-stiffening rela-

effectively responsible for above-zero average tensile tionships were coupled with shrinkage and accompanying

stresses existing in cracked concrete. Tension-stiffening creep effects (Kaklauskas et al. 2009).

is sometimes confused with tension softening which is a Present study aims at deriving a tension-stiffening

property of plain concrete and may be modelled by frac- relationship for short-term deformational analysis of RC

ture mechanics models. flexural members. The proposed relationship is based on

Cracking and tension-stiffening parameters probably moment-curvature diagrams of RC beams experimentally

have the most significant effect on numerical results of obtained by the authors. The method applied for deriving

concrete members subjected to short-term loading. Ten- the relationship is based on Layer section model (Kak-

sion-stiffening effects usually need to be included in an lauskas 2004) and combines direct and inverse techniques

analysis that uses averaged stresses and strains to predict of analysis of RC members. The shrinkage effect is elim-

member behaviour, such as with smeared finite elements, inated using the technique proposed by Kaklauskas et al.

a layered beam section analysis, or truss modelling which (2009). A simple formula was proposed for calculation of

incorporates compatibility of overall averaged strains. the tension-stiffening diagrams.

This type of approach requires a suitable material model

for cracked concrete, and tension-stiffening results can be 2. Deformational model of RC flexural member:

used to obtain the post-cracking stress-strain response of theoretical background

concrete. Based on a variety of assumptions, many con-

stitutive models for RC in tension have been proposed. The proposed method is based on Layer section

The relationships were defined from tension, shear or model and combines direct and inverse techniques of

bending tests. analysis of RC members. In the direct technique moment-

810

curvature diagrams are calculated for assumed constitu- cracking, tension-stiffening and deformations of lightly

tive laws of the materials, i.e. compressive and tensile reinforced members. Four beams with various reinforce-

concrete and reinforcement. The inverse technique pro- ment ratios and diameter were tested under a four-point

posed by the second author in co-authorship (Kaklauskas loading system, which gave a constant moment zone of

& Ghaboussi 2001) is aimed at determining average 1.0 m, and two shear spans of 1.0 m each. Main charac-

stress-average strain relations for cracked tensile concrete teristics of the specimens are given in Table 1.

from flexural tests of RC members. For given experimen- The experimental results are presented in terms of

tal moment-curvature diagrams, the material stress-strain moment-curvature diagrams for each of the beam. The

relation (including the descending branch) is computed moment-curvature diagrams obtained from the tests and

from the equilibrium equations for incrementally increas- with eliminated shrinkage are shown in Fig 3.

ing moment assuming portions of the relations obtained

from the previous increments. In the present analysis, Table 1. Main characteristics of the test beams

shrinkage is eliminating by assuming reverse (expanding) h db a' As1 As2 fcyl

shrinkage strain (Kaklauskas et al. 2009). Beam

mm mm2 MPa

The proposed method has been applied to the test

S1-3 299 268 283 23 755 57 48.2

data of two reinforced beams reported by Sato et al. 2007.

S2-3 300 272 282 29 466 57 48.1

Most of the characteristics, excepting the curing condi-

tions, were very similar for the beams. Beam V-01-13WB S3-2-2 298 274 283 32 232 57 52.8

was prevented from shrinking (wet curing), whereas S3-2-3 298 271 284 32 232 57 50.9

beam V-01-13DB was exposed to drying condition. This

resulted in different shrinkage strains. 1 – 1 P P

As shown in Fig 1, the proposed method consists of As2

the following steps: 1) Using the experimental moment- a´

1000 1000 1000

curvature diagrams (see Fig 1a), tension-stiffening rela-

h d 3000

tionships (see Fig 1b) were derived by the inverse tech- As1

nique. 2) Free-of-shrinkage moment-curvature diagrams 1

suming obtained tension-stiffening relationships and ex- b 100ø6 1

3280

pansion concrete strain. It should be noted that due to

similar beam parameters, these diagrams have practically Fig 2. Cross-section and loading scheme of experi-

coincided. 3) Free-of-shrinkage tension-stiffening laws mental beam

were derived (see Fig 1d) by the inverse technique.

