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INPUT DATA

Carriageway 4-lane divided


Shoulders :- Tied concrete shoulders ?
(yes/no) Yes

Transverse joint spacing (m)


4.5
Lane width (m) 3.5
Transverse Joints have dowel bars?
(yes/no) Yes

Design Period (years) 30

Total Two-way Commercial Traffic (cvpd) in the


year of completion of construction 1399
Av. Annual rate of growth of commercial traffic 0.055
(expressed as decimal)

Average No of axles per commercial vehicle, B 2.11

Proportion of traffic in predominant direction


(For 2-lane 2-way highways use a value of 1.0), 0.52
D

Lateral Placement factor (0.25 for 2-lane 2-way. 0.129


For multilane highways the value is 0.25 X C), E

Factor for selection of traffic for BUC analysis 0.2


(for six-hour period during day), F

Factor for selection of traffic for TDC analysis 0.3


(for six-hour period during day), G

Proportion of vehicles with spacing between


front and the first rear axle less than the 0.85
spacing of transverse joints, I

Proportion of Front single (steering) Axles, K1 0.47

Proportion of Rear single Axles,K2 0.31


Proportion of tandem Axles, K3 0.16

Proportion of Tridem Axles, K4 = (1-K1-K2-K3) 0.06

Modulus of subgrade reaction of subgrade, 45.000


MPa/m
UT DATA Axle L
Thickness of Granular Subbase, mm 150 Rear Single Axle

Thickness of Dry Lean Concrete subbase, Load Mid-Point of Load


150 Frequency (%)
mm Group (kN) Group (kN)

Effective modulus of subgrade reaction of 242.5 185-195 190


foundation, MPa/m 0
Unit weight of Concrete, kN/m 3
24 175-185 180 0
28-day Flexural strength of cement 4.5 165-175 170
concrete, MPa 0

Max. day-time Temperature Differential in


21 155-165 160
slab, 0C (for bottom-up cracking)
0
Trial Thickness of Concrete Slab, m 0.233 145-155 150 0.37

Elastic Modulus of Concrete, Ec (MPa) 30000 135-145 140


0

Poisson's Ratio of Concrete, Mu 0.15 125-135 130


1.12

Design for Bonded Pavement Option 115-125 120


4.49

105-115 110
Subgrade CBR (%)= 14 5.24

95-105 100
Granular Subabse Thickness (mm) = 200 8.99

Effective k-value from Tables 2 and 3 85-95 90


(MPa/m) = 74.545 8.99

For k of 74.545 MPa/m and for Doweled


Joint and Tied Concrete Shoulders,Slab < 85 80
Thickness (m) = 0.3 70.79

99.99
Trial Slab thickness (m) over DLC, h1 0.26

Provide DLC thickness (m), h2 0.15


Elastic Modulus of Pavement Concrete (MPa 30000
Elastic Modulus of DLC (MPa), E2 13600

Poisson's Ratio of Paving Concrete, m1 0.15

Poisson's Ratio of DLC, m2 0.2

14
11859
Axle Load Spectrum Data
Rear Tandem Axle Rear Tridem Axle

Mid-Point of Load Load Mid-Point of Load Frequency


Load Group (kN) Frequency (%) Group
Group (kN) (kN) Group (kN) (%)

380 - 400 390 530-560 545


0 0
360 - 380 370 0 500-530 515 0

340 - 360 350 470-500 485


0 0

320 - 340 330 440-470 455


0 0
300 - 320 310 0 410-440 425 6

280 - 300 290 380-410 395


1.4 2

260 - 280 270 350-380 365


2.8 4

240 - 260 250 320-350 335


9.09 4

220 - 240 230 290-320 305


12.59 10

200 - 220 210 260-290 275


19.58 26

180 - 200 190 230-260 245


18.18 24

< 180 170 < 230 215


36.36 24

100 100

OK

10 55 60.600
15 62
IRC:58-2015 Guidelines for Design of
Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for Highways
Fatigue Damage Analysis
Example of Design of Slab Thickness for Pavement
(with and without doweled transverse joints. Beta value will be 0.66 for doweled joint and 0.90 for without dowels case) Axle Load Spectrum Data
Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-time (6 hour) traffic and
Type of pavement considered Pavement Structural Details
Positive Temperature Differential Top-Down Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Night-time (6 hour) traffic and Negative Temperature Differential
Carriageway 4-lane divided Modulus of subgrade reaction of subgrade, MPa/m 45

