Hvac Refrigeration pe EXAM BOOK

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Hvac Refrigeration pe EXAM BOOK

Hvac Refrigeration pe EXAM BOOK

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 471

FOR THE

PE EXAM

© 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 1: Introduction

Section 4: Psychrometrics*

Problems

Solutions

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SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 2

1.1 Key Concepts and Skills ................................................................................................. 2

1.2 Units ............................................................................................................................... 3

2.0 Disclaimer .......................................................................................................................... 4

3.0 How to use this Book ......................................................................................................... 5

4.0 Recommended HVAC & Refrigeration References ........................................................... 6

4.1 Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual ................................................................... 6

4.2 ASHRAE Handbooks ...................................................................................................... 6

4.3 ASHRAE Standards ....................................................................................................... 7

4.4 NFPA Codes ................................................................................................................... 7

Introduction-1 http://www.engproguides.com

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion of the Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book

does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on the P.E. exam.

The key concepts and skills discussed in this book were first developed through an analysis of

the topics and information presented by NCEES. NCEES indicates on their website that the

P.E. Exam will cover a number of topics including the following: Thermodynamics,

Psyhcrometrics, Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, Energy Balances, Equipment, Systems and

Support Knowledge. Next, each of these broad topics were investigated and filtered for

concepts and skills that met the following criteria:

(1) First, the concept and skill must be commonly used in the HVAC & Refrigeration

field. For example, the Fluid Mechanics topic includes skills (e.g., determining the force on a

surface due to a jet and the siphon concept), that are not used in the HVAC & Refrigeration

field. In comparison, pump and fan sizing, determining friction losses and calculating net

positive suction head are regular occurrences in the HVAC & Refrigeration field.

(2) Second, the skill and concept must be testable in roughly 6 minutes per problem.

There are (40) questions on the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon exam and you will be provided

with 4 hours to complete the exam. This results in an average of 6 minutes per problem. This

criterion limits the complexity of the exam problems and the resulting solutions. For example,

pressure drop calculations are common in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, but the calculation is

often very lengthy because of the number of steps involved, especially if a unique fluid and flow

condition is used. Thus, common fluids like water/air and common pipe/duct materials are

used.

(3) Third, the key concept and skill must be used by practicing HVAC & Refrigeration

engineers. This criterion is similar to the first criterion. However, this criterion filters the

concepts and skills further by limiting the field to material encountered and used by practicing

engineers. The HVAC & Refrigeration field is vast and there are many different avenues an

engineer can take. Two diverging paths are those engineers involved in research and those

who practice. Research engineers are pushing the boundaries of the field and are highly

focused in their specific area of the field. The Professional Engineering exam does not cover

innovative material or highly focused material.

Introduction-2 http://www.engproguides.com

(4) The P.E. Exam must test the application of the skill and concept and not the

background knowledge of the topic or concept. The exam also does not cover background

information on the NCEES topics. The P.E. Exam is meant to prove that the test taker is

minimally competent to practice in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. The exam is less concerned

with theory and more with the application of the theory, skill or concept. For example, the P.E.

exam is less concerned with the theory of evaporation in a cooling tower and more with the

performance and selection of a cooling tower.

In summary, this book is intended to teach the necessary skills and concepts to develop a

minimally competent, practicing professional engineer in the HVAC & Refrigeration field,

capable of passing the P.E. exam. This book does this through the following means:

(1) Teaching commonly used skills and concepts in the HVAC & Refrigeration field.

(2) Providing sample problems that can be completed in roughly 6 minutes per problem.

(3) Teaching skills and concepts used by practicing HVAC & Refrigeration engineers.

1.2 UNITS

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide focuses exclusively on the USCS. However, it is recommended

that the test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

International System of Units (SI).

Introduction-3 http://www.engproguides.com

2.0 DISCLAIMER

In no event will Engineering Pro Guides be liable for any incidental, indirect, consequential,

punitive or special damages of any kind, or any other damages whatsoever, including, without

limitation, those resulting from loss of profit, loss of contracts, loss of reputation, goodwill, data,

information, income, anticipated savings or business relationships, whether or not Engineering

Pro Guides has been advised of the possibility of such damage, arising out of or in connection

with the use of this document or any referenced documents and/or websites.

This book was created on the basis of determining an independent interpretation of the

minimum required knowledge and skills of a professional engineer. In no way does this

document represent the National Council of Examiners for Engineers and Surveying views or

the views of any other professional engineering society.

Introduction-4 http://www.engproguides.com

3.0 HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

This book is organized into the topics as designated by the NCEES. These topics include:

2. Thermodynamics – Steam Systems

3. Psychrometrics

4. Heat Transfer

5. Fluid Mechanics

6. Applications – Equipment and Systems

7. Applications – Supportive Knowledge

First, it is recommended that the engineer in training gather the recommended references

presented in the following section.

Second, proceed through the book in the order designated. Go through and first read the

material of the section, then complete the practice problems designated for that section. If you

have trouble with the practice problems, review the material and then read the solutions. The

problems at the end of each section are slightly easier and more straightforward than the typical

problems you would find in an actual P.E. Exam. These problems are meant only to practice

the application of the skill or concept presented in the section.

Following the completion of each of the sections, it is recommended that you go through the

checklists presented towards the end of the book. These checklists pose vital questions to the

engineer in training about their understanding of all the skills and concepts presented in this

book. If you are unconfident with any of the items, please go back and revisit the section.

Finally, set aside a four-hour block of uninterrupted time to complete the sample exam. Gather

your references and calculator and create a test-like environment. Set a timer and proceed to

take the sample exam presented at the end of this book. Remember that the exam is only 40

problems and does not encompass all the possible items that can appear on an exam, but it

should give you an idea of your level of readiness for the exam.

Introduction-5 http://www.engproguides.com

4.0 RECOMMENDED HVAC & REFRIGERATION REFERENCES

The following references are recommended to be studied prior to the exam and/or to be used

during the exam.

The Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual or MERM is the most popular and most

comprehensive manual designed for the Mechanical Professional Engineering exam. It is

recommended that the engineer be very familiar with the contents of this book and to bring this

book to the exam.

Another book related to the MERM is the Engineering Unit Conversions book. This is also

another recommended book to use during the exam and while studying for the exam.

The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers or ASHRAE

publishes four HVAC & Refrigeration books. These handbooks include:

(1) ASHRAE Fundamentals: This is a must have resource for the HVAC & Refrigeration

portion of the exam. It contains valuable information that can be used during the exam and is a

common resource for the practicing professional engineer. Important information found in this

book includes but are not limited to:

(2) ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment: This book provides information on various

HVAC systems and equipment. It is recommended that this book be reviewed prior to the

exam, in order to gain an understanding of the different pieces of HVAC equipment. Engineers

in training typically do not get exposed to all the popular pieces of equipment during their

training period. This book will provide the necessary exposure to the various equipment and

systems.

(3) ASHRAE Applications: This book provides information on various HVAC Applications. It

provides various scenarios encountered by HVAC Engineers and how the systems and

equipment discussed in the previous book are used in different applications. It is recommended

that this book be reviewed prior to the exam, in order to gain an understanding of the different

applications encountered. Often times, engineers in training do not get exposed to the wide

variety of HVAC applications. This book will provide the necessary exposure to the various

applications.

Introduction-6 http://www.engproguides.com

(4) ASHRAE Refrigeration: The final book in the ASHRAE series is ASHRAE Refrigeration.

This book discusses the various refrigeration systems and excludes the HVAC portion of

HVAC/R. This book is necessary to bring into the exam because of the thermal properties of

foods and refrigerant pipe sizing.

All of the ASHRAE books go into much more detail than is necessary for the exam, it is

important to remember that for this exam the level of complexity must allow for a problem to be

completed in 6 minutes and the problem must not be too obscure and detailed.

ASHRAE standards are another common tool used by practicing professional HVAC engineers.

However, the exam does not appear to be based on the latest version of the codes, since it is

not referenced as a resource by NCEES. However, it is recommended at a minimum that the

engineer in training be familiar with the information in each of the following codes.

(1) ASHRAE 15, Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems: Often times the HVAC

engineer will have to design a Refrigeration System and this system and this system must meet

the requirements set forth in this standard. It also provides safety designations and

classifications of refrigerants.

(2) ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy: This standard

provides the method and requirements for determining optimum thermal environmental

conditions for human occupancy.

(3) ASHRAE 62.1, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: This standard provides the

minimum ventilation requirements for indoor occupied spaces. This standard is used often by

practicing engineers when determining outside air and exhaust air requirements for spaces,

since many governing city, state and federal agencies require their projects to meet this

standard or a variation of this standard.

(4) ASHRAE 90.1, Energy Standard for Building except Low-Rise Residential Buildings:

This standard provides the minimum energy efficiency requirements for common HVAC

equipment. This standard is used often by practicing engineers when selecting and modeling

HVAC equipment, since many governing city, state and federal agencies require their projects

to meet this standard or a variation of this standard.

The National Fire Protection Agency provides codes and standards related to fire protection.

The only recommended NFPA codes are those relating to HVAC systems. These codes are (1)

NFPA 90A and 90B, which are titled the Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and

Ventilating Systems and the Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air

Conditioning Systems.

Introduction-7 http://www.engproguides.com

SECTION 2: THERMODYNAMICS

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3

2.0 Key Equations .................................................................................................................... 4

3.0 Refrigerants ........................................................................................................................ 5

3.1 Hydrocarbons ................................................................................................................. 5

3.2 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ........................................................................................... 5

3.3 Hydroclurofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ................................................................................. 5

3.4 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) ............................................................................................ 6

3.5 Refrigerant Summary ..................................................................................................... 6

4.0 Boiling Pressure/Temperature ........................................................................................... 8

5.0 Vapor Compression Cycle ................................................................................................. 9

5.1 Evaporator .................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Compressor .................................................................................................................. 12

5.3 Condenser .................................................................................................................... 14

5.4 Expansion Device ......................................................................................................... 15

6.0 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram ............................................................................................. 16

6.1 Refrigeration Cycle ....................................................................................................... 19

6.1.1 Step 1 Evaporator ....................................................................................................... 20

6.1.2 Step 2 Compressor ..................................................................................................... 24

6.1.3 Step 3 Condenser ....................................................................................................... 26

6.1.4 Step 4 Expansion Device ............................................................................................ 28

6.1.5 Net Refrigeration/Condenser, Work and COP ............................................................ 29

7.0 Codes & References ........................................................................................................ 32

7.1 ASHRAE 15, Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems ............................................ 32

7.2 Montreal Protocol ......................................................................................................... 32

8.0 Refrigeration Practice Problems ...................................................................................... 34

Problem 1 – Evaporator .......................................................................................................... 34

Solution 1 - Evaporator ........................................................................................................ 35

Problem 2 – Evaporator .......................................................................................................... 36

Solution 2 – Evaporator ....................................................................................................... 37

Problem 3 – Evaporator .......................................................................................................... 38

Solution 3 – Evaporator ....................................................................................................... 39

Problem 4 – Compressor ........................................................................................................ 40

Solution 4 – Compressor ..................................................................................................... 41

Refrigeration - 1 http://www.engproguides.com

Problem 5 – Compressor ........................................................................................................ 42

Solution 5 – Compressor ..................................................................................................... 43

Problem 6 – Condenser .......................................................................................................... 44

Solution 6 – Condenser ....................................................................................................... 45

Problem 7 – Condenser .......................................................................................................... 46

Solution 7 – Condenser ....................................................................................................... 47

Problem 8 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................... 48

Solution 8 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................ 49

Problem 9 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................... 50

Solution 9 – Expansion Device ............................................................................................ 51

Problem 10 – COP .................................................................................................................. 52

Solution 10 – COP ............................................................................................................... 53

Problem 11 – COP .................................................................................................................. 54

Solution 11 – COP ............................................................................................................... 55

Problem 12 – Refrigeration Codes .......................................................................................... 57

Solution 12 – Refrigeration Codes ....................................................................................... 58

Problem 13 – Refrigerants ...................................................................................................... 59

Solution 13 – Refrigerants ................................................................................................... 60

Refrigeration - 2 http://www.engproguides.com

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the

Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on

the P.E. exam.

This Refrigeration Guide for the P.E. Exam provides background information on different

refrigerant types, the necessary codes and also provides heavy emphasis on refrigeration

diagrams. A professional engineer should be able to properly navigate a refrigeration diagram

and have a deep understanding of the vapor compression cycle which is critical in refrigeration

systems. In addition, this guide also focuses on the (4) main parts of refrigeration systems,

which are the evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide focuses exclusively on the USCS. However, it is recommended

that the test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

International System of Units (SI).

Refrigeration - 3 http://www.engproguides.com

2.0 KEY EQUATIONS

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Compressor Work

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) �� ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Net Condenser Effect Function of Compressor Work and Net Refrigeration Effect

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] + 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢]

Coefficient of Performance

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =

𝑊𝑖𝑛 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢]

Refrigeration - 4 http://www.engproguides.com

3.0 REFRIGERANTS

Refrigerants are fluids used in the commercial HVAC field to transfer heat from one source to

another. For example, in a water cooled chiller, refrigerant is used to remove heat from chilled

water and transfer heat to condenser water. Or in a typical residential split air conditioner

system, refrigerant is used to remove heat from the indoor air and transfer that heat to the

outdoors through the use of a condenser.

The main requirement for a fluid to be classified as a refrigerant is the ability to transfer heat.

Refrigerants must also be safe in order to be used for commercial and residential air

conditioning purposes. Refrigerants are classified by the following information: (1) Flammability,

(2) Toxicity, (3) Global Warming Potential (GWP), (4) Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and (5)

Operating Pressure. The flammability and toxicity classifications are shown in ASHRAE 15 and

are discussed briefly in Sections 3.1 through 3.5 and later in Section 7.1. The GWP, ODP and

Operating Pressure of refrigerants are discussed further in Sections 3.1 through 3.5.

Refrigerants can be split into four different types, (1) Hydrocarbons, (2) Chlorofluorocarbons, (3)

Hydroclurofluorocarbons and (4) Hydrofluorocarbons.

3.1 HYDROCARBONS

Hydrocarbons consist of hydrogen and carbon. Some examples of hydrocarbons include

methane, ethane, propane and butane. Hydrocarbons like propane and isobutene can be used

in vapor compression cycles for refrigeration, but most commonly hydrocarbons are used in the

combustion process.

CFCs consist of carbon, with the chemical addition of chlorine and fluorine. Common CFCs

include R-12 and R-11, which were used heavily in air conditioning, vapor compression cycles.

Unlike hydrocarbons, CFCs are non-flammable. However, CFCs when improperly handled and

released into the atmosphere have been found to deplete the ozone layer. For this reason,

CFCs have been phased out and in the United States. In fact, CFCs are no longer used in new

air conditioning machines.

HCFCs consist of hydrogen and carbon, with the chemical addition of chlorine and fluorine. The

most common HCFC is R-22, which was used heavily in air conditioning. HCFCs are non-

flammable. They are also no longer used in new air conditioning machines in the United States,

because they contain the ozone harmful element, chlorine. The Montreal Protocol requires that

HCFC's be decreased in consumption and production, until HCFC's are completely phased out

in 2030. Two specific HCFC’s, 22 and 142B, have been phased out of new equipment in 2010,

with the complete phase out of these refrigerants in 2020 (existing and new equipment). The

Montreal Protocol is further discussed in Section 8.2.

Refrigeration - 5 http://www.engproguides.com

3.4 HYDROFLUOROCARBONS (HFCS)

HFCs have been substituted for CFCs because they have an ozone depletion potential of zero

and contain no chlorine. HFCs are also being substituted for HCFCs because they are currently

the most efficient refrigerants that do not harm the ozone, since they do not contain chlorine.

However, HFCs are also planned to be substituted in the future because of the greenhouse

gases that are emitted.

A summary of the different types of refrigerants are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1: REFRIGERANT SUMMARY

Refrigerant

Example(s) Remarks

Type

HC-290 (Propane), CH 4 Not typically used in commercial A/C

HCs

(Methane) products, flammable.

Contains ozone depleting chlorine, most

CFCs CFC-11, 12, 113, 114, 115

harmful, phased out in ’95, High GWP.

Contains ozone depleting chlorine, Short

HCFCs HCFC-22, HCFC-123 term replacements, phased out in ’10 from

new equipment, High GWP.

Contains ZERO ozone depleting chlorine,

HFC-134a, HFC-407C, HFC-

HFCs ZERO ODP, Long term replacements, High

410A,

GWP.

Ozone Depleting Potential [ODP]: The ODP is an index developed to identify how damaging a

substance is to the ozone. The reference point from which all substances are compared is

CFC-11. CFC-11 is assumed to have an ODP of 1, more damaging chemicals have a higher

ODP and less damaging chemicals have a lower ODP. A summary of chemicals and their ODP

is shown in Table 2. Refrigerants with chlorine have a higher ODP. It is estimated that each

chlorine atom destroys 100,000 ozone molecules.

TABLE 2: ODP SUMMARY

Potential

[ODP]

CFC-11 1

CFC-12 1

HCFC-22 0.055

HCFC-123 0.02

HFC-134a 0

HFC-410A 0

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Global Warming Potential [GWP]: The GWP is an index developed to identify the potential for a

substance to prevent infrared radiation from leaving the earth's atmosphere. The reference

point, from which all substances are compared, is carbon dioxide. CO 2 is assumed to have a

GWP of 1, chemicals with a higher potential to contribute to global warming have a higher GWP

and those with a lower potential have a lower GWP. A summary of chemicals and their GWP is

shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3: GWP SUMMARY

Potential

[GWP]

CO 2 1

CFC-11 5,000

CFC-12 8,500

HCFC-22 1,700

HCFC-123 80

HFC-134a 1,300

HFC-410A 1,890

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4.0 BOILING PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE

One key principle that must be understood for Refrigeration is the relationship between the

boiling/condensing point of a fluid, in this case a refrigerant, and the temperature and pressure

of the refrigerant. A refrigerant liquid’s boiling point is a function of the vapor pressure of the

refrigerant vapor that is in equilibrium with the refrigerant liquid. If the pressure is low, then

there is a smaller force acting upon the refrigerant liquid, thus it will take a lower temperature to

boil the refrigerant liquid. For example, water at a pressure of 1 atmosphere or 14.696 PSI will

boil at 212 F. However, if the water was at a pressure of 0.122 PSI, then the water will boil at

40 F. This principle is important to understand: Low pressure refrigerants boil at a lower

temperature, high pressure refrigerants condense at a higher temperature.

Water

Pressure

Temperature [F]

[PSI]

Boiling Point

212 14.696

190 9.340

160 4.742

130 2.224

100 0.950

70 0.363

40 0.122

10 0.031

PRESSURE

When a low pressure refrigerant changes from its liquid phase to a gas phase, it can absorb

much more heat than if it were to simply increase in temperature. The same is also true when a

high pressure refrigerant changes phase from its gas phase to a liquid phase, it release much

more heat than if it were to decrease in temperature. The energy required to change the phase

of a liquid from a liquid to a gas is called the latent heat of evaporation. The energy released to

change the phase of a gas to a liquid is called the latent heat of condensation.

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5.0 VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE

The vapor compression cycle is the primary cycle used in commercial refrigeration systems.

This cycle is shown below in Figure 2.

Win

The vapor compression cycle starts at (Step 1) the evaporator, with cold, low-pressure, liquid

refrigerant. It absorbs heat and evaporates to a low-pressure gas. Then the gas is (Step 2)

Compressed to a high-pressure, high-temperature gas and (Step 3) condensed to a high

pressure gas. Finally, the gas is condensed at the (Step 4) expansion device to a cold, low-

pressure liquid refrigerant.

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5.1 EVAPORATOR

Step 1: Evaporator. The first step in the vapor compression cycle is the evaporator, which can

also be called a liquid cooler. The evaporator is simply a heat exchanger. Heat is exchanged

from the warm medium (air or water) to the cold, liquid refrigerant. The heat gained by the liquid

refrigerant causes it to change phases to a refrigerant gas. The refrigerant liquid gains the heat

necessary to overcome the latent heat of evaporation, in order to change to a gas.

There are two types of evaporators, (1) an air cooled evaporator and (2) a water cooled

evaporator. Figure 4 shows the (1) air cooled evaporator which is most commonly referred to

as a direct expansion system. In this evaporator, warm air from an air conditioned space is

cooled and redistributed to the space. Figure 3 shows the water cooled system, where chilled

water return is cooled and supplied to the chilled water distribution system.

The most common system is the direct expansion system. This system is prevalent throughout

smaller systems, like those serving residential systems. In this system, the hot air from the

space is used to directly evaporate the refrigerant to a hot gas. Note that the hot air from the

space is roughly ~75 °F and the refrigerant liquid is typically 40 °F. The 75 °F room air is cooled

down to ~55 °F and then distributed back to the space. In a water-cooled system, which is

more common for larger commercial systems, chilled water typically at 55 °F is cooled by the

evaporator down to ~45 °F. The colder chilled water is then supplied to another heat

exchanger, where air is cooled and then distributed to the space.

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Besides the two different types of evaporator systems, there are also different types of heat

exchangers used in refrigeration. The most common heat exchangers include: (1) Shell and

Tube, (2) Tube in Tube and (3) Brazed Plate.

(1) Shell and Tube: This heat exchanger is the most common and consists of copper pipes

arranged in a coil that is constructed in a cylindrical shell. One fluid is provided in the shell and

contacts the outer surface of the inner tubes. Another fluid is contained inside of the tubes.

Heat exchange occurs in the shell at the outer surface of the tubes. Often times aluminum fins

are provided on the copper pipes. These fins provide more surface area for heat exchange to

occur.

(2) Tube in Tube: A tube is constructed in a tube, sealed separately to keep the fluids in one

tube from contaminating the other. Heat exchange is conducted at the outer surface of the

inner tube and the inner surface of the outer tube.

(3) Brazed Plate: This type of heat exchanger consists of multiple thin plates separated by a

small distance. Each plate either carries the hot or cold fluid. Heat exchange occurs between

the surface areas of each plate.

As previously mentioned the evaporator acts as a heat exchanger with a cold side and a hot

side. The cold side consists of a mixture of refrigerant gas and liquid. At this point, the partial

liquid-gas refrigerant mixture moves through the evaporator, picking up heat from the hot side.

But instead of heating the gas, the heat is used to boil the remaining liquid. It is important for

the evaporator to boil all of the liquid, prior to the refrigerant entering the compressor in the

following step. Once all the liquid has boiled, the liquid-gas mixture turns into a refrigerant gas

(vapor), called a saturated vapor. Any additional heat will now increase the temperature of the

refrigerant vapor, into a region called super heat. Any release in heat will cause some of the

gas to condense back to a liquid.

It is important for the engineer to understand that the amount of cooling provided through the

evaporation of the refrigerant liquid is much more than simply increasing the temperature of the

refrigerant liquid. For example, R-134a takes 92.82 Btu of heat to change 1 lb of refrigerant

from liquid to gas. While it takes 0.204 Btu of heat to increase 1 lb of refrigerant gas by 1°F.

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5.2 COMPRESSOR

Step 2: Compressor. The next step is where the refrigerant gas is compressed by the

compressor, which raises the temperature and pressure of the gas. The compressor is where

the work takes place. The compressor is also the driving force that moves the refrigerant

through the vapor compression cycle and prepares the refrigerant before it enters the

condenser. It is important that the refrigerant gas is raised to a temperature that is above the

temperature of the fluid in the condenser. This will allow heat to be transferred from the

refrigerant to the condenser fluid. The compression of the refrigerant gas occurs isentropically,

meaning that there is no change in entropy. Since the compressor is not completely efficient

there will be an increase in enthalpy as the heat generated by the compressor is transferred to

the refrigerant gas.

Enthalpy - a measure of the total energy in a thermodynamic system (sensible and latent

energy).

The engineer should be knowledgeable of the 5 different types of compressors and their

advantages and disadvantages, in order to determine when they should be used. The five

types of compressors are centrifugal, scroll, reciprocating, screw and rotary. A brief overview of

the different types of compressors is shown below.

• Rotary: The rotary type compressor compresses refrigerant gas through positive

displacement. Positive displacement simply means that the pressure of the gas

is increased by reducing the volume.

• Scroll: Similar to the rotary type compressor, the scroll compressor uses positive

displacement to increase the pressure of the gas.

• Screw: Similar to the rotary type compressor, the scroll compressor uses

positive displacement to increase the pressure of the gas. The screw

compressor consists of two interlocking screws. The gas moves through the

screw from the beginning thread to the end thread, increasing the pressure as it

moves to the discharge side.

• Reciprocating: A reciprocating compressor compresses gas through positive

displacement. A piston type movement compresses gas as it enters the cylinder.

• Centrifugal: Centrifugal compressors are not like positive displacement

compressors, these compressors rely on a rotating impeller to use its centrifugal

force to move the gas to the outside diameter of the rotating impeller, which

increases the velocity of the gas. The increased velocity is then translated into

increased pressure.

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Another distinction between compressors is made between hermetic, semi-hermetic and open

drive compressors. Hermetic is most often recognized when used in the phrase “hermetic seal”,

which means airtight.

Hermetic: A hermetic compressor is airtight. The compressor and motor are located in a

welded container, so no refrigerant can escape. Since the motor is located in the same

enclosure as the compressor, the compressor needs to account for the motor heat.

Open Drive: An open drive compressor indicates that the compressor and refrigerant are

located in an enclosure and out of the enclosure is a shaft connecting it to a motor. The motor

is outside of the enclosure and the heat is lost to the space and not to compressor.

compressor are located in a mechanically sealed container, which can be opened without

cutting into the enclosure unlike the hermetic compressor.

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5.3 CONDENSER

Step 3: Condenser. The third step in the vapor compression cycle is the condenser. The

condenser is the counterpart of the evaporator. Similar to the evaporator, the condenser is

simply a heat exchanger. Except in this case, heat is exchanged from the warm refrigerant gas

to the cold medium. The heat released by the warm refrigerant gas causes it to change phases.

The refrigerant gas condenses to refrigerant liquid.

There are two types of condensers, similar to the two types of evaporators. Figure 5 shows a

sample water cooled condenser, where cool condenser water at ~85 °F is used to remove heat

from the refrigerant, causing it to increase in temperature to approximately ~95 °F. Figure 6

shows the air cooled system, where heat is removed from the refrigerant by blowing outside air

over the coil. The location will determine the condenser water and outside air temperatures.

The methods of heat exchange are similar to that of the evaporator. Refer to the evaporator

section for the different types of heat exchangers.

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5.4 EXPANSION DEVICE

Step 4: Expansion Device. The final step is the expansion device, which is the counterpart of

the compressor. The expansion device reduces the pressure of the liquid, which causes not

only the pressure to decrease but also the temperature to decrease. During this process, some

of the liquid refrigerant is turned into a gas, this is called flash gas. The resultant of the

expansion device is a cold partial liquid-vapor refrigerant mix. The cold refrigerant liquid-vapor

mix then repeats the process at the evaporator.

The expansion device that is primarily used in air conditioning systems is called a thermostatic

expansion valve (TXV). The TXV as its name describes, opens and closes, based on a thermal

device. The adjustment of the opening/closing determines the amount of refrigerant that is

passed through and evaporated. The TXV uses the temperature of the evaporator output as a

basis for determining the amount of refrigerant.

For example, if the TXV senses that the evaporator is producing an output refrigerant

temperature that is too cold, then there is too much refrigerant for the heat load (hot side of the

evaporator) and the refrigerant sent to the evaporator needs to be throttled down (decrease cold

side of the evaporator). If the TXV senses that the output of the evaporator is too high, then the

amount of refrigerant cannot keep up with the heat load (hot side) then the TXV should allow

more refrigerant to the evaporator (increase cold side).

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6.0 PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM

The pressure-enthalpy diagram or P-H diagram is a tool that all HVAC & Refrigeration

engineers should be able to use proficiently. This diagram describes the relationship of

pressure and enthalpy of a select refrigerant. In order to properly understand this diagram, it is

best to go through the vapor compression cycle on a P-H diagram.

On the P-H diagram, pressure is indicated on the y-axis and enthalpy is indicated on the x-axis.

Typically enthalpy is in units of Btu/lb and pressure is in units of pounds per square inch (psi).

The upside down U figure shown on the diagram designates the points at which the refrigerant

changes phase. The left vertical curve indicates the saturated liquid curve and the right vertical

curve indicates the saturated vapor curve. The region in between the two curves describe

refrigerant states that contain a mixture of both liquid and vapor. The locations to the left of the

saturated liquid curve indicate that the refrigerant is in liquid form and locations to the right of

the saturated vapor curve indicate that the refrigerant is in vapor form. The point at which the

two curves meet is called the critical point. The importance of this point is that at any point

above, no additional pressure will change the vapor into a liquid. A simplified pressure-enthalpy

diagram is shown in Figure 7, describing this information.

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The curves break up the diagram into three regions (1) Liquid, (2) Vapor and (3) Mix.

(1) Liquid Region: The liquid region is also known as the sub-cooled region. In this region

there are vertical temperature lines, which increase as enthalpy is increased. Figure 8 is a

simplified P-H diagram illustrating the constant temperature lines.

(2) Vapor Region: The vapor region is also known as the super heated region. In this region

there are vertical temperature lines, which increase as enthalpy is increased. Refer to Figure 8.

There are also lines of constant entropy, which are also important. Entropy is the measure of

the amount of disorder in the system.

(3) Liquid-Vapor Mix Region: In this region, the P-H diagram shows horizontal temperature

lines, which indicate constant temperature. The mix region is the phase change region, where

any addition of enthalpy will cause additional liquid to vaporize instead of raising the

temperature. Figure 8 illustrates the horizontal temperature lines in the mix region. There are

also upward sloping curves which indicate quality. Quality is a measure of the ratio of vapor

mass to total mass. For example quality of 0.1 or 10%, which is located near the saturated

liquid line, describes points that have 10% vapor by mass. The 0.9 or 90% line, which is located

near the saturated vapor line, describes points that have 90% vapor by mass. The previous

figure, Figure 7, indicates the quality lines.

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The x-y axes of the P-H diagram are the pressure lines running from left to right. The enthalpy

lines are the vertical lines. The skeletal graph shown in Figure 9 below shows the pressure-

enthalpy lines.

The next important lines on the pressure-enthalpy diagram are those describing lines of

constant entropy, which are used and discussed in section 6.1.2 Compressor.

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6.1 REFRIGERATION CYCLE

One of the most important skills needed for the professional engineer in the HVAC &

Refrigeration field is navigating the refrigeration cycle on a pressure-enthalpy diagram. The

following sections will show each specific part of the refrigeration cycle on the pressure-enthalpy

diagram and it will also highlight the important points and calculations needed.

that the engineer get a copy of the P-H diagram for R-134a and the other common refrigerants.

These diagrams can be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals book. A sample R-134a diagram

is shown below, with a sample refrigeration cycle, identifying (Step 1) Evaporator, (Step 2)

Compressor, (Step 3) Condenser and (Step 4) Expansion Device.

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6.1.1 STEP 1 EVAPORATOR

The refrigerant entering the evaporator is a cold, partial liquid-vapor mixture. The operating

pressure and temperature of the evaporator is called the suction pressure and suction

temperature. The suction line is the piping that routes refrigerant gas from the evaporator to the

compressor. It is important to note that in the mix region, the pressure and temperature are

dependent variables.

For example, if a compressor operates at a suction pressure of 36.8 psia, then the

corresponding evaporator pressure is 36.8 psia and the corresponding evaporator temperature

is 25 °F, see below figure for points A and B (Values are for Refrigerant R-134a). If the

compressor operates at a suction pressure of 49.7 psia, then the corresponding evaporator

pressure is also 49.7 psia and the evaporator temperature is 40 °F. See below figure for points

A' and B'(Values are for Refrigerant R-134a).

FIGURE 11: R-134A P-H DIAGRAM WITH EVAPORATOR, SUCTION PRESSURE VERSUS EVAPORATOR TEMPERATURE

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The evaporator moves the refrigerant from point A (partial liquid-vapor mixture) to point B, a fully

saturated vapor refrigerant. As the evaporator transfers heat to the refrigerant, there is no gain

in temperature, since all the heat is used to convert the remaining liquid to a gas. In an ideal

evaporator, there is just enough heat transfer to convert all the liquid to gas and nothing more.

Thus, the output of an ideal evaporator is 100% vapor at the same entering temperature, refer

to figure 12 below. In this figure, we see that as the refrigerant moves through the evaporator,

the temperature remains the same and the percentage of vapor increases, until it reaches

saturation at 100%.

Also introduced in the figure above is the term superheat. If additional heat were to be added to

the 100% vapor refrigerant, then the heat would be used to increase the temperature and it is

this increase in temperature that is called superheat.

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In Figure 13 below, an evaporator with 15 °F superheat is shown. The refrigerant reaches

100% vapor prior to leaving the evaporator. All the additional heat from this point is used to

increase the temperature of the refrigerant until it reaches a temperature of 40 °F. This

refrigerant has a superheat of 15 °F because the final temperature is 15 degrees passed the

saturation temperature of 25 °F. It is important to note that the pressure remains constant

throughout the evaporator.

suction pressure line passed the 100% vapor curve. The figure on the following page shows the

difference between 0 °F and 15 °F superheat. Point B is the 100% vapor point at a constant

evaporator/suction pressure of 36.8 psia and a temperature of 25 °F. Point B' results from

additional heat/enthalpy added to the refrigerant. The refrigerant moves from point B to point B',

where the resulting temperature is 40 °F.

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FIGURE 14: R134A PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM, 0 °F VS. 15 °F SUPERHEAT

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6.1.2 STEP 2 COMPRESSOR

The compressor is characterized by the refrigerant suction and discharge conditions. Horizontal

lines are drawn across the refrigerant's pressure enthalpy diagram for the suction and discharge

pressures. Then the incoming temperature of the compressor, as determined by the leaving

temperature of the evaporator, is used as the starting point of the compressor, as shown by

point B' on Figure 15. The compressor then increases the pressure of the refrigerant up to the

discharge pressure. Compression occurs at constant entropy, also known as isentropic

compression. Therefore the intersection of the constant entropy line and the discharge

pressure line will identify the final condition of the refrigerant gas leaving the compressor, as

shown by point C' in Figure 15 below.

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A common skill, that is required of a professional engineer, is to determine the work done by the

compressor. This work is shown on Figure 15 as the difference between the compressor

entering enthalpy (H1) and the leaving enthalpy (H2). The equation to determine the work of

the compressor is shown below. This equation multiples the refrigeration flow rate by the

change in enthalpy between the discharge and suction conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻2 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏

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6.1.3 STEP 3 CONDENSER

The refrigerant entering the condenser is now a hot, high pressure refrigerant gas. The

condenser is shown on the pressure-enthalpy diagram as a horizontal line. This horizontal line

is a line of constant pressure, corresponding to the discharge pressure of the compressor. The

condenser proceeds from right to left in the following three steps:

(1) The superheated gas cools down to saturation temperature [C' 160 °F to D' 140 °F]. Cooling

takes place as heat flows from the hot refrigerant gas to the condenser cooling medium.

(2) Next, the100% saturated vapor at D' is converted to 100% saturated liquid at D''. Heat is lost

to the condenser cooling medium as the vapor is condensed to a liquid.

(3) Finally, the 100% saturated liquid is sub-cooled from D'' to D'''[140 °F to 115 °F]. In an

ideal condenser, no sub-cooling occurs. Once the refrigerant is a fully saturated liquid, any

additional heat loss results in a decrease in temperature. This cooling of the saturated liquid is

referred to as sub-cooling. In this example, the refrigerant has gone through 25 °F of sub-

cooling and resulted in a sub-cooled temperature of 115 °F.

A common question is to determine the heat expelled by the condenser, which is shown on

Figure 16 as the difference between the condenser entering condition (H2) and the leaving

condition (H4). The equation to determine the net condenser effect is shown below. This

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equation multiples the refrigeration flow rate by the change in enthalpy between the entrance

and exit of the condenser.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏

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6.1.4 STEP 4 EXPANSION DEVICE

The expansion device is the counterpart of the compressor. Similarly, the expansion device is

characterized by the suction and discharge pressures. Horizontal lines are again drawn on the

refrigerant's pressure-enthalpy diagram. The input condition of the expansion device is

determined by the condenser output conditions.

There are two entering conditions to the expansion device shown on the following diagram,

Figure 17. The first situation has 0 °F of sub-cooling [D’’] and the second situation has 15 °F of

sub-cooling [D’’’].

The expansion device expands the high pressure refrigerant gas adiabatically to a low pressure

liquid-vapor refrigerant mixture. Adiabatic expansion indicates that there is no change in

enthalpy and is characterized by a downward vertical line as shown on the below graph.

Note on the graph below as the refrigerant moves from point D to point A, the refrigerant moves

from the liquid phase of the graph to the vapor-liquid mixture region. The amount of gas that is

formed during this expansion is called flash gas.

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6.1.5 NET REFRIGERATION/CONDENSER, WORK AND COP:

Typical questions on the PE exam involve being able to navigate the P-H diagram through a

refrigeration cycle. The previous sections described each of the four steps of the refrigeration

cycle in detail and this section provides an overview of the cycle. In addition, this section

provides problems involving net refrigeration, net condenser effect, compressor-work and COP.

The net refrigeration effect is the amount of cooling provided by the evaporator. In order

to determine the net refrigeration effect, find the incoming and leaving enthalpy conditions of the

evaporator and multiply the difference by the refrigeration flow rate. Refer to Figure 18.

The compressor work is the amount of work provided by the compressor. In order to

determine the compressor work, find the incoming and leaving enthalpy conditions of the

compressor and multiply the difference by the refrigeration flow rate. Refer to Figure 18.

The net condenser effect is the amount of heat removed by the condenser. In order to

determine the net condenser effect, find the incoming and leaving enthalpy conditions of the

condenser and multiply the difference by the refrigeration flow rate. When determining the

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leaving condition of the condenser, ensure that the appropriate amount of sub-cooling is used.

Refer to Figure 18. It is important to note that the net condenser effect is equal to sum of

the net refrigeration effect and the compressor work.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Equation 2: Compressor Work

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Equation 3: Net Condenser Effect

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � ; 𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

Equation 4: Net Condenser Effect

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] + 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]

The next term that the engineer should understand is Coefficient of Performance or COP. COP

is the ratio of the amount of “Work Out” divided by the amount of “Work In”. In the refrigeration

cycle, “Work Out” is equal to the net refrigeration effect. “Work In” is equal to the Compressor

Work, this is the only point at which outside work is put into the system.

Equation 5: COP

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =

𝑊𝑖𝑛 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]

COP is a term used to describe the efficiency of a piece of equipment. Another common term is

the Energy Efficiency Ratio or EER. The EER term describes the ratio of the cooling capacity in

units [Btu/hr] to the input electrical power in units [Watts]. The conversion of COP to EER is

shown below.

Refrigeration - 30 http://www.engproguides.com

Equation 6: Relationship between COP and EER

𝐸𝐸𝑅

𝐶𝑂𝑃 =

3.412

Refrigeration - 31 http://www.engproguides.com

7.0 CODES & REFERENCES

As a practicing Refrigeration engineer, it is important to be aware of the available codes and

references. The codes describe the minimum criteria that the Refrigeration designs must meet.

The references provide additional information to provide additional direction to guide the

designs. In this section, ASHRAE 15 and the Montreal Protocol are discussed.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

ASHRAE 15 describes the safety requirements for refrigeration systems. It is a necessary tool

for a professional engineer to be familiar with. It is recommended that this standard be

reviewed prior to the exam in order to increase familiarity.

exhaust flow required to properly evacuate refrigerant from a space. Refrigerants are heavier

than air and if refrigerants were to be released into an enclosed space (mechanical room), then

the refrigerant would displace the air in the space. If someone were to be in the room, when a

leak were to occur then they could possible suffocate.

As part of ASHRAE 15, a refrigerant sensor and exhaust system must be provided in order to

evacuate the refrigerant in the event of a leak. The airflow required depends on the maximum

weight of refrigerant that can be leaked. This weight is assumed to be the largest refrigerant

amount (lbs) in a single piece of equipment or circuit. A single chiller with multiple refrigerant

circuits can be considered to contain two separate refrigerant systems, thus only the refrigerant

weight in the largest circuit needs to be considered and not both.

Once the refrigerant weight in the largest system is determined, then a simple formula is used to

determine the airflow required.

The Montreal Protocol is a treaty that was signed by the United Nations, with the purpose of

protecting the ozone layer by phasing out ozone depleting substances like CFC's and HCFC's.

Although the Montreal Protocol covers many substances like Halons, which are used in Fire

Protection Systems, this section only covers those substances pertaining to refrigeration.

CFC's, like the refrigerant R-11, were phased out in 1996. There were exceptions made for a

few CFC's, but the exceptions did not include refrigerants. Because of the ban on CFC's

refrigerant manufacturers created HCFC's as an interim solution to reduce the potential for

ozone depletion by refrigerants.

HCFC's, like the refrigerant R-22, were scheduled to phase out in the following manner.

Refrigeration - 32 http://www.engproguides.com

• January 1, 2004. 35% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's from the US

baseline.

• January 1, 2010. 75% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's and new

machines shall no longer use HCFC's like R-22, R-123 is exempt.

• January 1, 2015. 90% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's from baseline.

• January 1, 2020. 99.5% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's and no

production of HCFC's like R-22 for existing machines, R-123 is exempt for

existing machines. R-123 is banned on all new equipment.

• January 1, 2030. 100% Reduction in the consumption of HCFC's. R-123

banned for all existing equipment.

Refrigeration - 33 http://www.engproguides.com

8.0 REFRIGERATION PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PROBLEM 1 – EVAPORATOR

Background: A chiller uses R-134a refrigerant, with a flow rate of 50 lb/min and has a suction

pressure of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA, with no sub-cooling and no super

heating.

(a) 10 Tons

(d) 16 Tons

Refrigeration - 34 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 1 - EVAPORATOR

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 107 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 54 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (107 − 54) � � ∗ 50 � � ∗ 60 � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

1 𝑡𝑜𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 159,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ ∗ = 13.25 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

12,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Refrigeration - 35 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 2 – EVAPORATOR

Background: A chiller uses R-134a refrigerant, with a flow rate of 50 lb/min. The chiller is used

to provide chilled water leaving the evaporator at a temperature of 45 F. .

Problem: Which suction pressure should the evaporator operate at to provide a 10 degree F

differential between the chilled water and refrigeration liquid temperature?

(a) 40 PSIA

(b) 45 PSIA

(c) 50 PSIA

(d) 55 PSIA

Refrigeration - 36 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 2 – EVAPORATOR

In order to provide a 10 degree differential between the chilled water temperature at 45 F, the

refrigerant liquid in the evaporator must be 35 F. According to the R-134A P-H diagram, 35 F

corresponds to a pressure of ~45 PSIA.

Refrigeration - 37 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 3 – EVAPORATOR

Background: A chiller with a refrigerant flow rate of 50 lb/min of R-134a has a suction pressure

of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The evaporator provides 20 F of super-

heating and the condenser provides no sub-cooling.

(a) 11 Tons

(c) 13 Tons

Refrigeration - 38 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 3 – EVAPORATOR

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 111 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻4 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 � � = 54 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑙𝑏

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (111 − 54) � � ∗ 50 � � ∗ 60 � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

1 𝑡𝑜𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 171,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ ∗ = 14.25 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

12,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Refrigeration - 39 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 4 – COMPRESSOR

Background: A chiller operates with a R-134A refrigerant flow rate of 200 lb/min, with a suction

pressure of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The condenser provides 10 F of

sub-cooling and the evaporator provides 0 F of superheat.