Fig 1. Deriving free-of-shrinkage tension-stiffening

relationships from RC beam tests reported by Sato et

al. (2007)

4. Derivation of tension stiffening law

3. Experimental program moment-curvature diagrams applying the algorithm dis-

cussed in Section 2. In addition, shrinkage effect was

The tests were performed in the Laboratory of Rein- eliminated from experimental moment-curvature dia-

forced Concrete and Masonry Structures of Vilnius Ge- grams. Free-of-shrinkage tension-stiffening relationships

diminas Technical University. Lightly and moderately are shown in Fig 4. The relationships were normalised by

reinforced concrete beams (p = 0.30%, 0.60% and 1%) dividing stresses by the tensile strength calculated using

were subjected to short-term loading. Beams have the

Eurocode 2 provisions ( σ ct ft , EC 2 ) and the strains by the

same cross-section parameters and material characteris-

tics (see Fig 2 and Table 1). Experimental program re- cracking strain ( ε ct ε cr , EC 2 ).

ported in (Gribniak et al. 2007, Kaklauskas et. al. 2008) The descending branch of the tension-stiffening rela-

was devoted to investigation concrete shrinkage effect on tionships was fitted using following relationship:

811

⎛ ⎛ ε ct ⎞ ⎞ comparative study was based on the predictions made by

σ ct = f t , EC 2 ⎜ 1 − 0.27 ln ⎜ ⎟ − 0.21 p ⎟ (1) three design codes (Eurocode 2, ACI 318, SP 52-101) and

⎝ ε cr , EC 2 ⎠

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠ the proposed model [see Equation (1)].

The experimental data collected by the authors

The above relationship allows to take into account

(Gribniak et al. 2004, Gribniak 2009) consists of 40 RC

free shrinkage strain of concrete as independent parame-

flexural members reported by six investigators. All the

ter. The calculated tension-stiffening laws are presented

members were subjected to a four-point bending. They

in Fig 5.

had a rectangular cross-section. Main characteristics of

Comparison of the test and calculated (using the

the members indicating variations in span, cross-section

proposed tension-stiffening law) moment-curvature dia-

parameters and concrete strength are listed in Table 2. In

grams are presented in Fig 6. Figure 7 is compare the

this table, N represents the number of the specimens in a

obtained from tests and the proposed tension-stiffening

test program. The tests covered wide ranges of rein-

relationships.

forcement ratios. Experimental data of Clark & Speirs

1.4

(1978), Ashour (2000) and Nejadi (2005) can be catego-

σct/ ctm,EC2

f

rised as beams having average and high reinforcement

1.2

ratios. The experimental data of Figarovskij (1962),

1.0 Gushcha (1968) and Kaklauskas et al. (2005) should be

0.8 dealt separately, since most of the beams had a very low

0.6 S3-2-3 S3-2-2

reinforcement ratio.

0.4 S2-3 S1-3

Lightly reinforced beams is an extreme case of

0.2 εct/εcr,EC2 bending analysis, because the stress-strain state as well as

0 curvatures and deflections are significantly influenced by

-0.2 effects of cracked tensile concrete (Gribniak et al. 2004).

-0.4 Since tensile strength is a highly dispersed value, it is

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 very difficult to predict deflections accurately at loads

Fig 4. Normalised tension-stiffening laws just above the cracking loads, particularly for lightly rein-

forced members.

