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Lec. - Railway Engineering Assist. Lec.

Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi

Introduction to Railways and Trains

Railway Engineering: The branch of Civil Engineering which deals with the design, construction and
maintenance of the railway tracks for safe and efficient movements of trains.

The Importance of Rail Transport:

1- Large transport heavy loads over long distances.

2- The ability to quickly and clear superiority of a lot of other means; where some trains
speed reached 210 km / h and others 510 km/ h.

3- Economy and safe mode of transportation.

Types of Land Transportation System

1- Rail transport Owing to the heavy expenditure on the basic infra-structure

required, rail transport is best suited for carrying bulk commodities and a large number
of passengers over long distances.

2- Road transport Owing to flexibility of operation and the ability to provide door to- door
service, road transport is ideally suited for carrying light commodities and a small number of
passengers over short distances.
Lec. - Railway Engineering Assist. Lec. Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi

3- Pipe lines (for oil, gas, etc...).

The History of Railways

1- About 5000 BC by the Babylonians and the ancient Egyptians invented the wheels.

2- Greeks used paths to their vehicles digging ground lines nearly 15 cen meters in depth. And
the vehicle was paid on two parallel lines a distance of one meter or more between them are
more like bars rail.

3- In the 16th century used lines of iron above the ground (rails) to transport coal from the mines
to the vehicles wheels above it.

4- The first trains were rope- hauled, gravity powered or pulled by horses.

5- The opening of the rst railway in 1825 the planning of the English author George Stephenson
Klangurt. The length of the railway line 40 kilometers.

6- From the early 19th century almost all were powered by steam locomo ves ( .

Pulled by horses Steam Locomotives

7- From the 1910s onwards the steam locomo ves began to be replaced by diesel locomotives
and electric locomotives. From city transit trains, subways, trams, to high speed rapid transit
Lec. - Railway Engineering Assist. Lec. Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi


Diesel locomotives Electric locomotives

8- Nowadays; Maglev technology has invented to achieve much faster opera on over 500
km/h (310 mph), in addition to modern tram system developed.

Maglev Light rail

Types of Railways

It might be divided according to its eleva on into 1- at grade rails. 2- Elevated rails and 3- metro
those in the urban areas, also it might be in form of 1- ballast rails 2- slabs, and 3- maglev.

The most divisions of railways types:

1- Common railway From the first moments that steam engines started rolling across the fields
of England, standard configuration of railway began spreading across the world.