Refrigeration - 40 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 4 – COMPRESSOR

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐻1 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 107

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐻1 , 0.22

𝑙𝑏 °𝐹

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 122

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (122 − 107) � � ∗ (200) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 = 180,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Refrigeration - 41 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 5 – COMPRESSOR

Background: A chiller has a R-134a refrigerant flow rate of 175 lb/min. The compressor is

measured to provide 200,000 Btuh of work. If the evaporator operates at a suction pressure of

40 PSIA and provides 0 degrees F of superheat.

(a) 180

(b) 220

(c) 320

(d) 400

Refrigeration - 42 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 5 – COMPRESSOR

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 𝑋

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 107

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝑋 − 107) � � ∗ (175) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 = 200,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ [𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛]

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑋

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑋 = 126

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 126 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 0.223

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏 °𝐹

Refrigeration - 43 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 6 – CONDENSER

Background: A chiller operates with a R-134a refrigerant flow rate of 250 lb/min. The suction

pressure is 40 PSIA and the discharge pressure is 200 PSIA. The evaporator provides 0 F of

superheat and the condenser provides 10 F of sub-cooling.

(a) 62 tons

(b) 76 tons

(c) 89 tons

Refrigeration - 44 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 6 – CONDENSER

𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 1: 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 122

𝑙𝑏

𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 3: 𝐹𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒, 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒 10 𝐹 𝑙𝑒𝑓𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑏 − 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻4 = 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 = 50.5

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = (122 − 50.5) � � ∗ (250) ∗ 60 = 1,072,050 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ 𝑜𝑟 89.4 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

𝑙𝑏

Refrigeration - 45 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 7 – CONDENSER

Background: A chiller operates with a suction pressure of 35 PSIA and a discharge pressure of

225 PSIA. The refrigerant flow rate is 100 lb/min of R-134a. The compressor provides 200,000

BTUH of work. The COP of the chiller is 4.0. What is the net condenser effect?

Refrigeration - 46 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 7 – CONDENSER

𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑝 1: 𝐷𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡.

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = 4.0 =

200,000 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ]

Refrigeration - 47 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 8 – EXPANSION DEVICE

Background: A temperature expansion valve, senses that the temperature at the end of the

evaporator has increased from 10 F super heat [normal operation] to 15 F super heat [current].

Problem: What best describes the situation and the temperature expansion valve's next action?

(a) Cooling load is decreasing, TXV should decrease refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

(b) Cooling load is decreasing, TXV should increase refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

(c) Cooling load is increasing, TXV should decrease refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

(d) Cooling load is increasing, TXV should increase refrigerant flow to decrease super heat.

Refrigeration - 48 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 8 – EXPANSION DEVICE

𝐼𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠,

𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔, 𝑎𝑠 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐵 𝑖𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑢𝑟𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡.

𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑑 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

Refrigeration - 49 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 9 – EXPANSION DEVICE

Problem: Which of the following is NOT a primary function of a thermal expansion valve in a

refrigeration cycle?

Refrigeration - 50 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 9 – EXPANSION DEVICE

• 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟

• 𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒔𝒖𝒃𝒄𝒐𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒅 𝒃𝒚 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒆𝒓 𝒊𝒔 𝒅𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅.

𝒃𝒚 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒔

• 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 ℎ𝑎𝑠 𝑎 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑜𝑟, 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛

𝑎 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡

• 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑇𝑋𝑉 ℎ𝑎𝑠 𝑎 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑜𝑟, 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛

𝑎 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡, 𝑡ℎ𝑢𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟, 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑛𝑜 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑.

Correct Answer: B

Refrigeration - 51 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 10 – COP

Background: A chiller with a R-134a. The chiller operates with a suction pressure of 40 PSIA

and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The chiller is rated at 100 tons of useful cooling. The

compressor also provides 84 KW of useful work to the system.

(a) 3.5

(b) 4

(c) 4.2

(d) 4.6

Refrigeration - 52 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 10 – COP

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡

𝐶𝑂𝑃 =

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟

This question involves converting the useful cooling of the chiller and the work done by the

compressor to the same units.

1 𝑇𝑜𝑛

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 = 84 𝑘𝑤 ∗ = 23.9 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠

3.517 𝑘𝑊

100 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = = 4.18

23.9 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠

Correct Answer: C

Refrigeration - 53 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 11 – COP

Background: A chiller with a R-134a refrigerant flow rate of 75 lb/min. The chiller operates with

a suction pressure of 40 PSIA and a discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The evaporator produces

15 degrees F of superheat and the condenser produces 10 degrees F of sub-cooling.

(a) 4

(b) 4.5

(c) 5

(d) 5.5

Refrigeration - 54 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 11 – COP

First find point H1, which is the enthalpy entering the compressor, by following the suction

pressure line to a superheat temperature of 15 F.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻1 = 110

𝑙𝑏

Second find point H2, which is the enthalpy leaving the compressor, by following the constant

entropy line from point entering the compressor to the intersection of the discharge pressure.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻2 = 125

𝑙𝑏

Third find point H4, which is the enthalpy entering the evaporator, by following the constant

enthalpy line by following the discharge pressure line to a sub-cooled temperature of 10 F.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻4 = 50.5

𝑙𝑏

Refrigeration - 55 http://www.engproguides.com

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻2 − 𝐻1 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (125 − 110) = 15

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (𝐻1 − 𝐻4 ) � � ∗ (𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒) � � ∗ (60) � �

𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑟

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 [𝐵𝑡𝑢] = (110 − 50.5) = 59.5

59.5

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = = 3.97

15

Correct Answer: A

Refrigeration - 56 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 12 – REFRIGERATION CODES

Background: A chiller has two separate refrigeration cycles, with independent refrigerant

charges. One charge has 50 lbs of refrigerant, the other has 75 lbs of refrigerant.

Problem: The refrigerant exhaust system must have a capacity of approximately, how much

CFM?

(a) 707

(b) 866

(c) 1120

(d) 1466

Refrigeration - 57 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 12 – REFRIGERATION CODES

The refrigerant exhaust system, must be sized to exhaust the largest single compartment of

refrigerant by weight, in accordance with the following equation. The (2) compartments do not

need to be added.

𝑄 = 866 𝐶𝐹𝑀

Refrigeration - 58 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 13 – REFRIGERANTS

Problem: Which of the following best ranks refrigerants from least to most harmful to the ozone,

from left to right?

Refrigeration - 59 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 13 – REFRIGERANTS

(a) R-11 - Ammonia - R-134a - R-22

R-11 is the most harmful refrigerant because it contains chlorine, ammonia and R-134a do not

contain chlorine and are not harmful to the ozone, however R-22 does contain chlorine since it

is a HCFC. Thus this ranking is incorrect.

R-11 is the most harmful refrigerant because it is a CFC and was banned, R-134a is a HFC and

does not contain chlorine and has an ODP of 0, however R-22 does contain chlorine since it is a

HCFC. Thus this ranking is incorrect.

R-22 is a HCFC and contains chlorine. Ammonia and R-134a both do not contain chlorine and

both have an ODP of 0. However, R-11 is a CFC and has a high ODP. Thus this ranking is

incorrect.

R-11 is the most harmful refrigerant because it contains chlorine, R-22 does contain chlorine

since it is a HCFC, but to a lesser extent than R-11. Ammonia and R-134a both do not contain

chlorine and both have an ODP of 0. Thus this ranking is correct.

Correct Answer: D

Refrigeration - 60 http://www.engproguides.com

SECTION 3: THERMODYNAMICS

STEAM SYSTEMS

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 2

2.0 Key Equations and Terms .................................................................................................. 3

3.0 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram ............................................................................................... 6

4.0 Steam Tables ................................................................................................................... 12

5.0 Mollier Diagram ................................................................................................................ 15

6.0 Determining Properties of Steam ..................................................................................... 16

7.0 Steam Boilers ................................................................................................................... 18

8.0 Steam Heating Coils ........................................................................................................ 19

9.0 Steam Piping .................................................................................................................... 21

10.0 Steam Traps..................................................................................................................... 22

11.0 Practice Problems ............................................................................................................ 23

Practice Problem 1: Steam Production ................................................................................... 23

Solution 1: Steam Production .............................................................................................. 24

Practice Problem 2: Steam Air Coils ...................................................................................... 25

Solution 2: Steam Air Coils ................................................................................................. 26

Practice Problem 3: Steam Boiler ........................................................................................... 27

Solution 3: Steam Boiler ...................................................................................................... 28

Practice Problem 4: Steam - Hot Water Coils ......................................................................... 29

Solution 4: Steam - Hot Water Coils .................................................................................... 30

Steam - 1 http://www.engproguides.com

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the

Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on

the P.E. exam.

This Steam Guide for the PE Exam provides background information on the steam pressure

enthalpy diagram and the Mollier Diagram and various pieces of steam equipment. The

professional engineer in the HVAC/R industry must have a deep understanding of steam

systems, because it is often used in the heating of both water and air. This guide teaches the

key concepts and skills that are often used in dealing with Steam Systems.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the

test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

International System of Units (SI).

Steam - 2 http://www.engproguides.com

2.0 KEY EQUATIONS AND TERMS

Water

ℎ𝑔 = ℎ𝑓 + ℎ𝑓𝑔

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟[ ]

𝑙𝑏𝑚

ℎ𝑓 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑

ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

∗ 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 & 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ℎ𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 (𝑚𝑖𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 & 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟)

𝑥 = 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑑𝑟𝑛𝑦𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, % 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

Water

𝑠𝑔 = 𝑠𝑓 + 𝑠𝑓𝑔

𝑠𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟[

𝑠𝑓 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑

𝑠𝑓𝑔 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑠𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ 𝑠𝑓𝑔

𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑒𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 (𝑚𝑖𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 & 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟)

𝑥 = 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑑𝑟𝑛𝑦𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, % 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

𝑄 = 𝑚̇ ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = ℎ𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

Steam - 3 http://www.engproguides.com

Tank Heating/Cooling: Isometric [Constant Volume]

𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑣𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑣 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 [ ]

𝑙𝑏

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑠𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑠𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

𝑃 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎]

𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑇𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

Boiler Efficiency

𝜀𝑏𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 =

𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉

1 ∗[ ∗ ∗ ] = 500

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 ℎ𝑟

Steam - 4 http://www.engproguides.com

Simplified Steam Heating Coil: Steam to Air Heat Transfer

Steam - 5 http://www.engproguides.com

3.0 PRESSURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM

The pressure enthalpy diagram for steam is an excellent tool to gain an understanding of the

steam tables. The pressure-enthalpy diagram describes the liquid, vapor and mix region of

water. As shown in the following figure, the P-H diagram consists of Pressure (PSIA) on the y-

axis and Enthalpy (Btu/lbm) on the x-axis. It is important to note that pressure is shown on a

logarithmic scale while enthalpy is shown in a normal scale. In the middle of the diagram is the

vapor dome. This dome separates the sub-cooled liquid (aka water) on the left side, super-

heated vapor (aka steam) on the right side and the liquid-vapor mix region (aka mixed region or

wet region) in the middle.

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The mixed region is cut by upward sloping lines that represent the percentage of vapor, as

shown in the following figure. The figure shows that as you move from left to right on a constant

pressure line, the percentage of vapor increases from 0% at the saturated liquid to 100% at the

saturated vapor line. The percentage of vapor is also known in other terms as steam quality

and dryness fraction, where saturated vapor has a steam quality or dryness fraction of 1.

The P-H diagram is also helpful in illustrating the relationship between the enthalpy of the

saturated liquid, saturated vapor and the enthalpy of vaporization.

First, take a horizontal line (constant pressure) from the saturated liquid curve to the saturated

vapor curve. These horizontal lines are shown on Figure 3. Then read the corresponding

enthalpies of the saturated liquid and saturated vapor, shown as h f and h g , where h f is the

enthalpy of saturated liquid (fluid) and h g is the enthalpy of saturated vapor (gas). The

difference between these two enthalpies at constant pressure is the enthalpy of vaporization,

shown as h fg . The enthalpy of vaporization is the amount of enthalpy required to evaporate

liquid at a certain pressure. This relationship between the enthalpy of saturated liquid, vapor

and enthalpy of vaporization is shown by the following equation.

ℎ𝑔 = ℎ𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

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FIGURE 3: P-H DIAGRAM FOR STEAM: ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION

If a point in the mix region is selected, then the relationship between the enthalpy of the mixed

steam and the enthalpy of saturated liquid, enthalpy of vaporization and steam quality is as

shown below. “x” is the steam quality or dryness fraction.

ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ℎ𝑓 + 𝑥 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

In the figure above, the point is shown on the 50% steam quality. Therefore only 50% of the

enthalpy of vaporization has been added to the enthalpy of saturated liquid. Substituting 50%

for “x” results in the following equation.

The next important part of the P-H diagram is the constant temperature lines. These lines are

characterized by nearly vertical lines in the sub-cooled liquid and super-heated steam region.

This means that any increase in enthalpy during these phases, causes the temperature of the

liquid or steam to increase and vice versa for decreases in enthalpy. In the mixed region,

temperatures are shown to remain constant with increasing enthalpy and are identified as

horizontal lines. As enthalpy is added to a saturated liquid, the temperature does not change,

because the enthalpy is used to evaporate the liquid to a vapor.

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FIGURE 4: P-H DIAGRAM FOR STEAM: COSNTANT TEMPERATURE LINES

A common point on the P-H diagram that the engineer should memorize is the location of the

boiling point of water at 1 atmosphere (14.7 PSIA), which is 212 °F. It is important to note that if

the temperature of a saturated liquid/vapor mixture is known then the pressure can be

determined. This is because in the phase change region, pressure and temperature are

dependent on each other. In the mixed region, the engineer is unable to determine the location

on the P-H diagram with only temperature and pressure. Another value must also be known,

like entropy, specific volume or steam quality. For example, if the engineer was asked to

determine the enthalpy of water at 212 F, 14.7 PSIA, it would be impossible, because the point

could be located anywhere in between the saturated vapor and liquid lines, along the constant

pressure/temperature lines in the dome.

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Entropy lines on the P-H diagram are shown as downward sloping curves, refer to the figure

below.

Entropy increases as enthalpy is increased in all three regions. Entropy is shown to decrease in

the super heated steam region when pressure is increased. Constant entropy lines are used

during an isentropic process, which means a conversion in which entropy is held constant. One

common process is the flow of steam through an ideal steam turbine. Steam enters the turbine

at a high pressure and leaves at a lower pressure, transmitting the thermal energy to

mechanical work. However, in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, this situation is rarely

encountered.

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The final set of lines on the P-H diagram is the constant specific volume lines, shown below.

Specific volume lines are nearly horizontal in the vapor region and nearly vertical in the liquid

region. It can be seen that in the liquid region, there is very little change in specific volume.

However, in the superheated vapor region, there is a wide range of specific volumes. Specific

volume is shown to increase as pressure is lowered.

Although the P-H diagram is a very powerful tool, typically steam tables are used to solve steam

problems. Steam tables are simply a listing of the values of specific volume, enthalpy and

entropy as a function of pressure and temperature at the saturated liquid and vapor curves.

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4.0 STEAM TABLES

There are three main types of steam tables that the engineer must be able to use the, (1)

Saturation Tables as a function of pressure; (2) Saturation Tables as a function of temperature

and (3) Superheated Steam Tables. Graphically the steam tables show the values of the outer

dome on the pressure-enthalpy diagram. The following figure shows the points that are

selected for the steam tables. This figure shows the values as a function of pressure.

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The following figure shows the points that are selected for the steam tables. This figure shows

the values as a function of temperature.

Steam - 13 http://www.engproguides.com

There are also steam tables for steam in the super-heated region. These steam tables are

shown as a function of pressure and temperature. These values are selected because they are

the easiest to measure in practice.

The steam tables show that as temperature increases the specific volume, the enthalpy and the

entropy increase. As pressure increases there is a decrease in specific volume, enthalpy and

entropy.

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5.0 MOLLIER DIAGRAM

The Mollier diagram also known as the enthalpy-entropy diagram shows graphically the

various properties of steam ranging from superheated steam to the mixed region. The diagram

does not provide water (liquid) properties. A sample of the diagram is shown below in order to

illustrate the main points of the diagram and how to use the diagram. The aspiring professional

engineer should refer to the actual tables located in the ASHRAE Fundamentals or the

Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual.

First, inspect the axes, note that the y-axis indicates enthalpy and the x-axis indicates entropy.

The Mollier diagram shows only two regions, the mixed region of vapor and liquid and the

super-heated vapor steam region. The two regions are separated by the downward sloping

saturation line, where steam quality is equal to 1. Secondly, notice the upward sloping (left to

Steam - 15 http://www.engproguides.com

right) constant pressure lines. Constant dryness fraction or steam quality lines are shown as

downward sloping in the mix region. Finally, the diagram has slightly downward sloping

constant temperature lines, which is only applicable in the super heat region.

One of the main skills that the aspiring professional engineer must acquire is the ability to

determine the properties of steam. In practice, the pressure and temperature of steam can be

found easily. The other useful properties of steam like entropy, enthalpy and specific volume

must be found through the use of the (1) P-H Diagram, (2) Mollier Diagram and (3) Steam

Tables.

A simple way to find the properties of steam given the temperature and pressure is to draw a

simple P-H diagram. For example, assume water is at 14.7 psia and 60 F. Next draw a simple

P-H diagram. It is known that at 14.7 PSIA (1 ATM), the boiling point is 212 F, thus the constant

temperature line in blue can be drawn. Since the temperature of the water is 60 F, then the

point must be located to the left along the horizontal constant pressure line. Note that since

constant temperature lines are vertical in the sub-cooled liquid region, that the enthalpy of water

at 14.7 PSIA, 60 F is equal to the enthalpy of saturated liquid water at 60 F (take vertical line

down from 14.7 PSIA, 60 F to the intersection of the saturated liquid curve.

If water was given at a temperature of 212 F and a pressure of 14.7 PSIA, then it would be

impossible to find the location. The point could be located anywhere at the intersection of the

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constant temperature line in blue and the horizontal constant pressure line, which is anywhere

on and in between the saturated liquid and vapor curves.

The previous example is simple because it is near the standard boiling point. However, the

same method can be used for varying temperatures and pressures. For example, water at 600

°F and 300 PSIA. Start the sketch by drawing in the constant temperature line for 600 °F. Then

look up the steam tables as a function of temperature and find 600 °F. In the table, saturated

steam at 600 °F corresponds to a pressure of 1542.5 PSIA. It is known that the point in

question (600 °F and 300 PSIA) must lie on the constant temperature line and it must lie below

the horizontal portion corresponding to a pressure of 1542.5 because the pressure is only 300

PSIA. Thus 600 °F and 300 PSIA steam is located in the super-heated steam region and the

super heated tables should be used.

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7.0 STEAM BOILERS

Steam boilers are mechanical pieces of equipment designed to convert water in liquid form to

steam through the combustion of a fuel source like natural gas. There are many different types

of boilers but most are characterized by pressure and heat exchanger type.

Low pressure boilers operate below 15 PSI, high pressure boilers operate above 150 PSI and

medium pressure boilers operate in between 15 and 150 PSI. The different types of heat

exchangers describe the location of the fuel and the water. Water tube boilers have water in

tubes, with the hot combustion gases around the tubes, while fire tube boilers have combustion

gases flowing through tubes that are submerged in water.

It is important for the engineer to understand the three different systems that comprise a boiler

system, the (1) Feed-water System, (2) Combustion System and (3) Steam System.

(1) The feed-water system describes the incoming fluid water to the boiler. It consists of a feed-

water pump, water softeners to remove minerals that can damage boilers and de-aerators to

remove oxygen. Feed-water is provided by a mixture of the water supply and condensate

return. The important part of the feed water system is to be able to determine the entering

enthalpy of the feed water, depending on the pressure and temperature of the incoming water.

As previously discussed, water in the sub-cooled region has enthalpy values that are a function

of temperature.

(2) The combustion system describes the fuel portion of the boiler. The combustion system

consists of oxygen supply, typically provided by a fan or air is naturally induced, an ignition, a

fuel supply and piping. It is important to be able to determine the total heat supplied by the fuel.

Total heat is shown as “Q” is a function of the mass flow rate of the fuel, the higher heating

value (HHV) of the fuel and the boiler efficiency. The HHV can be found in the Mechanical

Engineering Reference Manual. Boiler efficiencies are a function of the losses and efficiencies

in the system.

𝑄 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝜀

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻𝐻𝑉 = ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 [ ]

𝑙𝑏

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝜀 = 𝑏𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

(3) The steam system is the output portion of the boiler. It consists of the outgoing steam piping

to the steam consuming pieces of equipment, which in the HVAC & Refrigeration field are steam

heating coils for air distribution and steam heating coils for water distribution. The output of the

boiler is either saturated steam or a super-heated steam and the values for this steam output

can be determined from the saturated steam tables or the super-heated steam tables.

Efficiency of a boiler is found by dividing the output energy by the input energy. The output is

found by determining the change in enthalpy between the feed-water and the super-heated

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steam. The input is determined by the mass flow rate of the fuel and the higher heating value of

the fuel.

𝜀𝑏𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 =

𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉

This efficiency often referred to as the fuel-to-steam efficiency and is a true measure of the

boiler input to output efficiency. There are other efficiencies that are out of the realm of this

book, like the thermal efficiency and combustion efficiency. These items are more

representative of the Thermal & Fluids topic.

Steam heating coils are in its simplest form, heat exchangers. The steam transfers its latent

heat to either air or water. On one side of heat transfer (energy balance) equation is the

condensing rate of the steam. On the other side of the equation is the energy transferred to

either the air or water.

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 � �

𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑐𝑝 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 � � = 0.24

𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = � �∗� �∗[ ] ∗ 0.24 ∗ ∆𝑇

min ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑓𝑡 3

Steam - 19 http://www.engproguides.com

Derivation of Simplified Equation for Steam to Water Heat Transfer

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 � �

𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑐𝑝 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � � = 0.24

𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 1 ∗� ∗ ∗ � ∗ 1.00 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

Steam - 20 http://www.engproguides.com

9.0 STEAM PIPING

Steam flows from high pressure to low pressure without the use of a pump or fan. In the HVAC

& Refrigeration field, steam piping typically consists of a steam supply pipe to the various steam

heating coils and a condensate return pipe which returns the liquid water back to the boiler.

Steam piping is sized through the use of the Darcy Weisbach equation, shown below. This

equation is discussed in more detail in the Mechanical Equipment and Systems Section. Steam

piping is sized to ensure that the appropriate amount of steam [lb/hr] is provided at sufficient

pressure to the heating coils.

𝐿 𝑣2

ℎ𝑓 = 𝑓 ∗ ∗

𝐷 2𝑔

=

𝐷 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 [𝑓𝑡]

𝑓𝑡

𝑣 2 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 [𝑠𝑒𝑐 ]

=

2𝑔 𝑓𝑡

2 ∗ 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 32.3

𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

In addition, sizing charts are provided for steam at various flow rates and pressures, in order to

speed up pipe sizing calculations. These charts will also be discussed in the Mechanical

Equipment and Systems section.

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10.0 STEAM TRAPS

Steam traps are mechanical devices used to discharge condensate. They are placed

immediately after the steam heating coils and are used to separate any air from the condensate.

Following the steam trap, the condensate is sent back to the boiler through the condensate

piping. There are three types of steam traps, (1) Thermostatic, (2) Mechanical and (3) Kinetic.

The thermostatic trap opens when it is cooled by the sub-cooled water, allowing the condensate

to move to the condensate return piping. When steam is present, the thermostatic trap will

remain closed because of the high temperature.

The mechanical trap works on the difference in densities between steam and condensate. One

type of mechanical trap is the inverted bucket. When steam is present the inverted bucket floats

up, blocking the discharge port. When condensate is present the steam is expelled out and the

condensate begins to fill the inverted bucket, causing it to fall, thereby opening the discharge

port and allowing the condensate to flow out to the condensate return piping.

Kinetic traps distinguish between condensate and steam based on the differences between the

flows and pressures of steam and condensate.

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11.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PSIA. What is the total production of the boiler (Btu/hr)?

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a) 35,000

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

b) 45,000

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

c) 55,000

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

d) 75,000

ℎ𝑟

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SOLUTION 1: STEAM PRODUCTION

PSIA. What is the total production of the boiler (Btu/hr)?

The enthalpy of the incoming feed-water at 80 F and a pressure of 15 PSIA is 48.10 Btu/lb.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 48.10

𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the outgoing steam at 15 PSIA, saturated is equal to 1,150.76 Btu/lb.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 1,150.76

𝑙𝑏

The total production of the boiler (Btu/hr) is found by multiplying the difference between the

incoming and outgoing boiler enthalpies by the mass flow rate of the steam.

𝑄 = 𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 − ℎ𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 )

𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑄 = 50 ∗ (1150.76 − 48.10)

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 55,133

ℎ𝑟

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PRACTICE PROBLEM 2: STEAM AIR COILS

50 lbm/hr of steam enters a heating coil at a pressure of 15 PSIA. 700 CFM of air enters the

coil at 60 F. Assume 100% efficient heat transfer. What is the resulting existing temperature of

the air?

a) 105 ℉

b) 110 ℉

c) 115 ℉

d) 125 ℉

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SOLUTION 2: STEAM AIR COILS

50 lbm/hr of steam enters a heating coil at a pressure of 15 PSIA. 700 CFM of air enters the

coil at 60 F. Assume 100% efficient heat transfer. What is the resulting existing temperature of

the air?

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑏𝑡𝑢

50 ∗ 970 = 1.08 ∗ 700 ∗ ∆𝑇

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏

∆𝑇 = 64 ℉

60℉ + 64 ℉ = 124 ℉

Steam - 26 http://www.engproguides.com

PRACTICE PROBLEM 3: STEAM BOILER

A steam boiler has a flow rate of 200 lb/hr and an entering feed water of 120 F. The boiler

operates at a pressure of 100 PSIA. The boiler operates off of propane (assume a HHV of

22,000 Btu/lb). The boiler is 80% efficient. What is the required propane fuel rate in (lb/hr)?

𝑙𝑏

a) 12.5

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏

b) 14

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏

c) 15.5

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏

d) 17

ℎ𝑟

Steam - 27 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 3: STEAM BOILER

A steam boiler has a flow rate of 200 lb/hr, an entering feed water of 120 F and steam exiting

saturated (no super-heat). The boiler operates at a pressure of 100 PSIA. The boiler operates

off of propane (assume a HHV of 22,000 Btu/lb). The boiler is 80% efficient. What is the

required propane fuel rate in (lb/hr)?

𝜀=

𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 𝐻𝐻𝑉

The incoming enthalpy of the feed water is found through the steam tables to be 88.06 Btu/lb.

The outgoing enthalpy of the steam is found at 100 PSIA through the steam tables to be 1,188

Btu/lb.

200 ∗

0.8 = ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 ∗ 22,000

𝑙𝑏

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 = 12.5

ℎ𝑟

Steam - 28 http://www.engproguides.com

PRACTICE PROBLEM 4: STEAM - HOT WATER COILS

A hot water coil has an incoming water temperature of 70 F and an outgoing temperature of 140

F. Hot water is flowing through the coil at a rate of 40 GPM. What steam flow rate is required to

properly heat the water [lb/hr]? Assume saturated steam at a pressure of 15 PSIA, with no

super heat and sub-cooling and 100% effective heat exchange. .

𝑙𝑏

a) 1,320

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏

b) 1,440

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏

c) 1,560

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏

d) 1,800

ℎ𝑟

Steam - 29 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 4: STEAM - HOT WATER COILS

A hot water coil has an incoming water temperature of 70 F and an outgoing temperature of 140

F. Hot water is flowing through the coil at a rate of 40 GPM. What steam flow rate is required to

properly heat the water [lb/hr]? Assume saturated steam at a pressure of 15 PSIA, with no

super heat and sub-cooling and 100% effective heat exchange. .

An energy balance is conducted on the heat loss through condensing the steam and the heat

gained by the water.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 ∗ 970 = 500 ∗ 40 ∗ 70

𝑙𝑏

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 1,443

ℎ𝑟

Steam - 30 http://www.engproguides.com

SECTION 4: PSYCHROMETRICS

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3

2.0 Key Terms .......................................................................................................................... 4

3.0 Key Equations .................................................................................................................... 6

4.0 Psychrometric Chart ........................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Properties of Moist Air .................................................................................................... 9

4.1.1 Dry Bulb Temperature ........................................................................................... 10

4.1.2 Wet Bulb Temperature .......................................................................................... 11

4.1.3 Relative Humidity .................................................................................................. 12

4.1.4 Humidity Ratio ....................................................................................................... 13

4.1.5 Enthalpy ................................................................................................................ 14

4.1.6 Specific Volume ..................................................................................................... 15

4.1.7 Dew Point .............................................................................................................. 16

4.2 Movement on Psychrometric Chart .............................................................................. 17

4.2.1 Sensible Heating/Cooling ...................................................................................... 17

4.2.2 Latent Heating/Cooling .......................................................................................... 21

4.2.3 Sensible Heat Ratio ............................................................................................... 25

4.2.4 Mixing of Two Air Streams .................................................................................... 28

5.0 Practice Problems ............................................................................................................ 30

Problem 1 - Navigating Psychrometric Chart .......................................................................... 30

Solution 1 - Navigating Psychrometric Chart ....................................................................... 31

Problem 2 - Condensation on Surfaces .................................................................................. 32

Solution 2 – Condensation on Surfaces. ............................................................................. 33

Problem 3 - Change in Enthalpy/Humidity Ratio ..................................................................... 34

Solution 3 - Change in Enthalpy/Humidity Ratio .................................................................. 35

Problem 4 - Air Mixtures .......................................................................................................... 36

Solution 4 - Air Mixtures ....................................................................................................... 37

Problem 5 - Electric Heater ..................................................................................................... 38

Solution 5 - Electric Heater .................................................................................................. 39

Problem 6 - Cooling Coil ......................................................................................................... 40

Solution 6 - Cooling Coil ...................................................................................................... 41

Problem 7 - Humidifier ............................................................................................................. 42

Solution 7 - Humidifier ......................................................................................................... 43

Problem 8 – Dehumidifier ........................................................................................................ 44

Psychrometrics - 1 http://www.engproguides.com

Solution 8 - Dehumidifier ..................................................................................................... 45

Problem 9 - Enthalpy Wheel .................................................................................................... 46

Solution 9 - Enthalpy Wheel ................................................................................................ 47

Problem 10 - Sensible Heat Ratio ........................................................................................... 48

Solution 10 - Sensible Heat Ratio ........................................................................................ 49

Problem 11 – Cooling Load Calculation .................................................................................. 50

Solution 11 – Cooling Load Calculation ............................................................................... 51

Problem 12 – Calculate Amount of Condensate ..................................................................... 52

Solution 12 – Calculate Amount of Condensate .................................................................. 53

Problem 13– Relative Humidity ............................................................................................... 54

Solution 13 – Relative Humidity ........................................................................................... 55

Problem 14– Air Mixtures ........................................................................................................ 56

Solution 14 – Air Mixtures .................................................................................................... 57

Psychrometrics - 2 http://www.engproguides.com

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

This book is intended to be a focus on ONLY the application of the key concepts and skills

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the

Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on

the P.E. exam.

This section focuses on the skills and concepts related to the Psychrometric Chart. The

Psychrometric Chart is a key tool used by HVAC & Refrigeration engineers in many situations.

It is used in calculating cooling loads and selecting mechanical equipment like enthalpy wheels,

heat exchangers (air), air handlers and fan coils.

This guide focuses on constant atmospheric pressure at sea level, which is the most common

situation encountered by most Mechanical Engineers in the HVAC field. However, if a question

indicates a different pressure or extreme temperatures, then please refer to ASHRAE

Fundamentals for required Psychrometric Charts.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the

test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

International System of Units (SI).

Psychrometrics - 3 http://www.engproguides.com

2.0 KEY TERMS

amount of energy independent of the

Dry Bulb

1 amount of water in the air. Measured

Temperature

with a thermometer.

𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [℉]

Wet Bulb amount of water in the air. Measured

2 with a sling psychrometer or

Temperature

hygrometer.

𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [℉]

Dew Point must be cooled to, in order for water to

3

condense out of the air.

𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [℉]

4 Humidity Ratio measure of the amount of water in air.

𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝑽𝒂𝒓𝒑𝒐𝒓

𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 = [ ]

𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝑫𝒓𝒚 𝑨𝒊𝒓

Relative Humidity of water in the air relative to the total

5

amount of water the air can hold.

Units = [%]

Psychrometrics - 4 http://www.engproguides.com

Sensible heat indicates the amount of

dry heat. It indicates the amount of

energy either absorbed or released to

6 Sensible Heat change the dry bulb temperature of the

air.

𝑩𝒕𝒖

𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [ ]

𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒊𝒓

Latent heat indicates the amount of

energy in the air due to moisture. It is

the amount of heat released when

Latent Heat water in the air condenses out or the

7

amount of heat absorbed by water in

order to vaporize the water.

𝑩𝒕𝒖

𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [ ]

𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒊𝒓

Enthalpy is an indication of the total

amount of energy in the air, both

8 Enthalpy sensible and latent.

𝑩𝒕𝒖

𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔 = [ ]

𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒊𝒓

Exam Tip #1: Do not spend enormous amounts of time trying to interpolate the exact value on

the psychrometric chart.

The psychrometric chart is provided as part of the NCEES exam, but the chart is small and

unclear compared to the ones typically used in practice. It is the opinion of the writer that this

fact should indicate to the test taker that it is not important to get the values to the nearest

0.0001 (exaggeration) because it is impossible. In addition, the exam writer would not provide

possible multiple choice answers that are fairly close together because of the confusion that

would arise.

Exam Tip #2: During the exam, do not write on anything that is not part of the exam, including

your own psychrometric chart. This may result in disqualification.

Psychrometrics - 5 http://www.engproguides.com

3.0 KEY EQUATIONS

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇𝐷𝐵 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

∆𝑇𝐷𝐵 = 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟒, 𝟖𝟒𝟎 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

∆𝑾𝒍𝒃 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝑸𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ (∆𝒉) ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

∆𝒉 = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒, 𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑻𝟏,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

%𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

𝑻𝟐,𝑫𝑩 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

%𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

Psychrometrics - 6 http://www.engproguides.com

Air Mixing Equation - Dry Bulb

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =

𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒

𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒

𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙 = 𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦

𝒉𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦

%𝟏 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 1 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

𝒉𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑒𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦

%𝟐 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 2 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

𝒉𝟏 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝒉𝟐 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙 =

𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

𝒑𝒘 𝑾𝒘

𝑹𝑯 = 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎% ≈ 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎%

𝒑𝑺𝑨𝑻 𝑾𝑺𝑨𝑻

𝑹𝑯 = 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝒑𝒘 = 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚

𝒑𝑺𝑨𝑻 = 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑾𝒘 = ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚

𝑾𝑺𝑨𝑻 = ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Psychrometrics - 7 http://www.engproguides.com

4.0 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

The Psychrometric Chart describes the various properties (Dry Bulb Temperature, Wet Bulb

Temperature, Enthalpy, Humidity Ratio, Relative Humidity and Specific Volume) of moist air.

Moist air is defined as an air-water mixture. Moist air on a psychrometric chart ranges from Dry

Air to Saturated Air.

Dry air is defined as having no water vapor and is located on the X-axis of the psychrometric

chart. Saturated air is defined as an air-water mixture at equilibrium between the liquid and

vapor phase. Saturated air is moist air in balance with its liquid and vapor phases. At

saturation, air cannot hold any more moisture. It is the extreme opposite of dry air. This

saturated air is defined by the exponential curve, called the saturation curve, which is clearly

shown on Figure 3.

The psychrometric chart does not account for variations in pressure. Pressure is not shown on

any axis, because it is constant. For the PE exam and for this guide, it is assumed that the

psychrometric chart is based on atmospheric pressure (14.696 psia or 1 atm or 29.921 in. Hg),

unless noted otherwise. The psychrometric chart for the PE exam also only shows a range of

the temperatures typically encountered by a typical HVAC & Refrigeration Engineer.

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FIGURE 1: PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

The following (3) Psychrometric Chart Topics will now be discussed in detail:

• Air Properties on the Psychrometric Chart: What does each property tell of the air-water

mixture? How much energy does an air mixture have? How do two different air

conditions compare? Is the air hot/cold, wet/dry?

• Movement on the Psychrometric Chart: What causes each type of movement on the

chart (Right to Left, Up and Down, Diagonal). What is sensible heating/cooling? What is

humidification/dehumidification? What is the sensible heat ratio?

Heating/Cooling Questions, Condensation, etc.

shows the following thermodynamic properties of Moist Air, 1) Dry Bulb Temperature, 2) Wet

Bulb Temperature, 3) Relative Humidity, 4) Humidity Ratio, 5) Enthalpy, 6) Specific Volume and

7) Dew Point. If any of the two above properties are known of an air mixture, then the five other

corresponding properties can be found.

The following sections go into detail on each of the thermodynamic properties. It is the intent of

these sections for the reader to gain an understanding of the concepts and to grasp the

meaning of each property.

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4.1.1 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE

This is the temperature most people are familiar with, since the Dry Bulb temperature is the

temperature always shown on thermometers and thermostats. It is called dry because the

temperature is not affected by the moisture in the air. It is a direct indication of the amount of

sensible heat in the air at the given conditions.

In practice, design dry bulb temperatures for typical offices range from 72° to

75° F. Also typical dry bulb temperatures of cool supply air from an air handling

coil ranges from 52° to 55° F. For the purpose of the PE Exam, United States

Customary Units or USCS are used. Please do not spend additional time on

conversions to International System of Units (SI).

On the psychrometric chart, the dry bulb temperature is shown by vertical, TEMPERATURE

parallel lines, below in blue.

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4.1.2 WET BULB TEMPERATURE

This property takes into account the moisture in the air. The wet

bulb temperature in conjunction with the dry bulb temperature is a

direct indication of the amount of moisture in the air.

psychrometer, which consists of a thermometer covered by a wetted

cloth wick. The psychrometer is swung and if the air is dry, then the

wetted cloth wick will begin to evaporate. The energy lost to

evaporation cools the wetted cloth wick, which will in turn decrease

the temperature reading.

FIGURE 4: WET BULB TEMPERATURE

If the air is saturated, then the wetted cloth wick will not evaporate

and the wetted cloth wick will read the same temperature as the air. The drier the air, the more

evaporation will take place, which will cool the wetted cloth wick and will decrease the wet bulb

temperature reading. Thus the difference between the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb

temperature describes whether or not the air is humid or dry.

For example, wet bulb temperatures significantly lower than the dry bulb temperature is an

indication of dry air. A wet bulb temperature near the dry bulb temperature describes air that is

nearly saturated.

On the psychrometric chart shown in Figure 5, the wet bulb temperature lines originate from the

intersection of the corresponding dry bulb temperature and the saturation curve. The wet bulb

lines are shown in pink. If you follow the dry bulb lines shown in blue from the dry air line up to

the saturation curve, you can see that the wet bulb increases until it equals the dry bulb

temperature. When the wet bulb temperature equals the dry bulb temperature, then the air is

saturated.

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4.1.3 RELATIVE HUMIDITY

air mixture - compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the

air can hold at that dry bulb temperature. For example, an air

mixture at 100% relative humidity is shown on the saturation curve

because the amount of water vapor in the air mixture is equal to

the maximum amount. Dry air is shown as the x-axis, which has a

relative humidity of 0%, since there is no water vapor in the air

mixture.

The figure on the right shows two equal volumes of air in a jar. One jar

or volume of air contains the maximum amount of water it can hold, as illustrated as a

completely filled jar of water vapor droplets. The other jar is showing only half the amount of

water vapor droplets and therefore has a relative humidity of 50%.

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4.1.4 HUMIDITY RATIO

expressed as the water vapor per unit weight of dry air

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

[ ] or [ ]. Sometimes the humidity ratio

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

is expressed as [ ], where the symbol of these

1 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

units is [W]. Another term used for humidity ratio is absolute

humidity.

FIGURE 8: HUMIDITY RATIO OR

SPECIFIC HUMIDITY

Figure 8 illustrates air with a humidity ratio of .009 [ ], as shown graphically by

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(9) water vapor droplets. The jar on the right, holding a volume of air, has a humidity ratio of

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

.005 [ ], as illustrated by (5) water vapor droplets in the same volume of air.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Mass can be interchanged with volume, if it is assumed that the density is constant. Thus, the

jar with the larger number of droplets for the same volume of air has a higher humidity ratio.

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4.1.5 ENTHALPY

Enthalpy is the summation of the amount of sensible and latent energy in the air. [Btu/lb of dry

air]. Enthalpy is represented by the symbol = [ℎ]. In HVAC, enthalpy is used to determine the

amount of energy that is in moist air. It is important to recognize that on the psychrometric

chart, enthalpy is shown as downward sloping lines in green. These enthalpy lines are closely

aligned (but not completely) to the downward sloping wet bulb lines. Enthalpy shall be covered

more closely in the following sections. This section is meant to introduce the term and its role

on the psychrometric chart to the reader.

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4.1.6 SPECIFIC VOLUME

Specific volume is used to define the volume taken up by moist air at specific conditions. The

units are defined as [ft3/lb] and the symbol for specific volume is [v]. On the psychrometric

chart, specific volume is shown as downward sloping lines, shown in red on Figure 11.

For example, air at 1 atmosphere, 68° F DB and 60° F WB would have a specific volume of 13.5

ft3/lb and air at 1 atmosphere, 88° F DB and 66° F WB would have a specific volume of 14.0

ft3/lb. It is important to note that specific volume lines are typically shown in 0.5 increments, it is

up to the user of the Psychrometric Chart to extrapolate or interpolate to get more accurate

specific volume measurements.

Most often air at 60 DB/58WB is used as standard conditions, this results in a specific volume of

13.33 [ft3/lb]. Density is simply the inverse of specific volume. At standard conditions, the

density of air is 1/13.33 [ft3/lb] or 0.075 [lb /ft3].

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4.1.7 DEW POINT

The dew point can be found by first finding a certain condition on the graph and moving

horizontally left to the saturation curve. This is the temperature at which the air mixture must be

cooled in order for condensation to first occur. In HVAC, this skill is often used to determine

under what conditions condensation will occur on a window, pipe, duct or equipment surface.

One example is the fairly new HVAC system called Chilled Beams. Chilled beams is the system

of cooling spaces through the use of pipes containing cool water suspended below a ceiling, the

pipes are often situated into a passive (no fan) or active (fan) heat exchanger. As warm air

passes over the chilled beam, it cools and falls to the floor, thereby cooling the space below.

Condensation is a concern because if the chilled beam is at a temperature below the dew point

of the air, then as the air hits the coil, water may condense on the chilled beam and drip into the

space.

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4.2 MOVEMENT ON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

4.2.1 SENSIBLE HEATING/COOLING

Sensible heating and cooling is defined as the removal or addition of heat to an air mixture, with

no affect on the moisture content. Its sole effect is on the increase or decrease of the dry bulb

temperature.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 𝑚̇𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑐𝑝 = 0.240 ;

𝑙𝑏𝑚−℉

𝑚̇= ( )*( )*( )

𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 1 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝐶𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑡.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑸𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒆 [ ] = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟖 ∗ ∆𝑻 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴

ℎ

On a Psychrometric Chart, sensible heating and cooling is shown as a horizontal line. It is

horizontal because the amount of water vapor in the air is not changed, thus the Humidity Ratio

remains the same. A horizontal movement increases or decreases the dry bulb temperature.

As the dry bulb temperature increases with sensible heating, the air's capacity to hold water

also increases. The opposite is true with sensible cooling. In addition, sensible heating is

shown on the graph below to decrease relative humidity, while sensible cooling increases

relative humidity.