1.4 σct/ ctm,EC2

f

Table 2. Main characteristics of the test beams

1.2

1.0 N L h p fcu

p = 2.0% Author

0.8 pcs. m mm % MPa

0.6 p = 1.0% Clark &Speirs

14 3.2

200- 0.4- 23-

0.2% (1978) 500 2.0 40

0.4

p =

Kaklauskas et al 41-

0.2 εct/εcr,EC2 7 3.0 300 0.3

(2005) 55

0

0.3- 31-

-0.2 Gushcha (1967) 4 3.6 300

0.8 43

-0.4

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Figarovskij (1962) 7 3.0 250

0.4- 29-

0.9 37

Fig 5. Proposed tension-stiffening laws

1.2- 61-

Ashour (2000) 6 3.08 250

2.4 98

100 Moment, kNm 333-

With eliminated Nejadi (2005) 2 3.5

348

0.5 45

80 shrinkage

S1-3 From test Total: 40

3.0- 200- 0.3- 23-

3.5 500 2.0 98

60 S2-3

40 S3-2-2

S3-2-3

The calculation methods employed for comparative

deflection analysis of flexural RC members are as fol-

20 lows: Eurocode 2 (CEN 2004); ACI 318 (ACI 318 2008);

Curvature x 103, m-1 new Russian code SP 53-101 (NIIZB 2006); and the pro-

0 posed model [see Equation (1)].

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 The experimental mid-span curvatures were com-

Fig 6. Calculated and experimental moment-curvature diagrams pared with those predicted by the techniques described

above. The analysis was based on Sliced data transforma-

tion (Gribniak 2009, Gribniak et al. 2010) introducing

5. Statistical analysis eleven levels of loading intensity M taken in relative

terms between the cracking and ultimate bending mo-

This Section presents statistical analysis on short- ments:

term deflections of RC bending members. The analysis

has employed data of six experimental programs. The

812

1.4 σct/fctm,EC2 sideration. Analysis performed has resulted in three such

1.2 intervals:

1.0 1: p < 0.5%; 2 : 0.5 ≤ p ≤ 1.0%; 3: p > 1.0% (5)

0.8

0.6 S3-2-3

S2-3

Graphical illustration of the analysis results is pre-

0.4 sented in Fig 8 with shown 95% confidence intervals of

0.2 expectation μΔ for the grouped data. Width of the confi-

εct/εcr,EC2

0 dence intervals characterises variation of the relative error

-0.2 of predictions.

-0.4

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 3 Δ p < 0.5%

1.4 σct/fctm,EC2 Eurocode 2 ACI 318

2

1.2

1.0 1

0.8 S3-2-2

0

0.6 S1-3 SP 52-101 Proposed

0.4 2

0.2

εct/εcr,EC2 1

0 M´

-0.2 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

-0.4

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 3 Δ 0.5 ≤ p ≤ 1.0%

Eurocode 2 ACI 318

Fig 7. Calculated and proposed tension-stiffening 2

relationships

1

0

M ' = ( M − M cr ) ( M ult

∗ − M );

cr SP 52-101 Proposed

(2)

M' = {0; 0.1; ...; 0.9; 1} 2

1

Here M*ult is the pseudo-ultimate bending moment calcu- M´

lated for each member under assumption of yielding 0

strength of tensile reinforcement 400 MPa; Mcr is the

cracking moment (CEB-FIP 1991): 3 Δ p > 1.0%

Eurocode 2 ACI 318

M cr = I el f ct yt ; 2

(3)

f ct = 0,3 3 f c'2 ; f c' = f cu 1, 25 1

0

Here fcu is the compressive 150 mm cube strength of con- Proposed

SP 52-101

crete (see Table 2). Thus, M’ = 0 and M’ = 1 corresponds 2

to cracking and pseudo-failure of the RC element, respec-

tively. 1

of a relative error Δi , k calculated at each level M’ for

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Δi,k = xcalc

' ' ;

xobs Fig 8. 95% confidence intervals of the expectation for

(4) different load levels and reinforcement ratio intervals

i = 1; 2; 3; ...; 10; 11, k = 40

Here x’cal and x’obs are the mid-point deflec- Concluding remarks

tions/curvatures interpolated at the level M’ from calcu-

lated and original test data, respectively. It should be The research presented in this paper was dedicated

noted that not all specimens contained eleven output to the investigation of tension-stiffening effect in rein-

points as their testing was terminated before reinforce- forced concrete beams. A new, free-of-shrinkage tension-

ment reached 400 MPa. The transformation resulted in stiffening law, has been derived from experimental beams