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𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟 (𝑛𝑜 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒)

𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝐻𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 =

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟 (𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑠)

𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝐻𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 =

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑟 (𝑑𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑠)

Sensible Heating is characterized by the following: (1) Increase in dry bulb temperature, (2)

Decrease in relative humidity, (3) No change in humidity ratio, (4) Increase in enthalpy, (5)

Increase in specific volume[hotter air takes up more volume], (6) No change in dew point, (7)

Increase in wet bulb.

Sensible Cooling is characterized by the following: (1) Decrease in dry bulb temperature, (2)

Increase in relative humidity, (3) No change in humidity ratio, (4) Decrease in enthalpy, (5)

Decrease in specific volume, (6) No change in dew point, (7) Decrease in wet bulb.

Psychrometrics - 18 http://www.engproguides.com

Quantifying sensible movement on the psychrometric chart is best described through the use of

an example problem.

Background: 1,000 CFM of conditioned air at 55° F DB/53° F DB, passes through an electric

resistance heater that provides 12,000 Btu/h of heat to the air, assume that 100% of the air is in

contact with the heater (bypass factor = 0). Assume a constant density of 0.075 lb/ft3.

Question: What are the final conditions of the air? Dry bulb, wet bulb, relative humidity,

humidity ratio?

Solution: The electric heater will only provide sensible heating of the air, therefore the following

equation can be used:

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

12,000 � � = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 1,000

ℎ

∆𝑇 = 11.11 = 𝑇𝐷𝐵,𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑇𝐷𝐵,𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑇𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 66.11° F

We now know the final dry bulb temperature and since only sensible heating occurred, there is

no change in water content, thus humidity ratios are equal 𝑤𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 . In order to get the

final conditions of the air, the psychrometric chart must be used. Knowing two values allows the

other 5 properties to be determined, see the following page.

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Step 1: Find initial location, 55° F DB/53° F DB.

Step 2: Show sensible heating movement.

Movement right at constant humidity ratio, by 11.1° F DB.

Step 3: Read properties at final location.

Dry Bulb = 66.1° F DB

Wet Bulb = 57.5° F WB

Relative Humidity = 60%

Humidity Ratio = .0082

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4.2.2 LATENT HEATING/COOLING

Latent heat energy is the amount of energy required to produce a phase change, water (liquid)

to water (vapor).

Latent heating and cooling is defined as the removal or addition of moisture (water vapor) to an

air mixture. Latent heating is more commonly known as humidification and latent cooling is

known as dehumidification. In HVAC, common latent heat sources include people, equipment

and outdoor air.

The amount of latent heating/cooling is determined through the following two ways [constants

shown for standard conditions]:

1. ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 => Change in grains of water vapor per pound of dry air.

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟏: 𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝒎̇ ∗ 𝑯𝒗

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]

𝐻𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 [ ]

𝐻𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻𝑣 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 1060 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟐: 𝒎̇ = 𝐶𝐹𝑀 � � ∗ .075 � 3

� ∗ 60[ ] ∗ ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 [ ] ∗[ ]

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 7000 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

Find the mass flow rate of water in air, using the specific volume of air and the specific humidity.

𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

. 075 � � = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑎𝑡 60°𝐹/58°𝐹 𝑎𝑡 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑚𝑖𝑛

60 � � = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑜 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

ℎ𝑟

𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∆𝑊𝐺𝑅 � � = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

1 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∗� � = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑙𝑏 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠

7000 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

Consolidated constants.

Psychrometrics - 21 http://www.engproguides.com

2. ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 => Change in pounds of water vapor per pound of dry air.

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟏: 𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝒎̇ ∗ 𝑯𝒗

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 [ ]

𝐻𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑚̇ = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 [ ]

𝐻𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻𝑣 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 1060 [ ]

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑺𝒕𝒆𝒑 𝟐: 𝒎̇ = 𝐶𝐹𝑀 � � ∗ .075 � � ∗ 60[ ] ∗ ∆𝑾𝑮𝑹 [ ]

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3 ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Find the mass flow rate of water in air, using the specific volume of air and the specific humidity.

𝑙𝑏𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

. 075 � � = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑎𝑡 60°𝐹/58°𝐹 𝑎𝑡 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑚𝑖𝑛

60 � � = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑜 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 � � = 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Consolidated constants.

Exam Tip #3: Ensure that these quick equations can be used, know the signs.

In most cases, the test taker will be able to use the quick equations shown as part of the exam

guide, but it is still important to understand where these quick equations come from. In the

event that the exam provides a non-standard condition, the test taker should be able to rapidly

move from the quick equation back to the original roots [Step 1]. Certain signs include, (1) The

exam states the density of the air in question, (2) the exam gives hint to extreme temperatures

outside of the norm, or (3) the exam indicates a non-standard pressure. For the purposes of

this exam, it is assumed that standard conditions are used. With your understanding of the

derivation of the quick conditions and standard conditions, feel confident that you will be able to

solve similar type problems at differing conditions.

Psychrometrics - 22 http://www.engproguides.com

On a Psychrometric Chart, latent heating and cooling is shown as a vertical line. Latent heating

or humidification is shown as an upward movement and latent cooling or dehumidification is

shown as a downward movement.

Quantifying latent movement on the psychrometric chart is best described through the use of an

example problem.

Background: 1,000 CFM of dry air at 66° F DB/30% Relative Humidity, passes through a

humidifier that provides 12,000 Btu/h of latent heat to the air, assume that 100% of the air is in

contact with the humidifier (bypass factor = 0). Assume a constant density of 0.075 lb/ft3.

Question: What are the final conditions of the air? Dry bulb, wet bulb, relative humidity,

humidity ratio?

Solution: The humidifier will only provide latent heating of the air, therefore the following

equation can be used:

𝐵𝑡𝑢

12,000 � � = 𝟒, 𝟕𝟕𝟎 ∗ ∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 ∗ 𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎

ℎ

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∆𝑾𝑳𝑩 � � = .0025 = 𝑤 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑤 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

. 0025 � � = 𝑤𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − .004

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Psychrometrics - 23 http://www.engproguides.com

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

𝑤𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 � � = .0065

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

We now know the final humidity ratio and since the air has only undergone latent heating, there is no change in dry bulb temperature, dry

bulbs are equal 𝑇𝑑𝑏,𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝑇𝑑𝑏,𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 . In order to get the final conditions of the air, the psychrometric chart must be used. Knowing two

values allows the other 5 properties to be determined, see below.

Step 2: Show latent heating movement.

Movement up at constant dry bulb, by .0025 lb h20/lb of dry air.

Step 3: Read properties at final location.

Dry Bulb = 66° F DB

Wet Bulb = 54.5° F WB

Relative Humidity = 48%

Humidity Ratio = .0065

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4.2.3 SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO

The sensible heat ratio (SHR) is used when there is diagonal movement on the psychrometric

chart. Diagonal movement would indicate both sensible heating/cooling and latent

heating/cooling. SHR is defined as the ratio of sensible heat to total heat.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( ) 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( )

ℎ ℎ

SHR = 𝐵𝑡𝑢 = 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( ) 𝑆𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒+𝐿𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 ( )

ℎ ℎ

The sensible heat ratio (SHR) is used in HVAC to describe the ratio of the sensible space

cooling to total cooling required for a space. Typically, there will be more sensible cooling

required than latent cooling. On the psychrometric chart it describes the slope of the line as

shown in the figure below.

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In order to determine the sensible heat ratio, you must be able to determine the total amount of

heat and the sensible heat through the use of a psychrometric chart.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

ℎ

The latent heat is determined through the equation:

The total energy can be determined by summing the sensible heat and the latent heat or by

using the following equation.

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑚̇(∆ℎ)

𝐶𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑡 60 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 .075 𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑚̇= ( )*( )*( )

𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 1 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝐶𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑡.

In air conditioning, sensible heat ratios range from 0.60 to 0.99, where 0.60 type buildings

include spaces with high humid outside air loads and 0.99 type buildings include computer

rooms/server rooms with high sensible loads and limited outside air and other latent loads.

Example problem, calculate the sensible heat ratio for the following problem:

Problem: Discharge air at 55 °F DB/53 °F WB from a coil enters a space with both sensible

heating and latent heating. The following space conditions of the air is 75 °F DB/50% Relative

Humidity.

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Step 1: Find locations, (1) 75° F DB/50% Relative Humidity & (2) 55° F DB/53° F WB

Step 2: Show sensible change, with a horizontal movement right from (1) to (2).

Step 3: Show latent change, with vertical movement from (2) to (3).

Step 4: Calculate total heat, sensible heat and latent heat changes.

𝑸𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒕 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ (𝒉𝟑 − 𝒉𝟐 ) from 3 to 2, indicates latent heat, 1.3 Btu/lb.

𝑸𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒃𝒍𝒆 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ (𝒉𝟐 − 𝒉𝟏 ) from 2 to 1, indicates sensible heat, 4.8 Btu/lb.

𝑸𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝟒. 𝟓 ∗ 𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ (𝒉𝟑 − 𝒉𝟏 ) from 3 to 1, indicates total heat, 6.1 Btu/lb.

Step 5: Calculate SHR as 4.5/6.1 = 0.8.

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4.2.4 MIXING OF TWO AIR STREAMS

A common skill is determining the output conditions of the mixture of two air streams. The

important concept to first understand is that the output conditions of the mixed airstream will be

most similar to the air stream that has the most volumetric flow rate.

For example, if 2,000 CFM of 80° F DB/65° F WB is mixed with 100 CFM of 50° F DB/45° F

WB, then the resulting mixed air conditions will be most similar to the 80° F DB/65° F WB air.

This seems obvious but often times in test situations, the test taker may forget the obvious and

simply rely on the calculations, which can be mistakenly entered into a calculator. This

realization, will give the engineer an insight into the most probable answer of the four possible

choices.

The second concept is that the dry bulb and humidity ratios change linearly. For example, if

2,000 CFM of 80° F DB is mixed with 2,000 CFM of 50° F DB, then the resulting temperature will

be located equally in between 80° F DB and 50° F DB. The resulting temperature will be 65° F

DB.

For example, if 3,000 CFM of 80° F DB is mixed with 1,000 CFM of 50° F DB, then the resulting

temperature will be 72.5° F DB, corresponding to the location on the graph indicated by 75% of

the total mixture is from 80° F DB air.

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Once an understanding of the graph is shown, then the following equations can be used.

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =

𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

This linear relationship for dry bulb temperatures is also true for humidity ratios and enthalpies,

as shown in the following equations.

𝑾𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =

𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

𝒉𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =

𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟏 + 𝑪𝑭𝑴𝟐

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5.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Background: The return air temperature to an air conditioning coil is 80°F DB and 65% Relative

Humidity. Assume pressure = 1 atm.

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Problem: What is the Enthalpy [ ]?

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 45

(b) 40

(c) 35

(d) 30

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

Problem: What is the Humidity Ratio [ ]?

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .014

(b) .012

(c) .010

(d) .008

(a) 80° F

(b) 75° F

(c) 71° F

(d) 65° F

𝑓𝑡 3

Problem: What is the Specific Volume [ ]?

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 11

(b) 12

(c) 13

(d) 14

Psychrometrics - 30 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 1 - NAVIGATING PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Problem: What is the Enthalpy [ ]?

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(c) 35

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

Problem: What is the Humidity Ratio [ ]?

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .014

(c) 71 °F

𝑓𝑡 3

Problem: What is the Specific Volume [ ]?

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(d) 14

Psychrometrics - 31 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 2 - CONDENSATION ON SURFACES

Background: Condensation occurs on windows, when moist air comes into contact with a cold

window. This often occurs when windows cool during the night then moist air during the

morning comes into contact with the window. Assume pressure = 1 atm.

Problem: At which of the following below conditions will condensation occur at the exterior of

the window.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

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SOLUTION 2 – CONDENSATION ON SURFACES.

See attached psychrometric chart, next page.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

(A) Given 55 °F DB, .007 ? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

find that the dew point of the air is approximately 47 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is

50 °F, then no condensation will occur.

Answer: No.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(B) Given 55 °F DB, .20 ? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we find

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

that the dew point of the air is approximately 47 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is 52

°F, then no condensation will occur.

Answer: No.

(C) Given 80 °F DB, .60 °F WB? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we find that

the dew point of the air is approximately 45.5 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is 40 °F,

then condensation will occur.

Answer: Yes.

(D) Given 75 °F DB, .50% RH? Using the psychrometric chart on the next page, we find that the

dew point of the air is approximately 55 °F DB. If the temperature of the window is 56 °F, then

no condensation will occur.

Answer: No.

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PROBLEM 3 - CHANGE IN ENTHALPY/HUMIDITY RATIO

Background: Air returns from a conditioned space at 80°F/60% relative humidity and is cooled

at an air handling unit down to 55°F DB/ 54°F WB. The air handling unit has no outside air

mixing.

Problem: Determine the enthalpy change and the change in humidity ratio.

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Enthalpy Change [ ]:

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 11.1

(b) -11.1

(c) 15.5

(d) -15.5

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

Humidity Ratio Change [ ]:

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .004

(b) -.004

(c) .010

(d) -.010

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SOLUTION 3 - CHANGE IN ENTHALPY/HUMIDITY RATIO

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

Enthalpy Change [ ]:

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

∆𝒉 = 𝒉𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 − 𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍

𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

∆𝒉 = 𝒉𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 − 𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 = −𝟏𝟏. 𝟏

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) 11.1

(b) -11.1

(c) 15.5

(d) -15.5

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟

Humidity Ratio Change [ ]:

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

∆𝑾𝑳𝑩= 𝑾𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒍 − 𝑾𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 = −. 𝟎𝟎𝟒

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

(a) .004

(b) -.004

(c) .010

(d) -.010

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PROBLEM 4 - AIR MIXTURES

Background: Return air is often mixed with outside air prior to entering an air handler, where it

is then cooled/heated to the appropriate air delivery temperature.

1,000 CFM return air at 78°F DB/54% Relative Humidity is mixed with 1,000 CFM outside air at

88°F DB/70% Relative Humidity, what is the resulting state of air?

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SOLUTION 4 - AIR MIXTURES

Background: Return air is often mixed with outside air prior to entering an air handler, where it

is then cooled/heated to the appropriate air delivery temperature.

1,000 CFM of 88°F DB/70% rel hum; 1,000 CFM of 78°F DB/54% rel hum

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =

𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏 + 𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐

𝟏𝟔𝟔, 𝟎𝟎𝟎

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = = 𝟖𝟑 ℉ 𝑫𝑩

𝟐, 𝟎𝟎𝟎

Next, plot the conditions on the psychrometric chart in order to determine the relative humidity of

the mixed condition. Plot the two entering conditions and connect the two points with a line.

The mixed condition is found at the intersection of the mixed dry bulb temperature and the line

connecting the two entering conditions, refer to the below figure.

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PROBLEM 5 - ELECTRIC HEATER

Background: Electric heaters are placed in air conditioning systems to raise the dry bulb

temperature of air. 2,000 CFM of air at 55°F DB/53°F DB is passed through a 36,000 Btuh

heater. Assume the heater is 100% efficient. Assume a density of 0.075 lb/ft^3. What are the

resulting air conditions?

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SOLUTION 5 - ELECTRIC HEATER

The electric heater only provides sensible heat, thus the following equation can be used:

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

36,000[ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 2000

ℎ

∆𝑇 = 16.7°F

Since only one of the possible solutions as the temperature 71.7 °F DB, then this must be the

correct answer. The final condition is shown at the intersection of the 71.7 F line and the

horizontal rightward moving line [sensible heating].

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PROBLEM 6 - COOLING COIL

Background: Cooling coils in air conditioning systems serve as a source of both latent and

sensible cooling, if the apparatus dew point of the cooling coil is below the dew point of the

entering air. 1,000 CFM of air at 78F DB/60% relative humidity enters a cooling coil with a

sensible capacity of 24,000 Btuh and a total cooling capacity of 40,000 Btuh, assume the

cooling coil is 100% effective. What is the resulting state of air?

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SOLUTION 6 - COOLING COIL

Since the cooling coil provides both sensible and latent cooling, both the sensible and latent

heat equations must be used. First the sensible heat equation to determine the dry bulb

temperature and second the latent heat equation to determine the humidity ratio.

1.08 ∗ ∆ ∗

∆ 22.2F

F DB 22.2 55.8F DB

4, .5 ∗ ∆ ∗

∆ 8.89; 32.25

. 8.89 23.4

From the psychrometric chart, 55.8FDB & .23.4 => 55.8FDB/96% Relative Humidity.

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PROBLEM 7 - HUMIDIFIER

Background: An evaporative humidifier works by blowing air over a wet medium, evaporating

the water in the medium into the air, thereby increasing the humidity ratio of the air. This will

reduce the dry bulb temperature of the air since the air lost heat to evaporate the water in the

medium. For the purposes of this problem, this effect will not be taken into account.

1,000 CFM of air at 75°F DB/20% relative humidity passes through a humidifier with 8,000 Btu/h

of latent heat, assume that the humidifier is 100% effective. What is the resulting state of air?

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SOLUTION 7 - HUMIDIFIER

Since the humidifier only provides latent heat, the following equation can be used.

Dry bulb temperature does not change, 75°F DB/.0054 lbm H20/lbm dry air.

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PROBLEM 8 – DEHUMIDIFIER

Background: A desiccant dehumidifier most often has a silica gel medium, which absorbs

moisture from air as it is passed over the medium. For the purposes of this problem, it is

assumed that the dry bulb temperature is not affected and the dehumidifier only provides latent

cooling (dehumidification).

1,000 CFM of air at 80°F DB/72°F WB passes through a de-humidifier with 10,000 Btu/h of

latent heat, assume that the de-humidifier is 100% effective. What is the resulting state of air?

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SOLUTION 8 - DEHUMIDIFIER

Since the de-humidifier only provides latent cooling, the following equation can be used.

Dry bulb temperature does not change, 80°F DB/.013 lbm H20/lbm dry air.

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PROBLEM 9 - ENTHALPY WHEEL

Background: An enthalpy wheel is used to transfer energy (enthalpy) from one air stream to

another. 2,000 CFM of air leaving a building at 80°F DB/69°F WB is used to pre-cool and pre-

dehumidify 2,000 CFM of air at 87°F DB/75°F WB prior to the air entering the building HVAC

system. Assume the enthalpy wheel is 80% effective. What is the resulting temperature of the

air entering the building HVAC system after the enthalpy wheel?

87°F DB/ 75°F WB

??°F DB/ ??°Btu/lb

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SOLUTION 9 - ENTHALPY WHEEL

The enthalpy wheel will be able to transfer the enthalpy from one air stream to the other.

𝑩𝒕𝒖 𝑩𝒕𝒖

𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝟑𝟖. 𝟓 ; 𝒉𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝟑𝟑. 𝟏 ; from psych. Chart.

𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒅𝒓𝒚 𝒂𝒊𝒓 𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒅𝒓𝒚 𝒂𝒊𝒓

𝑩𝒕𝒖

𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝟑𝟒. 𝟐

𝒍𝒃 𝒐𝒇 𝒅𝒓𝒚 𝒂𝒊𝒓

𝑻𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒏𝒈,𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝟖𝟏. 𝟒 ℉ 𝑫𝑩

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PROBLEM 10 - SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO

Background: 2,000 CFM of air leaves a coil at 55°F DB/53°F WB. The air enters the space with

sensible and latent loads. The resulting temperature in the space is 75°F DB/63°F WB. What is

the sensible heat ratio?

(a) 0.7

(b) 0.75

(c) 0.8

(d) 0.85

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SOLUTION 10 - SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO

In order to determine the sensible heat ratio, the sensible and total load must be found.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 [ ] = 1.08 ∗ ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 � � = 1.08 ∗ (75 − 55) ∗ 2,000 = 43,200

ℎ ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 � � = 4,770 ∗ (. 0096 − .0081) ∗ 2,000 = 14,310

ℎ ℎ

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 43,200

𝑆𝐻𝑅 = � �= = 0.75

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 43,200 + 14,310

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PROBLEM 11 – COOLING LOAD CALCULATION

Background: A room has the following loads, 2,000 Btuh [lighting]; 2,000 Btuh [computer];

6,000 Btuh [people - sensible]; 6,000 Btuh [walls/roof] and 6,000 Btuh [people – latent]. 800

CFM of air leaves the coil at 55F DB/53F WB and enters the room. What will be the resulting

space conditions?

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SOLUTION 11 – COOLING LOAD CALCULATION

The first step in solving this problem is to determine which of the cooling loads are sensible and

which are latent. Sensible loads in a building include: lighting, miscellaneous equipment

(computers, refrigerators, microwaves, etc.), wall/roof heat loads, solar heat gain through

windows and skylights and the heat load from people. Latent loads in a building include:

moisture release from people, moist air infiltration and some equipment although rarely.

1.08 ∗ ∆ ∗

73.5

4,770 ∗ ∆ ∗ ; ? ; .0081

.0097

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PROBLEM 12 – CALCULATE AMOUNT OF CONDENSATE

Background: 2,000 CFM of air at 78 F DB/55 % Rel. Hum passes through a cooling coil with

an apparatus dew point of 53 F. The resulting discharge air temperature from the coil is 55 F

DB/ 54 F WB. What is the total amount of condensate produced?

Psychrometrics - 52 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 12 – CALCULATE AMOUNT OF CONDENSATE

In order to determine the amount of condensate produced, the change in humidity ratio must

first be determined.

20

∆ .0113 .0087

20

∆ .0026

20 20

. 0026 ∗ 2,000 ∗ 0.075 0.39

20 7.48

0.39 ∗ ∗ 0.05

62.4 20 1

Psychrometrics - 53 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 13– RELATIVE HUMIDITY

Background: This question is meant to test your understanding of the concept of relative

humidity without the use of a psychrometric chart. Quickly rank the following states of air from

Highest Relative humidity to lowest relative humidity.

a) 75° F DB/60° F WB

b) 75° F DB/63° F WB

c) 40° F DB/39° F WB

d) 87° F DB/20° F WB

Psychrometrics - 54 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 13 – RELATIVE HUMIDITY

The state of air with the highest relative humidity will be the air where the wet bulb is nearest to

the dry bulb.

The state of air with the lowest relative humidity will be the air where the wet bulb is furthest

from the dry bulb.

The next two states of air can be distinguished in the same manner. Since the two states have

the same dry bulb temperature, the state of air with the highest wet bulb temperature will have

the highest relative humidity.

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

1) C 40° F DB/39° F WB ~ 92% Relative Humidity; 0.0048

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

2) B 75° F DB/63° F WB ~ 52% Relative Humidity; 0.0096

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

3) A 75° F DB/60° F WB ~ 41% Relative Humidity; 0.0076

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

4) D 87° F DB/60° F WB ~18% Relative Humidity; 0.0049

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Psychrometrics - 55 http://www.engproguides.com

PROBLEM 14– AIR MIXTURES

2,000 CFM return air at 78°F DB/54% rel hum is mixed with 1,000 CFM outside air at 88°F

DB/70% rel hum, what is the resulting state of air?

Psychrometrics - 56 http://www.engproguides.com

SOLUTION 14 – AIR MIXTURES

1,000 CFM of 88°F DB/70% Relative Humidity; 2,000 CFM of 78°F DB/54% Relative Humidity

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 =

𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏 + 𝟐, 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐

𝟐𝟒𝟒, 𝟎𝟎𝟎

𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒙,𝑫𝑩 = = 𝟖𝟏. 𝟑 𝑭 𝑫𝑩

𝟑, 𝟎𝟎𝟎

Psychrometrics - 57 http://www.engproguides.com

SECTION 5: HEAT TRANSFER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3

2.0 Important Terms & Equations ............................................................................................ 4

3.0 Conduction ......................................................................................................................... 8

3.1 Thermal Conductivity .................................................................................................. 9

3.2 U-Factor ...................................................................................................................... 9

3.3 R-Value ....................................................................................................................... 9

4.0 Convection ....................................................................................................................... 11

5.0 Radiation .......................................................................................................................... 13

6.0 Calculating Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient .................................................................. 14

7.0 Cooling Load Calculations ............................................................................................... 16

7.1 Thermal Mass & Time Lag Factor ................................................................................ 17

7.2 Uncertainty ................................................................................................................... 17

7.3 Roof & Wall ................................................................................................................... 18

7.4 Skylight & Window ........................................................................................................ 20

7.5 People .......................................................................................................................... 21

7.6 Lighting ......................................................................................................................... 21

7.7 Miscellaneous Equipment ............................................................................................. 23

7.8 Infiltration ...................................................................................................................... 24

8.0 Heat Exchangers .............................................................................................................. 26

8.1 Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) ................................................................. 27

8.2 Heat Balance ................................................................................................................ 28

9.0 Practice Problems ................................................................................................................. 29

Practice Problem 1: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ........................................ 29

Solution 1: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ...................................................... 30

Practice Problem 2: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ........................................ 31

Solution 2: Calculate Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ...................................................... 32

Practice Problem 3: Calculate Heat Load Through Wall ..................................................... 33

Solution 3: Calculate Heat Load Through Wall .................................................................... 34

Practice Problem 4: Calculating Heat Load From People ................................................... 35

Solution 4: Calculating Heat Load From People .................................................................. 36

Practice Problem 5: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................... 37

Solution 5: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................................. 38

Practice Problem 6: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................... 39

Solution 6: Calculating Heat Load From Motors .................................................................. 40

Practice Problem 7: Calculating Heat Load From Windows ................................................ 41

Solution 7: Calculating Heat Load From Windows .............................................................. 42

Practice Problem 8: Heat Exchangers ................................................................................. 43

Solution 8: Heat Exchangers ............................................................................................... 44

Practice Problem 9: Heat Exchangers ................................................................................. 45

Solution 9: Heat Exchangers ............................................................................................... 46

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the

Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on

the P.E. exam.

Heat transfer is the topic centering on the movement of heat from one system to the next

system. In this section, the three modes of heat transfer will first be discussed in order to give a

background into the concepts of heat transfer. The three modes of heat transfer are (1)

Conduction, (2) Convection and (3) Radiation. This section leads to determining overall heat

transfer coefficients, which is an important and practical skill and can be used for determining

the resistances of walls and roofs. Following this discussion, this section will delve into the

primary application of heat transfer concepts in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, which is Cooling

Load Calculations. Another important application of heat transfer is heat exchangers, which will

also be discussed first in this section and later in the Mechanical Systems section.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the

test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

2.0 IMPORTANT TERMS & EQUATIONS

1

𝑈=

𝑅

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑈 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 [ ]

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 [ ]

𝐵𝑡𝑢

Addition of R-Values

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 … + 𝑅𝑛

Addition of U-Factors

1 1 1 1 1

= + + …+

𝑈𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑈1 𝑈2 𝑈3 𝑈𝑛

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑘=

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉

𝑡

𝑅=

𝑘

𝑡 = 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 [𝑓𝑡]

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑘 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉

𝑘

𝑈=

𝑡

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑈 = 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

∆𝑇𝑎 − ∆𝑇𝑏

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =

∆𝑇

ln ( 𝑎 )

∆𝑇𝑏

∆𝑇𝑎 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒

∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡

Parallel-flow Heat Exchanger

𝑘 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )

𝑄=

𝑡

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑄 = 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑘 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 � �

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉

𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑠 [℉]

𝑡 = 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 [𝑓𝑡]

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

𝑄 = ℎ ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

Radiative Heat Transfer Equation

𝑄 = ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

3.0 CONDUCTION

Conduction is the method of heat transfer through material(s) in physical contact. The driving

force in conduction is a temperature difference on either side of the material(s). For example, if

the end of a metal rod is placed in a fire, heat will be conducted through the metal rod to the

other end. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, heat transfer due to conduction is most commonly

calculated for wall and roof heat loads. The outside of a wall or roof is heated by the outdoor

conditions. Then the heat is conducted from the outside of the wall through the wall material

and to the inside of the wall, where the heat is transferred to the space. The formula for

calculating heat transfer due to conduction through a material is as follows:

𝑘 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )

𝑄=

𝑡

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑄 = 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑘 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 � �

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℉

𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 [℉]

𝑡 = 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 [𝑓𝑡]

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑙 [𝑓𝑡 2 ]

The amount of heat transferred is linearly dependent on the difference in temperature between

the inside and outside surfaces of the wall. The conduction equation shows that as the

temperature difference increases, the heat load also increases. The same is also true for the

area available for heat transfer and the thermal conductivity. On the other hand, the amount of

heat transferred is inversely related to the thickness of the wall or roof material.

3.1 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

The thermal conductivity for various materials can be found in ASHRAE Handbook –

Fundamentals. Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts and

promotes heat transfer. Metals are excellent conductors and thus have a high conductivity. For

𝐵𝑡𝑢

example, aluminum has a thermal conductivity of 128 and iron has a conductivity of

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

~30 . Poor conductors include materials like wood (Douglas fir –0.0833 ) and

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉ ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

insulation materials (Cellular Glass - 0.0275 ; Glass Fiber – 0.0221 ).

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉ ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢∗𝑖𝑛

It is important to note that often times, thermal conductivity is given in units of ,. This

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

value is a thermal conductivity value per inch thickness of materials. Insulation, masonry,

plastering and wood materials often have thermal conductivity per inch of materials. For

𝐵𝑡𝑢∗𝑖𝑛

example, cellular glass has a unit thermal conductivity of 0.33 ), which means that for an

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

inch in thickness of cellular glass material the thermal conductivity is 0.33. For 2” of thickness

the thermal conductivity is halved to 0.165.

Besides thermal conductivity, materials can also be classified by their R-Value or their U-

Factors as shown below.

3.2 U-FACTOR

U-Factor stands for the overall heat transfer coefficient and it is representative of a material’s

ability to conduct heat. Similar to thermal conductance, a higher U-factor value has a higher

ability to conduct and transfer heat. U-factor is related to thermal conductance by the following

formula.

𝑘 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑈= [ ]

𝑡 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )

This equation assumes that U does not vary based on temperature. For purposes of the exam,

this is a safe assumption.

3.3 R-VALUE

R-Value stands for thermal resistance and it is representative of a material’s ability to resist

heat. The R-Value is the inverse of the U-Factor and thermal conductance, which are measures

of a materials ability to conduct heat. The relationship between the R-Value, U-Factor and

thermal conductance is shown in the following formula.

1 𝑡 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅= = [ ]

𝑈 𝑘 𝐵𝑡𝑢

1

𝑄= ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 )

𝑅

This equation assumes that R does not vary based on temperature. For purposes of the exam,

this is a safe assumption.

R-values are typically used in the HVAC & Refrigeration field to describe building insulation

materials. Often times, R-values are shown as a function of thickness, similar to the table

below.

Thickness R-Value

1” 5

1.5” 7,5

2” 10

2.5” 12.5

Notice that the unit R-Value is 5 for 1” of insulation. The corresponding R-values for various

inches of thicknesses are found by simply multiplying the thickness in inches by the unit R-

value, refer to the below equation.

𝑡 ∗ 𝑅1" = 𝑅𝑡"

4.0 CONVECTION

Convection is the second mode of heat transfer and is defined as the transfer of heat through

the movement of fluids. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, convective heat transfer can be

found in heating and air conditioning systems, whenever a moving fluid passes over a surface at

a different temperature.

One of the most common examples of convection is natural convection. As people enter a

building, the lights get turned on and the sun heats the building. These various heat sources

cause the air in the building to get warmer. The warm air is less dense than the air around it

and begins to rise up and out of the building. The empty space left by the warm air is then

replaced by cooler outside air and the cycle continues. This convective heat transfer through

the movement of air is called natural convection. It is referred to as natural because it does not

rely on a mechanical source, like a fan to move the air.

Convective heat transfer has a similar equation to conductive heat transfer, except the U-Factor

or R-Value is replaced with the convective heat transfer coefficient. This convective heat

transfer coefficient characterizes the moving fluid by taking into account its viscosity, thermal

conductance, temperature, velocity and it also characterizes the surface that the fluid is moving

upon. The derivation of this coefficient for various situations is not part of the scope of this

section and is more suited to the Thermal and Fluids Depth Exam.

Convective Heat Transfer Equation

𝑄 = ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

5.0 RADIATION

The third and final mode of heat transfer is radiation. Radiation heat gains for a typical

building’s window or skylight must be calculated with a computer program like Trane Trace 700,

Carrier HAP or a similar load calculation program, because the calculation is iterative and

complex. However, calculations for heat gains from radiation are simplified in hand calculated

applications and it is the opinion of the writer that the simplified equations for radiation are what

can be tested on during the PE exam. Thus only the simplified equations will be discussed in

this section and the subsequent sections.

Radiation is the mode of heat transfer that requires no substance to transmit heat. All

objects above absolute zero radiate or project heat from its surface. For HVAC & Refrigeration

the primary heat gain due to radiation is from solar radiation. Heat is radiated from the sun and

transmitted to a building either by heating up the building envelope or transmitting heat directly

through windows and skylights. These specific examples of solar radiation are described further

in the Cooling Load Calculations part of this section.

𝑄 = ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡[ ]

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

∆𝑇 = 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 [℉]

6.0 CALCULATING OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

A must have skill for the aspiring professional engineer is to be able to calculate the overall

heat transfer coefficient (U-factor) for a wall, roof, duct or pipe. This skill will be described and

explained through the following example.

It is important to be able to follow the flow of heat from the beginning to the end of this diagram

[from left to right]. The diagram shows how the temperature starts from a high temperature of

87 °F down to 75 °F.

(1) The first method of heat transfer is due to convection. Warm outdoor air moves across the

outer surface of the concrete wall causing the outer surface of the wall to heat up. In reality,

there would also be radiation loads acting upon the surface of the wall, but for simplicity it is

assumed that there are no radiation loads.

(2) Next the heat travels from the outer surface of the concrete wall to the inside surface.

(3) The heat then moves from the outer surface of the insulation and through the insulation.

(4) Next, the heat moves from the outer surface of the gypsum board and through the board.

(5) Finally the outer surface of the gypsum board transmits heat via convection and radiation to

the indoor air.

In order to find the overall heat transfer coefficient, all of the resistances must be summed. It is

recommended that each method of heat transfer should be converted to its equivalent R-Value

in order to simplify the calculation, because R-Values in series are simply added together.

𝑅𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 … + 𝑅𝑛

R-Values in parallel follow a different equation which is highlighted below.

1 1 1 1

= + +⋯

𝑅𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅𝑛

1

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 =

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟

1

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 =

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟

1

𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑 =

ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑑

Next, notice that the radiation and convection heat transfer modes are arranged in parallel.

Convert these two items to a single term.

1 1 1

= +

𝑅 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 =

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 + 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

Now that all terms are in series, the terms can be summed together.

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 ∗ 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 + 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 + 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝 +

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣,𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 + 𝑅𝑟𝑎𝑑

In order to find the overall heat transfer coefficient (U-factor), simply take the inverse of the total

R-value.

1

𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 =

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

7.0 COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS

Cooling load calculations are typically one of the first calculations completed by a HVAC &

Refrigeration engineer. These calculations serve as the basis for determining air conditioning

equipment sizes. In order to determine the mechanical equipment sizes, the engineer must first

determine what heat is being transferred into the building. The summation of the heat gained by

the building will determine the size of the air conditioning equipment.

The various heat gains and losses into a building can be characterized as either external or

internal loads. External loads include the conduction and radiation heat loads transferred

through roofs, walls, skylights and windows. In addition, outside air can be brought into a

building through ventilation requirements or infiltration, which will cause a cooling load upon the

system. Internal loads include heat loads from people, lighting and miscellaneous equipment

like computers, televisions, motors, etc.

External Internal

Roofs/Walls – Conduction Lights

Roofs/Walls – Radiation People

Skylights/Windows – Conduction Miscellaneous Equipment

Skylights/Windows – Radiation

Ventilation/Infiltration

The various heat gains can also be organized into sensible and latent heat gains. Sensible heat

gains are those characterized by only a change in temperature and no change in state. Latent

heat gains are those characterized by moisture gains. These individual heat gains are

discussed in the following sections.

Sensible Latent

Roofs/Walls – Conduction Moisture from Ventilation and Infiltration

Roofs/Walls – Radiation Moisture from People

Skylights/Windows – Conduction Moisture from Miscellaneous Equipment

Skylights/Windows – Radiation

Ventilation/Infiltration

Lights

People

Miscellaneous Equipment

When completing load calculations it is important to understand the term, time lag factor. When

the sun shines upon a wall early in the morning, although the wall does experience a heat load,

the amount of heat load transferred into the building at that instant is minimal. It takes a certain

amount of time for the heat to be conducted through the wall. This time lag is due to the thermal

mass of the wall. Thermal mass is also known as heat capacity and is defined as the ability of a

material to absorb heat.

7.2 UNCERTAINTY

Calculating heat gains and determining cooling loads has a very high degree of uncertainty.

This is because of the many assumptions that must be made, like occupant loads, activity level

of occupants, occupancy schedules, outdoor weather conditions, equipment schedules, etc.

The engineer should understand that the following calculations are not the most accurate

methods to calculate cooling load and are only shown to highlight concepts that could be tested

on the P.E. Exam.

There are multiple methods used to calculate cooling load calculations like the Radiant Time

Series, Total Equivalent Time Difference and the CLTD/SCL/CLF methods, which are discussed

in ASHRAE Fundamentals. The CLTD/SCL/CLF method is shown in this section because it is

the method that can be tested without a computer and in a relatively short period of time (4-

hours, 6 minutes per problem).

7.3 ROOF & WALL

The heat loads through a roof and wall can be incorrectly simplified to the equation shown

below. The equation shows that the heat load is a function of the area of heat transfer, the

overall heat transfer coefficient of the roof or wall assembly and the difference in temperature

between the indoors and the outdoors.

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 )

The equation previously shown is incorrect. The radiation from the sun onto the building

and the time it takes for the heat to transmit through the materials must be taken into account.

In order to take these two factors into account, the engineer should use the Cooling Load

Temperature Difference (CLTD). These values can be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals

1997 edition and older. These tables are organized by latitude, roof or wall type, month and

wall facing orientation direction. In addition, the CLTD is organized by the hour of the day. It is

not the opinion of the author that you will need to look-up these values in ASHRAE 1997.

These values should be given to you as part of the problem, should this type of problem arise

on the exam. It is only important to understand what CLTD is and how to use it when given it in

a problem. The simplified and incorrect equation is revised to the following equation for

calculating heat loads through roof and wall assemblies.

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷

It is also important to note that the CLTD is still a simplified approach to determining the heat

load due to roofs and walls. In actuality the heat load due to the roofs/walls will also be

dependent on many other conditions like the indoor conditions and the heat radiated from the

inner wall/roof to the indoor space.

7.4 SKYLIGHT & WINDOW

The heat loads form the skylights and windows can be split into (2) types of loads, conductive

and radiation loads. The conductive loads for skylights and windows use the same formula as

the one used for roofs and windows, shown below again.

Conductive loads

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷

The radiation loads or solar transmission is calculated by multiplying the area of the window or

skylight by the shading coefficient and the solar cooling load factor.

𝑄 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑆𝐶 ∗ 𝑆𝐶𝐿

𝑆𝐶 = 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡

The shading coefficient is the ratio of the specific window or skylight's solar transmission

compared to 1/8" clear glass. The shading coefficient is typically specific to the glass

manufacturer and can be found in the manufacturer's product data. During the exam, this value

along with the solar cooling load factor should be given. The solar cooling load factor is given in

the ASHRAE 1997 Fundamentals book and is similar to the CLTD. In addition, SCL is

organized similarly by skylight/window, orientation, month, latitude and hour.

In lieu of SC, the term Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) is being used by window/skylight

manufacturers. This term is found by dividing the SC by 1.15. A lower SHGC or SC indicates

that the glass allows less solar heat gain and a higher SHGC or SC means that the glass allows

more solar heat gain.

The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) rates glass and certifies the SHGC and U-

Factor. Additional values like Visible Transmittance, Air Leakage and Condensation Resistance

are also tested and certified.

7.5 PEOPLE

The heat loads from a person depend on the activity level of the person. ASHRAE has

tabulated heat, loads both sensible and latent heat gains, from people based on their activity

levels, refer to ASHRAE Fundamentals. The loads from people can be calculated using these

heat gain values, the number of people and the cooling load factor. The cooling load factor

takes into account the time lag factor and if it is not given it should be assumed to be 1.0.

Sensible loads

𝑄 = 𝑁 ∗ 𝑆𝐻𝐺 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝐹

𝑁 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑆𝐻𝐺 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛, 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐶𝐿𝐹 = 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

Latent loads

𝑄 = 𝑁 ∗ 𝐿𝐻𝐺 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝐹

𝑁 = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐿𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛, 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡 � �

ℎ𝑟

𝐶𝐿𝐹 = 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

7.6 LIGHTING

The heat load from lighting in a building is found by summing up the number of lights of each

type and wattage, then converting the watts to Btu/hr, multiplying this number by the usage

factor and the special allowance factor.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

3.412

𝑄 = 𝑁 ∗ 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠 ∗ ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑈𝐹 ∗ 𝑆𝐴𝐹 ∗ 𝑆𝐹

𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠

𝑈𝐹 = 𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑆𝐹 = 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

The wattage of the light is based on the manufacturer reported value for the lamps in the lighting

fixture, without taking into account the ballast. The lighting use factor is the ratio of the time the

lights will be in use. This factor is typically 1.0 for most applications like offices, classrooms,

stores, hospitals, etc. The usage factor may vary for a movie theater or inactive storage space.

The special allowance factor takes into account the heat from ballasts. This factor is typically

1.2 for fluorescent lights and 1.0 for incandescent lights due to the lack of ballasts in

incandescent lights.

Finally, the space fraction is the fraction of the total heat from the lights that is transmitted to the

space. Lights located at the ceiling may have a percentage of its heat transmitted into the

plenum and not into the space. This means that the air conditioning system, if the return is

ducted, will not see the percentage of the heat that is transmitted to the plenum. If the plenum

is used as a return, then the air conditioning will see the total heat from the lighting. For

example, the space fraction for a hung fluorescent light (non-ceiling) will be 1.0, because the

light is completely in the space. On the other hand a ceiling recessed light could have a space

fraction of 0.5, meaning that 50% of its heat is transmitted to the plenum and the other 50% is

transmitted to the space.

7.7 MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT

The heat gains from miscellaneous equipment can be found by the following equations.

The first equation is used for motors, where P is equal to the nominal horsepower of the motor.

Dividing the horsepower of the motor by the efficiency of the motor allows the heat gains due to

the motor and the heat gains due to the inefficiency of the motor to be taken into account. If the

motor is used continuously during occupied times then the usage factor will be 1.0. Otherwise

the usage factor will be the fraction of the time that it is used during occupied times divided by

the total time the space is occupied. The load factor of the motor takes into account the fact

that motors rarely run at its nominally rated capacity. For example, if a 1 HP motor actually

operates at 0.75 HP then the load factor will by 0.75.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑃

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿

𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑃 = ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

The second equation describes heat gain from everyday appliances like microwaves, toasters,

ranges, ovens and computers. The input energy is found by researching the manufacturer's

product data or by referring to typical values reported in ASHRAE Fundamentals. ASHRAE

Fundamentals also has typical usage factors and radiated heat fractions for typical equipment,

which are used in the equation below.

𝑄 = 𝑞𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝑅

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑞𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

ℎ

𝐹𝑅 = 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒

𝐹𝑈 = 𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

7.8 INFILTRATION

Infiltration is described as outside air that leaks into a building structure. These leaks could be

through the building construction or through entry doors. Infiltration heat gains are found by the

following equations. These equations are discussed more in the Psychrometrics Section.

The first equation is the total heat gains using enthalpy. In this equation, the volumetric flow

rate of the infiltration or ventilation air must be known. This value is converted and multiplied by

the difference in enthalpy between the outdoor air conditions and the indoor air conditions.

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 60 ∗ 0.075 3 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ [ ]

ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ [ ]

𝑙𝑏

The following two equations split the total heat gain into the sensible and latent heat loads.

Sensible Heat Gains are calculated by multiplying the CFM of the infiltrated air by the difference

in the dry bulb temperatures of the indoor and outdoor air.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 60 ∗ 0.075 3 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ 0.24 � ℎ𝑟 � ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑜𝑟 )

ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

Latent Heat Gains are calculated by multiplying the CFM of infiltrated air by the difference in the

humidity ratio of the indoor air and the outdoor air.

It is important to note that these loads are not seen directly by the cooling coil. These are

indirect loads that occur in each air conditioned space. Ventilation air is seen directly at the coil

and thus this air must be cooled down to the supply air distribution temperature which is much

lower than the room condition air.

Heat Transfer - 25 http://www.engproguides.com

8.0 HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat exchangers are mechanical devices designed to exchange or transfer heat from a hot fluid

to a cold fluid. Heat exchangers are used heavily throughout the HVAC & Refrigeration field.

For example, a condenser or evaporator in a chiller is simply a heat exchanger. A cooling or

heating coil is a heat exchanger that transfers heat from one fluid to another fluid. A chilled

water air handling unit transfers heat from hot air to chilled water.

There are many different types of heat exchangers that are briefly discussed in the Refrigeration

Section, but for exam purposes it is more important to understand the two classifications of heat

exchangers, (1) parallel flow and (2) counter-flow heat exchangers. These two classifications

describe the relationship between the direction of flow of the cold and hot fluids.

(1) Parallel flow heat exchanger: This heat exchanger has both the cold and hot fluids entering

at the same end of the heat exchanger. At the beginning of the heat exchanger there is a large

difference between the cold and hot fluids and at the end of the heat exchange the difference

between cold and hot is reduced, refer to the figures below.

(2) Counter-flow heat exchanger: The counter-flow heat exchanger is opposite of the parallel

flow heat exchanger. The cold and hot fluids enter at opposite ends. The figure below shows

the counter-flow heat exchanger, notice the opposing directional arrows.

In heat exchangers that do not have a phase change, heat is transferred from the hot fluid to the

cold fluid through the temperature difference between the cold and hot. However, in a heat

exchanger as shown in the previous figures, the temperature difference between the cold and

hot fluids is not always constant and depends on the location in the heat exchanger. Thus the

log mean temperature difference is used. The LMTD describes the logarithmic average

temperature difference between the cold and hot fluid through a generic heat exchanger

(counter or parallel). LMTD cannot be used for heat exchangers with a phase change like a

boiler or condenser. The equation for LMTD is shown below.

∆𝑇𝑎 − ∆𝑇𝑏

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =

∆𝑇

ln ( 𝑎 )

∆𝑇𝑏

The LMTD is then used to calculate the total heat exchanged by the heat exchanger through the

following equation. The U-value is the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger which is

given by the heat exchanger manufacturer. The Area value is the total area where heat

exchange occurs, which is also given by the heat exchanger manufacturer.

Often times in the HVAC & Refrigeration field, a heat balance is conducted on a heat exchanger

to show that a balance of heat loss from the hot fluid is shown as a heat gain to the cold fluid.

For example, cooling coils are heat exchangers that transfer heat from air to water. The heat

balance governing this heat transfer would be as shown below.

If there is a phase change, then the following equation can be used. Heat balances are

discussed further in the Refrigeration Section, Mechanical Systems and the Psychrometrics

section. Heat balances are integral to the HVAC & Refrigeration field, but luckily the equations

governing heat balance are fairly simple.

9.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

COEFFICIENT

Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for the following wall conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a) 0.12

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

b) .25

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

c) 3.12

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

d) 8.7

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

SOLUTION 1: CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER

COEFFICIENT

The overall heat transfer coefficient is found by first converting all values to R-values.

1 1 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = = 0.33

ℎ𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 3 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 2 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 = = = 6.67

𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠 0.3 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 8 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 = = = 0.89

𝑘𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘 9 𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 8.69

𝐵𝑡𝑢

The overall heat transfer coefficient is simply the inverse of the total resistance.

1 1

𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = =

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 8.69

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.12

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

PRACTICE PROBLEM 2: CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER

COEFFICIENT

Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for the following wall conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a) 0.06

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

b) .11

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

c). 21

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

d) 15

ℎ𝑟∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

SOLUTION 2: CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER

COEFFICIENT

The overall heat transfer coefficient is found by first converting all values to R-values.

1 1 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = = 0.5

ℎ𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 2 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 1.5 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 = = = 10

𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑠 0.15 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑡 8 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 = = = 5.33

𝑘𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 1.5 𝐵𝑡𝑢

1 1 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑖𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = = 0.59

ℎ𝑖𝑎𝑖𝑟 1.7 𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 17.22

𝐵𝑡𝑢

The overall heat transfer coefficient is simply the inverse of the total resistance.

1 1

𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = =

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 17.22

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 0.058

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

PRACTICE PROBLEM 3: CALCULATE HEAT LOAD THROUGH

WALL

An east facing exterior wall consists of 8” concrete (R-Value = 2.0), with 2” insulation (R-Value =

8.0) and 5/8” gypsum board (R-Value = 0.8). The wall has dimensions of 8’ height by 20’ long.

If the CLTD at peak load is 20 F, calculate the total heat load through the wall at peak load. The

indoor temperature is 75 F and the outdoor temperature is 87 F.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a) 125

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

b) 300

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

c) 350

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

d) 500

ℎ𝑟

SOLUTION 3: CALCULATE HEAT LOAD THROUGH WALL

An east facing exterior wall consists of 8” concrete (R-Value = 2.0), with 2” insulation (R-Value =

8.0) and 5/8” gypsum board (R-Value = 0.8). The wall has dimensions of 8’ height by 20’ long.

If the CLTD at peak load is 20 F, calculate the total heat load through the wall. The indoor

temperature is 75 F and the outdoor temperature is 87 F.

1 1

=

𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑠 + 𝑅𝑔𝑦𝑝

1 1 𝐵𝑡𝑢

= = .093

𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 2 + 8 + 0.8 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

8′ 𝑋 20′ = 160 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑄 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ (𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷)

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 0.93 ∗ 160 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ 20℉

ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 296

ℎ𝑟

PRACTICE PROBLEM 4: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM

PEOPLE

An office is maintained at space conditions of 75 °F and 50% RH. There are fifteen office

workers located in a 2,000 SF office building. Each worker has their own computer with flat

screen. What is the total heat load from the people to the space?

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a) 1,750

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

b) 3,000

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

c) 3,750

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

d) 6,750

ℎ𝑟

SOLUTION 4: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM PEOPLE

An office is maintained at space conditions of 75 °F and 50% RH. There are fifteen office

workers located in a 2,000 SF office building. Each worker has their own computer with flat

screen. What is the total heat load from the people to the space?

The total load from each individual person depends on the person's activity level. Refer to

ASHRAE Fundamentals to find the total heat gain from an office worker.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

450

𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛 = ℎ𝑟

𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛

𝐵𝑡𝑢

450

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 = 15 ∗ ℎ𝑟 = 6,750 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑟

PRACTICE PROBLEM 5: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM

MOTORS

There are 15 workers in a large air conditioned warehouse, which houses fruits and vegetables.

The workers drive (2) 10 HP electric golf carts throughout the warehouse. The motor has an

efficiency of 80% and the golf carts are only used 10% of the time, assume a 0.1 usage factor.

In addition, the full capacity of the motor is not used. Assume an 80% load factor. What is the

heat load from the golf carts alone?

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a) 1,800

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

b) 2,500

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

c) 4,200

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

d) 5,100

ℎ𝑟

SOLUTION 5: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM MOTORS

There are 15 workers in a large air conditioned warehouse, which houses fruits and vegetables.

The workers drive (2) 10 HP electric golf carts throughout the warehouse. The motor has an

efficiency of 80% and the golf carts are only used 10% of the time, assume a 0.1 usage factor.

In addition, the full capacity of the motor is not used. Assume an 80% load factor. What is the

heat load from the golf carts alone?

The total heat load from the (2) golf carts can be found from the below equation:

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑃

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿

𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

10 𝐻𝑃

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 0.1 ∗ 0.8

𝐻𝑃 0.80

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 2545 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑔𝑜𝑙𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 5,090

ℎ𝑟

PRACTICE PROBLEM 6: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM

MOTORS

A 10 HP motor drives a new fan in an air conditioned warehouse. The motor is 80% efficient,

but the motor is located outside of the air conditioned space and its heat does not transfer to the

space. The motor is always running and has a usage factor of 1.0. The fan is located in the

conditioned space. What is the total heat gain to the space?

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a) 21,400

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

b) 25,500

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

c) 30,000

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

d) 35,200

ℎ𝑟

SOLUTION 6: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM MOTORS

A 10 HP motor drives a new fan in an air conditioned warehouse. The motor is 80% efficient,

but the motor is located outside of the air conditioned space and its heat does not transfer to the

space. The motor is always running and has a usage factor of 1.0. The fan is located in the

conditioned space. What is the total heat gain to the space?

The total heat load from the motor AND the fan is given by the below equation:

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿

𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

However, from the problem it is found that only the fan is in the space and we do not need to

account for the heat gain from the motor. We can split out the equation into the two heat gains,

motor and fan.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

1

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿 ∗ (𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 + 𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 ∗ � − 1�)

𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

1

𝑀𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑇𝑒𝑟𝑚 = 𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 ∗ � − 1�

𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

1

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿 ∗ (𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 + 𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 ∗ � − 1�)

𝐻𝑃 𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 𝐹𝑈 ∗ 𝐹𝐿 ∗ (𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 )

𝐻𝑃

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 2545 ℎ𝑟 ∗ 1.0 ∗ 1.0 ∗ (10)

𝐻𝑃

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 25,450

ℎ𝑟

PRACTICE PROBLEM 7: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM

WINDOWS

An existing clear glass window with an inefficient film and a shading coefficient of 0.9 is being

replaced by a new low-e glass with a shading coefficient of 0.6 and a transmissivity of 0.75.

What will be the percent reduction in solar heat gain by switching to the newer glass, assume an

area of 18 square feet and a SCL of 40 F.

a) 33%

b) 54%

c) 66%

d) 72%

SOLUTION 7: CALCULATING HEAT LOAD FROM WINDOWS

An existing clear glass window with an inefficient film and a shading coefficient of 0.9 is being

replaced by a new low-e glass with a shading coefficient of 0.6 and a transmissivity of 0.75.

What will be the percent reduction in heat load by switching to the newer glass, assume an area

of 18 square feet and a SCL of 40 F.

𝑄 = 𝐴 ∗ 𝑆𝐶 ∗ 𝑆𝐶𝐿

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑤 − 𝑄𝑜𝑙𝑑

% 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = ∗ 100

𝑄𝑜𝑙𝑑

0.9 − 0.6

% 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = ∗ 100 = 33%

0.9

PRACTICE PROBLEM 8: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. Hot water is

provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F. What is the

LMTD, if the air leaving the coil is at 55 F?

a) 17 ℉

b) 22 ℉

c) 30 ℉

d) 36 ℉

SOLUTION 8: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. Hot water is

provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F. What is the

LMTD, if the air leaving the coil is at 55 F?

∆𝑇𝑎 − ∆𝑇𝑏

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =

∆𝑇

ln ( 𝑎 )

∆𝑇𝑏

Since it is a counter flow heat exchanger, the entering and exiting points of the hot and cold fluid

are on opposite ends.

∆𝑇𝑎 = 65 𝐹 − 40 𝐹 = 25 𝐹

∆𝑇𝑏 = 75 𝐹 − 55 𝐹 = 20 𝐹

25 − 20

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =

25

ln ( )

20

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = 22.4 𝐹

PRACTICE PROBLEM 9: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. 25 GPM of hot

water is provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F.

What is the temperature of the air leaving the coil? Assume a water density of 62.4 lb per ft^3.

Assume standard air conditions, density of 0.075 lb per ft^3 and a heat capacity of 0.24

Btu/lbm*F. .

a) 50 ℉

b) 53 ℉

c) 63 ℉

d) 65 ℉

SOLUTION 9: HEAT EXCHANGERS

A counter-flow, heating coil has 5,000 CFM of air entering the coil as 40 F. 25 GPM of hot

water is provided to the coil with entering conditions of 75 F and leaving conditions of 65 F.

What is the temperature of the air leaving the coil?

A heat balance should be conducted on the hot and cold sides of the equation. Assume 100%

heat transfer, since no other direction has been provided.

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 𝑥𝑔𝑝𝑚 ∗ ∗ ∗ 3

∗1 ∗ (𝑇𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

ℎ𝑟 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 25 ∗ ∗ ∗ 3

∗1 ∗ (75 − 65)

ℎ𝑟 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 = 125,000

ℎ𝑟

The heat transferred from the hot side must equal the heat gained on the cold side.

125,000 = 𝑥𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ � �∗ 3

∗ 0.24 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛 )

ℎ𝑟 ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

125,000 = 5,000 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ � �∗ 3

∗ 0.24 ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 40)

ℎ𝑟 ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏 ∗ ℉

23 ℉ = (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 40)

𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 63 ℉

SECTION 6: FLUID MECHANICS

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 2

2.0 Fluids.................................................................................................................................. 3

2.1 Properties of Fluids ......................................................................................................... 3

3.0 Fluid Applications ............................................................................................................... 6

Fluids - 1 http://www.engproguides.com

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the

Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on

the P.E. exam.

This guide only focuses on the key properties that must be understood of fluids. The

application of these properties through the implementation of Mechanical Equipment and

Systems like piping, ducting, fans and pumps are discussed further in the Mechanical

Equipment and Systems section.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the

test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

Fluids - 2 http://www.engproguides.com

2.0 FLUIDS

A fluid is a substance that is continually changing its shape when under a shear stress. In

engineering application, fluids include gases and liquids. Gases include air, steam, compressed

air, medical gases like nitrogen, oxygen, etc. and industrial gases like natural gas, ethane,

acetylene, etc. Liquids include domestic water, chilled water, hot water and industrial liquids like

diesel fuel, propane and oil. This section describes the various explicit properties of fluids and

other implicit properties of non-moving fluids.

The following sections go into detail on each of the thermodynamic properties. It is the intent of

these sections for the reader to gain an understanding of the concepts and to grasp the

meaning of each property.

1. Temperature: This property is the one most people are familiar with, because it is shown on

thermostats and thermometers. Temperature is a direct indication of the amount of heat in the

fluid. The USCS units used for temperature are Fahrenheit and Rankine. Typical Fahrenheit

temperatures for chilled water(medium used for water-cooled Air Conditioning) range from 45°F

to 55°F and hot water temperatures range from 120°F to 140°F. The temperature at which

water boils is 212°F and water freezes at 32°F. Rankine temperatures are used when it is

necessary to define an absolute temperature scale having only positive values. The conversion

between Fahrenheit and Rankine is shown below. When using equations during the exam,

ensure that the correct temperature units are used.

°𝑅 = ℉ + 460

2. Pressure: The pressure of a fluid indicates the amount of force per unit area that the fluid

imparts on the system around it. Pressure is measured in units of pounds per square inch

𝑙𝑏𝑓

(𝑝𝑠𝑖 = ) . There are two different types of pressure scales, (1) absolute pressure and

𝑠𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ

(2) gauge pressure. These two pressure scales differ by their 0 reference point. Gauge

pressures have a 0-reference point as 1 atm. Thus 0 psig, where the g indicates gauge

pressure, is equal to 1 atmospheric or 14.7 psia, where the “a” indicates absolute pressure.

Most real world applications encountered by practicing engineers will have pressures indicated

in gauge pressure. These include pressures measured at the discharge and intake of pumps

and fans and the pressures measured at other pieces of equipment like heat exchangers,

chillers and cooling towers. The relationship between gauge and atmospheric pressure is

shown with the following equation and figure.

Fluids - 3 http://www.engproguides.com

𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 = 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 2 𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 0 𝑎𝑡𝑚

3. Viscosity: The viscosity of a fluid describes the fluids resistance to flow. Viscosity is

measured in 𝑐𝑃 or centipoises and is represented by the variable, µ or mu. Viscosity is

measured with a device called a viscometer. There are many different types of viscometers but

each typically has the fluid moving past/through an object or it has the object moving through

the fluid. The time of travel will vary based on the viscosity of the fluid. For example, water has

a viscosity of ~1.00 cP (centipoises) at 68° F, while syrup has a viscosity of ~1400 cP and air

has a viscosity of ~.01827 cP.

𝑔∗𝑠

µ=� �

𝑐𝑚

𝑔

The units described above are related to cP by a factor of 100. 100 cP is equal to 1 � �.

𝑐𝑚∗𝑠

𝑙𝑏

The imperial units are� � and are related to cP by the following conversion.

𝑓𝑡∗𝑠

𝑙𝑏

1 cP = 6.72 x 10−4 � �

𝑓𝑡 ∗ 𝑠

There are two types of viscosities, dynamic(absolute) viscosity and kinematic viscosity. The

previously discussed viscosity µ is dynamic viscosity. Kinematic viscosity describes the ratio of

the fluids resistance to flow (dynamic viscosity) to the fluids density. Kinematic viscosity is

indicated by the symbol, 𝑣 or nu.

𝑙𝑏

𝜇[ ] 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑓𝑡∗𝑠

𝑣= 𝑙𝑏 =[ ]

𝜌 [ 3] 𝑠

𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 2

Kinematic viscosity has the units as shown above.

𝑠

Fluids - 4 http://www.engproguides.com

Viscosities of water have been included below for your convenience.

Kinematic

Temperature Viscosity Density

Fluid Viscosity

[F] [cP] [lb/ft3]

[ft2/sec]

32 Water 1.792 62.42 1.9291E-05

50 Water 1.308 62.41 1.4083E-05

68 Water 1.002 62.32 1.0804E-05

86 Water 0.7978 62.15 8.6259E-06

104 Water 0.6531 61.94 7.0853E-06

122 Water 0.5471 61.68 5.9603E-06

140 Water 0.4668 61.38 5.1104E-06

158 Water 0.4044 61.04 4.4519E-06

176 Water 0.355 60.67 3.9319E-06

194 Water 0.315 60.26 3.5126E-06

212 Water 0.2822 59.83 3.1695E-06

𝑉∗𝐿

𝑅𝑒 = ;

𝑣

5. Density & Specific Volume: The density of a fluid is measured as a weight per unit volume.

Specific volume is the inverse of density and is measures as a volume per unit mass.

6. Specific Gravity: Specific gravity is the term used to describe the ratio between a fluid’s

density compared to the density of water. Water has a specific gravity of 1.0.

Fluids - 5 http://www.engproguides.com

3.0 FLUID APPLICATIONS

The fluid applications section has an overlap between the Mechanical Equipment and

Systems Section. In order to avoid repeating information, please refer to the Ducts, Fans

and Pumps Sections.

Fluids - 6 http://www.engproguides.com

SECTION 7: APPLICATIONS -

EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4

2.0 Key Equations and Terms .................................................................................................. 5

3.0 Air Supply Distribution & Ventilation ................................................................................. 12

3.1 Ducts ............................................................................................................................ 12

3.1.1 Darcy Weisbach Equation ..................................................................................... 12

3.1.1 Determining Velocity in Ducts for Pressure Calculations. ..................................... 13

3.1.2 Determining Diameter of Duct ............................................................................... 13

3.1.2 Determining Pressure Drop in Ducts ..................................................................... 14

3.2 Diffusers, Registers & Grilles ........................................................................................ 14

3.3 Fans .............................................................................................................................. 16

3.3.1 Important Terms .................................................................................................... 16

3.4 Types of Fans ............................................................................................................... 17

3.4.1 Axial Fans .............................................................................................................. 17

3.4.2 Centrifugal Fans .................................................................................................... 18

3.5 Fan Sizing..................................................................................................................... 20

3.5.1 Determining Volumetric Flow Rate [CFM] ............................................................. 20

3.5.2 Determining Total Static Pressure [in. wg] ............................................................ 20

3.6 Fan Curves ................................................................................................................... 23

3.7 Fan Affinity Laws .......................................................................................................... 25

3.8 Multiple Fans ................................................................................................................ 25

3.8.1 Fans in Parallel ...................................................................................................... 26

3.8.2 Fans in Series ....................................................................................................... 27

3.9 Cooling & Heating Coils ................................................................................................ 28

3.9.1 Cooling & Heating Coil Fluids ................................................................................ 28

3.9.2 Cooling & Heating Coil Terms ............................................................................... 29

3.10 Humidification & Dehumidification Systems ................................................................. 31

3.10.1 Humidifiers ............................................................................................................ 31

3.10.2 De-Humidifiers ....................................................................................................... 32

3.11 Air Handling Units ......................................................................................................... 34

3.12 Variable Air Volume Terminal Units .............................................................................. 36

3.13 Energy Recovery Devices ............................................................................................ 37

3.14 Air-Side Economizers ................................................................................................... 41

4.0 Liquid Distribution ............................................................................................................. 42

4.1 Pumps .......................................................................................................................... 42

4.2.1 Determining Total Head .............................................................................................. 44

4.2.2 Determining Net Positive Suction Head Available ...................................................... 54

4.2.3 Reading Pump Curves ................................................................................................ 58

4.2.4 Using the Affinity Laws ............................................................................................... 59

5.0 Thermal Insulation ............................................................................................................ 60

6.0 Chillers ............................................................................................................................. 62

7.0 Cooling Towers ................................................................................................................ 63

7.1 Characterizing Cooling Towers .................................................................................... 64

7.2 Cooling Tower Performance ......................................................................................... 67

7.3 Cooling Tower Water Loss and Make-up ..................................................................... 68

8.0 Boilers .............................................................................................................................. 70

9.0 Furnaces .......................................................................................................................... 71

9.1 Types of Furnaces ........................................................................................................ 71

9.2 Efficiency ...................................................................................................................... 71

10.0 Acoustics .......................................................................................................................... 72

10.1 Sound Level as a Function of Distance ........................................................................ 73

11.0 Mechanical Equipment Questions .................................................................................... 76

Problem 1 – Duct Design ........................................................................................................ 76

Solution 1 – Duct Design ..................................................................................................... 77

Problem 2 – Duct Design ........................................................................................................ 78

Solution 2 – Duct Design ..................................................................................................... 79

Problem 3 – Diffusers .............................................................................................................. 80

Solution 3 – Diffusers ........................................................................................................... 81

Problem 4 – Fans .................................................................................................................... 82

Solution 4 – Fans ................................................................................................................. 83

Problem 5 – Fans .................................................................................................................... 84

Solution 5 – Fans ................................................................................................................. 85

Problem 6 – Coils .................................................................................................................... 86

Solution 6 – Coils ................................................................................................................. 87

Problem 7 – Coils .................................................................................................................... 88

Solution 7 – Coils ................................................................................................................. 89

Problem 8 – Humidifier ............................................................................................................ 90

Solution 8 – Humidifier ......................................................................................................... 91

Problem 9 – Energy Recovery Device .................................................................................... 92

Solution 9 – Energy Recovery Device ................................................................................. 93

Problem 10 – Pumps ............................................................................................................... 94

Solution 10 – Pumps ............................................................................................................ 95

Problem 11 – Steam Piping ..................................................................................................... 96

Solution 11 – Pumps ............................................................................................................ 97

Problem 12 – Friction Loss ...................................................................................................... 98

Solution 12 – Friction Loss .................................................................................................. 99

Problem 13 – Friction Loss .................................................................................................... 100

Solution 13 – Friction Loss ................................................................................................ 101

Problem 14 – Net Positive Suction Head .............................................................................. 102

Solution 14 – Net Positive Suction Head ........................................................................... 103

Problem 15 – Pumps ............................................................................................................. 104

Solution 15 – Net Positive Suction Head ........................................................................... 105

Problem 16 – Cooling Towers ............................................................................................... 106

Solution 16 – Cooling Towers ............................................................................................ 107

Problem 17 – Air Washer ...................................................................................................... 108

Solution 17 – Air Washer ................................................................................................... 109

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the

Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on

the P.E. exam.

This section of the exam guide book focuses on the Mechanical Equipment and Systems used

in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. The equipment discussed in this section are the most

common pieces of equipment and systems and include: air distribution equipment like ducts,

fans and dampers and fluid distribution equipment like pipes, pumps and valves. Also included

is equipment like chillers, cooling towers, energy recovery devices, boilers, etc.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses these units. However, it is recommended that the

test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use the

2.0 KEY EQUATIONS AND TERMS

𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝑆𝑃[𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]

𝑀𝐻𝑃 =

6,356

𝑀𝐻𝑃 = 𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑠𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 [𝐻𝑃]

𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤

𝑇𝑆𝑃 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]

1

𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑀𝐻𝑃 ∗ ( )

𝑓𝑎𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

1

𝐻𝑃 = 𝐵𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �

𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

𝐹𝑃𝑀

𝑉𝑃 = [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]

4005

𝑉𝑃 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄� � = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]

ℎ

∗ 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑎𝑡 70℉ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚.

𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔

𝐹𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] ∗ 𝑓[ ]

100 𝑓𝑡

Fan Affinity Laws

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 1

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 2

𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 3

𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 1

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 2

𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 3

𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − ℎ𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

where h is equal to the enthalpy

𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑇𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

where T is equal to the dry bulb temperature

𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

where W is equal to the humidity ratio

Moisture Transfer Equation

𝐻 = 60 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑄 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 )

[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟]

𝑊 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚

[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟]

𝑙𝑏

𝜌 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [ ]

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑄 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [ ]

𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑙𝑏

𝐻 = 𝑚𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑑 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

𝜀𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 =

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

𝜀𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 =

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

𝜀𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 =

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − 𝑇𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4,770 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (𝑊𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − 𝑊𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

Energy Recovery Device Determine Actual Enthalpy Transferred

𝑞𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 ∗ (ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛 − ℎ𝑒𝑥ℎ𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑡 )

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2

ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]

2𝐷𝑔

𝑓𝑡

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,

𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑓𝑡

𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]

𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2

ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]

2𝐷𝑔

𝑓𝑡

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,

𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑓𝑡

𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]

𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

𝑽𝟐 𝑓𝑡

[𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]; 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛 ;

𝟐𝒈 𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑓𝑡

𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 32.2

sec 2

Pump Affinity Laws

𝑄1 𝐷1

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑄2 𝐷2

𝑄1 𝑁1

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑄2 𝑁2

𝐻1 𝐷12

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝐻2 𝐷22

𝐻1 𝑁12

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝐻2 𝑁22

𝑃1 𝐷13

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑃2 𝐷23

𝑃1 𝑁13

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑃2 𝑁23

𝐵𝑡𝑢 ∗ 𝑖𝑛

𝑘[ ]

ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑄𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 = ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 − 𝑇𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 )[℉]

𝑋[𝑖𝑛]

Where k is equal to the conductivity of the insulation and X is equal to the thickness of the

insulation. K can vary depending on the temperature of the pipe.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = ℎ[ 2 ] ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 )[℉]

𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℎ ∗ ℉

Where h is equal to the surface coefficient of the insulation. This value is a measure of how well

the surface of the material in question is at conducting heat to the ambient air. The value can

increase for higher wind speeds and varying surface and air temperatures.

Cooling Tower Range

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 =

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ

𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑙

. 000943 ∗ 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ �𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 � = 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � �

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝐷𝐵1 𝐷𝐵2 𝐷𝐵3 𝐷𝐵4 𝐷𝐵5 𝐷𝐵6 𝐷𝐵7 𝐷𝐵8

𝐿𝐴 = 10 ∗ log10 (10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 10 100 + 𝑣10 100 + 10 100 )

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = 𝑆𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑥 [𝐷𝐵]

𝐿𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝 = 𝑆𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝐷𝐵]

𝑥 = 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝑓𝑡 ′ ]

Sound Level at a Distance from a Point Source (Eighth-Spherical Propagation)

3.0 AIR SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION & VENTILATION

In the HVAC field, air distribution systems are used to supply cold/hot air to various spaces to

keep the occupants comfortable and/or to keep equipment at optimum conditions. Fresh air

shall also be provided through the air distribution system to provide appropriate ventilation

levels, in order to alleviate carbon dioxide (CO2) levels.

3.1 DUCTS

The method in which air is routed throughout a building is through the use of ducts, which can

be constructed of metal, plastic or fiberglass. The engineer should be able to accomplish the

following:

The equation used to determine the pressure drop in ducts is the Darcy Weisbach Equation.

2 𝑓𝑡

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] 𝑉 [ 𝑠 ]

∆𝑃 � 2 � = 𝑓 ∗ 𝜌 � 3 � ∗ ∗

𝑓𝑡 𝑓𝑡 𝐷[𝑓𝑡] 𝑓𝑡

2𝑔[ 2 ]

𝑠

2

𝑓𝑡

12 ∗ 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] 𝑙𝑏 𝑉 � �

𝑚𝑖𝑛

∆𝑃[𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝑓 ∗ ∗ 𝜌[ 3 ] � �

𝐷[𝑖𝑛] ∗ 𝑓𝑡 1097

Although this equation is the governing equation for determining pressure drop, it is most often

not used in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. In this field, airflow pressure drop calculations are

simplified through the use of Friction Charts. Friction Charts show pressure drops as a

function of duct diameters, air volumetric flow rate and air velocity. However, these values are

only applicable for standard air conditions (sea level, density of 0.075 lb per ft^3). Airflows,

pressures, elevations and duct construction NOT normally encountered in the HVAC &

Refrigeration field should use the Darcy Equation.

3.1.1 DETERMINING VELOCITY IN DUCTS FOR PRESSURE

CALCULATIONS.

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, airflow is typically measured in cubic feet per minute or CFM.

But velocity is the term that is required in determining the pressure drop of the air flow through a

duct. In order to determine the velocity, the area of the duct must be found. Finding the area of

the ducts is a simple calculation for circular ducts, which are shown below.

𝐷2

𝐶𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝐷𝑢𝑐𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 [𝑓𝑡 2 ] = 𝜋 ∗ ; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐷 = 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟[𝑓𝑡]

4

For rectangular and oval ducts, the rectangular and oval duct dimensions MUST FIRST be

converted to Equivalent Diameter. Remember, that the pressure loss calculations require a

circular shape.

The Friction Charts and the Darcy Equation are typically a function of duct diameter. Thus no

calculations are necessary for a circular duct. However, rectangular and oval ducts must be

converted to an equivalent diameter circular duct before the equation can be properly

completed. The equations for determining equivalent diameters are shown below.

Rectangular Duct

(𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625

𝐷𝑒 = 1.30 ∗

(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

Oval Duct

(𝐴 ∗ 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎)0.625

𝐷𝑒 = 1.55 ∗

(𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟)0.250

𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝜋 ∗ 𝑎 + 2 ∗ (𝐴 − 𝑎)

A quicker way to determine equivalent diameter is to use the Equivalent Diameter Tables for

Rectangular and Oval ducts shown in ASHRAE Fundaments.

3.1.2 DETERMINING PRESSURE DROP IN DUCTS

Once the equivalent diameter of the duct is found and the CFM is known, then simply refer to

the Friction Charts for Ducts and simply read the pressure drop. This process is detailed more

in Fan Section, later on in this section.

Diffusers, registers and grilles are devices. These air devices distribute conditioned air to the

space in order to provide thermal comfort for the occupants of the space or to provide proper

thermal conditions suitable for the equipment in the space.

Diffusers are defined as air terminal devices that distribute conditioned air in various directions

through the use of its deflecting vanes. These devices are designed to promote the mixing of

conditioned air with the air already in the space. It is important to properly mix the conditioned

air into the space, in order to distribute fresh air to the entire space and to avoid stagnant air in

the space. However, not all types of diffusers perform the same. Each diffuser will be provided

with a table describing its performance similar to the one on the following page.

TABLE 1: PERFORMANCE DATA FOR 12” X 12”, 4” X 4” DUCT CONNECTION, CEILING DIFFUSER

Total Pressure Drop [in. wg] .056 .090 0.131 0.175 0.225 0.290 0.355

Airflow [CFM] 50 60 70 85 95 110 120

NC 14 20 24 28 32 35 38

Throw [ft] 5-8-13 7-9-12 8-12-19 9-13-18 10-15-21 12-17-24 13-19-31

The values shown the table above are specific to a certain manufacturer’s type of diffuser and

size. The third row indicates the total amount of CFM that is distributed through this diffuser.

From this CFM value, the velocity and pressure drop through the diffuser can be determined. It

is also important to note that at higher velocities, the pressure drop increases and the NC or

noise criteria increases. The NC rating corresponds to a curve of DB levels at various

frequencies. This NC rating is used to rate the sound levels of air conditioning equipment and

also used to rate the sound requirements of rooms. For example, a typical classroom will

require a NC rating of 25. Using the table above, this corresponds to a maximum airflow

somewhere between 70 and 85 CFM.

Throw is defined as the horizontal distance from a diffuser at a specified velocity. For example,

T 50 = 15’, indicates that at a distance of 15’ from the diffuser, the velocity of the air will be 50

feet per minute. T 100 = 10’, indicates the distance at which the air velocity is 100 feet per minute

and T 150 = 5’, indicates the distance for 150 feet per minute. Often times throw is shown simply

in the following format, [T 150 -T 100 - T 50 ]. For example, in the table above, an airflow of 60 CFM

results in a velocity of 150 fpm at 7’ from the diffuser, a velocity of 100 fpm at 9’ from the diffuser

and a velocity of 50 fpm at 12’ from the diffuser. Refer to the following figure for a graphical

explanation.

FIGURE 1: THROW

Typically in diffuser layout design for occupied areas, it is required to locate diffusers so that the

T 50 length is nearly equivalent to the characteristic length. The characteristic length is defined

as by one of the following definitions:

1. Perpendicular distance between the center line of the diffuser and the wall.

2. Midpoint between the centerline of two diffusers.

Grilles are defined as air devices that consist of an opening with a covered grating or screen.

Grilles are often used to return air back to the fan or to exhaust air from a space. Grilles are not

typically used to supply air because there is an inability to accurately control the amount of air

being supplied.

Registers are simply grilles with a damper that is used to restrict the amount of air flow required

to be returned, supplied or exhausted.

3.3 FANS

Fans are provided in HVAC & Refrigeration systems to distribute conditioned air, to provide

ventilation or to exhaust un-wanted air.

Mechanical Horsepower (MHP): Mechanical horsepower is the measure of the power produced

by the fan. Mechanical horsepower is a function of the air flow rate measured in cubic feet per

minute (CFM) and the total static pressure (TSP) measured in inches water gauge (in. wg). The

term “in. wg” is representative of the pressure due to an inch of water column.

𝑀𝐻𝑃 =

6,356

Brake Horsepower (BHP): Brake horsepower is the measure of the power drawn by the motor to

turn the fan. BHP is a function of the fan efficiency and the mechanical horsepower.

1

𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑀𝐻𝑃 ∗ ( )

𝑓𝑎𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

Horsepower (HP): Horsepower is the size of the motor. Motors come in standard sizes. [1,

1.5, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, etc] Horsepower is calculated through the following

equation and then rounded up to nearest motor size. In the P.E. exam, if the question explicitly

asks for the motor horsepower in standard size then calculate the motor horsepower through

the below equation and then round up to the nearest motor size. If the question does not ask

for standard motor size, then simply provide the output of the below equation.

1

𝐻𝑃 = 𝐵𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �

𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

Velocity Pressure (VP): Velocity pressure is defined as the pressure caused solely by moving

air.

𝐹𝑃𝑀

𝑉𝑃 = [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔]

4005

Static Pressure (SP): Static pressure is the pressure caused solely by compression, the

outward force on a duct.

Total Pressure (TSP): Total static pressure is the sum of the velocity pressure and the static

pressure at any point.

3.4 TYPES OF FANS

Axial fans consist of a fan shaft with fan blades attached around the shaft. Air travels along

the axis of the fan and is blown out. These fans are not as common in the residential and

commercial HVAC & Refrigeration fields and are more common in industrial ventilation type

situations. Within the family of axial fans there are also different types of fans, like the

propeller, tube axial and vane axial fans.

Propeller: Propeller type axial fans consist of a propeller fan in fan housing. This fan,

similar to all axial type fans is only suitable for lower pressures.

Tube Axial: The tube axial fan consists of a propeller fan placed in a tube. This type of fan is

more efficient than the propeller fan and can handle higher pressures.

Vane Axial: The vane axial fan is a variation on the tube axial fan in which inlet vanes are

provided on the fan to straighten the air and to increase the efficiency of the fan.

Centrifugal fans consist of a fan wheel, with blades (impellers) along the circumference of

the wheel. Air enters the center of the fan wheel. The centrifugal force due to the spinning of

the fan wheel causes the air to increase in speed and creates a suction pressure at the inlet of

the fan wheel. The air then flows out the edges of the fan wheel and follows the fan housing to

the air outlet. These fans are the most common in the HVAC & Refrigeration field. The different

types of centrifugal fans are defined by the shape of the fan wheel impellers, relative to the axis

rotation.

Forward Curved: Forward curved centrifugal fans have fan blades that are angled forward in

the direction of the fan rotation. These fans are commonly used for lower pressures and are the

least efficient of the centrifugal fans.

Backward inclined: Backward inclined centrifugal fans have fan wheel impellers that are

angled backwards relative to the fan rotation direction. These fans are more efficient than the

forward curved fans and are more commonly used at higher pressure

Airfoil: Airfoil fans are defined by the airfoil type fan blades, they resemble jet engine

blades. These fans are the most efficient and can handle high pressures.

3.5 FAN SIZING

The professional engineer must also be able to properly size a fan. There are two main

parameters that must be determined in sizing a fan, (1) Volumetric Flow Rate [CFM] and (2)

Static Pressures.

The volumetric flow rate of air that the fan must blow, will depend on one of the following

factors, (1a) heat/cooling load, (1b) ventilation/exhaust or (1c) velocity.

(1a) First in the HVAC & Refrigeration field fans are used to provide cool/hot air to properly

control the temperature of the space. The amount of air required is determined by the

cooling/heat load and the desired temperature and the supply air temperature.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄[ ] = 𝑚̇ � � 𝑐𝑝 [ ]∆𝑇[℉]

ℎ ℎ𝑟 ℉ ∗ 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑚𝑖𝑛 049𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄� � = 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ �60 �∗( 3

)0.24[ ]∆𝑇[℉]

ℎ ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡 ℉ ∗ 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄� � = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]

ℎ

(1b) Second in the HVAC & Refrigeration field fans are used to provide ventilation to

adequately remove noxious fumes, like carbon dioxide from occupied spaces. The amount of

ventilation or exhaust is determined by researching ASHRAE 62.1 for the required factor. This

factor could be dependent on the number of people, for example, “Provide 15 CFM per person”

or it could be dependent on the area of the space, for example, “Provide 1 CFM per square foot

of area”.

(1c) Volumetric flow rate (CFM) can also be determined by the required velocity. This

method is typically used in industrial ventilation situations and in kitchens. A high velocity is

required in these types of systems in order to keep particles suspended in the air so that they

may be exhausted out of the space.

The second parameter that must be determined in order to size a fan is the total static

pressure. This is the total pressure that the fan must overcome in order to deliver the correct

amount of CFM to the required location. The total static pressure is a function of the (2a) duct

friction losses, (2b) duct fitting losses and (2c) miscellaneous equipment losses.

(2a) Duct Friction Losses: Straight lengths of duct incur friction losses on the airflow, which

must be calculated by the engineer in order to properly size the fan. The amount of friction loss

is a function of the velocity of air and the size of the duct. The most important tool that is

required is the Friction Charts, which can be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook or

the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual.

FIGURE 9: SAMPLE DUCT FRICTION LOSS GRAPH

A sample duct friction loss chart is shown above. In order to calculate the pressure loss

through a duct, navigate to the intersection of the equivalent duct diameter and the volumetric

flow rate (CFM), then read the pressure loss per 100’ length of duct.

Finally, in order to calculate the total pressure loss, multiply the factor found in the graph by

the total length of duct.

𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔

𝐹𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝐿[𝑓𝑡] ∗ 𝑓[ ]

100 𝑓𝑡

(2b) Duct Fitting Losses: Each fitting will also have a friction loss associated with its

construction. In order to find these fiction losses, the engineer will need the ASHRAE

Fundamentals Handbook or the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual. Duct fittings

losses are dependent on the type of fitting and the velocity of the air through the fitting. The

type of fitting will have a corresponding “K-factor” or “C-Coefficient”, which can be found in the

ASHRAE Fundamentals book and some typical fitting losses are also shown in the Mechanical

Engineering Reference Manual. The “K-factor” or “C-Coefficient” is the multiplied by the velocity

pressure in order to get the pressure loss due to the duct fitting. Remember that the velocity is

found by first converting the rectangular or oval duct to equivalent diameter, then calculating the

area. The velocity pressure is found through the following equation:

𝑣2

𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ] =

2𝑔

However, in the above equation velocity is in the unit of feet per second and velocity

pressure is in terms of feet of head. Convert, the variables to units most commonly used in

HVAC & Refrigeration.

𝑓𝑡 min 2 𝑙𝑏𝑓

�𝑣 ∗ � . 075 (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦) 𝑖𝑛

𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 sec 𝑓𝑡

[ ]

𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔 = ∗ ∗ 12

𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏𝑓 𝑓𝑡

2 ∗ �32.2 � 62.4 (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑦)

sec 2 𝑓𝑡

If you combine the constants in the equation above, the velocity pressure can be found

through the following equation. It is important to note that this simplified equation is only

applicable for the standard air density shown above.

𝑉𝑓𝑝𝑚 2

𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = � �

4005

Once the velocity pressure is found, then use the K-factor of the duct fitting to determine the

friction loss due to the duct fitting.

𝑉𝑓𝑝𝑚 2

𝐹𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑓𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 [𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔] = 𝐾 ∗ � �

4005

(2c) Miscellaneous Equipment Friction Losses: In a duct system, there are also

miscellaneous equipment losses due to different types of equipment, like filters, fans, diffusers,

registers and grilles. The friction losses are given by the equipment manufacturer for different

velocities and flow rates.

3.6 FAN CURVES

The fan curve is a graph depicting the various points that the fan can operate. The curve

displays the amount of CFM the fan will provide at a given total static pressure. Fans should be

selected to operate at the stable region. The stable region is the area on the fan curve where

there is a single flow rate [CFM] value for each pressure value. In the unstable region, a

pressure value can have multiple CFM values, which will cause the fan system to surge. The

stable region also has very little change in CFM for large changes in total pressure.

The second curve that works in conjunction with the fan curve is the system resistance

curve. This curve is the summation of all the friction losses in the ducting system at varying

CFM's. Typically, the friction losses are summed up at the design CFM values, then this design

point is connected to the 0,0 point by an upward sloping square polynomial curve, as shown

below [green]. If for example, the ducting system has a closed damper or dirty filter, this will

cause the curve to shift to the left [red]. If a damper is opened or the dirty filter is cleaned then

the curve will shift to the right [blue].

Combining the system curve with the selected fan curve, determines the operating point of

the fan system, indicated in the figure below in green. Following the vertical line down

determines the CFM and the horizontal line from that point indicates the operating total

pressure. During system operation as dampers close, the system curve shifts toward the left in

red. This movement decreases the amount of CFM delivered by the fan. The opposite occurs

as dampers open in the system, the amount of CFM delivered by the fan increases.

It has been shown that the amount of CFM blown by a fan can be changed by shifting

the system resistance curve. However, the volumetric flow rate can also be changed by

changing the speed of the fan, which shifts the fan curve. Increasing the speed of the fan

causes the fan curve to shift to the right. Decreasing the speed of the fan causes the fan curve

to shift to the left.

3.7 FAN AFFINITY LAWS

Often times a fan’s speed or impeller diameter will be changed. If the fan is a centrifugal fan,

then the change in performance of the fan can be predicted quickly through the affinity laws.

First, if the impeller diameter is held constant and the speed of the fan is changed, then flow

rate varies directly with the speed, available pressure varies with the square of the speed and

the power use varies with the cube of the speed.