383 output points covering post-cracking stage (compare reported in the authors. In general, results of this analysis

to 899 measured points). fitted well the conclusions of the previous findings and

In practical application of the procedure, it was in- were extended for the case of small reinforcement ratios.

tended at each normalised load level to define reinforce- It has been shown that the shape of the relationships

ment ratio intervals with normal probability distribution mostly depends on reinforcement ratio. The length of the

of relative error Δ valid for all the methods under con- descending branch of the curves reflecting the tension-

813

stiffening effect was considerably more pronounced for действии на- грузки]. PhD dissertation. Moscow:

beams with smaller reinforcement ratios. The proposed NIIZhB. 210 p. (In Russian).

model was applied in a simple iterative technique based Gribniak, V. 2009. Shrinkage Influence on Tension-Stiffening

on classical principles of strength of materials extended of Concrete Structures. PhD dissertation, Vilnius Gedimi-

to the layered approach. Accuracy of the technique has nas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania. 146 p.

been investigated by calculating deflections/curvatures Available from Internet: <http://www.dart-

europe.eu/full.php?id=18 2160>.

for a large number of experimental reinforced concrete

beams reported by several investigators. Comparison has Gribniak, V.; Christiansen, M. B.; Kaklauskas, G. 2004. Com-

been carried out with the predictions made for design parative statistical deflection analysis of RC beams by FE

software ATENA, design code methods and the Flexural

code methods. For beams with average and high rein-

model, in Proc. of the Eighth International Conference

forcement ratios (p > 0.5), accurate predictions have been Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques.

made by all the methods yielding an error (standard de- Vilnius: Technika, 462–469.

viation) from 8.8 to 10.3%. However, predictions for the Gribniak, V.; Kaklauskas, G.; Bacinskas, D. 2007. Experimental

lightly reinforced beams (p < 0.5 %) were far less accu- Investigation of Deformations of Lightly Reinforced Con-

rate. These risen inaccuracies are related to the increased crete Beams, in Proc. of the Ninth International Confer-

influence of the tensile concrete which is a highly dis- ence Modern Building Materials, Structures and Tech-

persed value. For the lightly reinforced beams, the most niques. Vilnius: Technika, 2: 554–562.

accurate predictions in terms of standard deviation Gribniak, V.; Kaklauskas, G.; Idnurm, S.; Bacinskas, D. 2010.

(24.0 %) have been achieved for the proposed model. Finite element mesh size effect on deformation predic-

Relatively accurate predictions were also made by the tions of reinforced concrete bridge girder, The Baltic

ACI 318 method yielding standard deviations of 28.0 %. Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 5(1): 19–27.

The Eurocode 2 method underestimates the cracking doi:10.3846/bjrbe.2010.03

moment and often significantly overestimates the corre- Gushcha, Yu. P. 1967. Investigation of Elastic-Plastic Behav-

sponding deflection, in some cases yielding an error of iour of Flexural Concrete Members Reinforced with De-

over 100%. formed Bars [Исследование изгибаемых

железобетонных элементов при работе стержневой

Acknowledgements арматуры в упруго-пластической стадии]. PhD disser-

tation. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Research and

Technological Institute (NIIZhB), Moscow. 210 p. (in

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial

Russian).

support provided by the Research Council of Lithuania,

and by the complementary financial support provided by Kaklauskas, G. 2004. Flexural layered deformational model of

reinforced concrete members, Magazine of Concrete Re-

the Agency of International Programs of Scientific and

search 56(10): 575–584.

Technology Development in Lithuania.

Kaklauskas, G.; Ghaboussi, J. 2001. Stress-Strain Relations for

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814

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