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 1

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 =� � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 2

𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 3

𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑅𝑃𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

Second, if the speed is held constant and the impeller diameter of the fan is changed, then flow

rate varies directly with the diameter, available pressure varies with the square of the diameter

and the power use varies with the cube of the diameter.

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 1

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 2

𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 =� � 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑛𝑒𝑤 3

𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 = � � 𝐵𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑

𝑁𝑜𝑙𝑑

There will be times when fans are run in conjunction with each other. It is important for the

engineer to understand how the performance is affected depending on the different

arrangements of multiple fans.

3.8.1 FANS IN PARALLEL

A parallel arrangement of fans is characterized by the same pressure increase across each fan

and the total flow is the sum of flows through each individual fan. In the figure below, the total

flow is shown as x 1 + x 2 + x 3 , where x n is the flow through fan “n”. The resulting total pressure

is equal to each individual fan pressure, since they are all the same.

3.8.2 FANS IN SERIES

Fans in series are characterized by the same flow across each fan and the total pressure

increase is the sum of the pressure increase through each individual fan. In the figure below,

the total flow is shown simply as y, which is constant throughout each fan. The resulting total

pressure is equal to the sum of each fan’s individual pressure increase, y 1 + y 2 + y 3 , where y n is

the resulting fan pressure increase at fan “n”.

3.9 COOLING & HEATING COILS

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, cooling and heating coils are used to exchange heat between

air and a heat exchange fluid. A heat exchange fluid is transmitted through the coil and as air is

passed over the coil, the air is either heated or cooled. Coils consist of a metal box framing,

which holds a series of copper tubes in staggered rows and columns.

The amount of heat that is transferred is related to the amount of surface area that contacts the

air. In order to increase surface area, the size of the tubes may be decreased and more tubes

can be provided, the number of rows increased or the amount of fins per inch can be increased.

Aluminum or copper fins are provided on each tube to increase the amount of surface area.

Coils are rated by the height of the fins and the number of fins per inch.

There are several different types of heat exchange fluids used in cooling/heating coils.

Refrigerant: Hot refrigerant gas or cool refrigerant liquid can be used in a coil to provide either

heating or cooling. In a heating-coil, cool air is passed over a coil containing hot gas. Heat is

exchanged to the cool air, which warms the air. The heat lost by the refrigerant gas causes it to

condense to a liquid. In a cooling-coil, warm air is passed over a coil containing cool refrigerant

liquid. Heat is exchanged to the cool refrigerant liquid, causing it to evaporate. The warm air

loses heat, thereby decreasing the air temperature.

Water: Chilled water or hot water can be used in a coil to provide either heating or cooling.

The air temperature is either raised or lowered as heat is transferred to raise or lower the

temperature of the chilled or hot water.

Steam: Steam can be provided to a coil to provide heating. Steam enters the coil and as the

air passes over the coil its air temperature increases. As the steam loses heat, it condenses to

its liquid form.

It is important to be able to understand the following terms, (1a) Apparatus Dew Point or (1b)

Effective Surface Temperature and the (2) Bypass Factor.

1. Apparatus Dew Point (ADP) or Effective Surface Temperature is the temperature at which all

air would be cooled to if the cooling coil was 100% effective. The ADP must be located on the

saturation curve, refer to the psychrometric chart below. The ADP, leaving coil conditions and

the entering coil conditions are located on the same line.

How close the leaving coil condition is to the apparatus dew point is a function of the bypass

factor.

(2) The bypass factor describes the percentage of air that is not cooled to the ADP. The air that

is bypassed remains unchanged from the entering coil conditions. The bypass factor is a

function of the airflow, number of rows, surface temperature, number of fins per inch, height of

fins and many other construction attributes of coils. The use of the bypass factor in calculations

is important. The bypass factor can be found through the use of (a) enthalpy, (b) dry bulb

temperature or (c) humidity ratio.

𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − ℎ𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑇𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 − 𝑊𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑤 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡

3.10 HUMIDIFICATION & DEHUMIDIFICATION SYSTEMS

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, humidification and dehumidification systems are used to

transfer moisture to/from the air. These types of systems are sized based on the amount of

moisture, measured in pounds of water per hour that is added or removed from the air.

𝐻 = 60 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑄 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 )

[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟]

𝑊 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚

[𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟]

𝑙𝑏

𝜌 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [ ]

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑄 = 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 [ ]

𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑙𝑏

𝐻 = 𝑚𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑑 [ ]

ℎ𝑟

3.10.1 HUMIDIFIERS

Humidifiers are used to add moisture to air typically in order to achieve the best conditions for

human occupancy. In dry areas, low humidity causes moisture to evaporate from people’s skin,

creating the feeling that it is much colder than the dry bulb temperature indicates. Other times

humidifiers are used to maintain best humidity levels for equipment or produce.

There are two main types of humidifiers, (1) Steam and (2) Evaporative humidifiers.

(1) Steam Humidifiers, also known as isothermal humidifiers, add moisture to air without a

change in dry bulb temperature. Steam is created through an external means like a gas fired

boiler or electric boiler. Then the steam is typically directly injected into the air stream. It is

common to assume that the temperature of the air will rise since steam is 212 F. However, it is

important to think of steam as water vapor and as it is added to air, it will correspond to an

upward movement on the psychrometric chart [Pt 1 to Pt 2].

(2) Evaporative Humidifiers, also known as adiabatic humidifiers, add moisture to air without

a change in enthalpy. Evaporative humidifiers do not require an external energy source like

Steam Humidifiers. Evaporative humidifiers work by blowing dry air over water or through water

droplets. The energy to vaporize the water comes from the dry air. As the air releases heat to

vaporize the water, the air also cools. On the psychrometric chart, adiabatic humidification is

shown as an upward-left movement, along a constant enthalpy line. It is constant enthalpy

because the enthalpy lost to sensible cooling is gained by latent heating [humidification].

Evaporative humidifiers operate on the same principle as air washers, evaporative coolers and

cooling towers. These principles will be discussed further in the Cooling Tower section.

3.10.2 DE-HUMIDIFIERS

De-Humidifiers are used to remove moisture from air in order to achieve the best conditions for

human occupancy, equipment or produce. In humid areas, high humidity causes the feeling

that it is much hotter than the dry bulb temperature indicates. Other times de-humidifiers are

used to maintain best humidity levels for equipment or produce. De-humidifiers are especially

important in preventing mold and mildew from forming.

There are two main types of de-humidifiers, (1) Condensing and (2) Desiccant de-humidifiers.

the incoming air so that it is unable to hold moisture, which causes condensation. A cooling coil

acts a dehumidifier. In the Psychrometric chart below, hot, humid air enters the coil and leaves

as cool air. The amount of water vapor removed from the air is shown in red. In some cases

the air is reheated in order to lower the relative humidity and increase the dry bulb temperature.

FIGURE 19: COOLING COIL - DEHUMIDIFIER

water from air. As the air loses its water vapor, the heat from condensing the water vapor is

gained by the air stream, which causes the air to increase its dry bulb temperature. A desiccant

de-humidifier is shown as a downward-right movement, along the constant enthalpy line

(adiabatic).

One type of dehumidifier uses a Lithium-Chloride and Water solution. A Li-Cl, water solution is

sprayed over humid air. The Li-Cl has high affinity water. As the humid air is blown through the

Li-Cl-Water solution, the Li-Cl picks up the moisture in the air. The amount of moisture that can

be removed is dependent on (1) percentage of Li-Cl and (2) the temperature of the solution.

(1) A solution with a high concentration of Li-Cl can absorb more moisture and the opposite is

true of a low concentration.

(2) A solution with a low temperature can absorb more moisture and the opposite is true for a

higher temperature solution.

These types of dehumidifiers are dependent on the incoming conditions of the air, the equalized

temperature of the Li-Cl solution and the equalized concentration of the Li-Cl. The equalized

conditions are similar to the ADP for coils. These conditions describe the temperature and

humidity ratio that the incoming humid air would achieve if the dehumidifier was 100% effective.

A bypass factor is often indicated for a dehumidifier and is used in the same manner as the

bypass factor for coils.

𝐵𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑠 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒ℎ𝑢𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

The concentration of the Li-Cl solution determines the equivalent humidity ratio, however this

determination is complex and is out of the scope of a 6-minute problem.

Air handling units or AHUs are a common piece of equipment in the HVAC & Refrigeration field.

An AHU is a built-up, air moving and conditioning device. It is typically constructed of metal

framing with a multitude of individual air handling components. Each of the individual

components is discussed throughout this book. It is simplest to think of an AHU as put together

or built up by various building blocks or components. Components that most often comprise an

AHU are shown below:

1. Mixing Box: Typically the first component in an AHU is a mixing box, which mixes the correct

amounts of outdoor air with return air through the use of dampers.

2. Air Filter: An air filter is then provided prior to the next devices, in order to protect the

following devices and to keep them clean.

3. Heating and/or Cooling Coil: A heating and/or cooling coil is then provided to condition the

air to the correct leaving temperature.

condition the air to the correct humidity level.

5. Fan: A fan may either be provided ahead or behind devices, depending on the engineer's

decision. If the fan is placed last, then the configuration is deemed a draw-thru fan, because the

fan draws the air thru the other devices. A blow-thru fan, blows the air thru the other

components.

6. Energy Recovery Device: If there is an opportunity for energy recovery, then an ERV like a

heat pipe may be provided.

3.12 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME TERMINAL UNITS

A Variable Air Volume (VAV) terminal unit or commonly referred to as a VAV box is a device

that is used to regulate the volumetric air flow rate provided to a space. A VAV box is typically a

metal box with a duct inlet, outlet and a motorized damper. The motorized damper is controlled

by a thermostat located in a space. As the thermostat measures the temperature in the space,

it reacts to changes in the space by either restricting or allowing more airflow through the VAV

box.

The maximum airflow corresponds to the Maximum Heat Load, which is typically the design

heat load.

The minimum airflow can correspond to the Minimum Heat Load. However, typically this

amount is restricted by the minimum amount of air changes required in the space.

𝐿′ ∗ 𝑊′ ∗ 𝐻′

𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟 =

ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

A single air change per hour is found by determining the volume of the space and dividing it by

an hour.

3.13 ENERGY RECOVERY DEVICES

An energy recovery device is an air to air heat exchanging device. In the HVAC & Refrigeration

field, energy recovery devices are used to exchange energy from outgoing exhaust air to

incoming outside air. During the winter months the outside air is pre-heated prior to entering the

air handler and during the summer the outside air is pre-cooled.

The amount of heat transferred by the device is determined by the effectiveness of the device.

The effectiveness of an energy recovery device is defined as the ratio of the actual heat

transferred to the maximum amount of heat that can be transferred. The effectiveness can be

rated in terms of sensible heat transfer, latent heat transfer or total heat transfer.

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

𝜀𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 =

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

𝜀𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 =

𝑞𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡,𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

𝜀𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 =

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙,𝑚𝑎𝑥

The actual amount of energy transferred is found by multiplying each individual airstreams mass

flow rates by the change in conditions, whether it is a change in temperature, change in

humidity or change in total enthalpy.

Actual Latent Heat Transferred [function of humidity ratio, lbs of water vapor per lb of dry air]

Actual Total Heat Transferred [function of enthalpy]

The maximum amount of energy transferred is met if the entering condition of the 1st air stream

exits the energy recovery device at the same conditions as the entering condition of the 2nd air

stream. However, if one airstream has more air flow than the other, then the smallest airstream

should be used.

There are various types of energy recovery devices that will be described in this section, (1) the

rotary sensible wheel, (2) the rotary enthalpy wheel, (3) the wrap-around heat pipe and (4) the

run around loop.

A rotary sensible wheel is typically a metal wheel that rotates and exchanges only sensible heat

from one air stream to another. The wheel is connected to a gear and motor, which rotates the

wheel. As a section of the wheel picks up heat from air stream, the wheel then rotates to the

other air stream to move the heat to the cooler air stream.

2) Rotary Enthalpy Wheel

A rotary enthalpy wheel is similar to a rotary sensible wheel, in that it has the same type of

construction and parts. But a rotary enthalpy is used to absorb moisture as well as heat. A

section of the wheel absorbs heat and moisture from the more hot and humid air stream, then

rotates and transfers the moisture to the more cold and dry air mixture.

A wrap around heat pipe is used typically in warm humid climates in spaces with a high amount

of outside air requirements. In these types of environments, warm, humid outside air is

conditioned to a low temperature in order to condense the water out of the air. A wrap-around

heat pipe is used to pre-cool the incoming warm humid outside air by transferring heat to the

exiting cool supply air. This has the effect of providing sensible re-heat to the supply air.

The heat pipe contains a pressurized refrigerant, which proceeds through the vapor

compression cycle. In the first phase, warm air passes over the cool liquid refrigerant. This

effectively pre-cools the outside air before it enters the main cooling coil. During this first phase,

the liquid refrigerants gains heat, causing it to vaporize and move to the other side of the coil. In

the second phase, on the other side of the coil, the cool air passes over the warm vapor, which

re-heats the air. In addition, the warm vapor is condensed to a liquid, allowing the process to

start over again.

In this example, energy is transferred from the entering outside air to the exiting supply air. The

heat pipe can also be used to transfer energy between two different air streams. For example, it

can be used between the outdoor/supply air and the return/exhaust airstreams.

4) Run-Around Loop

The last energy recovery device that is explained in this section is the run-around loop. The run

around loop consists of two heat exchange coils connected by piping, a fluid and a pump. A

heat transfer fluid, typically water or a glycol-water mixture is pumped between the two coils.

The fluid transfers heat from one air stream to the other air stream.

3.14 AIR-SIDE ECONOMIZERS

An economizer is another type of mechanical equipment that is used to save energy. In its

simplest form, an air-side economizer consists of two sets of dampers. One set controls the

amount of return air that is directed either to exhaust or back to the air handler and another set

of dampers control the amount of outside air routed to the air handler.

Cooling Season: When the outside air (OAIR) has a lower enthalpy than the return air (RAIR),

then the OAIR is directed to the coils and the RAIR is routed to the exhaust. By routing the

lower enthalpy air (OAIR), the coil requires less energy to provide cooling. If the enthalpy of the

RAIR is lower than the OAIR, then the RAIR is routed to the coil and only the minimum amount

of OAIR is routed to the coil. OAIR is still required in order to maintain the proper amounts of

fresh air to the occupants.

4.0 LIQUID DISTRIBUTION

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, liquids are distributed throughout various types of systems,

like chilled water, hot water, condenser water and condensate systems. These systems have

three things in common, (1) piping, (2) pumps and (3) liquids.

(1) Piping is used as the means to transfer the liquid from one point to the next. It is important

to be able to (a) determine the pressure drop through a piping system and (b) determine the

velocity of liquid through a pipe. These skills will be discussed as part of this section.

(2) Pumps are used to provide the necessary mechanical energy to move a desired liquid flow

rate at the desired pressure. The important pump skills consist of (a) selecting the appropriate

pump, (b) determining the necessary volumetric flow rate, (c) determining the total dynamic

head and (4) determining the net positive suction head available. All of these items are

discussed in this section, except determining the volumetric flow rate, which is dependent on the

amount of energy that is required and has already been discussed in multiple areas.

(3) The properties of liquids that are important have been discussed in the fluids section.

4.1 PUMPS

There are three main types of pumps, centrifugal, rotary and reciprocating pumps. Rotary and

reciprocating pumps are positive displacement pumps. This document will not cover positive

displacement pumps in detail because they are not typically used in the HVAC & Refrigeration

field. Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pumps used in HVAC & Refrigeration.

The following information is tailored to centrifugal pumps and should not be applied freely to

positive displacement pumps.

Centrifugal pumps operate on the principle of "centrifugal force", which is the conversion of

rotational kinetic energy imparted by rotating impellers onto the liquid to produce a flow rate

(kinetic energy) at a certain pressure (pressure energy). Fluid enters the pump at the center or

eye of the impeller. The rotating impellers then push the fluid to the outer edges, imparting a

flow rate and pressure. See Figures 1 and 2 for a diagram of the fluid flow.

There are two main families of centrifugal pumps (1) end suction pumps [refer to Figure 25] and

(2) in-line pumps [refer to Figure 26]. These two families differ on the path the water takes from

the inlet to the outlet. In the end-suction pumps, the fluid enters the pump at the impeller and

exits the pump at a 90 degree angle from the inlet. The in-line pumps have parallel inlets and

outlets.

Within each family are horizontal and vertical type pumps, which are characterized by the

orientation of the pump shaft as either horizontal or vertical. In addition, pumps can be further

classified by the number of stages that the fluid proceeds through. Finally the last classification

is how the pump is connected to the motor. Pumps can be long-coupled where the pump is

connected to the motor by a flexible coupling or they can be close-coupled where the

connection between the pump and motor is through a rigid coupling.

FIGURE 25: CENTRIFUGAL END SUCTION PUMP - CUTAWAY: 90 DEGREE ANGLE BETWEEN SUCTION AND DISCHARGE

(1) Fluid flows into the center of the impeller, (2) as the impeller rotates,(3) the centrifugal force

pushes fluid to the edges (4) until the fluid travels out the pump discharge.

FIGURE 26: CENTRIFUGAL IN-LINE PUMP - CUTAWAY: IN-LINE SUCTION AND DISCHARGE

(1) Fluid flows into the center of the impeller, (2) as the impeller rotates,(3) the centrifugal force

pushes to fluid to the edges (4)until the fluid travels out the pump discharge.

4.2.1 DETERMINING TOTAL HEAD

Sizing a pump depends on two criteria, (1) the flow rate and (2) the total dynamic head. The

flow rate is determined by the needs of the HVAC & Refrigeration system. The pump may be a

chilled water pump serving several air handlers, so the flow rate (GPM) can be found by adding

up the design flow rates to the air handlers and any diversity required. The (2) second criteria is

the total dynamic head. Determining total head is a must-have skill for the engineer.

Total head or total dynamic head is the total equivalent height of water that a fluid must be

pumped against.

Head is a unit of pressure and has the units of feet of head, which is the total pressure exerted

by a certain amount of feet of a water column.

Total head can be broken up into the following components, (1) Static head or Elevation

Difference between the inlet and the outlet of a piping system and (2) Friction loss. In a closed

system, both static (elevation) head and friction loss are present. However, in a closed system

there is no elevation difference, because the beginning and the end of the piping system are the

same, therefore there is no elevation difference. Refer to the following figures, which describe

the different pressure losses in an open and closed system.

FIGURE 28: OPEN SYSTEM

The typical example of an open system in the HVAC & Refrigeration field is the

condenser water system serving a cooling tower. The pump moves the condenser water from

the cooling tower basin through piping, then through the chiller and back to the top of the

cooling tower. The pump must provide a total dynamic head to account for the (1) Static

[Elevation] head and (2) the Friction Head through the piping, chiller, fittings, other equipment

and appurtenances.

(1) The static head is the difference between the inlet and the outlet. The elevation difference

between the inlet and the pump, on the suction side of the pump is called the suction static head

and the elevation difference between the outlet and pump, on the discharge side is called the

discharge static head. The difference between discharge and suction static head is the

static/elevation head that the pump must pump against.

(2) Friction head. Friction head consists of pressure losses due to equipment like chillers,

cooling towers, filters, strainers, heat exchangers, air handlers, etc. The amount of friction head

from these pieces of equipment are provided by the manufacturer and are typically provided in a

table format with total friction head or pressure loss for the equipment versus the flow rate.

Friction head also consists of pressure losses due to the piping and the various fittings like

elbows, tees, valves, etc. Calculating friction had due to piping will be discussed later in this

section.

FIGURE 30: CLOSED SYSTEM

The typical example of a closed system in the HVAC & Refrigeration field is the chilled

water system serving the air handlers and chillers. The pump moves chilled water to and from

the chiller and through the air handlers. The pump must provide a total dynamic head to

account for only the Friction Head through the piping, chiller, fittings, other equipment and

appurtenances. There is no static/elevation head because the system is closed.

Friction Loss: Friction loss is found through the use of either the Darcy Weisbach equation or

the Hazen-Williams equation. The Darcy Weisbach equation is slightly more involved and will

be explained below, starting with the equation.

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2

ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]

2𝐷𝑔

𝑓𝑡

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,

𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑓𝑡

𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]

𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

During the exam, in order to quickly complete a friction loss question using the Darcy Weisbach

Equation, the aspiring professional engineer must have the necessary tools readily available to

find the values necessary to complete the equation. These include the following:

Necessary Tools:

Collect inner diameter [ft] tables of schedule 40/80 steel [Pipe sizes to 30"], type K, L, and M

copper tubing [Pipe sizes to 6"] and schedule 40/80 PVC [Pipe sizes to 30"]. Provide inner

diameters in feet for ease in using the Darcy Weisbach Equation. Commonly engineers use a

combination of the MERM and ASHRAE Fundamentals book.

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, volumetric flow rates are typically given in units and need to

be converted to cubic feet per second for use in the Darcy Weisbach equation.

1 𝐹𝑇 3

𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑦 𝐺𝑃𝑀 𝑏𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑒𝑡 .

448.83 𝑠𝑒𝑐

Once the volumetric flow rate is converted to cubic feet per second, then simply divide the value

by the inner area of the pipe to find the velocity of the fluid through the pipe.

Collect inner area [ft^2] tables of schedule 40/80 steel [Pipe sizes to 30"], type K, L, and M

copper tubing [Pipe sizes to 6"] and schedule 40/80 PVC [Pipe sizes to 30"]. Provide inner

areas in feet^2 for ease in finding the velocities through the pipes. Commonly engineers use a

combination of the MERM and ASHRAE Fundamentals book.

4) Kinematic viscosity tables of common fluids at various temperatures

[ft^2/s]

32 1.924 x 10-5

40 1.664 x 10-5

50 1.407 x 10-5

60 1.210 x 10-5

70 1.052 x 10-5

90 0.823 x 10-5

100 0.738 x 10-5

120 0.607 x 10-5

140 0.511 x 10-5

180 0.383 x 10-5

212 0.317 x 10-5

5) Moody Diagram.

The Moody Diagram is used with the Reynolds number and the roughness factor to find the

friction factor.

6) Pipe Roughness

Collect pipe roughness factors ∈ for common pipe materials, steel, PVC, copper, etc.

Commonly a combination of the MERM and ASHRAE Fundamentals book are used.

Steel .0009833

PVC .000005

Copper .000005

Moody Diagram: The Moody diagram uses the Reynold's number and the relative roughness

factor to determine the friction factor. The relative roughness factor is found by first finding the

roughness value corresponding to the pipe material. Then the roughness factor is divided by

the inner diameter of the pipe. It is important to ensure that the roughness factor and the

diameter are in the same units.

The Reynold's number is found by multiplying the velocity of the fluid through the pipe by the

diameter of the pipe and dividing by the kinematic viscosity of the fluid.

𝑉∗𝐷

𝑅𝑒𝑦𝑛𝑜𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 =

𝜈

𝑓𝑡 2

𝜈 = 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 [ )

sec

𝑓𝑡

𝑉 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 [ )

sec

These two values (a) Relative Roughness and (b) Reynold's Number, determine the friction

factor, which can be found by finding the intersection of the vertical Reynold's number line

shown in black and the Relative Roughness factor curves shown in red.

FIGURE 31: MOODY DIAGRAM - FINDING THE FRICTION FACTOR. STEP 1: FIND RELATIVE ROUGHNESS FACTOR, STEP

2: FIND INTERSECTION OF REYNOLD'S NUMBER AND RELATIVE ROUGHNESS FACTOR. STEP 3: READ

CORRESPONDING FRICTION FACTOR.

Now, that all the variables of the Darcy Weisbach equation have been determined, simply plug

in the variables into the equation to determine the friction head.

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2

ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]

2𝐷𝑔

SCHEDULE 40/80 STEEL PIPES - INNER DIAMETERS AND AREAS

Inner Inner Inner Inner

Pipe Pipe

Diameter Area Diameter Area

Size Size

[ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2]

1/8" 0.022 0.0004 1/8" 0.018 0.0003

1/4" 0.030 0.0007 1/4" 0.025 0.0005

1/2" 0.009 0.0001 1/2" 0.035 0.0010

3/4" 0.069 0.0037 3/4" 0.062 0.0030

1" 0.087 0.0060 1" 0.080 0.0050

1-1/4" 0.115 0.0104 1-1/4" 0.107 0.0089

1-1/2" 0.134 0.0141 1-1/2" 0.125 0.0123

2" 0.172 0.0233 2" 0.162 0.0205

2-1/2" 0.206 0.0332 2-1/2" 0.194 0.0294

3" 0.256 0.0513 3" 0.242 0.0459

3-1/2" 0.296 0.0687 3-1/2" 0.280 0.0617

4" 0.336 0.0884 4" 0.319 0.0798

5" 0.421 0.1389 5" 0.401 0.1263

6" 0.505 0.2006 6" 0.480 0.1810

8" 0.665 0.3474 8" 0.635 0.3171

10" 0.835 0.5476 10" 0.797 0.4989

12" 0.995 0.7773 12" 0.948 0.7058

14" 1.094 0.9397 14" 1.042 0.8522

16" 1.250 1.2272 16" 1.193 1.1175

18" 1.417 1.5763 18" 1.344 1.4183

20" 1.568 1.9306 20" 1.495 1.7550

24" 1.886 2.7922 24" 1.797 2.5362

COPPER TUBES - INNER DIAMETERS AND AREAS

Copper Tube Type K Copper Tube Type L Copper Tube Type M

Inner Inner Inner Inner Inner Inner

Pipe Pipe Pipe

Diameter Area Diameter Area Diameter Area

Size Size Size

[ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2]

1/4" 0.025 0.0005 1/4" 0.031 0.0008 1/2" 0.047 0.0018

1/2" 0.044 0.0015 1/2" 0.045 0.0016 3/4" 0.068 0.0036

3/4" 0.062 0.0030 3/4" 0.065 0.0034 1" 0.088 0.0061

1" 0.083 0.0054 1" 0.085 0.0057 1-1/4" 0.108 0.0091

1-1/4" 0.104 0.0085 1-1/4" 0.105 0.0087 1-1/2" 0.127 0.0127

1-1/2" 0.123 0.0120 1-1/2" 0.125 0.0124 2" 0.167 0.0220

2" 0.163 0.0209 2" 0.165 0.0215 2-1/2" 0.208 0.0340

2-1/2" 0.203 0.0323 2-1/2" 0.205 0.0331 3" 0.248 0.0485

3" 0.242 0.0461 3" 0.245 0.0473 3-1/2" 0.288 0.0653

3-1/2" 0.282 0.0625 3-1/2" 0.285 0.0640 4" 0.328 0.0845

4" 0.321 0.0811 4" 0.325 0.0832 5" 0.409 0.1313

5" 0.400 0.1259 5" 0.406 0.1296 6" 0.490 0.1886

6" 0.478 0.1798 6" 0.487 0.1863 8" 0.649 0.3306

8" 0.632 0.3136 8" 0.644 0.3255 10" 0.808 0.5133

10" 0.787 0.4870 10" 0.802 0.5053 12" 0.968 0.7361

12" 0.943 0.6983 12" 0.964 0.7295

SCHEDULE 40/80 PVC PIPING - INNER DIAMETERS AND AREAS

Inner Inner Inner Inner

Pipe Pipe

Diameter Area Diameter Area

Size Size

[ft] [ft^2] [ft] [ft^2]

1/8" 0.021 0.0003 1/8" 0.016 0.0002

1/4" 0.029 0.0006 1/4" 0.024 0.0004

1/2" 0.052 0.0021 1/2" 0.046 0.0016

3/4" 0.069 0.0037 3/4" 0.062 0.0030

1" 0.087 0.0060 1" 0.080 0.0050

1-1/4" 0.115 0.0104 1-1/4" 0.107 0.0089

1-1/2" 0.134 0.0141 1-1/2" 0.125 0.0123

2" 0.172 0.0233 2" 0.162 0.0205

2-1/2" 0.206 0.0332 2-1/2" 0.194 0.0294

3" 0.256 0.0513 3" 0.242 0.0459

4" 0.336 0.0884 4" 0.319 0.0798

5" 0.421 0.1389 5" 0.397 0.1240

6" 0.505 0.2006 6" 0.480 0.1810

8" 0.663 0.3457 8" 0.630 0.3121

10" 0.831 0.5428 10" 0.791 0.4914

12" 0.991 0.7711 12" 0.941 0.6957

14" 1.089 0.9321 14" 1.034 0.8400

16" 1.245 1.2174 16" 1.184 1.1018

18" 1.401 1.5410 18" 1.335 1.3987

20" 1.562 1.9160 20" 1.485 1.7308

24" 1.880 2.7744 24" 1.785 2.5020

4.2.2 DETERMINING NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD AVAILABLE

The professional engineer must be able to properly determine net positive suction head

in order to avoid cavitation. Cavitation occurs when the suction pressure (head) is less than the

vapor pressure of the water. If the suction pressure is lower than the vapor pressure, then small

vapor bubbles form and when these bubbles reach the pump where the pressure is increases,

the bubbles implode causing damage to the impellers and other parts of the pump. This is what

is known as cavitation.

Suction head is defined as the pressure at the inlet of the pump and net positive suction

head is the difference between the suction head at the inlet and the vapor pressure of the water

at the inlet of the pump.

𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑃𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑆𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝐴𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑆𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝 − 𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

Suction head is found by determining all the pressures acting upon the fluid whether positive or

negative. The following figure best describes all the pressures that can be acting upon a pump.

(1) P abs : This pressure refers to the absolute pressure acting on the fluid. If the tank is

pressurized, then the value is pre-determined. If the tank is open to the atmosphere, then the

pressure is equal to 1 atmosphere [atm] or 14.7 psia or 33.9 ft of water.

(2) P elev : This pressure identifies the elevation difference between the top surface of the liquid

and the pump centerline. This value can be positive or negative and is measured in “feet of

head”.

(3) P fric : The friction pressure or head is the amount of pressure lost due to friction in the

piping, fittings, equipment, valves, etc. leading from the fluid source to the pump.

(4) P vel : The velocity head pressure is the pressure due to the flowing liquid. This term is only

used if there is a pressure gauge at the suction of the pump. The pressure gauge measures the

static pressure at the pump and this term is used to measure the velocity pressure. In order to

determine the total suction pressure the static pressure and the velocity pressure are summed

together.

(5) P suction : Finally, all of the pressures leading to the pump are summed and the resulting

value is the suction pressure at the pump.

𝑻𝒆𝒓𝒎 Description Formula

The suction pressure 𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡 = ±𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 − 𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐

𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 at the inlet of the or

pump. 𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 + 𝑃𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

The elevation head is

±𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 , ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑]

equal to the difference

𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑣𝑒 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝

𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 between the surface of

𝑛𝑒𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝

the liquid and the

pump centerline.

𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 piping leading to the Darcy Weisbach equation or pipe friction loss tables

pump.

The velocity head

pressure. Typically

very small amount.

Only use this amount if

the pressure in a

𝑉2 𝑓𝑡

pipeline is found by a [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]; 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛 ;

𝑃𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 static pressure gauge. 2𝑔 𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑓𝑡

Add the velocity 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 32.2

pressure to the static sec 2

pressure gauge

reading to find the

total pressure at that

point.

The vapor pressure of the water is found by simply looking up fluid property tables and finding

the vapor pressure at the operating temperature. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, water is the

most common fluid used in pumping systems and a table of corresponding vapor pressure and

temperatures are shown below. Use the MERM or ASHRAE Fundamentals book to find similar

tables.

32 0.20

41 0.29

50 0.41

59 0.57

68 0.78

77 1.076

86 1.42

104 2.47

140 6.66

176 15.84

212 33.90

From the table above, it can be seen that as the temperature of the water increases, the

pressure at which vaporization will occur also increases. The issue of cavitation becomes even

more critical at higher temperatures.

4.2.3 READING PUMP CURVES

Pump curves are created by the manufacturers of the pumps through a series of tests

and describe the operating points for a specific impeller diameter and pump type. The curve

plots the corresponding flow rates at varying pressure, similar to a fan curve.

Pump Curve

4.2.4 USING THE AFFINITY LAWS

It is often necessary to determine how a pump will operate under differing operating conditions.

The operating conditions of a pump that can most readily be changed are the impeller diameter

and the rotational speed of the pump. In order to predict how a centrifugal pump will behave

prior to changing the speed or the impeller diameter, the engineer can use the affinity laws

shown below.

The first set of affinity laws is that the flow rate (Q) is directly proportional to the size of the

diameter of the pump impeller (D) and/or the rotational speed (N) of the pump.

𝑄1 𝐷1

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑄2 𝐷2

𝑄1 𝑁1

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑄2 𝑁2

The second affinity law is that the total head (H) is directly proportional to the square of the size

of the diameter of the pump impeller (D) and/or the square of the rotational speed (N) of the

pump.

𝐻1 𝐷12

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝐻2 𝐷22

𝐻1 𝑁12

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝐻2 𝑁22

The third affinity law is that the power (P) is directly proportional to the cube of the size of the

diameter of the pump impeller (D) and/or the cube of the rotational speed (N) of the pump.

𝑃1 𝐷13

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑃2 𝐷23

𝑃1 𝑁13

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑃2 𝑁23

5.0 THERMAL INSULATION

Insulation is provided in HVAC & Refrigeration systems on pipes, ducts, walls and roofs.

Insulation for walls and roofs was discussed in the Heat Transfer section. The primary purpose

of insulation is to limit heat transfer. For example, in chilled water pipes, insulation is provided to

limit heat transfer to the chilled water and to keep the water cold. In hot air ducts, insulation is

provided to limit heat loss to the surrounding areas.

Insulation is characterized by its ability to conduct heat transfer and is rated by either a

k-value, U-factor or an R-value. K-values are often used when rating pipe, duct or equipment

insulation where R-values and U-factors are typically used to describe roof and wall insulation.

Please refer to the Heat Transfer section for more detail on insulation for roofs and walls. This

section primarily deals with insulation for pipes and ducts, specifically being able to determine

the insulation requirements for a pipe or duct, in order to (1) Control Surface Temperature.

Controlling Surface Temperature: One important skill that the professional engineer must attain

is the ability to determine the insulation required to keep the surface temperature of a pipe, duct,

wall, roof or other piece of equipment within a set range. A common problem encountered in

the HVAC & Refrigeration field is determining the required insulation for a chilled water pipe in

order to stop condensation from forming on the surface.

The governing equation for this problem is that the heat transfer from the chilled water pipe

through the insulation and to the outer surface is equal to the heat transfer from the outer

surface to the ambient air.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 ∗ 𝑖𝑛

𝑘[ ]

ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑄𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 = ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 − 𝑇𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 )[℉]

𝑋[𝑖𝑛]

Where k is equal to the conductivity of the insulation and X is equal to the thickness of the

insulation. K can vary depending on the temperature of the pipe.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = ℎ[ 2 ] ∗ 𝐴[𝑓𝑡 2 ] ∗ (𝑇𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 )[℉]

𝑓𝑡 ∗ ℎ ∗ ℉

Where h is equal to the surface coefficient of the insulation. This value is a measure of how well

the surface of the material in question is at conducting heat to the ambient air. The value can

increase for higher wind speeds and varying surface and air temperatures.

6.0 CHILLERS

Detailed information on chillers is provided in the refrigeration section.

7.0 COOLING TOWERS

Cooling towers are mechanical pieces of equipment that function on the principle of

evaporative cooling. Evaporative cooling is the process by which a liquid is cooled to a lower

temperature by evaporating a small portion of the liquid into an airstream. Relatively dry air

moves through a falling liquid and as the air moves it picks up water vapor from the liquid,

thereby increasing the air’s moisture content. In order for the liquid to evaporate, the liquid

needs a heat source to meet the latent heat of vaporization. This heat source is the sensible

heat loss from the remaining liquid.

A cooling tower consists of two fluid flows, the air flow and the water flow. The water

flow starts from the top of the cooling tower. Warm water is pumped to a series of nozzles. The

nozzles’ purpose is to break up the water into tiny droplets to increase the surface area of the

water that is in contact with the air stream. The droplets then fall through a fill material, which

also serves to break up the droplets further to increase the surface area of the water. As the

water moves downward it steadily decreases in temperature as heat is lost due to evaporation.

Finally, the water collects at the basin, where it is sucked out and distributed to its required

location.

The air flow starts at the bottom of the tower, where cold dry air is brought into the

cooling tower where it comes into contact with the water droplets. As the air moves upward

through the tower it picks up water vapor and slightly increases in temperature. Prior to exiting

the cooling tower, the air must travel through the drift eliminators, which is a series of baffles.

The purpose of the drift eliminators is to catch any suspended water droplets in the air stream

and return them to the fill.

7.1 CHARACTERIZING COOLING TOWERS

The following section provides information on the different types of cooling towers used in the

HVAC & Refrigeration field. This information is provided to give the engineer additional

background on cooling towers.

There are two main categories of cooling towers: (1) Mechanical draft and (2) Natural

draft cooling towers. Natural draft cooling towers move air based on the difference in buoyancy

of the airstream inside and outside of the cooling tower. Mechanical draft cooling towers move

air through the cooling tower by means of a mechanical fan. In the HVAC & Refrigeration field,

mechanical draft cooling towers are the primary type of cooling tower.

Induced and forced draft cooling towers are both mechanical draft type fans and differ by

the location of their fan. Forced draft fans blow air into the cooling tower and are located at the

airstream entrance into the cooling tower. Induced draft cooling towers on the other hand, have

the fans located at the exit of the airstream for the cooling tower and suck air into the cooling

tower.

between the air flow and water flow. In a counter flow tower the air and water flow are at 90

degrees to each other. The water is falling downwards and the air is moving across from either

left to right or right to left. In a cross-flow tower, the air and water flows have directly opposing

directions. The water is falling downwards and the air is moving upwards.

The following figure is a schematic of a forced mechanical draft, counter flow cooling tower.

The fans are located at the air inlets, near the bottom of the cooling tower. Also the air flow

counters the water flow as the water drops downward through the fill material.

The following figure is a schematic of a forced mechanical draft, cross flow cooling tower. Since

this cooling tower is forced draft, the fans are again located at the inlet of the cooling tower near

the bottom. The air flows counter or perpendicular to the water as the water falls downward

through the fill.

The following figure is a schematic of an induced mechanical draft, counter flow cooling tower.

The fan is located at the exit of the cooling tower and air is sucked or induced through the

cooling tower. This cooling tower is also a counter flow type, where air flows upward through

the fill and counters the downward moving water droplets.

The following figure is a schematic of an induced mechanical draft, cross flow cooling tower.

Again the fan is located at the exit of the cooling tower. This cooling tower is a cross flow

cooling tower, where air flows perpendicular through the fill as it crosses the falling water

droplets.

7.2 COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE

The professional engineer must be able to properly design and select a cooling tower to fit

the HVAC & Refrigeration application. Cooling towers are characterized by two terms the

approach and the range. The range of the cooling tower is the difference between the entering

and exiting temperatures of the cooling tower water.

The approach or approach to wet bulb is the temperature difference between the water out

and the wet bulb temperature of the air.

The approach is important because it describes the level of performance of the cooling

tower. The smaller the approach the better the cooling tower is at providing cooling. The wet

bulb temperature of the entering air is the lowest the temperature of the exiting water can reach.

If a cooling tower has a 0 degree approach then the cooling tower is using all of the available

heat exchange from the air to cool the water. Typical approaches are in the range of ~10 °F.

Approach also leads to another important term in determining the performance of cooling

towers, called effectiveness. Effectiveness is a term used to describe how effective the cooling

tower is at cooling the water or how close the actual temperature difference between the water

temperatures in and out is to the maximum temperature difference. The maximum temperature

difference that a cooling tower can produce is the difference between the water temperature in

and the air wet bulb temperature.

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 =

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ

The range is important because when used in conjunction with the water flow rate, the

capacity of the cooling tower can be found. The capacity and the amount of cooling provided by

the cooling tower are found by multiplying the flow rate of the cooling water by the difference in

temperature at the inlet and outlet of the cooling tower, using the following equation, Q = mc∆T

and for a simplified equation to use during the test, follow the derivation below.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑚̇ [ ] ∗ 𝑐𝑝 [ ] ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝑚 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑝 = ℎ𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝚤𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 ̇ 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∆𝑇 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝚤𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝚤𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒.

Substituting volumetric flow rate [GPM] and density of water for mass flow rate, results in the

following equation.

𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 8.33 ∗ 60 ∗ 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � �∗ ∗ (𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

𝑔𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

𝑔𝑎𝑙

𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 500 ∗ 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ (𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

𝑚𝑖𝑛

In a cooling tower, water is lost due to multiple sources such as evaporation, drift and blow-

down. The first term, evaporation, is calculated through the following equation, where the

assumption is made that the total heat loss is due to the heat loss through evaporation.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑚̇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 [ ] ∗ 𝑐𝑝 [ ] ∗ ∆𝑇[℉]

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐺𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 𝐸𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑄[𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ] = 𝑚̇𝑣𝑝 [ ] ∗ 𝐻𝑣𝑝 [ ]

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐻𝑣𝑝 � � 𝑖𝑠 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑚̇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 � � ∗ 𝑐𝑝 � � ∗ �𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 � = 𝑚̇𝑣𝑝 [ ] ∗ 𝐻𝑣𝑝 [ ]

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ ℉ ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝐵𝑡𝑢

500 ∗ 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ (𝑇𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) = 500 ∗ 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ 1,060[ ]

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏𝑚

𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑙

. 000943 ∗ 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � � ∗ �𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝐼𝑛 − 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟,𝑜𝑢𝑡 � = 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 � �

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛

With a 10°F difference between entering and existing temperature, the evaporation rate is

approximately 1% of the cooling tower flow rate.

The second water loss is due to drift. Drift is the amount of water that is carried out

through the airstream. Drift eliminators provided prior to the discharge are best described as a

maze of baffles that the air must travel through before exiting to atmosphere. The drift

eliminator trap the water droplets that get picked up by the exiting air and send the droplets

back to the fill material. Typical water loss due to drift is less than 0.2%.

The third major source of water loss is due to blow-down. Blow-down is required

because as water is evaporated it leaves behind the total dissolved solids (TDS), which

increases the concentration of the TDS in the water. In order to bring the concentration of the

TDS back to normal conditions so that it may be used safely with the equipment, the high

concentrated TDS water is drained regularly and this is what is referred to as blow-down. The

water is then replaced with fresh water and this is referred to as make-up water.

8.0 BOILERS

Boilers are covered in detail in the Refrigeration – Steam Systems Section.

9.0 FURNACES

Furnaces are mechanical pieces of equipment used for space heating. Furnaces consist of a

burner with a combustion air intake, fuel intake and an igniter. The hot combustion flames are

routed through a heat exchanger, where heat is exchanged to the cold air as it is blown across

the heat exchanger coils. Warm air is then blown to the space and the combustion

gases/products exit the furnace through an exhaust vent pipe.

The fuel that is most commonly used is natural gas. Furnaces can be used in both residential

and commercial situations.

The two main types of furnaces are condensing and non-condensing furnaces. The traditional

non-condensing furnace operates in the initial description of a furnace. These furnaces can

have efficiencies in the range of 80% to 84% AFUE. A condensing furnace takes the

combustion products that were initially routed to the exhaust vent and passes them through

another heat exchanger. This extracts more heat to the air and cools the combustion products

to a temperature where water begins to condense out of the air. Because of the water, this

second heat exchanger is made of a corrosive resistive material. A condensing furnace can

have efficiencies in the range of 90% to 98% AFUE.

9.2 EFFICIENCY

The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) is the term used by manufacturers to rate the

annual efficiency of their furnaces. It describes the ratio of the amount of useful heat out of the

furnace compared to the amount of fuel input to the furnace. This efficiency rating is regulated

by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is used to take into account the constant on/off

operation and seasonal effects on the furnace. The DOE requires that all furnaces have

efficiencies greater than 78% AFUE.

Steady state efficiencies are also provided by the manufacturer and indicate the best efficiency

of the furnace when operated at peak conditions.

10.0 ACOUSTICS

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, acoustical engineering is used to determine the sound levels

in occupied spaces and around HVAC & Refrigeration equipment. Sound is a sequence of

waves that moves through air. The frequency of the waves determines the pitch of the sound.

A high frequency corresponds to a high pitched sound and a low frequency corresponds to a

low pitched sound. The loudness of the sound is a measure of the pressure of the wave. In

practice, sound is typically measured in terms of the unit decibel [DB].

Equipment produces sound not at just one frequency. The manufacturer of the equipment will

produce sound tables, which provides sound levels at a range of frequencies. A sample

equipment sound performance data is shown below.

Frequency 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000

[HZ]

Sound 51 60 67 68 70 71 61 52

Level [DB]

Equipment sound performance data is often simplified to a single DB level. In order to convert

the performance data to a single level, the sound levels at the various frequencies are weighted.

The following table shows the A-weighting, which is used to give sound levels at lower

frequencies a lower rating. This is because sound levels at lower frequencies are not as easily

heard by the human ear.

Frequency 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000

[HZ]

Sound 51 60 67 68 70 71 61 52

Level [DB]

A- -26 -16 -9 -3 0 1 1 -1

Weighting

Sound 25 44 58 65 70 72 62 51

Level

[DBA]

Once the DBA values are found, the sound levels at the various frequencies can be combined

with the following equation.

25 44 58 65 70 72 62 51

𝐿𝐴 = 10 ∗ log10 (10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 10100 + 𝑣10100 + 10100 )

𝐿𝐴 = 75 𝐷𝐵𝐴

The above equation can also be used to find the equivalent sound level of two point sources,

like two condensing units.

Sound levels can be reduced through the use of silencers and insulation. These types of sound

reducing equipment, like duct silencers are provided with performance data similar to

mechanical equipment.

Frequency 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000

[HZ]

Sound -5 -6 -8 -8 -9 -6 6 -5

Level

Reduction

[DB]

In order to calculate the sound reduction, simply subtract the reduction levels from the sound

levels of the mechanical equipment.

HVAC & Refrigeration equipment like condensers and cooling towers generate undesirable

noise. Often times, clients and architects request that mechanical equipment is located a

sufficient distance away from occupied areas in order to limit noise for occupants. The following

quick calculations are used to determine the sound level from a piece of equipment as a

function of distance from the equipment.

The sound levels are also dependent on the equipment’s surroundings. If the equipment is

suspended, then sound will propagated through the air in a spherical pattern as shown in the

figure below.

At a distance of 0’ from the equipment, the sound level is as stated by the equipment

manufacturer. The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the

equation below for a spherical sound propagation.

The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the equation below for a

half-spherical sound propagation. This is typical of a piece of equipment located on the ground

and not surrounded by walls.

FIGURE 43: QUARTER SPHERICAL PROJECTION

The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the equation below for a

quarter-spherical sound propagation. This is typical of a piece of equipment located on the

ground with a wall on one side.

The sound level at a distance away from the equipment is simplified by the equation below for a

eighth-spherical sound propagation. This is typical of a piece of equipment located on the

ground with walls on two sides.

11.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT QUESTIONS

Background: The pressure at the outlet of a 2,000 CFM fan is 0.75 in. wg. The fan discharges

into a 12” X 18” duct. The duct runs for an equivalent length of 125’ to a supply diffuser. What

is the pressure at the supply diffuser?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

SOLUTION 1 – DUCT DESIGN

Since standard conditions are used, the friction chart is applicable.

1.30 ∗ (𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625

𝐷𝑒 =

(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

𝐷𝑒 =

(12" + 18")0.250

𝐷𝑒 = 16"

converting Rectangular Dimensions to Equivalent Diameter.

Next navigate the friction chart in ASHRAE Fundamentals to the intersection of equivalent

diameter equal to 16” and a flow rate of 2,000 CFM.

PROBLEM 2 – DUCT DESIGN

Background: A 26” X 12” duct is routed through a ceiling. Due to obstructions in the ceiling, the

duct must make (4) 90-degree elbow turns. The elbows are mitered and are provided with

turning vanes at 1.5” spacing (C = 0.11). If the flow rate through the duct is 3,000 CFM, then

what is the total pressure loss due to the elbows?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

SOLUTION 2 – DUCT DESIGN

Background: A 26” X 12” duct is routed through a ceiling. Due to obstructions in the ceiling, the

duct must make (4) 90-degree elbow turns. The elbows are mitered and are provided with

turning vanes at 1.5” spacing (C = 0.11). If the flow rate through the duct is 3,000 CFM, then

what is the total pressure loss due to the elbows?

1.30 ∗ (𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625

𝐷𝑒 =

(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

𝐷𝑒 =

(12" + 26")0.250

𝐷𝑒 = 19"

𝐷2

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = (𝑃𝐼) ∗ = 1.96 𝑆𝐹

4

3,000 𝐶𝐹𝑀

𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = 1,530 𝐹𝑃𝑀

1.96 𝑆𝐹

1,530 2

𝑉𝑃 = � � = 0.146 𝑖𝑛. 𝑤𝑔

4,005

Use the C coefficient to calculate the pressure loss from the elbows

PROBLEM 3 – DIFFUSERS

Background: A new diffuser is selected with the following performance criteria. At what

perpendicular distance from the wall should the diffuser be located so that the velocity at the

wall is 50 feet per minute?

Total Pressure [in. wg] .024 .034 .047 .061 .078 .096

Flow Rate [CFM] 100 120 140 160 180 200

Throw 150-100-50 [ft.] 1-2-3 1-2-4 2-2-5 2-3-6 2-3-7 3-4-8

(a) 3’

(b) 5’

(c) 7’

(d) 8’

SOLUTION 3 – DIFFUSERS

Background: A new diffuser is selected with the following performance criteria. At what

perpendicular distance from the wall should the diffuser be located so that the velocity at the

wall is 50 feet per minute?

Total Pressure [in. wg] .024 .034 .047 .061 .078 .096

Flow Rate [CFM] 100 120 140 160 180 200

Throw 150-100-50 [ft.] 1-2-3 1-2-4 2-2-5 2-3-6 2-3-7 3-4-8

PROBLEM 4 – FANS

Background: Two fans are placed in parallel. Each fan has the following performance, 2,000

CFM at 1.5 in. wg. If the fans are combined into a single 26” X 12” duct, then what is the

resulting pressure at the end of an equivalent length of duct of 100’?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

SOLUTION 4 – FANS

Background: Two fans are placed in parallel. Each fan has the following performance, 2,000

CFM at 1.5 in. wg. If the fans are combined into a single 26” X 12” duct, then what is the

resulting pressure at the end of an equivalent length of duct of 100’?

Assume standard conditions, density = 0.75 lbm/ft^3 and roughness factor of 0.003 ft.

1.30 ∗ (𝑎 ∗ 𝑏)0.625

𝐷𝑒 =

(𝑎 + 𝑏)0.250

𝐷𝑒 =

(12" + 26")0.250

𝐷𝑒 = 19"

Next recognize that the fans are in parallel, thus the resulting flow rate is 4,000 CFM. Also the

pressure at the outlet of the fan is assumed to be 1.5 in. wg.

Next use the ASHRAE Fundamentals chart to find the pressure loss.

Since we are concerned with the pressure drop after 100’, then simply subtract 0.29 from the

starting pressure of 1.5.

PROBLEM 5 – FANS

Background: A fan has been selected at the design point shown on the below fan curve. What

is the minimum number of fans required to be placed in series, to achieve a flow rate of 3,000

CFM at a pressure of 4.0 in. wg?

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

SOLUTION 5 – FANS

Background: A fan has been selected at the design point shown on the below fan curve. What

is the minimum number of fans required to be placed in series, to achieve a flow rate of 3,000

CFM at a pressure of 4.0 in. wg?

If fans are placed in series, then their pressures are added. (3) Fans are required to achieve a

pressure of 5.4 in. wg.

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

PROBLEM 6 – COILS

Background: A new cooling coil has an apparatus dew point of 53 F. The air entering

conditions are 80 F DB, 70% Relative Humidity. If the bypass factor of the coil is 0.05, then

what is the enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

SOLUTION 6 – COILS

Background: A new cooling coil has an apparatus dew point of 53 F. The air entering

conditions are 80 F DB, 70% Relative Humidity. If the bypass factor of the coil is 0.05, then

what is the enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 36.15

𝑙𝑏

Next determine the enthalpy at the apparatus dew point (ADP) of 53 F DB/53 F WB.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝐴𝐷𝑃 = 22.01

𝑙𝑏

Use the bypass factor to find the resulting coil leaving enthalpy.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 22.01 ∗ (. 95) + 36.15 ∗ (.05)

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 22.72

𝑙𝑏

PROBLEM 7 – COILS

A chilled water coil is supplied with 12 GPM. Chilled water is supplied at 44 F and leaves the

coil at 54 F. 1500 CFM of air enters the coil at an enthalpy of 34 Btu/lb. What is the resulting

enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

SOLUTION 7 – COILS

A chilled water coil is supplied with 12 GPM. Chilled water is supplied at 44 F and leaves the

coil at 54 F. 1500 CFM of air enters the coil at an enthalpy of 34 Btu/lb. What is the resulting

enthalpy of the air leaving the coil?

𝑄 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 60,000

ℎ𝑟

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

60,000 = 4.5 ∗ 1,500 ∗ (34 − 𝑥)

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑥 = 25.1

𝑙𝑏

PROBLEM 8 – HUMIDIFIER

An evaporative humidifier, with a capacity of 5 lb of water vapor per hour, is used to humidify

500 CFM of air with entering conditions of 80 F DB, 20% Relative Humidity. What is the

resulting humidity ratio of the air leaving the humidifier?

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

(a) . 0040

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

(b) . 0043

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

(c) . 0056

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

(d) . 0063

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

SOLUTION 8 – HUMIDIFIER

An evaporative humidifier, with a capacity of 5 lb of water vapor per hour, is used to humidify

500 CFM of air with entering conditions of 80 F DB, 20% Relative Humidity. What is the

resulting humidity ratio of the air leaving the humidifier?

First use the psychrometric chart to find the humidity ratio of the air entering the humidifier.

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = .0043

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

Next use the humidifying equation to calculate the leaving humidity ratio.

𝐻 = 60 ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑄 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 )

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

5 = 60 ∗ 0.075 ∗ 500 ∗ (𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − .0043)

ℎ𝑟

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = .0063

𝑙𝑏 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

PROBLEM 9 – ENERGY RECOVERY DEVICE

A cooling coil is used to cool 2,000 CFM of outside air at 87 F DB, 60% relative humidity to 55 F

DB/53 F WB. A heat pipe is provided to re-heat the leaving cold supply air with the incoming

outside air. The heat pipe is only used to transfer sensible heat. The heat pipe has a sensible

efficiency of 25%. What temperature does the heat pipe reheat the supply air, Dry Bulb F?

(a) 63℉ 𝐷𝐵

(b) 71℉ 𝐷𝐵

(c) 75℉ 𝐷𝐵

(d) 79℉ 𝐷𝐵

SOLUTION 9 – ENERGY RECOVERY DEVICE

A cooling coil is used to cool 2,000 CFM of outside air at 87 F DB, 60% relative humidity to 55 F

DB/53 F WB. A heat pipe is provided to re-heat the leaving cold supply air with the incoming

outside air. The heat pipe is only used to transfer sensible heat. The heat pipe has a sensible

efficiency of 25%. What temperature does the heat pipe reheat the supply air, Dry Bulb F?

First calculate the maximum amount of heat transfer, the supply air is re-heated to the outside

air temperature.

Next set up the equation for the actual amount of heat that is transferred. Similar equation,

except replace the 87 (maximum temperature) with the variable “X”.

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

𝜀𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 =

𝑞𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒,𝑚𝑎𝑥

0.25 =

1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑦 ∗ (87 − 55 𝐷𝐵)

𝑋 = 63℉ 𝐷𝐵

PROBLEM 10 – PUMPS

A new chilled water pump supplies a flow of 240 GPM at 150 total dynamic head. What is the

pressure drop through 200 feet of 4” schedule 40 steel pipe?

SOLUTION 10 – PUMPS

A new chilled water pump supplies a flow of 240 GPM at 150 total dynamic head. What is the

pressure drop through 200 feet of 4” schedule 40 steel pipe?

The quick solution is to use the ASHRAE Fundamentals Pipe Sizing Tables.

The question calls for the pressure drop over 200’, simply multiply the previous result by 2.

PROBLEM 11 – STEAM PIPING

The main steam distribution piping to a building consists of an equivalent length of 200’ of 3”

schedule 40 steel pipe. Steam is provided at 30 PSIG, if the flow rate is1,000 lbs per hour, then

what will be the pressure at the end of the main distribution piping?

(a) 28 PSIG

(c) 29 PSIG

SOLUTION 11 – PUMPS

The main steam distribution piping to a building consists of an equivalent length of 200’ of 3”

schedule 40 steel pipe. Steam is provided at 30 PSIG, if the flow rate is1,000 lbs per hour, then

what will be the pressure at the end of the main distribution piping?

Since Schedule 40 Steel pipe is being used, the Pipe Sizing Charts can be used. Navigate

ASHRAE Fundamentals to find the chart corresponding to a pressure of 30 PSIG. Find the

pressure drop as a function of 1,000 lbs per hour and 3” pipe.

Since the distance is 200’, the total pressure loss is 0.54 PSI.

PROBLEM 12 – FRICTION LOSS

20 GPM of water at 50 F is flown through a 2” plastic pipe (2.067” ID). The Moody friction factor

is .025. What is the pressure drop (PSI) through 50’ of pipe?

SOLUTION 12 – FRICTION LOSS

20 GPM of water at 50 F is flown through a 2” plastic pipe (2.067” ID). The Moody friction factor

is .025. What is the pressure drop (PSI) through 50’ of pipe?

𝑓𝐿𝑣 2

ℎ= [𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑠𝑏𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛]

2𝐷𝑔

𝑓𝑡

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ℎ = 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑; 𝑓 = 𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟; 𝑣 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 � �,

𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑓𝑡

𝐷 = 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 [𝑓𝑡], 𝑔 = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 [32.2 ]

𝑠𝑒𝑐 2

Prepare each term to be plugged into the equation. First, find velocity. Convert 20 GPM to

velocity [ft/sec].

1 FT 3

Multiply GPM by to get .

448.83 sec

1 FT 3

20 GPM ∗ = 0.04456 .

448.83 sec

2.067 2

� �

Area = PI ∗ 12 = 0.0233 ft 2

4

04456 ft 3 /sec 𝑓𝑡

Velocity = . 2

= 1.91

0.0233 ft 𝑠𝑒𝑐

. 025 ∗ 50 ∗ 1.912

ℎ= [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]

2.067

2∗( )32.2

12

. 025 ∗ 50 ∗ 1.912

ℎ= [𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ]

2.067

2∗( )32.2

12

0.433 𝑝𝑠𝑖

ℎ = 0.41 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ∗ = 0.18 𝑃𝑆𝐼

1 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

PROBLEM 13 – FRICTION LOSS

A 3” Schedule 80 steel pipe has 100 GPM of 50 F water flowing through it. What is the

Reynolds number?

(a) 78,000

(b) 83,000

(c) 86,000

(d) 92,000

SOLUTION 13 – FRICTION LOSS

A 3” Schedule 80 steel pipe has 100 GPM of 50 F water flowing through it. What is the

Reynolds number?

𝑓𝑡

𝑉[ ] ∗ 𝑑[𝑓𝑡]

𝑅𝑒 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑓𝑡 2

𝜈[ ]

𝑠𝑒𝑐

First find the velocity, which requires the inner diameter of Schedule 80 pipe. Refer to your

Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual (MERM) to find the inner diameter.

𝐷 = 0.2417 𝑓𝑡

Next find the inner area, which is also shown in the MERM.

𝐴 = 0.04587 𝑓𝑡 2

1 FT 3

100 GPM ∗ = 0.223 .

448.83 sec

FT 3

0.223

V= sec = 4.86 𝑓𝑡/𝑠𝑒𝑐

0.04587 ft 2

Next find the kinematic viscosity for water at 50 F which is also found in the MERM.

𝜈 = .0000141 𝑓𝑡 2 /𝑠𝑒𝑐

0.223 ∗ 0.2417

𝑅𝑒 = = 83,343

. 0000141

PROBLEM 14 – NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

A cooling tower is located such that the fluid level in the basin is 10 ft above the centerline for

the suction of the condenser water pump. The water is at an average temperature of 86 F. The

friction loss from the cooling tower basin to the suction of the pump is approximately 15 ft of

head. What is the net positive suction head available at the suction side of the pump with a flow

rate of 400 GPM?

SOLUTION 14 – NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

A cooling tower is located such that the fluid level in the basin is 10 ft above the centerline for

the suction of the condenser water pump. The water is at an average temperature of 86 F. The

friction loss from the cooling tower basin to the suction of the pump is approximately 15 ft of

head. What is the net positive suction head available at the suction side of the pump with a flow

rate of 400 GPM?

For this question use the Net Positive Suction Head Available equation:

The elevation pressure is the difference in height between the top of the fluid and the centerline

of the pump.

ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 10 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

ℎ𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 15 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Refer to your references MERM or ASHRAE for the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure was

also earlier in this section.

Find NPSHA

PROBLEM 15 – PUMPS

A pump is sized for 200 GPM at 150 ft of head. If the impeller diameter is decreased in size by

75%, what is the new flow of the pump? Assume the speed remains the same.

SOLUTION 15 – NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

A pump is sized for 200 GPM at 150 ft of head. If the impeller diameter is decreased in size by

75%, what is the new flow of the pump? Assume the speed remains the same.

𝑄1 𝐷1

= ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑠 ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑄2 𝐷2

200 𝑥

=

𝑄2 0.75𝑥

200 ∗ 0.75 ∗ 𝑥 = 𝑄2 ∗ 𝑥

𝑥 = 150 𝑔𝑝𝑚

PROBLEM 16 – COOLING TOWERS

A cooling tower is used to cool 95 F condenser water down to 85 F. If the design wet bulb is 78

F WB, then what is the approach and range?

SOLUTION 16 – COOLING TOWERS

A cooling tower is used to cool 95 F condenser water down to 85 F. If the design wet bulb is 78

F WB, then what is the approach and range?

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 = 95 − 85 = 10℉

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ = 85 − 78 = 7℉

PROBLEM 17 – AIR WASHER

Air at 87 F DB, 65 F WB is drawn through an air washer. The air washer has a single bank of

nozzles and has an efficiency of 60%. What is the resulting dry bulb temperature of the air

leaving the air washer?

(a) 68 F, DB

(b) 73 F, DB

(c) 77 F, DB

(d) 84 F, DB

SOLUTION 17 – AIR WASHER

Air at 87 F DB, 65 F WB is drawn through an air washer. The air washer has a single bank of

nozzles and has an efficiency of 60%. What is the resulting dry bulb temperature of the air

leaving the air washer?

The efficiency of an air washer is found by comparing the actual reduction in dry bulb

temperature to the maximum reduction in dry bulb temperature.

(𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 )

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 =

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 − 𝑇𝑤𝑒𝑡𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑏

The maximum amount of reduction in dry bulb temperature occurs if the air entering leaves at its

wet bulb temperature.

(87 − 𝑥)

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 =

87 − 65

𝑥 = 72.7 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

SECTION 8: APPLICATIONS -

SUPPORTIVE KNOWLEDGE

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3

2.0 Equations/Terms ................................................................................................................ 4

3.0 Electrical............................................................................................................................. 7

3.1 Current, Voltage and Resistance .................................................................................... 7

3.2 Basic DC Circuits ............................................................................................................ 7

3.3 D/C Power .................................................................................................................... 11

3.4 A/C Power .................................................................................................................... 12

3.5 Mechanical equipment .................................................................................................. 13

4.0 Economics........................................................................................................................ 17

4.1 Interest Rate & Time value of Money ........................................................................... 17

4.2 Annual value/Annuities ................................................................................................. 18

4.3 Equipment Type Questions .......................................................................................... 20

4.3.1 Convert to Present Value ...................................................................................... 21

4.3.2 Convert to Future Value ........................................................................................ 22

4.3.3 Convert to Annualized Value ................................................................................. 23

4.3.4 Convert to Rate of Return ..................................................................................... 24

4.4 Factor Tables ................................................................................................................ 25

5.0 Recommended Codes/Standards .................................................................................... 26

5.1 ASHRAE 15 .................................................................................................................. 26

5.2 ASHRAE 34 .................................................................................................................. 26

5.3 ASHRAE 55 .................................................................................................................. 26

5.4 ASHRAE 62.1 ............................................................................................................... 27

5.5 ASHRAE 90.1 ............................................................................................................... 27

5.6 NFPA 90A ..................................................................................................................... 27

5.7 NFPA 90B ..................................................................................................................... 28

5.8 NFPA 96 ....................................................................................................................... 28

6.0 Recommended Resources ............................................................................................... 29

6.1 NCEES Mechanical Breadth and HVAC & Refrigeration Exam Specifications ............ 29

6.2 NCEES PE Mechanical: HVAC & Refrigeration Sample Questions ............................. 29

6.3 Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual ................................................................. 30

6.4 Engineering unit Conversions ....................................................................................... 30

7.0 Practice Problems ............................................................................................................ 31

Problem 1 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 31

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Solution 1 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 32

Problem 2 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 33

Solution 2 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 34

Problem 3 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 35

Solution 3 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 36

Problem 4 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 37

Solution 4 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 38

Problem 5 - Electrical .............................................................................................................. 39

Solution 5 - Electrical ........................................................................................................... 40

Problem 6 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 41

Solution 6 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 42

Problem 7 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 43

Solution 7 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 44

Problem 8 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 45

Solution 8 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 46

Problem 9 - Economics ........................................................................................................... 48

Solution 9 - Economics ........................................................................................................ 49

Problem 10 - Economics ......................................................................................................... 50

Solution 10 - Economics ...................................................................................................... 51

Problem 11 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 52

Solution 11 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 53

Problem 12 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 54

Solution 12 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 55

Problem 13 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 56

Solution 13 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 57

Problem 14 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 58

Solution 14 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 59

Problem 15 - References/Codes ............................................................................................. 60

Solution 15 - References/Codes .......................................................................................... 61

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most important steps in an engineer's career is obtaining the professional

engineering (P.E.) license. It allows the individual engineer to legally practice engineering in the

state of licensure. This credential can also help to obtain higher compensation and develop a

credible reputation. In order to obtain a P.E. license, the engineer must first meet the

qualifications as required by the state of licensure, including minimum experience, references

and the passing of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)

exam.

of the HVAC & Refrigeration afternoon portion, specifically the Refrigeration topic of the

Mechanical P.E. Exam. This book does not provide a broad overview of all possible topics on

the P.E. exam.

achieve a basic understanding of these disciplines. One of the most important coordination

items is coordinating power requirements with electrical engineers. This section will

demonstrate the basic electrical skills and concepts required for the exam.

properly present design alternatives and the cost implications of these alternatives to the

engineer's clients.

Finally, in engineering many design issues are regulated by codes and references. These

codes govern the minimum requirements for mechanical design and the engineer must be

familiar with these codes in order to avoid making a legal mistake. Also the engineer should

keep handy a set of references to solve typically encountered problems. This section will

introduce the engineer to the must-have references for the HVAC & Refrigeration Engineer.

The primary units that are used in the P.E. Exam are United States Customary System Units

(USCS). As such, this guide exclusively uses USCS units. However, it is recommended that

the test taker have a conversion book, because certain areas of the P.E. Exam may use SI units

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2.0 EQUATIONS/TERMS

Ohm’s Law

𝑉

𝐼=

𝑅

𝐼 = 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 [𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠]

𝑉 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 [𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠]

𝑅 = 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑐𝑒 [𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠]

Resistors in series

𝑅𝑒𝑞,𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + 𝑅𝑛

Resistors in parallel

1 1 1 1 1

= + + +

𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑅𝑛

Power Equations

𝑃 =𝐼∗𝑉

𝑉2

𝑃=

𝑅

𝑃 = 𝐼2 ∗ 𝑅

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝[𝐻𝑃] = ;

3956

ℎ = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑]

𝑃 = 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 [ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟]

𝑆𝐺 = 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝,[𝐻𝑃] = ;

1,714

𝑝 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑝𝑠𝑖]

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Fan Mechanical Horsepower Equation

𝑄𝑐𝑓𝑚 ∗ 𝑇𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑔

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑓𝑎𝑛[𝐻𝑃] = ;

6356

𝑄𝑐𝑓𝑚 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 [𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒]

𝑇𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑔 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 [𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒]

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘,𝑓𝑎𝑛[𝐻𝑃] = 𝑓𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘[𝐻𝑃]]

𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛/𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝[𝐻𝑃] = ;

𝜀𝑓𝑎𝑛/𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘[𝐻𝑃]]

𝑃𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 = ;

𝜀𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝑃𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟[𝐻𝑃]

𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟[𝐻𝑃] =

𝑃𝐹

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Conversion Formula Factor Value

𝐹𝑉 = 𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + 𝑖)𝑛

Present Value to Future Value Multiply PV by (F/P, i, n)

𝐹𝑉

𝑃𝑉 =

Future Value to Present Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 Multiply FV by (P/F, i, n)

𝑖 ∗ (1 + 𝑖)𝑛

𝐴 = 𝑃𝑉 ∗ ( )

Present Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply PV by (A/P, i, n)

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−𝑛

𝑃𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )

Annual Value to Present Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (P/A, i, n)

𝑖

𝐴 = 𝐹𝑉( )

Future Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply FV by (A/F, i, n)

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1

𝐹𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )

Annual Value to Future Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (F/A, i, n)

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3.0 ELECTRICAL

Mechanical and electrical engineers work closely together and there is often a lot of

coordination between the two disciplines. Most of the equipment that a HVAC & Refrigeration

engineer designs will require power. It is important for the HVAC & Refrigeration engineer to

understand the basics of electrical engineering.

There are three basic terms that mechanical engineers should understand about electrical

engineering, current, voltage and resistance.

Current is the measure of the flow of electrons and is measured in terms of amperes (A).

Current is represented by the variable (I).

Voltage is best described in mechanical terms as the pressure at which current (flow) is

supplied. Voltage is often represented by the variable (V).

Resistance is the opposition to flow. It controls the amount of flow or voltage in a circuit.

Resistance is represented by the variable (R) and is measured in ohms ( Ω).

These three terms are related by the following equation. In order to solve for another variable,

simply re-arrange the equation to solve for the desired variable. This equation is called Ohm's

Law.

𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅

A basic direct current circuit consists of a voltage source [battery] and a resistor. The voltage

source provides the "pressure" to drive the current (flow) through the circuit.

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In order to solve a basic DC circuit question, the following tools must be understood and used

properly, 1. Ohm's Law, 2. Voltage Around a Closed Loop is Equal to Zero, 3. Current into a

Node is Equal to Current Out, 4. Resistors in Series, 5. Resistors in Parallel.

1. Ohm's Law

The amount of current supplied is proportional to the ratio of the Voltage to Resistance. If the

Voltage is larger then there will be more current. Also if there is less Resistance then the

current will be higher. For example, in the below circuits, the circuit with a resistance of 6 Ω has

a current of 2 amps while, the circuit with a resistance of 2 Ω and equal voltage has a current of

6 amps.

𝑉

𝐼= ; 𝑂ℎ𝑚′ 𝑠 𝐿𝑎𝑤

𝑅

12

𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑡 𝐹𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒: 𝐼 = ; 𝐼 = 2 𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑠

6

12

𝑅𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝐹𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒: 𝐼 = ; 𝐼 = 6 𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑠

2

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2. Voltage

The second thing that must be remembered is that the voltage change around a closed loop is

equal to zero. In simpler terms, any path that is returning to the same point must have a voltage

change of zero.

In the following example, there is a 12 V voltage source and two resistors of resistance 4 Ω and

2 Ω. Following the current, we see that prior to the 4 Ω resistor the voltage is 12 V, following

this resistor the voltage has dropped to 4 V. After the 2 Ω the voltage has dropped to 0 V, but

once it reaches the voltage source, the voltage is increased to 12 V.

The next example shows the same resistors, but they are arranged in parallel. Notice that the

voltage change across each loop (inner and outer) is shown to be zero. Then use this fact and

Ohm’s law to determine the current through each resistor. These currents are shown below in

green.

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3. Current

The next rule is that the current into and out of a junction must be equal. In Figure 3, it is shown

that the current is 2 amps and the current remains constant through each resistor because at

each junction there is only 1 path in and 1 path out.

In Figure 4, the total current is found to be 9 amps. When the current reaches the 1st junction,

the current can travel either through resistor 4 Ω or resistor 2 Ω. Three amps of current travels

through the 4 Ω resistor, this leaves 6 amps of current left to travel to the 2 Ω resistor. As

shown the current into the junction is 9 amps and the current leaving the junction is 3 amps + 6

amps.

4. Resistors in Series

For resistors in series, the resistors can be converted to an equivalent resistor by simply adding

the resistance values together.

𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + 𝑅𝑛

In the following example, there are two resistors in series. The equivalent resistance is found by

adding the two resistances, 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 6Ω . Once the equivalent resistance is found, then the

12𝑉

current can be found through Ohm's law. 𝐼 = = 2 𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑠.

6Ω

FIGURE 5: BASIC DC CIRCUIT SOLVING FOR EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE FOR RESISTORS IN SERIES

Remember that resistors are simply resistances to flow, so if the current has to pass through

two resistors then it makes sense that both full values of the resistances need to be taken into

account. For resistors in series, the current going through each resistance is equal, but the

voltage drop across each resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance value.

5. Resistors in Parallel

When resistors are in parallel, the current has multiple paths to go through. Each path will have

a current that is inversely related to the resistance in that path. However, the voltage drop

across each resistor will remain constant. Use the following equation to find the equivalent

resistance value of multiple resistors in parallel.

1 1 1 1 1

= + + +

𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑅𝑛

In the following example, the equivalent resistance is found to be 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 1.33Ω. The current

through the equivalent resistance is then found to be 9 amps.

The next important electrical equation to remember is the DC electric power equation as shown

below. Power is typically expressed in units, Watts. Current is represented by the variable "I"

and is expressed in amperes and voltage is represented by the variable "V" and is expressed in

volts.

𝑃 = 𝐼𝑉

Variations of the equation can be shown by substituting I and V, through the use of Ohm's law.

𝑉 𝑉2

𝑃 =� �∗𝑉 =

𝑅 𝑅

𝑃 = 𝐼 ∗ 𝐼𝑅 = 𝐼 2 ∗ 𝑅

3.4 A/C POWER

The previous electrical sections have dealt with DC power or direct current electricity. This

allows for a basic understanding of common electrical terms. However, for the P.E. exam, the

mechanical engineer should also be aware of common AC or alternating current terms and

equations.

Power Factor: When electricity is supplied to a piece of equipment, it is supplied with a certain

amount of amps (current) at a designated voltage. However, not all of the power supplied is

useful. Some of its power is lost, because the current and voltage are out of phase. [The

explanation of phase is out of the scope of this section and is more representative of the

material found in the Electrical Power P.E. Exam] The degree at which the current and voltage

are out of phase is reported as the power factor. The useful amount of power supplied is found

by multiplying the total power supplied (P = IV) by the power factor. Typical power factors are

around ~0.85.

3.5 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

When selecting mechanical equipment, the mechanical engineer must coordinate the power

requirements with the electrical engineer. This is done through the following four steps: (1)

Determine Mechanical Horsepower, (2) Determine Fan/Pump Brake horsepower, (3) Determine

Motor Horsepower and finally (4) Determine Electrical Power.

required to meet the needs of the system in question. For example, if the mechanical

equipment was a pump, then the mechanical HP would be the amount of power generated by a

certain GPM at a certain pressure. For a fan, the mechanical work would be the amount of

power generated by a certain amount of CFM at a certain pressure. These equations can be

found below.

𝒉𝒇𝒕 ∗ 𝑸 ∗ (𝑺𝑮)

𝑷𝒎𝒆𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌,𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑯𝑷] = ;

𝟑𝟗𝟓𝟔

𝑸𝒄𝒇𝒎 ∗ 𝑻𝑷𝒊𝒏 𝒘𝒈

𝑷𝒎𝒆𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌,𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑯𝑷] = ;

𝟔𝟑𝟓𝟔

In the figure above, mechanical horsepower is shown on the right in red. Two equations are

shown for solving for the mechanical horsepower for a fan and pump, based on flow and

pressure.

2) Determine Fan/Pump Horsepower. In order to blow air or pump a fluid, a pump or fan is

required. This pump/fan is not perfect and cannot supply the mechanical HP required without

losing energy due to friction and inefficiencies in the equipment design. Thus the Pump/Fan

Horsepower is found by dividing the Mechanical HP by the efficiency of the Pump/Fan. This is

the size of the pump or fan required. Often times the fan/pump horsepower is called the brake

horsepower or BHP.

𝑷𝒎𝒆𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌[𝑴𝑯𝑷]

𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏/𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷] = ;

𝜺𝒇𝒂𝒏/𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑

In the figure above, pump/fan horsepower is shown in the middle in red. Given the mechanical

horsepower required, the pump/fan horsepower is found by dividing the Mechanical Horsepower

by the efficiency of the Pump/Fan. Typical efficiencies for pumps and fans can range from 60%

to 90%. The efficiencies depend on the design of the equipment and the operating point.

3) Determine Motor Horsepower. In order to power the pump/fan, a motor is required to supply

the power to the piece of equipment. The motor is not perfect, similar to the pump/fan and

some power is lost due to friction. The motor horsepower is found by dividing the Pump/Fan

horsepower by the efficiency of the motor.

𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏/𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷]

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =

𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓

In the figure above, the motor horsepower is shown on the left in red. The motor horsepower is

found by dividing the Pump/Fan horsepower (aka brake horsepower) by the efficiency of the

motor. Typical efficiencies of motors are around 90%.

4) Determine Electrical Power. In order provide power to the motor, electrical wiring is

connected to the motor from a power source. This power source provides the necessary

current at the correct voltage of the motor. However, as mentioned in a previous section, the

current and voltage supplied to the equipment is not completely in phase, so not all of the power

supplied is useful. The amount of electrical power required is found through the use of the

power factor.

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷]

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =

𝑷𝑭

In the figure above, the power supplied to the motor is shown on the left in red. The power

supplied to the motor is greater than the motor horsepower because of the power factor term.

Not all of the power supplied to the motor is useful, thus additional power must be provided.

The power supplied to the motor is found by dividing the motor horsepower by the power factor.

4.0 ECONOMICS

As a professional engineer, you will be tasked with determining the course of action for a

design. Often times this will entail choosing one alternative instead of several other design

alternatives. Engineers need to be able to present engineering economic analysis to their

clients in order to justify why a certain alternative is more financially sound than other

alternatives. The following sub-sections will present the engineering economic concepts that

should be understood by the engineer and does not present a comprehensive look into the

study of engineering economics.

Before discussing interest rate, it is important that the engineer understand that money today is

worth more than money in the future. This is the concept of the time value of money. For

example, if you were given the option to have $1,000 today or to have $1,000, 10 years from

now. Most people will choose $1,000 today, but not understand why this option is worth more.

The reason $1,000 today is worth more is because of what you could have done with that

money and in the financial world this means how much interest could you have earned with that

money. If you took $1,000 today and invested it at 4% per year, you would have $1,040 dollars

at the end of the first year.

If you kept the $1,040 in the investment for another year, then you would have

$1,081.60.

At the end of the 10 years the investment would have earned, $1,480.24.

An important formula to remember is the Future Value (FV) is equal to the Present Value

(PV) multiplied by (1+interest rate), raised to the number of years.

𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + 𝑖)10 = 𝐹𝑉

As an example, what would be the present value of $1,000, 10 years from now, if the

interest rate is 4%.

𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + .04)10 = $1,000

𝑃𝑉 = $675.46

Thus in the previous example, receiving $1,000, 10 years from now, is only worth

$675.46 today.

It is important to understand present value because when analyzing alternatives, cash values

will be present at many different times and the best way to make a uniform analysis is to first

convert all values to consistent terms, like present value.

For example, if you were asked if you would like $1,000 today or $1,500 in 10 years (interest

rate at 4%), then it would be a much more difficult question than the previous question. But with

an understanding of present value, the "correct" answer would be to accept $1,500, 10 years

from now, because you would only be able to get $1,480, 10 years from now, should you accept

the $1,000 today, with the current interest rate of 4%. In this example, the $1,000 today was

converted to the future value 10 years from now. Once this value was converted, it was then

compared to the future value that was given as $1,500, 10 years later.

The previous section described the difference between present value and future value.

It also showed how a lump sum given at certain times are worth different amounts in present

terms. In engineering, there are often times when annual sums are given in lieu of one time

lump sums. An example would be annual energy savings due to the implementation of a more

efficient HVAC system. Thus, it is important for the engineer to be able to determine the

present/future value of future annual gains or losses.

For example, let's assume that a solar hot water project, provides an annual savings of

$200. Using the equations from the previous section, each annual savings can be converted to

either present or future value. Then these values can be summed up to determine the future

and present value of annual savings of $200 for four years at an interest rate of 4%.

For longer terms, this method could become tedious. Luckily there is a formula that can

be used to speed up the process in converting annuities (A) to present value and future value.

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1

𝐹𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )

𝑖

(1 + .04)4 − 1

𝐹𝑉 = 200 ∗ � � = $849.29

. 04

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−𝑛

𝑃𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )

𝑖

1 − (1 + .04)−4

𝑃𝑉 = 200 ∗ � � = $725.98

. 04

Reverse Equations:

𝑖 ∗ (1 + 𝑖)𝑛

𝐴 = 𝑃𝑉 ∗ ( )

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1

𝑖

𝐴 = 𝐹𝑉( )

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1

4.3 EQUIPMENT TYPE QUESTIONS

In the HVAC & Refrigeration field, often times the engineer must develop an economic

analysis on purchasing one piece of equipment over another. In this event the engineer will use

terms like present value, annualized cost, future value, initial cost and other terms like salvage

value, equipment lifetime and rate of return.

Salvage value is the amount a piece of equipment will be worth at the end of its

lifetime. Lifetime is typically given by a manufacturer as the average lifespan (years) of a piece

of equipment. Looking at the figure below, initial cost is shown as a downward arrow at year 0.

Annual gains are shown as the upward arrow and maintenance costs and other costs to run the

piece of equipment are shown as downward arrows starting at year 1 and proceeding to the end

of the lifetime. Finally, at the end of the lifetime there is an upward arrow indicating the salvage

value.

convert all monetary gains and costs to like terms, whether it is present value, future value,

annual value or rate of return. Each specific conversion will be discussed in the following

sections.

Each of the sections will use the same example, in order to illustrate the difference in

converting between each of the different terms.

Example: A new chiller has an initial cost of $50,000 and a yearly maintenance cost of $1,000.

At the end of its 15 year lifetime, the chiller will have a salvage value of $5,000. It is estimated

that by installing this new chiller, there will be an energy savings of $5,000 per year. The

interest rate is 4%.

4.3.1 CONVERT TO PRESENT VALUE

What is the Present Value (Present Worth) of this chiller?

The second term, maintenance cost must be converted from an annual cost to present value.

However, we can add the annual energy savings to this amount to save time.

1 − (1 + .04)−15

𝑃𝑉𝑂&𝑀+𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $4,000 ∗ � � = $44,473.55

. 04

The third term, salvage value must be converted from future value to present value.

$5,000

𝑃𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = = $2,776.32

(1 + .04)15

A negative Present Value indicates that the investment does not recoup the initial

investment.

4.3.2 CONVERT TO FUTURE VALUE

What is the Future Value (Future Worth) of this chiller at the end of its lifetime?

The first term, initial cost is in present value and must be converted to future value.

The second term, maintenance cost must be converted from an annual cost to future value.

However, we can add the annual energy savings to this amount to save time.

(1 + .04)15 − 1

𝐹𝑉𝑂&𝑀+𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $4,000 ∗ � � = $80,094.35

. 04

4.3.3 CONVERT TO ANNUALIZED VALUE

What is the Annual Value of this chiller?

The first term, initial cost is in present value and must be converted to annual value.

. 04 ∗ (1 + .04)15

𝐴𝑉𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$50,000 ∗ � � = $ − 4,497.06

(1 + .04)15 − 1

The second term, maintenance cost is already annualized. However, we can add the annual

energy savings to this amount to save time.

The third term, salvage value is in future value and must be annualized.

. 04

𝐴𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $5,000 � � = $249.71

(1 + .04)15 − 1

4.3.4 CONVERT TO RATE OF RETURN

What is the rate of return on the investment of $50,000 for the new chiller?

The rate of return is a tool used by engineers to describe how profitable or un-profitable

an investment is over the equipment’s lifetime. The calculation involves determining the

equivalent interest rate for a monetary investment and a monetary gain or loss.

In the previous example, $50,000 is invested in a new chiller and the returns on this

chiller are $4,000 a year ($5,000 energy savings minus $1,000 O&M) and a salvage value of

$5,000 at the end of the 15 years. For the calculation of rate of return (ROR) or return on

investment (ROI), the salvage value is assumed to be $0 only to simplify the problem.

The ROR is calculated as what "i" value is required in the below equation to make both

sides equal. This approach takes trial and error, unless you have a computer or financial

calculator.

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−15

$4,000 ∗ � � = $50,000

𝑖

Correct answer is approximately, 2.4% ROR. Since, the ROR is less than the interest rate of

4%, this investment is not wise.

4.4 FACTOR TABLES

When conducting engineering economic analyses, factor values are used in lieu of

formulas. Factor values are pre-calculated values that correspond to

(1) A specific equation (convert present value to annual, convert present value to future, etc.)

Looking up these values in a table is sometimes quicker than using the equations and lessens

the possibility of calculator error. It is recommended that the engineer have the Mechanical

Engineering Reference Manual (MERM) which has tables of these factor values. A summary of

the factory values are shown below.

𝐹𝑉 = 𝑃𝑉 𝑥 (1 + 𝑖)𝑛

Present Value to Future Value Multiply PV by (F/P, i, n)

𝐹𝑉

𝑃𝑉 =

Future Value to Present Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 Multiply FV by (P/F, i, n)

𝑖 ∗ (1 + 𝑖)𝑛

𝐴 = 𝑃𝑉 ∗ ( )

Present Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply PV by (A/P, i, n)

1 − (1 + 𝑖)−𝑛

𝑃𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )

Annual Value to Present Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (P/A, i, n)

𝑖

𝐴 = 𝐹𝑉( )

Future Value to Annual Value (1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1 Multiply FV by (A/F, i, n)

(1 + 𝑖)𝑛 − 1

𝐹𝑉 = 𝐴 ∗ ( )

Annual Value to Future Value 𝑖 Multiply A by (F/A, i, n)

5.0 RECOMMENDED CODES/STANDARDS

An engineer should be aware of the codes/standards that apply to their line of work. The

primary codes and standards that apply to the HVAC & Refrigeration engineer revolve around

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning (ASHRAE). The primary focus

of the ASHRAE Standards are in mechanical building equipment and systems, like cooling

towers, air handlers, boilers, chillers, air distribution, water distribution, etc.. The standards

govern minimum requirements for these systems and equipment in the areas of energy

efficiency (ASHRAE 90.1), indoor air quality (ASHRAE 62.1), thermal comfort (ASHRAE 55) and

refrigeration safety (ASHRAE 15 & ASHRAE 34).

The following sections go into more detail in the specific ASHRAE standards. It is

recommended that the HVAC & Refrigeration engineer be familiar with each of the codes and

standards listed below at a minimum. It is recommended that the engineer also have the latest

copy for the exam as a reference.

5.1 ASHRAE 15

ASHRAE 15 is titled, "Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems". Refrigerants are

dangerous and in some cases highly flammable and toxic. This standard recognizes the danger

that refrigerants pose to humans and the environment. It creates minimum safety requirements

for Refrigeration Systems and the locations of these systems. The HVAC & Refrigeration

engineer should be familiar with the ventilation requirements for evacuating a refrigerant leak.

There are also other safety requirements of a room that hold refrigerant, like a mechanical

chiller room.

5.2 ASHRAE 34

ASHRAE 34 is titled, "Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants. The HVAC

& Refrigeration engineer should be familiar with the ASHRAE designation system for

designation and how the rating system was developed. The designation system for safety

classification of refrigerants depends on multiple properties of the refrigerant, including but not

limited to toxicity and flammability.

5.3 ASHRAE 55

ASHRAE 55 is titled, "Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy".

Human comfort is very subjective, since it depends on each individual and their own definitions

of comfort. However, this standard provides a level of comfort that can be scientifically

measured and achieved. In this standard, it describes the items that affect thermal comfort,

which include air velocity, air temperature, humidity, clothing and activity level.

5.4 ASHRAE 62.1

ASHRAE 62.1 is titled, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality". CREATE THE

NEED FOR IT. In commercial/residential building designs, there has been an emphasis on

creating better indoor air quality for the occupants. People in spaces, dispel CO2 into the HVAC

system and if the system is poorly designed, the CO2 will be re-circulated back throughout the

space, creating an unsafe environment. In addition, bacteria and odors have the possibility to

be re-circulated throughout the space. ASHRAE created this standard, ASHRAE 62.1, to

establish minimum qualities of fresh air that must be distributed to different types of occupied

spaces in order to limit re-circulation of air. This standard also provides additional requirements

for air filters and exhaust requirements for special spaces like bathrooms, chemical storage

rooms, darkrooms, kitchens, etc.

ASHRAE 62.1 is titled, "Energy Standards for Buildings Except Low Rise Residential

Buildings". HVAC systems account for nearly 30% to 50% of a building's energy use in most

cases and sometimes more. A HVAC engineer should be wary of the ongoing energy costs that

their design will have in the future. This standard recognizes the important role HVAC systems

play in energy costs and provides a minimum level of energy efficiency for HVAC systems and

other building systems, with the purpose of reducing the effect on energy usage, fuel usage,

which will ultimately be beneficial on the environment. The minimum energy efficiency

requirements for various HVAC & Refrigeration systems including but not limited to, Building

Envelope, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air Distribution, Pumps, etc are discussed in this standard. It

is not recommended that any of these references be memorized or studied in great detail. A

simple review of this standard is sufficient, so that the engineer is able to navigate the standard

quickly.

NFPA 90A is titled, "Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating

Systems". This standard describes the requirements for air conditioning and ventilating

equipment with respects to Fire Protection. For example, it designates that fire dampers and/or

smoke dampers be placed in duct systems accordingly, to maintain fire ratings of building

spaces. It also sets the requirements for smoke index and flame spread rating of various A/C

and Ventilating equipment. Smoke index is the measure of the smoke concentration of a

material when it is burning. Lower smoke index values indicates less smoke generated while a

higher smoke index indicates more smoke generated. Flame spread rating is an indication of

how well a material burns and spreads a fire. A lower rating indicates that the material does not

spread a fire well, while the opposite is true for a higher rating. It is recommended that the

engineer review the code and to be familiar with it, in the event that a question references the

code.

5.7 NFPA 90B

NFPA 90B is titled, "Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-

Conditioning Systems". This standard is very similar to NFPA 90A, however it is directed to the

topic of heating and air conditioning as opposed to ventilation. It provides requirements for

ducts, heating panels, boilers, furnaces, A/C equipment, etc. The engineer should review the

code and be familiar with it so that he or she may be able to navigate the code, in the event that

a question arises on the code.

5.8 NFPA 96

NFPA 96 is titled, "Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection for Commercial

Cooking Operations. This standard is very specific and an engineer may not typically encounter

this type of problem unless they conduct work in kitchens. A quick review of the standard

should be conducted though, so that the engineer is aware of the information in the standard. If

a kitchen ventilation topic were to arise, then the engineer will have a resource available to

them.

6.0 RECOMMENDED RESOURCES

The following is a list of the recommended resources that the aspiring professional engineer

should be familiar with and/or gather for the Mechanical PE Exam with the HVAC &

Refrigeration Afternoon session.

REFRIGERATION EXAM SPECIFICATIONS

These specifications are located on the NCEES website. The specifications provide

information on the basics of the exam, including the total number of questions (80) and the total

number of hours for the exam (8 hours). The exam is broken up into an AM and PM section.

The AM section is the Mechanical Breadth section, which will cover topics including Basic

Engineering Practice, Mechanical Systems and Materials, Hydraulics and Fluids, Energy/Power

Systems and HVAC & Refrigeration.

The PM section is selected by the engineer and can be one of the following three topics,

(1) HVAC & Refrigeration, (2) Mechanical Systems and Materials or (3) Thermal and Fluid

Systems. This exam guide focuses on the (1) HVAC & Refrigeration section. In the PM

session, the exam will cover the following topics as shown in the NCEES specifications,

Thermodynamics, Psychrometrics, Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, Compressible Flow, Energy

Balances, Equipment and Components, Systems and Supportive Knowledge. Each topic has a

percentage weight as designated by NCEES.

Ensure that only the topics that will be covered in the exam are studied, unless some additional

background information is needed. However, in most cases, only the topics on the exam

specifications need to be studied. If the engineer is stressed for time, then they should focus on

the heavily weighted items for the best chance of success, since all questions have the same

value, when determining whether or not the engineer passed or failed.

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

This resource is a must have for the Mechanical: HVAC & Refrigeration exam. It helps to

provide the engineer with a sample of the level of difficulty that will be on the NCEES exam. it

also gives a sample of the types of topics that can be covered on the exam.

6.3 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REFERENCE MANUAL

The Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual or MERM for short was written by

Michael R. Lindeburg, PE. This book provides a reference for many of the popular concepts

and formulas that are encountered by the mechanical engineer throughout his or her career. It

is important to note that the MERM provides information on a range of topics and does not go

into depth on each specific topic and all of the sub-topics within that topic. It is an excellent

starting point, when studying for the PE exam.

This book was written by Michael R. Lindeburg, PE. This book lists all the needed unit

conversions for the PE Exam. Throughout a professional engineer’s career, he or she will have

to convert a value from one unit to the next. The format of the book makes it easy to use and

gives the conversions in both directions. However, do not expect explanations on each set of

units, it is expected that the engineer understand how to use each set of units.

7.0 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

PROBLEM 1 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A 460 V, 1 phase, 60 HZ, 20 BHP pump. The motor has an efficiency of 75%.

There is a power factor of 0.85.

(a) 29

(b) -38

(c) 44

(d) 51

SOLUTION 1 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A 230 V, 1 phase, 60 HZ, 20 BHP pump. The motor has an efficiency of 75%.

There is a power factor of 0.85.

𝑷𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷]

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =

𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓

𝟐𝟎 𝑩𝑯𝑷

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] = = 𝟐𝟔. 𝟕 𝑯𝑷

𝟎. 𝟕𝟓

Determine the amount of power supplied to the motor, use power factor.

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] 𝟐𝟔. 𝟕 𝑯𝑷

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓 = = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟒 𝑯𝑷

𝑷𝑭 𝟎. 𝟖𝟓

Find the current supplied to the motor through the below equation.

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓,𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔 = 𝑰 ∗ 𝑽

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓,𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔 = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟒 𝑯𝑷 ∗ ∗ = 𝟐𝟑, 𝟑𝟗𝟓 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔

𝑯𝑷 𝑲𝑾

𝟓𝟎. 𝟗 𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒔 = 𝑰

PROBLEM 2 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A 10 BHP fan operates for 4000 hours in the year. The motor is 85% efficient and

the power factor is 0.85. Energy cost is $0.25 per kilowatt-hour.

Problem: How much does it cost to operate the fan in one year?

(a) $7,460

(b) $8,770

(c) $10,320

(d) $12,140

SOLUTION 2 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A 10 BHP fan operates for 4000 hours in the year. The motor is 85% efficient and

the power factor is 0.85. Energy cost is $0.25 per kilowatt-hour.

Problem: How much does it cost to operate the fan in one year?

𝑷𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷]

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] =

𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓

𝟏𝟎 𝑩𝑯𝑷

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] = = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷

𝟎. 𝟖𝟓

Determine the amount of power supplied to the motor, use power factor.

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] 𝟏𝟏. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓 = = 𝟏𝟑. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷

𝑷𝑭 𝟎. 𝟖𝟓

𝑷𝒔𝒖𝒑𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒐 𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓,𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒕𝒔 = 𝑰 ∗ 𝑽

𝟎. 𝟕𝟒𝟓𝟕 𝑲𝑾 𝒉𝒓𝒔

𝟏𝟑. 𝟖 𝑯𝑷 ∗ ∗ 𝟒, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟒𝟏, 𝟐𝟔𝟕. 𝟖 𝒌𝒘𝒉

𝑯𝑷 𝒚𝒆𝒂𝒓

$𝟎. 𝟐𝟓

𝟒𝟏, 𝟐𝟔𝟕. 𝟖 𝒌𝒘𝒉 ∗ = $𝟏𝟎, 𝟑𝟏𝟕

𝒌𝒘𝒉

PROBLEM 3 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A new electrical circuit has 3 resistors in series. Each resistor has a resistance of

4 Ω. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

SOLUTION 3 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A new electrical circuit has 3 resistors in series. Each resistor has a resistance of

4 Ω. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

𝑅𝑒𝑞,𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12

12

𝐼= = 1 𝑎𝑚𝑝

12

PROBLEM 4 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A new electrical circuit has 2 resistors in parallel. One resistor has a resistance of

4 Ω. The resistance of the other resistor is unknown. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

Problem: If the total current through the circuit is 8 amps, what is the resistance of the 2nd

resistor?

(a) 1.2

(b) 1.6

(c) 2.0

(d) 2.4

SOLUTION 4 - ELECTRICAL

Background: A new electrical circuit has 2 resistors in parallel. One resistor has a resistance of

4 Ω. The resistance of the other resistor is unknown. The circuit is powered by a 12 V battery.

Problem: If the total current through the circuit is 8 amps, what is the resistance of the 2nd

resistor?

12

𝐼= = 3 𝑎𝑚𝑝

4

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 1𝑠𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 2𝑛𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟

12

𝑅= = 2.4

5

PROBLEM 5 - ELECTRICAL

Background: You are sizing a fan to deliver 500 CFM at a static pressure of 2.0 in wg. The fan

efficiency is 85% and the motor efficiency is also 85%.

(a) ¼ HP

(b) ½ HP

(c) 1 HP

(d) 1.5 HP

SOLUTION 5 - ELECTRICAL

Background: You are sizing a fan to deliver 500 CFM at a static pressure of 2.0 in wg. The fan

efficiency is 85% and the motor efficiency is also 85%.

𝑪𝑭𝑴 ∗ 𝑺𝑷 𝟓𝟎𝟎 ∗ 𝟐

𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑴𝑯𝑷] = = = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟔 𝑴𝑯𝑷

𝟔𝟑𝟓𝟔 𝟔𝟑𝟓𝟔

𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑴𝑯𝑷] 𝟎. 𝟏𝟔

𝑷𝒇𝒂𝒏[𝑩𝑯𝑷] = = = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟗 𝑩𝑯𝑷

𝜺𝒇𝒂𝒏 . 𝟖𝟓

𝑷𝒑𝒖𝒎𝒑[𝑩𝑯𝑷] 𝟎. 𝟏𝟗

𝑷𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓[𝑯𝑷] = = = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟐 𝑯𝑷

𝜺𝒎𝒐𝒕𝒐𝒓 . 𝟖𝟓

PROBLEM 6 - ECONOMICS

Background: A client is contemplating on purchasing a new high efficiency pump and motor,

with an initial cost of $10,000. The pump has a lifetime of 15 years and is estimated to save

approximately $1,000 per year. There is an additional maintenance cost of $300 per year

associated with this new pump. The pump will have a salvage value of $0 at the end of its

lifetime. Assume the interest rate is 4%.

(a) -$499

(b) -$199

(c) $199

(d) $499

SOLUTION 6 - ECONOMICS

Background: A client is contemplating on purchasing a new high efficiency pump and motor,

with an initial cost of $10,000. The pump has a lifetime of 15 years and is estimated to save

approximately $1,000 per year. There is an additional maintenance cost of $300 per year

associated with this new pump. The pump will have a salvage value of $0 at the end of its

lifetime. Assume the interest rate is 4%.

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$300

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $1,000

𝐴

𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$10,000 ∗ ( , 4%, 15)

𝑃

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = −$199

PROBLEM 7 - ECONOMICS

Background: A client is contemplating between two separate chillers. Chiller 1 has a life of 25

years, an initial cost of $50,000, an ongoing maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,000 per

year. Chiller 2 has a life of 25 years, an initial cost of $35,000 and an ongoing

maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,500 per year. Assume interest rate is equal to 4%.

SOLUTION 7 - ECONOMICS

Background: A client is contemplating between two separate chillers. Chiller 1 has a life of 25

years, an initial cost of $50,000, an ongoing maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,000 per

year. Chiller 2 has a life of 25 years, an initial cost of $35,000 and an ongoing

maintenance/electricity cost totaling $1,500 per year. Assume interest rate is equal to 4%.

𝑃

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)

𝐴

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = −$65,622

𝑃

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 + 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)

𝐴

𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 1 =-$58,433

PROBLEM 8 - ECONOMICS

Background: An existing A/C control system is inefficient and you are researching whether or

not to replace system. You develop a new system that will cost $30,000 and require an ongoing

maintenance of $1,000 per year, but it will save $4,000 per year in energy savings. The new

A/C control system will have a lifetime of 30 years.

Problem: If the minimum rate of return is 8%, what will be the annual cost of the new system?

Economically, should the new system be installed?

(a) -665, Yes, it provides a negative annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

(b) -335, No it provides a negative annual cost at the minimum rate of return

(c) 335, Yes, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

(d) 665, No, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

SOLUTION 8 - ECONOMICS

Background: An existing A/C control system is inefficient and you are researching whether or

not to replace system. You develop a new system that will cost $30,000 and require an ongoing

maintenance of $1,000 per year, but it will save $4,000 per year in energy savings. The new

A/C control system will have a lifetime of 30 years.

Problem: If the minimum rate of return is 8%, what will be the annual cost of the new system?

Economically, should the new system be installed?

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$1,000

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $4,000

𝐴

𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$30,000 ∗ ( , 8%, 30)

𝑃

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $335

Correct Answer: B) $335; Yes, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

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PROBLEM 9 - ECONOMICS

Background: A new high efficiency chiller with a lifetime is planned on being purchased. It has

an initial cost of $200,000 and an ongoing maintenance cost of $2,000. However, this chiller will

provide an energy savings of $10,000 per year. The chiller has a lifetime of 25 years and the

minimum attractive rate of return is 4%. At the end of its lifetime, the chiller will have a salvage

value of $25,000.

Problem: What is the annual cost of the chiller at the minimum attractive rate of return? What is

the simple payback?

SOLUTION 9 - ECONOMICS

Background: A new high efficiency chiller with a lifetime is planned on being purchased. It has

an initial cost of $200,000 and an ongoing maintenance cost of $2,000. However, this chiller will

provide an energy savings of $10,000 per year. The chiller has a lifetime of 25 years and the

minimum attractive rate of return is 4%. At the end of its lifetime, the chiller will have a salvage

value of $25,000.

Problem: What is the annual cost of the chiller at the minimum attractive rate of return? What is

the simple payback?

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$2,000

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $10,000

Convert initial cost/ (present value) and salvage value (future) to annual value.

𝐴

𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 = −$200,000 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)

𝑃

𝐴

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $25,000 ∗ ( , 4%, 25)

𝐹

𝐴𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $ − 4,202

𝑆𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑃𝑎𝑦 𝐵𝑎𝑐𝑘 = = = 25 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠

𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 $10,000 − $2,000

Correct Answer: B) $335; Yes, it provides a positive annual cost at the minimum rate of return.

PROBLEM 10 - ECONOMICS

Background: A new boiler is planned on being purchased. It has an initial cost of $10,000 and

an ongoing maintenance cost of $500 per year. This new boiler is much more efficient than the

existing boiler and will have a yearly energy savings of a$1,500 per year. The boiler has a

lifetime of 15 years and the minimum attractive rate of return is 5%. At the end of its lifetime,

the boiler will have a salvage value of $1,000.

Problem: What is the present value of the boiler at the minimum attractive rate of return?

(a) -$860

(b) -$380

(c) $380

(d) $860

SOLUTION 10 - ECONOMICS

Background: A new boiler is planned on being purchased. It has an initial cost of $10,000 and

an ongoing maintenance cost of $500 per year. This new boiler is much more efficient than the

existing boiler and will have a yearly energy savings of a $1,500 per year. The boiler has a

lifetime of 15 years and the minimum attractive rate of return is 5%. At the end of its lifetime,

the boiler will have a salvage value of $1,000.

Problem: What is the present value of the boiler at the minimum attractive rate of return?

Maintenance cost and energy savings can be combined and converted to present value.

𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡 = −$5000

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $1,500

𝑃

𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡/𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 = $1,000 ∗ ( , 5%, 15)

𝐴

𝑃

𝑃𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = $1,000 ∗ ( , 5%, 15)

𝐹

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = $861

PROBLEM 11 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: A new chiller is being installed in a mechanical room. The chiller has two

separate refrigerant circuits. One refrigerant circuit has 100 lbs of R-134a and the second

circuit has 200 lbs of R-134a.

Problem: What value is most nearly the minimum refrigerant exhaust system capacity in CFM?

SOLUTION 11 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: A new chiller is being installed in a mechanical room. The chiller has two

separate refrigerant circuits. One refrigerant circuit has 100 lbs of R-134a and the second

circuit has 200 lbs of R-134a.

Problem: What value is most nearly the minimum refrigerant exhaust system capacity in CFM?

Take the largest refrigerant circuit (LBS) and use the following formula.

𝑄 = 100 ∗ 𝐺 0.5

PROBLEM 12 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: In the topic of thermal comfort, there are many factors that an HVAC engineer

must take into account.

Problem: Thermal comfort is a function of all of the following variables except for:

(d) Clothing

SOLUTION 12 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: In the topic of thermal comfort, there are many factors that an HVAC engineer

must take into account.

Problem: Thermal comfort is a function of all of the following variables except for:

According to ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environment Conditions for Human Comfort, thermal

comfort is a function of many variables, including the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity,

clothing level of the occupants, the air velocity of the conditioned air and the activity level of the

occupants.

ASHRAE 55, does not make mention of fresh air as a requirement for thermal comfort.

However, it is important in creating a better indoor environmental air quality.

PROBLEM 13 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: Air conditioned buildings serving occupants are required to have fresh air in

accordance with the appropriate standards and codes.

Problem: Which of the following is most likely not a result of providing conditioned fresh air to a

building in a hot and humid climate as opposed to not providing fresh air?

SOLUTION 13 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: Air conditioned buildings serving occupants are required to have fresh air in

accordance with the appropriate standards and codes.

Problem: Which of the following is most likely not a result of providing conditioned fresh air to a

building in a hot and humid climate as opposed to not providing fresh air?

ASHRAE 62.1 is a standard that establishes criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air

quality. As part of this standard, certain amounts of fresh air are required for each occupant of

various occupant types (office, reception, auditorium, etc.).

The standard requires fresh air to be regularly distributed to an occupied space in order to

reduce the concentration of CO2 expelled by the occupants and also other contaminants that

might be in the air.

In a hot and humid climate, the fresh air needs to be first cooled down appropriately, in order to

reduce the amount of water content that is distributed to the space. This amount of cooling will

increase energy costs.

The standard for fresh air quality does not affect the level of thermal comfort, which is governed

by ASHRAE 55. The cooling requirements of a space can be met without fresh air, thus

providing fresh air to a space does not necessary create cooler temperatures.

PROBLEM 14 - REFERENCES/CODES

Problem: Which of the following is true?

(a) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a maximum

smoke developed index of 50.

(b) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 50 and a maximum

smoke developed index of 50.

(c) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a maximum

smoke developed index of 25.

(d) Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 50 and a maximum

smoke developed index of 25.

SOLUTION 14 - REFERENCES/CODES

NFPA 90A provides the standard for fire protection requirements for air conditioning and

ventilating systems. It provides the maximum smoke developed index and flame spread index

for mechanical equipment, including insulation.

Correct Answer: A, Mechanical insulation shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a

maximum smoke developed index of 50.

PROBLEM 15 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: A new public toilet room is planned for a new theater. The toilet room will have 10

new toilets, 5 for women and 5 for men.

Problem: What is the minimum size of the exhaust system in accordance with ASHRAE 62.1.

SOLUTION 15 - REFERENCES/CODES

Background: A new public toilet room is planned for a new theater. The toilet room will have 10

new toilets, 5 for women and 5 for men.

Problem: What is the minimum size of the exhaust system in accordance with ASHRAE 62.1.

In accordance with ASHRAE 62.1, 70 CFM per unit (toilet or urinal) is required for a heavy

occupied public type space, like a theater.

SECTION 9: EXAM PREPARATION

CHECKLISTS

Thermodynamics - Refrigeration Checklist

For the PE Exam

_____________

Knowledgeable

Need More

Confident

Work

Refrigeration Basic Terms

1. Temperature & Pressure What is the relationship between

temperature and pressure? How does the boiling temperature of a liquid

relate to pressure?

2. Enthalpy What is enthalpy? What are the units of enthalpy? What is the

enthalpy of liquid? Enthalpy of vapor? Enthalpy of evaporation?

3. Entropy What is entropy? What are the units of entropy?

4. Specific Volume What is specific volume? What are its units? How

does it relate to density?

5. Quality What is quality? What is the quality at the saturated liquid curve?

What is the quality at the saturated vapor curve?

6. Super-Heat What is super heat? How does it relate to the saturated

vapor point.

7. Sub-Cooling What is sub-cooling? How does it relate to the saturated

liquid point?

8. Types of Refrigerants Can you indicate the types of refrigerants?

Which types of refrigerants are allowed and which ones have been phased

out?

9. ODP What does ODP stand for? Which refrigerants have 0 ODP?

10. GWP What does GWP stand for? Which refrigerants have low GWP?

11. Evaporator What is an evaporator? What function does it serve in the

refrigeration cycle? What pressure does it operate at, low or high?

12. Compressor What is a compressor? What function does it serve in the

refrigeration cycle?

13. Condenser What is a condenser? What function does it serve in the

refrigeration cycle? What pressure does it operate at, low or high?

serve in the refrigeration cycle?

Checklists -1 http://www.engproguides.com

Navigating the Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram & Charts

1. Saturation Curve Where is the saturation curve located? What does it

represent? How does it distinguish between sub-cooled liquid, super-heat

and the mixed region?

pressures on a P-H diagram?

3. Locating a Point In the sub-cooled region, can you locate a point given

the pressure and sub-cooled temperature? In the super-heat region, can

you locate a point given the pressure and super-heat temperature? In the

mixed region, can you locate a point given the pressure and enthalpy?

3. Refrigeration Cycle Can you plot the refrigeration cycle on a P-H

diagram? Can you indicate the evaporator, compressor, condenser and

expansion device movement?

4. Constant Entropy Can you find lines of constant entropy? Can you

indicate movement on the constant entropy line for a compressor?

5. Constant Enthalpy Can you find lines of constant enthalpy? Can you

indicate movement on the constant enthalpy line for a expansion device?

6. Super-Heat/Sub-Cool Can you find the point indicated by a certain

degrees of super-heat or sub-cooling given a pressure?

7. Net Refrigeration Effect What is the net refrigeration effect? Can you

find this amount and indicate it on a P-H diagram given the necessary

information? What information is necessary to determine the net

refrigeration effect?

8. Net Condenser Effect What is the net condenser effect? Can you find

this amount and indicate it on a P-H diagram given the necessary

information? What information is necessary to determine the net

condenser effect?

9. Compressor Work What is the compressor work? Can you find this

amount and indicate it on a P-H diagram given the necessary information?

What information is necessary to determine the compressor work?

10. COP What is the COP? Can you calculate the COP?

11. Resources Do you have quick access to Refrigeration Diagrams for

typical refrigerants and to Refrigerant tables?

Applicable Codes/References

1. ASHRAE 15 Do you have ASHRAE 15? Are you familiar with the code?

2. Montreal Protocol Do you know the major decisions of the Montreal

Protocol and how it relates to refrigerants?

Checklists -2 http://www.engproguides.com

Thermodynamics - Steam Checklist

For the PE Exam

_____________

Knowledgeable

Need More

Confident

Work

Steam Basic Terms

1. Temperature & Pressure What is the relationship between

temperature and pressure? How does the boiling temperature of a liquid

relate to pressure?

2. Enthalpy What is enthalpy? What are the units of enthalpy? What is the

enthalpy of liquid? Enthalpy of vapor? Enthalpy of evaporation?

3. Entropy What is entropy? What are the units of entropy?

4. Specific Volume What is specific volume? What are its units? How

does it relate to density?

5. Quality What is quality? What is the quality at the saturated liquid curve?

What is the quality at the saturated vapor curve?

6. Super-Heat What is super heat? How does it relate to the saturated

vapor point.

7. Boiler What is a boiler? How do you determine the capacity of a boiler?

How do you determine the efficiency of a boiler?

8. Feed Water What is feed water? How do you determine its enthalpy?

isobaric?

10. Isentropic What does isentropic mean? What processes typically are

isentropic?

11. Throttling What does throttling mean? What processes involve throttling?

What typically remains constant in a throttling process?

1. Saturation Curve Where is the saturation curve located? What does it

represent? How does it distinguish between sub-cooled watered, super-

heat water vapor and the mixed region?

Checklists -3 http://www.engproguides.com

2. Steam Quality Can you identify the steam quality lines on a P-H

diagram? Can you determine the steam quality given the mixed region

enthalpy or entropy?

3. Locating a Point In the sub-cooled region, can you locate a point given

the pressure and sub-cooled temperature? In the super-heat region, can

you locate a point given the pressure and super-heat temperature? In the

mixed region, can you locate a point given the pressure and enthalpy or

the pressure and steam quality?

4. Constant Entropy Can you find lines of constant entropy? Can you

indicate movement on the constant entropy line?

5. Constant Enthalpy Can you find lines of constant enthalpy? Can you

indicate movement on the constant enthalpy line for a expansion device?

6. Super-Heat/Sub-Cool Can you find the point indicated by a certain

degrees of super-heat or sub-cooling given a pressure?

7. COP What is the COP? Can you calculate the COP?

8. Resources Do you have quick access to the steam tables and the P-H

Diagram for Steam?

Mollier Diagram

1. Pressure Can you navigate the Mollier diagram to lines of constant

pressure?

2. Mix Versus Super-Heat Can you navigate the Mollier diagram to the

different regions of Mixed Region Steam and Super-Heated Steam.

3. Temperature Can you navigate the Mollier diagram to the constant

temperature lines and the super heat temperature lines?

4. Resources Do you have quick access to the Mollier Diagram

Steam Equipment

1. Boiler What is a boiler? How do you determine the capacity of a boiler?

How do you determine the efficiency of a boiler?

2. Steam Coils Can you conduct an energy balance on a steam-to-water

or a steam-to-air coil?

2. Steam Piping Can you calculate the pressure drop through steam

piping? Do you have quick access to steam pipe sizing equations and

steel piping tables?

2. Steam Traps What is a steam trap and what is its purpose? What are

the different types of steam traps?

Checklists -4 http://www.engproguides.com

Psychrometric Checklist

For the PE Exam

_____________

Knowledgeable

Confident

Psychrometric Terms

1. Dry Bulb/Wet Bulb. Do you understand the difference between Dry

Bulb and Wet Bulb temperatures? How are the two different temperatures

measured? What does each temperature indicate?

2. Relative Humidity/Specific Humidity/Humidity Ratio. Do you

understand the difference between Relative and Specific Humidity?

Relative humidity is in comparison to what reference point? What is the

difference between Specific Humidity and Humidity ratio? What does it

mean when relative humidity is equal to 100%(relation to dry bulb/wet bulb

temperatures)? What does relative humidity equal for dry air?

3. Specific Volume. What are the units of specific volume? How is

specific volume related to density? What is the standard specific volume

and density used in typical problems?

4. Sensible Heat. What values are needed to calculate sensible heat?

What does sensible heat indicate? What is the formula for calculating

sensible heat (quick and easy version)? Sensible heat gain/loss is

indicated by what movement on the psychrometric chart. What HVAC

equipment affects Sensible Heat only?

5. Latent Heat. What values are needed to calculate latent heat? What

does latent heat indicate? What is the formula for calculating latent heat

(quick and easy version)? Latent heat gain/loss is indicated by what

movement on the psychrometric chart. . What HVAC equipment affects

Latent Heat only?

6. Enthalpy. What is the formula for calculating enthalpy (quick and easy

version)? How is enthalpy related to sensible and latent heat? What is

the

7. Dew Point. What is the difference between dew point and wet bulb

temperature? When does the dew point of an air mixture equal the wet

bulb temperature?

8. Saturation Curve. What is the saturation curve? What is relative

humidity equal to at the saturation curve?

9. Sensible Heat Ratio. What is the sensible heat ratio? What does the

sensible heat ratio compare?

Checklists -5 http://www.engproguides.com

10. Constants. What is the latent heat of vaporization of water[US units]?

What is the specific heat capacity of air[US units]?

1. Different Psychrometric Charts. What value is held constant for

each psychrometric chart? Do you have a psychrometric chart handy?

2. Finding Points on the Chart Given two values (DB/WB/Rel

Hum./Hum. Ratio/Enthalpy/Specific Volume,/Dew Point), can you find the

other 5 values?

the CFM, can you find the sensible heat gain/loss? Given a single point,

CFM and the sensible heat gain/loss, can you find the final point?

CFM, can you find the latent heat gain/loss? Given a single point, CFM

and the latent heat gain/loss, can you find the final point?

the CFM, can you find the enthalpy gain/loss? Given a single point, CFM,

sensible heat ratio and the change in enthalpy, can you find the final

point?

5. Air Mixture Can you determine the final points of two different air

mixtures?

6. Condensation Can you determine whether air at specific conditions, will

condense on a surface of a certain temperature?

indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?

8. Cooling Coil Can you describe how a cooling coil works? Can you

indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?

9. Heating Coil Can you describe how a heating coil works? Can you

indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?

10. Humidifier Can you describe how a humidifier works? Can you indicate

the movement on a psychrometric chart?

11. Dehumidifier Can you describe how a dehumidifier works? Can you

indicate the movement on a psychrometric chart?

Checklists -6 http://www.engproguides.com

Heat Transfer Checklist

For the PE Exam

_____________

Knowledgeable

Confident

Heat Transfer Terms

1. Conduction. Do you understand conduction and the equations

governing conduction? Can you distinguish between the three modes of

heat transfer?

2. Convection. Do you understand convection and the equations

governing convection? Can you distinguish between the three modes of

heat transfer?

3. Radiation. Do you understand radiation and the equations governing

radiation? Can you distinguish between the three modes of heat transfer?

4. U-Factor. What is the U-Factor? What are the units of the U-factor?

Can you convert between U-Factor, R-Value and k-Value?

5. R-Value. What is the R-value? What are the units of the R-Value? Can

you convert between U-Factor, R-Value and k-Value?

6. k-Value. What is the k-value? What are the units of the k-value? Can

you convert between U-Factor, R-Value and k-Value?

7. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. What is the overall heat transfer

coefficient? Can you determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of a

wall or roof assembly?

8. Resources. Do you have quick access to roof and wall materials

properties?

1. Walls. Can you calculate the heat transfer through a wall? Can you

calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for a wall? Can you use the

CLTD term to find the heat transfer through a wall?

2. Roofs. Can you calculate the heat transfer through a roof? Can you

calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for a roof? Can you use the

CLTD term to find the heat transfer through a roof?

3. Windows/Skylights. Can you calculate the heat transfer through a

window or skylight? Can you use the SC and SCL term to find the heat

transfer through a wall?

4. People. Can you calculate the heat gain from people? Sensible and

latent? Do you have quick access to heat gains from people at different

activity levels?

Checklists -7 http://www.engproguides.com

5. Lighting. Can you calculate the heat gain from lights? Do you have

quick access to heat gains from different types of light installation?

6. Equipment. Can you calculate the heat gain from miscellaneous

equipment? Do you have quick access to heat gains from different types of

equipment and motor installations? Do you also have access to typical

heat gains from typical equipment?

7. Infiltration. What is infiltration? Can you determine the amount of

infiltration based on the construction tightness? Can you calculate the

heat gain from infiltration?

8. Ventilation. Can you determine the required ventilation in accordance

with the applicable code? Do you have quick access to ASHRAE 62.1?

Can you determine the heat gain from ventilation?

Heat Exchangers

1. LMTD. Can you calculate the LMTD given the conditions of the fluids?

2. Types of Heat Exchangers. Can you identify the difference between

counter current and parallel flow heat exchangers? Can you calculate the

LMTD of both types?

3. Energy Balance. Can you create an energy balance to describe a heat

exchanger?

Checklists -8 http://www.engproguides.com

Fluids Checklist

For the PE Exam

_____________

Knowledgeable

Confident

Fluids Terms

1. Temperature. Can you convert between Fahrenheit and Rankine?

2. Pressure. Can you convert between gauge pressure and absolute

pressure?

3. Viscosity. What are the units of viscosity? Do you understand the

difference between absolute and kinematic viscosities? Do you have

quick access to values of viscosity of water?

number?

5. Density & Specific Volume. What are the units density and specific

volume? Do you have quick access to the values of density and specific

volume of water at different temperatures and pressures?

6. Specific Gravity. What are the units of specific gravity? Do you have

access to the values of specific gravity of typical fluids?

Checklists -9 http://www.engproguides.com

Mechanical Equipment & Systems Checklist

For the PE Exam

_____________

Knowledgeable

Confident

Air Distribution Systems

1. Ducts. How do you size ducts? Can you quickly determine the velocity

and pressure drop in a duct?

2. Dampers. What is the purpose of an air damper?

3. Diffusers. How are diffusers selected and sized? What is throw?

4. Registers and Grilles. What is the difference between a register and a

grille?

5. Types of Fans. What are the different types of fans?

6. Fan Sizing. How are fans sized? Can you determine the total pressure

drop in a duct run?

7. Air Coils. Can you conduct an energy balance on an air coil to

determine the heat transferred from the cooling or heating medium to the

air?

8. Variable Air Volume Terminal Units. What are variable air volume

terminal units? How are they controlled?

9. Enthalpy Wheel. What is an enthalpy wheel? What is the equation for

effectiveness?

10. Heat Pipe. What is a heat pipe? What is the equation for

effectiveness?

11. Fan Curves. Can you read a fan curve? What occurs when fans are

placed in parallel or series? What is the system curve?

12. Air-Side Economizer. What is an air-side economizer? How does it

save energy?

Water Distribution Systems

1. Pipes. How do you size pipes? Can you quickly determine the velocity

and pressure drop in a pipe?

2. Control Valves. What is the purpose of a control valve? How are they

controlled? How are they sized?

3. Pumps. What are the different types of pumps?

4. Total Dynamic Head. Can you determine the total dynamic head for a

piping system? Can you calculate friction loss in a pipe or in a pipe fitting?

Do you have quick access to pipe inner diameter data, roughness factors,

Moody Diagram, etc.

5. Net Positive Suction Head. What is net positive suction head

available and required? Can you calculate NPSHa?

6. Pump Sizing. How are pumps sized? Can you determine the total

pressure drop in a pipe run?

7. Pump Curves. Can you read a pump curve? What occurs when pump

are placed in parallel or series? What is the system curve?

8. Affinity Laws. Can you use the affinity laws to determine the resulting

power, pressure and flow rate, if the impeller diameter or pump speed is

changed.

Insulation

1. Pipe and Duct Insulation. Can you determine the heat transfer

through a pipe/duct and its insulation and to the surroundings? Can you

determine the resulting surface temperature of a material?

Cooling Towers

1. Types of Cooling Towers. What are the different types of cooling

towers and how are they characterized?

2. Cooling Tower Performance. Can you calculate the range,

approach and effectiveness of a cooling tower?

3. Cooling Tower Water Side. Can you determine the amount of heat

removed from the water? Can you determine the make-up water

required? Can you determine the amount of water lost due to

evaporation?

Furnaces

1. Types of Furnaces. What are the different types of furnaces and how

are they characterized?

2. Furnace Performance. How are furnaces rated? What is AFUE?

What are the typical AFUE values for different types of furnaces?

Supportive Knowledge

For the PE Exam

_____________

Knowledgeable

Confident

Electrical Terms

1. Current. What is current? Do you understand the basic equations for

electric DC circuits?

2. Voltage. What is voltage? Do you understand the basic equations for

electric DC circuits?

3. Resistance. What is resistance? Do you understand the basic

equations for electric DC circuits? How do you calculate equivalent

resistance for resistors in series and in parallel?

4. Power Factor. What is power factor? When is it used?

5. Power What are the equations for power? How do you calculate

mechanical horsepower for a fan and pump? How do you determine the

motor horsepower and electricity usage?

6.

Economics

1. Present Value What is the present value? Can you convert annualized

values and future values to a present value?

2. Future Value What is the future value? Can you convert annualized

values and present values to a future value?

3. Annualized Value What is the annualized value? Can you convert

future values and present values to an annualized value?

4. Rate of Return What is the rate of return? Can you calculate

5. Resources Do you have quick access to engineering economics tables?

6.

Acoustics

1. NC Ratings What is the NC rating?

2. Sound Level at a Distance from a source How do you determine

the decibel level at a distance away from a point source? How does the

equation change based on the surroundings?

3. Equipment Ratings How are sound levels reported for various pieces

of equipment like silencers and chillers?

Resources

1. ASHRAE 15 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the

purpose of the resource?

2. ASHRAE 34 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the

purpose of the resource?

3. ASHRAE 55 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the

purpose of the resource?

4. ASHRAE 62.1 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the

purpose of the resource?

5. ASHRAE 90.1 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the

purpose of the resource?

6. NFPA 90A/90B Are you familiar with the resources contents and the

purpose of the resource?

7. NFPA 96 Are you familiar with the resources contents and the purpose

of the resource?

8. NCEES HVAC & Refrigeration Sample Question Have you

completed the NCEES HVAC & Refrigeration Sample Exam? Do you

understand how to complete each problem?

9. MERM Do you have quick access to the MERM during the test? Are you

familiar with its contents? Do you have the most commonly used areas

notated and tabbed?

10. Engineering Unit Conversions Do you have quick access to the

Engineering unit conversions book? Are you familiar with its contents and

how to use the book?

SECTION 10: SAMPLE EXAM

SAMPLE EXAM

© 2012

QUESTION 1

An air handler supplies 5,000 CFM at a temperature of 55 °F. The air handler was designed for

1,000 CFM of outside air at 87 °F DB and 78 °F WB. The remaining return air from the space is

at 77 °F DB and 55% relative humidity. What are the entering conditions of the air into the coil,

in DB and WB?

QUESTION 2

People: 250 Btu/h per person (Sensible); 200 Btu/h per person (Latent)

The air handler serving the classroom has a supply air temperature of 55 °F and the space is to

be maintained at 75 °F DB and 50% Relative humidity. What CFM is required?

QUESTION 3

A dedicated outside air unit is used to pre-cool 2,500 CFM of outside air at 88 °F DB and 85%

relative humidity to 60 °F DB, 58 °F WB. What is the quantity of water removed by the coil in

GPM?

QUESTION 4

An air handling unit cools 2,000 CFM of outside air (90 F DB/80% RH) and 6,000 CFM of return

air (77 °F DB, 50% RH) to 52 °F DB, 51 °F WB. If chilled water enters the coil at 44 °F and

leaves at 56 °F, what is the required GPM?

(A) 42 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(B) 80 𝐺𝑃𝑀

QUESTION 5

A cooling coil has a surface temperature of 55 °F. If 5,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 80 °F

DB, 65% RH, then what is the bypass factor that produces exiting air at 60 °F DB? Assume that

there are no minor heat gains or losses across the coil and that the coils temperature is

maintained at 55 °F.

(A) 0.03

(B) 0.10

(C) 0.15

(D) 0.20

QUESTION 6

A chilled water pump is used to pump 200 GPM of chilled water through a water cooled chiller,

with a 10 °F temperature difference. The condenser water circuit of the chiller operates on a 15

°F temperature difference and the compressor produces 250,000 Btu/hr. What GPM is required

by the condenser water pump? Assume no minor heat gains or losses in the chilled/condenser

water circuits and negligible bypass factors.

QUESTION 7

A pump is required to supply 200 GPM of water to (2) outlets at a pier. The first outlet is 500

feet from the pump, the second outlet along the same path of travel is 500 feet from the first

outlet. The first length of pipe is 6" STD Steel, the second length of pipe is 4" STD Steel pipe.

What is the total pressure drop in FT of Head? Assume all minor losses are negligible.

(A) 12 feet

(B) 16 feet

(C) 18 feet

(D) 21 feet

QUESTION 8

A new pump is required to pump 350 GPM from a well up to a holding tank that is 200 FT above

the pump. Assume a total friction loss of 20 FT of head from piping and fittings. The pump is

required to pump 8 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year. The pump is 85% efficient

and the motor is 95% efficient. Electricity costs are $0.25 per kWh. What are the yearly cost

savings if a new location for the holding tank is found at an elevation of 100 FT above the

pump? Assume the same efficiencies and friction losses between the two scenarios.

QUESTION 9

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 80 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The

refrigerant undergoes 15 °F of superheat and 0 °F of sub-cooling. What is the COP Of the

chiller? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

(A) 4.9

(B) 5.7

(C) 7.7

(D) 10.2

QUESTION 10

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA with 20 °F super-heat and a discharge

pressure of 200 PSIA. Assume 15 °F of sub-cooling. What is the required refrigerant flow rate

in (lb/min) in order to produce 20 tons of cooling?

QUESTION 11

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The

refrigerant undergoes 15 °F of superheat and 0 °F of sub-cooling. What is the quality of the

refrigerant entering the evaporator? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

(A) 0.15

(B) 0.22

(C) 0.32

(D) 0.42

QUESTION 12

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 150 PSIA with 20 °F super-heat and a discharge

pressure of 400 PSIA. Assume 15 °F of sub-cooling and a refrigerant flow rate of 20 lb/min.

What is the condenser leaving temperature of the refrigerant?

(A) 90 ℉

(B) 99 ℉

(C) 114 ℉

(D) 129 ℉

QUESTION 13

The unit "clo" is used to describe the thermal insulation provided by which of the blow?

QUESTION 14

20 lb/hr of 15 PSIA steam is delivered to a heating coil. 2,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 60

°F DB and 90% relative humidity. What is the exiting dry bulb temperature of the air, assume no

super heat or sub-cooling. Bypass factor and minor heat gains/losses are negligible.

(A) 69℉

(B) 73℉

(C) 75℉

(D) 79℉

QUESTION 15

A humidifier evaporates 2 GPM of water into an incoming air stream. Entering air conditions are

85 F DB, 70% relative humidity. What is the required flow rate (CFM) of the fan? Assume the

air leaving the spray humidifier is at 85 F DB, 90% relative humidity.

A) 230 CFM

QUESTION 16

A cooling tower has 150 GPM of water at entering and leaving temperatures of 100 F and 85 F.

If the outside air conditions are 82 F DB/75% relative humidity. What is the effectiveness of the

cooling tower?

(A) 62%

(B) 68%

(C) 74%

(D) 79%

QUESTION 17

A 100 GPM condenser water pump is supplied with water by a cooling tower basin that is 10 ft

above the centerline of the pump. The suction line of the pump consists of 40 ft of 3" Schedule

40 steel pipe and 3 elbows. Condenser water pump serves a cooling tower with entering and

leaving conditions of 95 F and 85 F. What is the net positive suction head available at the

condenser water pump?

(A) 7 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(B) 34 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(C) 41 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(D) 48 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

QUESTION 18

A new air handler with a VFD at 60 HZ provides 2,000 CFM of conditioned air to multiple

classrooms. 500 CFM of the 2,000 CFM is outside air that is constantly provided to maintain

acceptable indoor air quality. If during low load conditions the VFD is ramped down to 45 HZ,

then what is the percentage of outside air compared to the total air supplied?

(A) 25%

(B) 33%

(C) 44%

(D) 67%

QUESTION 19

A 100% outside air handler serving a theater supplies 10,000 CFM of OAIR at 55 F DB/54 F WB

to maintain space conditions at 75 F DB and 50% Relative Humidity. Outside air conditions are

at 85 F DB and 80% Relative Humidity. How many tons of cooling can be saved if a total

enthalpy wheel is provided with 75% effectiveness? Assume negligible bypass factor and no

minor heat gains/losses.

(A) 25 tons

(B) 30 tons

(C) 32 tons

(D) 60 tons

QUESTION 20

An existing chiller is served by a chilled water pump (150 GPM, 75 TDH), 65% efficient pump,

90% efficient motor. A recent study was conducted and it was found that the pump was

oversized and should be replaced with a new higher efficiency pump at 150 GPM, 50 TDH, 80%

efficient pump and 95% premium efficiency motor. If the pump runs 8 hours a day, 5 days a

week, 52 weeks a year, how many kWh per year will be saved by switching to the new pump?

QUESTION 21

A 10 BHP supply fan is provided with both the motor and the fan in the air conditioned space.

The motor efficiency is 95%. What is the total heat gain from the fan and motor to the space?

QUESTION 22

A north facing wall is 20’ long by 10’ high. There are (2) 2’ X 4’ windows with 1/8” clear glass.

ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉ ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

The wall consists of 8” Concrete (2.1 ), 2” Insulation (8.2 ) and 5/8” Gypsum

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

(1.5 ). The CLTD of the wall is found to equal 40 F. The windows have a SC of 0.6 and

𝐵𝑡𝑢

a SCL of 20 F. What is the total heat transferred through the wall and windows, Btu/h? Do not

subtract the area of the window from the wall.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

QUESTION 23

A pump is sized for 250 GPM at 100’ TDH. What is the total flow produced by two of these

pumps in series?

QUESTION 24

Which of the following codes are least likely to be required to be checked with regards to the

installation of a commercial gas furnace?

(A) NFPA 54

(C) NFPA 70

QUESTION 25

An air side economizer should operate when which of the following is absolutely true?

(A) When the dry-bulb of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(B) When the humidity of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(C) When the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(D) When the humidity ratio of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

QUESTION 26

A new diffuser is placed in the center of a 20’ X 20’ room. For the given CFM, the diffuser has

values of T 150 of 5’, T 1o0 of 10’ and T 50 of 15’. At what distance from the nearest wall will the

velocity of the air be 100 feet per minute?

(A) 5’

(B) 10’

(C) 15’

(D) 20’

QUESTION 27

An existing 500 ton chiller with a COP of 4.5, runs for an equivalent of 3 full load hours a day,

365 days a year. The chiller is being replaced with a new 500 ton chiller with an efficiency of

0.6 kW/ton for a total cost of $750,000. If the interest rate is 4% and the lifetime of the new

chiller is 25 years, then what is the annual value of replacing the existing chiller with a new

chiller? Assume no annual maintenance costs; include annual electricity cost savings with unit

cost of $0.25 per kWh.

(A) $23,090

(B) $24,910

(C) $36,000

(D)$48,000

QUESTION 28

A refrigeration unit is required to store 1,000 lbs of salmon (Heat Capacity Above Freezing: 0.88

Btu/lbm*F, Heat Capacity Below Freezing: 0.51 Btu/lbm*F, Latent heat of Fusion: 110 Btu/lbm,

Initial Freezing Point: 28 F). If the salmon arrives to the unit at 70 F and must be cooled to 10 F

in 2 hours, then what is the required size of the air conditioning system, in Btu/hr.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(A) 18,230

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(B) 37,210

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(C) 78,070

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(D) 110,000

ℎ

QUESTION 29

What is the required flame spread index of gypsum board air ducts, in accordance with NFPA

90A?

(A) 0

(B) 25

(C) 50

(D) 100

QUESTION 30

A new cooling coil provides sensible cooling of 250,000 Btu/hr. The entering air conditions into

the coil are 80 F DB. Leaving conditions from the coil at 55 F DB. If the coil is at an elevation of

5,000 FT, then what is the air flow rate in CFM? Assume negligible bypass factor and

miscellaneous heat gains/losses.

(A) 5,125

(B) 6,065

(C) 9,565

(D) 11,200

QUESTION 31

A sensible heat recovery device is used to preheat entering outdoor air 3,500 CFM, (40 F, 60%

RH) with 4,000 CFM exhaust air (77 F, 55% RH). The sensible effectiveness of the device is

60%. What is the leaving supply air dry bulb temperature? Assume zero leakage.

(A) 49.3 ℉

(B) 67.8 ℉

(C) 71.7 ℉

(D) 74.2 ℉

QUESTION 32

A 22" X 10" galvanized steel duct is used to convey 2,000 CFM of industrial exhaust. What is

the pressure drop in units of IN. WG per 100 ft.

QUESTION 33

A new steam boiler provides 100 lb/hr of steam at 30 PSIA, 0 degrees super heat to various hot

water heaters. If the hot water heaters are designed to provide a 40 degree delta to incoming

water at 80 F, then what is the total GPM of hot water that the boiler can support?

QUESTION 34

A new building with dimensions of 200' (L) X 150' (W) X 10' (H) is classified as having average

construction tightness, which relates to 0.3 air changes per hour of infiltration. If outside air is at

88 F DB/80% RH and the indoor design conditions are 75 F DB/50% RH, then what is the total

cooling load in tons added by infiltrated air? Use standard air conditions.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(A) 89,560

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(B) 104,600

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(C) 124,400

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(D) 159,400

ℎ

QUESTION 35

(A) MERV 1

(B) MERV 7

(C) MERV 13

(D) MERV 18

QUESTION 36

A new dedicated outside air handling unit is used to cool 5,000 CFM of OAIR (88 F DB, 70%

RH) to 55 F DB/54 F WB. The outside air handling unit is equipped with a wrap around heat

pipe. The heat pipe pre-cools the outside air by 10 degrees F. What is the total reduction in

tons of cooling by installing a heat pipe? Assume density = 0.075 lb/ft^3, elevation = sea level.

(D) 10 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

QUESTION 37

A new classroom is designed for 25 people and has a total area of 500 square feet. What is the

required CFM of ventilation?

(A) 60 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(B 250 𝐶𝐹𝑀

QUESTION 38

A new counter-current heat exchanger is designed for incoming cold water at 43 F and leaving

water at 52 F. If the entering/exiting hot water of 60 F and 50 F, then what will be the LMTD?

(A) 7.5℉

(B) 8.5℉

(C) 10.0℉

(D) 11.5℉

QUESTION 39

(A) Airfoil

(D) Propeller

QUESTION 40

An evaporative air cooler is used to cool air at 90 F, 30% relative humidity. Water is supplied to

the evaporative air cooler at 70 F. What is the dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the

evaporative cooler, if the evaporative cooler is 80% effective.

(A) 67.2 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(B) 70.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(C) 71.8 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(D) 75.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

SOLUTIONS

SOLUTION 1

An air handler supplies 5,000 CFM at a temperature of 55 F. The air handler was designed for

1,000 CFM of outside air at 87 F DB and 78 F WB. The remaining return air from the space is

at 77 F DB and 55% relative humidity. What are the entering conditions of the air into the coil,

in DB and WB?

This problem involves finding the mixed air condition of two airstreams. Remember that only

the dry bulb temperature, humidity ratio and enthalpy are linearly related.

First, find the mixed dry bulb temperature, using the lever rule.

Next we are going to use the same equation, but with enthalpies.

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

From the psychrometric chart, ℎ𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 30.45 ; ℎ𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 41.47

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 32.65

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

The mixed air condition is 79℉ [𝐷𝐵], ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 32.65

𝑙𝑏

Finally, use the psychrometric chart to find the Wet Bulb condition.

Correct answer is A.

SOLUTION 2

The air handler serving the classroom has a supply air temperature of 55 F and the space is to

be maintained at 75 F DB and 50% Relative humidity. What CFM is required?

People 6,250 11,250

Lighting 4,000 4,000

Computers 8,000 8,000

External 22,000 22,000

Ventilation 7,500 15,000

Total 47,750 60,250

𝑄𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

47,750 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (75 − 55℉)

ℎ𝑟

𝐶𝐹𝑀 = 2,210

Correct answer is A.

In order to calculate the final condition of the air leaving the coil, use the total heat equation to

determine the final enthalpy.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

60,250 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (ℎ𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 )

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

60,250 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (28.14 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 )

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 = 22.08

𝑙𝑏

𝑇𝑑𝑏 = 55 𝐹

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 = 22.08

𝑙𝑏

𝑇𝑤𝑏 = 53.1 𝐹

SOLUTION 3

A dedicated outside air unit is used to pre-cool 2,500 CFM of outside air at 88 F DB and 85%

relative humidity to 60 F DB, 58 F WB. What is the quantity of water removed by the coil in

GPM?

First find the humidity ratios of the entering and leaving air, through the use of the psychrometric

chart.

𝑔𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

Entering Air: 88 DB, 85% RH: 172.46 𝑜𝑟 0.0246

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑔𝑟 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

Leaving Air: 60 DB, 58 WB: 68.89 𝑜𝑟 0.0098

𝑙𝑏 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 − 𝑊𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = .0246 − .0098 [ ]

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = .0148

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

. 0148 ∗ 2,500 𝐶𝐹𝑀 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 3

= 28

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 1 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

2.8 ∗ ∗ 3

= 0.33

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 62.4 𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20 1 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Correct answer is B.

(B) 𝟎. 𝟑𝟑 𝑮𝑷𝑴

SOLUTION 4

An air handling unit cools 2,000 CFM of outside air (90 F DB/80% RH) and 6,000 CFM of return

air (77 F DB, 50% RH) to 52 F DB, 51 F WB. If chilled water enters the coil at 44 F and leaves

at 56 F, what is the required GPM?

The first part of this solution involves finding the conditions of the air entering the coil, through

the mixed air equation.

Next if we connect the return air and the outside air points on the psychrometric chart, then we

know that the mixed air must lie on this line and the intersection of the mixed dry bulb

temperature of 80.25 F.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

From the psychrometric chart we find that ℎ𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 = 34.21 .

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

Next we find the leaving enthalpy from the psychrometric chart ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 20.85 .

𝑙𝑏

Next find the heat transferred by the coil using the entering and leaving enthalpies of the air.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 8000 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ (34.21 − 20.85) = 480,960

ℎ

Finally, assume all the heat transferred to the coil is from the chilled water.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

480,960 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ (56 − 44 ℉)

ℎ𝑟

𝐺𝑃𝑀 = 80.2

Correct Answer is B

(A) 42 𝐺𝑃𝑀

(B) 80 𝐺𝑃𝑀

SOLUTION 5

A cooling coil has a surface temperature of 55 °F. If 5,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 80 °F

DB, 65% RH, then what is the bypass factor that produces exiting air at 60 °F DB? Assume that

there are no minor heat gains or losses across the coil and that the coils temperature is

maintained at 55 °F.

In this question, (1-x) % of the air entering the coil leaves at 55 °F DB. While (x) % of the air is

bypassed the coil and leaves at the same entering condition of 80 °F DB.

Use the mixed air equation to find the amount of CFM that will produce a 60 °F leaving mixed air

temperature.

60 = 80𝑥 + 55 − 25𝑥

5 = 25𝑥

𝑥 = 0.2

Correct answer is D

(A) 0.03

(B) 0.10

(C) 0.15

(D) 0.20

SOLUTION 6

A chilled water pump is used to pump 200 GPM of chilled water through a water cooled chiller,

with a 10 F temperature difference. The condenser water circuit of the chiller operates on a 15

F temperature difference and the compressor produces 250,000 Btu/hr. What GPM is required

by the condenser water pump? Assume no minor heat gains or losses in the chilled/condenser

water circuits and negligible bypass factors.

The condenser needs to be sized to release the heat from the chilled water circuit and the

compressor.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ (∆𝑇 ℉)

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 500 ∗ 200 ∗ (10 ℉)

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑐ℎ𝑤 = 1,000,000

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑐𝑑𝑤 = 250,000 + 100,000 = 1,250,000

ℎ𝑟

𝐵𝑡𝑢

1,250,000 = 500 ∗ 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ (15 ℉)

ℎ𝑟

𝐺𝑃𝑀 = 167

Correct answer is C.

SOLUTION 7

A pump is required to supply 200 GPM of water to (2) outlets at a pier. The first outlet is 500

feet from the pump, the second outlet along the same path of travel is 500 feet from the first

outlet. The first length of pipe is 6" STD Steel, the second length of pipe is 4" STD Steel pipe.

What is the total pressure drop in FT of Head? Assume all minor losses are negligible.

The quickest way to solve this problem is to use your resources, specifically ASHRAE

Fundamentals.

Navigate to the Pipe Sizing chapter and find the graph that plots Head Loss as a function of flow

rate and pipe size. Use the graph for standard Schedule 40 pipe.

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Find 400 GPM and 6" pipe, Pressure loss ≈ 1.1

1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Multiply by total length of 6" pipe 1.1 ∗ 500 𝑓𝑡 = 5.5 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Find 200 GPM and 4" pipe, Pressure loss ≈ 2.4

1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

Multiply by total length of 4" pipe 2.4 ∗ 500 𝑓𝑡 = 12.0 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

1𝑜𝑜 𝑓𝑡

Correct Answer is C

(A) 12 feet

(B) 16 feet

(C) 18 feet

(D) 21 feet

SOLUTION 8

A new pump is required to pump 350 GPM from a well up to a holding tank that is 200 FT above

the pump. Assume a total friction loss of 20 FT of head from piping and fittings. The pump is

required to pump 8 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year. The pump is 85% efficient

and the motor is 95% efficient. Electricity costs are $0.25 per kWh. What are the yearly cost

savings if a new location for the holding tank is found at an elevation of 100 FT above the

pump? Assume the same efficiencies and friction losses between the two scenarios.

In this question you must first calculate the pump horsepower, in order to determine the

electricity usage.

𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝐷𝐻 ∗ 𝑆𝐺

𝑃ℎ𝑝 = ; 𝑆𝐺 = 1.0 [𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟]

3960 ∗ 𝜀𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝

𝑃ℎ𝑝,1 =

3960 ∗ 0.85

𝑃ℎ𝑝,1 = 22.9 𝐻𝑃

Next calculate energy used by the motor which powers the pump, by dividing by the efficiency of

the motor.

22.9 𝐻𝑃

𝑃𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟,1 = = 24.1 𝐻𝑃 𝑜𝑟 18 𝐾𝑊; 1 𝐻𝑃 = 0.746 𝐾𝑊

0.95

8 ℎ𝑟𝑠 7 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 52 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑠

18 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ = 52,416 𝑘𝑊ℎ;

𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 1 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

$0.25

Total Yearly cost for the 1st scenario is: 52,416 𝑘𝑊ℎ ∗ = $13,104 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

𝑘𝑊ℎ

Repeat the process with the new TDH of = 100′ + 20′ = 120′

𝑃ℎ𝑝 =

3960 ∗ 0.85

350 ∗ 120 ∗ 1.0 1 0.746 𝑘𝑊

𝑃𝑘𝑊,1 = ∗� �∗

3960 ∗ 0.85 0.95 1 𝐻𝑃

𝑃𝑘𝑊,2 = 9.8 𝐾𝑊

9.8 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ = $7,134 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 1 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑘𝑊ℎ

Total Yearly cost for the 2nd scenario is: $7,134 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

QUESTION 9

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 80 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The

refrigerant undergoes 15 F of superheat and 0 F of sub-cooling. What is the COP Of the

chiller? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

This problem involves the use of your Pressure Enthalpy diagram which can be found in the

ASHRAE Fundamentals book.

Calculating the COP of the chiller you must find the net refrigeration effect and the compressor

work.

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =

𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 )

Find the enthalpy of the refrigerant entering the evaporator, which is equal to the enthalpy of the

refrigerant leaving the condenser. This point is located at the intersection of (1) the discharge

pressure of 200 PSIA and (2) the saturated liquid curve [0 degree sub-cooling].

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 54.3

𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator is found at the intersection of (1) the

suction pressure 80 PSIA and (2) 15 F super-heating [15 F past the saturated vapor line].

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 116

𝑙𝑏

𝑚̇ ∗ (ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 − ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 )

The enthalpy of the refrigerant entering the compressor is equal to the refrigerant leaving the

evaporator.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 116

𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the refrigerant leaving the compressor is found by following the constant

entropy line from the point leaving the evaporator up to the intersection of the discharge

pressure line.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 124

𝑙𝑏

Now plug in all values to the COP equation.

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =

𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑚̇ ∗ (124 − 116)

𝐶𝑂𝑃 = =

𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑚̇ ∗ (124 − 116)

(A) 4.9

(B) 5.7

(C) 7.7

(D) 10.2

SOLUTION 10

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA with 20 F super-heat and a discharge

pressure of 200 PSIA. Assume 15 F of sub-cooling. What is the required refrigerant flow rate in

(lb/min) in order to produce 20 tons of cooling?

This problem involves finding the net refrigeration effect through the following equation.

Use the ASHRAE fundamentals book and navigate to the Thermo-physical Properties of

Refrigerants in order to find the Pressure-Enthalpy diagram of R-410A.

Find the enthalpy of the refrigerant entering the evaporator, which is equal to the enthalpy of the

refrigerant leaving the condenser. This point is located at the intersection of (1) the discharge

pressure of 200 PSIA and (2) the 15 degree sub-cooling [15 F towards the liquid region past the

saturated liquid line].

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 31.7

𝑙𝑏

The enthalpy of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator is found at the intersection of (1) the

suction pressure 100 PSIA and (2) 15 F super-heating [15 F past the saturated vapor line].

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 125

𝑙𝑏

12,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

20 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠 ∗ = 𝑚̇ ∗ (125 − 31.7)

1 𝑡𝑜𝑛

𝑙𝑏𝑠

2,572 = 𝑚̇

ℎ𝑟

Correct answer is C.

SOLUTION 11

A R-134A chiller has a suction pressure of 100 PSIA and discharge pressure of 200 PSIA. The

refrigerant undergoes 15 F of superheat and 0 F of sub-cooling. What is the quality of the

refrigerant entering the evaporator? Assume a refrigerant flow of 25 lb/min.

This question involves finding the properties of refrigerant prior to entering the evaporator.

Use the ASHRAE fundamentals book and navigate to the Thermo-physical Properties of

Refrigerants in order to find the Pressure-Enthalpy diagram of R-134A.

Find the location of the refrigerant entering the evaporator, which is the point located at the

intersection of (1) the suction pressure of 100 PSIA and (2) the constant enthalpy line from the

point where the refrigerant leaves the condenser. The point at which the refrigerant leaves the

condenser is found at the intersection of the discharge pressure line and the saturated liquid

curve, since there is no sub-cooling.

From the P-H Diagram, find the intersection and read the quality:

𝑥𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑝,𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 0.216

Correct answer is B.

(A) 0.15

(B) 0.22

(C) 0.32

(D) 0.42

SOLUTION 12

A R-410A chiller has a suction pressure of 150 PSIA with 20 °F super-heat and a discharge

pressure of 400 PSIA. Assume 15 °F of sub-cooling and a refrigerant flow rate of 20 lb/min.

What is the condenser leaving temperature of the refrigerant?

This question involves finding the properties of the refrigerant as it leaves the condenser.

Use the ASHRAE Fundamentals book and navigate to the Thermo-Physical properties of

refrigerants in order to find the Pressure-Enthalpy diagram of R-410A.

The point at which the refrigerant leaves the condenser is at the intersection of (1) the discharge

pressure of 200 PSIA and (2) the 15 degree sub-cooling

Intersection of discharge pressure of 400 PSIA and saturated liquid line is at a temperature of

114 ℉.

But the condenser provides 15 more degrees of sub-cooling, thus the temperature leaving the

condenser is 99 ℉

Correct answer is B.

(A) 90 ℉

(B) 𝟗𝟗 ℉

(C) 114 ℉

(D) 129 ℉

SOLUTION 13

The unit "clo" is used to describe the thermal insulation provided by which of the blow?

This question involves knowledge of ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for

Human Comfort. It is used to describe the insulation provided by clothing and garments.

Walls, Roofs and Equipment insulation are typically described by R-Values, U-Factors or k-

factors.

SOLUTION 14

20 lb/hr of 15 PSIA steam is delivered to a heating coil. 2,000 CFM of air enters the coil at 60 F

DB and 90% relative humidity. What is the exiting dry bulb temperature of the air, assume no

super heat or sub-cooling. Bypass factor and minor heat gains/losses are negligible.

This question is an energy balance equation. The heat lost by condensing the steam (latent

heat) is gained by the air passing through the coil.

First, go to your steam tables as a function of pressure, since Pressure is given and find the

enthalpy of evaporation.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑓𝑔 = 969.5

𝑙𝑏

Then plug in the enthalpy of evaporation and the other variables into the energy balance

equation.

𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢

20 ∗ 969.5 = 1.08 ∗ 2,000 ∗ (∆𝑇)

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏

∆𝑇 = 9.0 ℉

The final dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the coil will be 60 + 9.0 = 69℉

(A) 𝟔𝟗℉

(B) 73℉

(C) 75℉

(D) 79℉

SOLUTION 15

A humidifier evaporates 2 GPM of water into an incoming air stream. Entering air conditions are

85 F DB, 70% relative humidity. What is the required flow rate (CFM) of the fan? Assume the

air leaving the spray humidifier is at 85 F DB, 90% relative humidity.

In this question, 2 GPM is evaporated into the air, thereby raising the moisture content of the air.

Since the entering and exiting conditions of the air are known, the total CFM can be found

through the following equation:

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 ∗ 𝑋 𝐶𝐹𝑀 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 3

= 𝐸𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 . 075 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

Find the humidity ratio of the entering and exiting conditions from the Psychrometric chart.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = 𝑊𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 − 𝑊𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟 = .0237 − .0183 [ ]

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐻20

∆𝑊𝐿𝐵 = .0054

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

2 ∗ ∗ 3

= 16.7

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

. 0054 ∗ 𝑋 𝐶𝐹𝑀 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 ∗ 3

= 16.7

𝑙𝑏𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 . 075 𝑓𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒

𝑋 = 232 𝐶𝐹𝑀

SOLUTION 16

A cooling tower has 150 GPM of water at entering and leaving temperatures of 100 F and 85 F.

If the outside air conditions are 82 F DB/75% relative humidity. What is the effectiveness of the

cooling tower, in %?

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠 [%] = =

𝑚𝑎𝑥 ∆ [℉] 𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 + 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑎𝑐ℎ [℉]

15

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠 [%] = = 61.7%

15 + 9.3 [℉]

(A) 62%

(B) 68%

(C) 74%

(D) 79%

SOLUTION 17

A 100 GPM condenser water pump is supplied with water by a cooling tower basin that is 10 ft

above the centerline of the pump. The suction line of the pump consists of 40 ft of 3" Schedule

40 steel pipe and 3 90 degree ells. Condenser water pump serves a cooling tower with entering

and leaving conditions of 95 F and 85 F. What is the net positive suction head available at the

condenser water pump?

𝑃𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑣 = +10′ (𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑠 10′ 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝)

The pipe friction is found through the ASHRAE Fundamentals tables for Pipe Sizing.

First find the total equivalent length which is found by adding the total length of pipes and the

total equivalent length of the elbows.

𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 1 𝑓𝑡 3 1

100 ∗ ∗ ∗� � = 4.34 𝑓𝑡/𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑠 . 05134 𝑓𝑡 2

According to ASHRAE Fundamentals, the total equivalent length for Schedule 40 Regular 90

Degree Elbow, 3" pipe with velocity of 4.34 ft/sec is equal to 8.4 ft per elbow

Second check ASHRAE Fundamentals or the MERM for the pressure drop per 100 ft, for 3"

Schedule 40 and a 100 GPM.

Multiply the pressure drop factor per length of pipe by the total equivalent length of pipe:

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

𝑃𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐 = 2.6 ∗ 65.2′ = 1.7 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

100′

Find the vapor pressure of the water as a function of temperature use the average temperature

of 90 F.

Finally, the first term for atmospheric pressure must be added, since the basin is open to the

atmosphere and is subject to this pressure.

2.31 𝑃𝑆𝐼

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 14.7 𝑃𝑆𝐼 ∗ = 33.9 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(A) 7 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(B) 34 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

(C) 𝟒𝟏 𝒇𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒉𝒆𝒂𝒅

(D) 48 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑

SOLUTION 18

A new air handler with a VFD at 60 HZ provides 2,000 CFM of conditioned air to multiple

classrooms. 500 CFM of the 2,000 CFM is outside air that is constantly provided to maintain

acceptable indoor air quality. If during low load conditions the VFD is ramped down to 45 HZ,

then what is the percentage of outside air compared to the total air supplied?

When the VFD is ramped down the total supply air will be reduced, but the amount of outside air

will remain constant, thereby increasing the percentage of outside air in the total supply air.

This question uses the fan laws. From the fan laws, Flow (CFM) increases linearly with Speed

which is related to the Frequency of the VFD.

𝐶𝐹𝑀1 𝑁1

= , 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑁 𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 (𝐻𝑍)

𝐶𝐹𝑀2 𝑁2

2,000 60

=

𝐶𝐹𝑀2 45

𝐶𝐹𝑀2 = 1,500

Then find the percentage of outside air in the new total supplied air:

500

%𝑜𝑎𝑖𝑟 = = 33%

1,500

(A) 25%

(B) 33%

(C) 44%

(D) 67%

SOLUTION 19

A 100% outside air handler serving a theater supplies 10,000 CFM of OAIR at 55 F DB/54 F WB

to maintain space conditions at 75 F DB and 50% Relative Humidity. Outside air conditions are

at 85 F DB and 80% Relative Humidity. How many tons of cooling can be saved if a total

enthalpy wheel is provided with 75% effectiveness? Assume negligible bypass factor and no

minor heat gains/losses.

First calculate the total cooling provided without an enthalpy wheel. Find the enthalpies of the

air entering and leaving the coil, from the psychrometric chart.

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙,𝑖𝑛 = 43.42 ; 85 ℉, 80% 𝑅𝐻

𝑙𝑏

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙,𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 22.6 ; 55 ℉ 𝐷𝐵, 54 ℉ 𝑊𝐵

𝑙𝑏

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡 − ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

= 0.75

ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑡 − ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔,𝑚𝑎𝑥

Where the maximum leaving enthalpy is that of the air leaving the space at 75 F/50% RH.

43.42 − ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔,𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙

= 0.75

43.42 − 28.14

𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ𝑙𝑣𝑔 = 31.96

𝑙𝑏

Plug in the new coil entering enthalpy into the previous equation and find the new total cooling.

Next calculate the total difference and convert to tons of cooling.

= 43 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔

12,000

(A) 25 tons

(B) 43 tons

(C) 56 tons

(D) 60 tons

SOLUTION 20

An existing chiller is served by a chilled water pump (150 GPM, 75 TDH), 65% efficient pump,

90% efficient motor. A recent study was conducted and it was found that the pump was

oversized and should be replaced with a new higher efficiency pump at 150 GPM, 50 TDH, 80%

efficient pump and 95% premium efficiency motor. If the pump runs 8 hours a day, 5 days a

week, 52 weeks a year, how many kWh per year will be saved by switching to the new pump?

First find the Pump horsepower, specific gravity (SG) of water is equal to 1.0.

𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝐷𝐻 ∗ 𝑆𝐺

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑 =

3956

150 ∗ 75 ∗ 1.0

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑 =

3956

Then find the total electricity used by dividing the Pump Horsepower by the efficiency of the

pump and the motor and convert to KW.

1 1 0.746 𝐾𝑊

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑒 = 2.84 𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �∗� �∗ = 3.62 𝐾𝑊

0.65 0.90 1 𝐻𝑃

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 3.62 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ = 7,530 𝑘𝑊ℎ

𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

Second find the Pump horsepower of the new Pump, specific gravity (SG) of water is equal to

1.0.

𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 𝑇𝐷𝐻 ∗ 𝑆𝐺

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 =

3956

150 ∗ 50 ∗ 1.0

𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝐻𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑤 =

3956

Then find the total electricity used by dividing the Pump Horsepower by the efficiency of the

pump and the motor and convert to KW.

1 1 0.746 𝐾𝑊

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑒 = 1.90 𝐻𝑃 ∗ � �∗� �∗ = 1.87 𝐾𝑊

0.80 0.95 1 𝐻𝑃

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 1.87 𝐾𝑊 ∗ ∗ ∗ = 3,890 𝑘𝑊ℎ

𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑘 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

The total electricity savings is found below:

SOLUTION 21

A 10 BHP supply fan is provided with both the motor and the fan in the air conditioned space.

The motor efficiency is 95%. What is the total heat gain from the fan and motor to the space?

The total heat gain from the fan and motor into the space is found by determining the total

electrical input. Which is found by the below equation:

1

𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 10 𝐵𝐻𝑃 ∗ ( )

0.95

The total heat gain to the space is equal to the total electricity usage of the motor.

It is important to note that 10 BHP value has already included the efficiency of the fan.

0.53 HP of heat is from the motor due to its inefficiencies [since the motor is in the space]

𝐵𝑡𝑢

2,546

10.53 𝐻𝑃 ∗ ℎ = 26,804 𝐵𝑡𝑢ℎ

1 𝐻𝑃

SOLUTION 22

A north facing wall is 20’ long by 10’ high. There are (2) 2’ X 4’ windows with 1/8” clear glass.

ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉ ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

The wall consists of 8” Concrete (2.1 ), 2” Insulation (8.2 ) and 5/8” Gypsum

𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

(1.5 ). The CLTD of the wall and window is found to equal 40 F. The windows have a

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝐵𝑡𝑢

SC of 0.6, U-factor of 0.95 and a SCL of 80. What is the total heat transferred through

ℎ∗𝑓𝑡 2 ∗℉

the wall and windows, Btu/h? Do not subtract the area of the window from the wall.

First calculate the total equivalent heat transfer value for the entire wall assembly:

Luckily all the values given in the problem are converted to the units of R-values.

ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 2.1 + 8.2 + 1.5 = 11.8

𝐵𝑡𝑢

1 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑈𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = = .0848

11.8 ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝑄𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝑈 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝐶𝐿𝑇𝐷

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 = .0848 ∗ [20′ 𝑋 10′] ∗ 40

ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 678.4

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = .95 ∗ [2 ∗ (4 ∗ 2)] ∗ 40℉

ℎ ∗ 𝑓𝑡 2 ∗ ℉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 608

ℎ

Next calculate the solar radiation through the window

𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 = 𝑆𝐶 ∗ 80 ∗ 𝐴

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤,𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 = 768

ℎ

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 768 + 608 + 678.4

ℎ ℎ ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 2,054.4

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(A) 2,050

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(B) 2,300

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(C) 2,750

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(D) 3,330

ℎ

SOLUTION 23

A pump is sized for 250 GPM at 100’ TDH. What is the total flow produced by two of these

pumps in series?

If pumps are arranged in SERIES then the pressures at each point along their pump curve are

added. Thus the point 250 GPM, 100' TDH will now be located at 250 GPM, 200' TDH.

If pumps are arranged in PARALLEL then the flows at each point along their pump curve are

added. Thus the point 250 GPM, 100' TDH will now be located at 500 GPM, 100' TDH.

SOLUTION 24

Which of the following codes are least likely to be required to be checked with regards to the

installation of a commercial gas furnace?

A commercial gas furnace installation will need to conform to the requirements of NFPA 54, the

National Fuel Gas Code and the International Fuel Gas Code, depending on the jurisdiction.

ASHRAE 90.1 determines the energy efficiency requirements for commercial equipment

including commercial gas furnaces, depending on the jurisdiction.

The code that is least likely to be consulted is NFPA 70, the National Electric Code. This code

is primarily about the installation of electrical equipment.

(A) NFPA 54

(C) NFPA 70

SOLUTION 25

An air side economizer should operate when which of the following is absolutely true?

The primary purpose of the air side economizer is to save energy. An air-side economizer lets

in outside air to the air conditioning equipment when it is more economical to cool the outside air

rather than the re-circulated air. This occurs when the enthalpy of the outside air is less than

the re-circulated air.

(A) When the dry-bulb of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(B) When the humidity of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(C) When the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

(D) When the humidity ratio of the outside air is less than the re-circulated air.

SOLUTION 26

A new diffuser is placed in the center of a 20’ X 20’ room. For the given CFM, the diffuser has

values of T 150 of 5’, T 100 of 10’ and T 50 of 15’. At what distance from the nearest wall will the

velocity of the air be 100 feet per minute?

Performance data for diffusers includes a table describing the air velocities as a function of CFM

and the distance from the diffuser. The term “ T 150 of 5’ ” indicates that at 5’ from the diffuser

the air velocity is equal to 150 feet per minute. The term “ T 100 of 10’ ” indicates that at 10’ from

the diffuser the air velocity is equal to 100 feet per minute. This point is also 10’ from the

nearest wall because the diffuser is placed in the center of a 20’ X 20’ room.

(A) 5’

(B) 10’

(C) 15’

(D) 20’

SOLUTION 27

An existing 500 ton chiller with a COP of 4.5, runs for an equivalent of 3 full load hours a day,

365 days a year. The chiller is being replaced with a new 500 ton chiller with an efficiency of

0.6 kW/ton for a total cost of $750,000. If the interest rate is 4% and the lifetime of the new

chiller is 25 years, then what is the annual value of replacing the existing chiller with a new

chiller? Assume no annual maintenance costs; include annual electricity cost savings with unit

cost of $0.25 per kWh.

This question involves Engineering Economics and calculating the Present Value of a design

alternative.

First calculate the yearly amount of energy savings between the old and proposed new chiller.

12

4.5 =

(𝑋) ∗ (3.412)

𝑘𝑊

𝑥 = 0.782

𝑡𝑜𝑛

𝑘𝑊 ℎ𝑟𝑠 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠

0.782 ∗ 500 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠 ∗ 3 ∗ 365 = 428,145 𝑘𝑊ℎ

𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

$0.25

428,145 𝑘𝑊ℎ ∗ = $107,036

𝑘𝑊ℎ

0.6 ∗ 500 𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑠 ∗ 3 ∗ 365 ∗ = $82,125

𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑘𝑊ℎ

The annual owning costs of the new chiller initial cost is found by navigating to

𝐴

𝑌𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑂𝑤𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠 = $750,000 ∗ � , 𝑖 = 4%, 𝑛 = 25 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠� ;

𝑃

𝑌𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑂𝑤𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠 = $750,000 ∗ .0640 = $48,000

The annual value is equal to the summation of the yearly savings and yearly owning costs.

(A) $23,090

(B) $24,910

(C) $36,000

(D)$48,000

SOLUTION 28

A refrigeration unit is required to store 1,000 lbs of salmon (Heat Capacity Above Freezing: 0.88

Btu/lb*°F, Heat Capacity Below Freezing: 0.51 Btu/lb*°F, Latent heat of Fusion: 110 Btu/lb,

Initial Freezing Point: 28 F). If the salmon arrives to the unit at 70 F and must be cooled to 10 F

in 2 hours, then what is the required size of the air conditioning system, in Btu/hr.

It is important to note that these values of specific heat and latent heat of fusion for salmon and

many other types of food can be found in ASHRAE Refrigeration.

Calculate the total amount of cooling to bring the salmon from 70 F to Freezing.

𝑄 = 36,960 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 110,000 𝐵𝑡𝑢

Calculate the total amount of cooling to bring the salmon from freezing to 10 F.

𝑄 = 9,180 𝐵𝑡𝑢

Sum up the total cooling and divide by 2 hours in order to calculate the required size of the air

conditioning system.

𝑄= = 78,070

2 𝐻𝑟 ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(A) 18,230

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(B) 37,210

ℎ

𝑩𝒕𝒖

(C) 𝟕𝟖, 𝟎𝟕𝟎

𝒉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(D) 110,000

ℎ

SOLUTION 29

What is the maximum allowable flame spread index of gypsum board air ducts, in accordance

with NFPA 90A?

According to NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation

Systems, gypsum board air ducts must have a flame spread index of 25 or below.

It is also important to note that NFPA 90A also requires a smoke developed index of 50 or

below.

(A) 0

(B) 25

(C) 50

(D) 100

SOLUTION 30

A new cooling coil provides sensible cooling of 250,000 Btu/hr. The entering air conditions into

the coil are 80 F DB. Leaving conditions from the coil at 55 F DB. If the coil is at an elevation of

5,000 FT, then what is the air flow rate in CFM? Assume negligible bypass factor and

miscellaneous heat gains/losses.

This problem is an energy balance uses the original sensible heat equation.

𝑄𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙

𝑄𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

250,000 = 𝑄𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑥 ∗ ∗ 0.062 3 ∗ 0.24 (80 − 55 𝐹)

ℎ𝑟 min hr 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∗ 𝐹

𝑓𝑡 3

𝑥 = 11,200

min

(A) 5,125

(B) 6,065

(C) 9,565

(D) 11,200

SOLUTION 31

A sensible heat recovery device is used to preheat entering outdoor air 3,500 CFM, (40 F, 60%

RH) with 4,000 CFM exhaust air (77 F, 55% RH). The sensible effectiveness of the device is

60%. What is the leaving supply air dry bulb temperature? Assume zero leakage.

𝜀=

𝐶𝐹𝑀𝑀𝐼𝑁 ∗ (𝐷𝐵𝑅𝐴 − 𝐷𝐵𝑂𝐴 )

0.60 =

3,500 ∗ (77 − 40)

𝑆𝐴𝐼𝑅 𝐷𝐵 = 62.2 ℉

(A) 49.3 ℉

(B) 67.8 ℉

(C) 71.7 ℉

(D) 74.2 ℉

SOLUTION 32

A 22" X 10" galvanized steel duct is used to convey 2,000 CFM of industrial exhaust. What is

the pressure drop in units of IN. WG per 100 ft.

In order to calculate the pressure drop through a duct, use ASHRAE Fundamentals and

navigate to the equivalent rectangular duct table.

Next go to the Friction Chart for Round Duct (Density = 0.075 lb/ft^3; roughness factor = 0.0003

ft.)

Navigate to 16" D and 2,000 CFM and read the friction loss.

SOLUTION 33

A new steam boiler provides 100 lb/hr of steam at 30 PSIA, 0 degrees super heat to various hot

water heaters. If the hot water heaters are designed to provide a 40 degree delta to incoming

water at 80 F, then what is the total GPM of hot water that the boiler can support?

Create an energy balance equation between the steam and the hot water.

𝑄𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚̇ ∗ ℎ𝑓𝑔

Find ℎ𝑓𝑔 in the MERM, Steam Tables as a function of pressure, Navigate to 30 PSIA. Read the

enthalpy of evaporation.

𝑙𝑏 𝐵𝑡𝑢 𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 100 ∗ 945.2 = 94,520

ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏 ℎ

𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝑚̇ ∗ 𝑐𝑝 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚 = 94,520 = 𝑄ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 500 ∗ 𝑥 𝐺𝑃𝑀 ∗ 40 ℉

ℎ

𝑥 = 4.05 𝐺𝑃𝑀

SOLUTION 34

A new building with dimensions of 200' (L) X 150' (W) X 10' (H) is classified as having average

construction tightness, which relates to 0.3 air changes per hour of infiltration. If outside air is at

88 F DB/80% RH and the indoor design conditions are 75 F DB/50% RH, then what is the total

cooling load in tons added by infiltrated air?

First find the total amount of infiltrated air by first finding the total air volume.

300,000 𝑓𝑡 3 ∗ 0.3 ∗ = 1,500 𝐶𝐹𝑀

ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠

Find the enthalpies of the indoor and outside air in order to determine the total cooling load in

tons.

𝑄 = 4.5 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 124,403

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(A) 89,560

ℎ

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(B) 104,600

ℎ

𝑩𝒕𝒖

(C) 𝟏𝟐𝟒, 𝟒𝟎𝟎

𝒉

𝐵𝑡𝑢

(D) 159,400

ℎ

SOLUTION 35

Refer to ASHRAE Fundamentals, Filters section to find that the MERV 18 filter provides 99%

arrestance.

(A) MERV 1

(B) MERV 7

(C) MERV 13

(D) MERV 18

SOLUTION 36

A new dedicated outside air handling unit is used to cool 5,000 CFM of OAIR (88 F DB, 70%

RH) to 55 F DB/54 F WB. The outside air handling unit is equipped with a wrap around heat

pipe. The heat pipe pre-cools the outside air by 10 degrees F. What is the total reduction in

tons of cooling by installing a heat pipe? Assume density = 0.075 lb/ft^3, elevation = sea level.

𝑄 = 1.08 ∗ 𝐶𝐹𝑀 ∗ ∆𝑇

𝐵𝑡𝑢

𝑄 = 54,000 = 4.5 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔

ℎ

(D) 10 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠

SOLUTION 37

A new classroom is designed for 25 people and has a total area of 500 square feet. What is the

required CFM of ventilation?

This problem involves the use of ASHRAE 62.1. Refer to ASHRAE 62.1 and find the ventilation

rates required for a classroom. ASHRAE 62.1 requires 10 CFM per person and 0.12 CFM per

square feet.

(A) 60 𝐶𝐹𝑀

(B 250 𝐶𝐹𝑀

SOLUTION 38

A new counter-current heat exchanger is designed for incoming cold water at 43 F and leaving

water at 52 F. If the entering/exiting hot water of 60 F and 50 F, then what will be the LMTD?

∆𝑇𝐴 − ∆𝑇𝐵

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 =

∆𝑇

ln � 𝐴 �

∆𝑇𝐵

∆𝑇𝐵 = 50 − 43 = 7

∆𝑇𝐴 = 60 − 52 = 8

8−7

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = = 7.5℉

8

ln � �

7

(A) 7.5℉

(B) 8.5℉

(C) 10.0℉

(D) 11.5℉

SOLUTION 39

Airfoil, backward inclined and propeller are all types of fans. Vertical inline is a type of pump.

(A) Airfoil

(D) Propeller

SOLUTION 40

An evaporative air cooler is used to cool air at 90 F, 30% relative humidity. Water is supplied to

the evaporative air cooler at 70 F. What is the enthalpy of the air leaving the evaporative cooler,

if the evaporative cooler is 80% effective.

This question involves the use of the effectiveness equation of an evaporative cooler.

𝜀=

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒

𝜀=

90 − 𝑊𝑒𝑡 𝐵𝑢𝑙𝑏 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝

From the psychrometric chart find the wet bulb of the air.

0.8 =

90 − 67.2

(A) 67.2 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(B) 70.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(C) 71.8 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

(D) 75.0 ℉ 𝐷𝐵

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