Thickness of Granular Subbase, mm 150 Rear Single Axle Rear Tandem Axle Rear Tridem Axle Rear Single Axles Rear Tandem Axles Rear Single Axles Rear Tandem Axles Rear Tridem Axles
(Stess computed for 50% of axle load) (Stress computed for 33% of axle load)
Load Mid-Point of Frequency Load Group Mid-Point of Load Mid-Point of Frequency Expected Flex Stress Allowable Fatigue Expected Flex Stress Allowable Fatigue Expected Flex Stress Allowable Fatigue Expected Flex Stress Allowable Fatigue Expected Stress Allowable Fatigue
Shoulders :- Tied concrete shoulders ? (yes/no) Yes Thickness of Dry Lean Concrete subbase, mm 150 0.042 Group Load Group
(%) (kN)
Load Group Frequency (%) Group Load Group
(%)
Repetitions Stress Ratio Repetitions Damage Repetitions Stress Ratio Repetitions Damage Repetitions Stress Ratio Repetitions Damage Repetitions Stress Ratio Repetitions Damage Repetitions Flex Stress MPa
Ratio (SR)
Repetitions Damage
(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (ni) MPa (SR) (Ni) (ni/Ni) (ni) MPa (SR) (Ni) (ni/Ni) (ni) MPa (SR) (Ni) (ni/Ni) (ni) MPa (SR) (Ni) (ni/Ni) (ni) (Ni) (ni/Ni)
Effective modulus of subgrade reaction of foundation,
Transverse joint spacing (m) 4.5 MPa/m 242.5 0.0481018228 185-195 190 0.00 380 - 400 390 0.00 530-560 545 0.00 0 3.403 0.687 2716 0.000 0 2.9601 0.598 32688.3122 0.000 0 3.095 0.625 15329 0.000 0 3.135 0.633 12239 0.000 0 3.0281502838 0.612 22308 0.000

Lane width (m) 3.5 Unit weight of Concrete, kN/m3 24 1.4310712635 175-185 180 0.00 360 - 380 370 0.00 500-530 515 0.00 0 3.286 0.664 5231 0.000 0 2.855 0.577 59013.1141 0.000 0 3.015 0.609 24046 0.000 0 3.0549 0.617 19199 0.000 0 2.9480071314 0.596 34994 0.000
Transverse Joints have dowel bars? (yes/no) Yes 28-day Flexural strength of cement concrete, MPa 4.5 1.0962 165-175 170 0.00 340 - 360 350 0.00 470-500 485 0.00 0 3.170 0.640 10075 0.000 0 2.7498 0.556 106538.007 0.000 0 2.935 0.593 37721 0.000 0 2.9747 0.601 30117 0.000 0 2.867863979 0.579 54895 0.000
Max. day-time Temperature Differential in slab, 0C (for
Design Traffic Estimation bottom-up cracking) 21 2.6173730863 155-165 160 0.00 320 - 340 330 0.00 440-470 455 0.00 0 3.053 0.617 19405 0.000 0 2.6447 0.534 199116.042 0.000 0 2.855 0.577 59173 0.000 0 2.8946 0.585 47245 0.000 0 2.7877208266 0.563 86114 0.000

Night-time Temperature Differential in slab, 0C (for top-


Design Period (years) 30 15.5 145-155 150 0.37 300 - 320 310 0.00 410-440 425 6.00 2284 2.936 0.593 37376 0.061 0 2.5395 0.513 427909.55 0.000 2895 2.774 0.560 92825 0.031 0 2.8144 0.569 74113 0.000 8745 2.7075776742 0.547 135565 0.065
down cracking) = day-time diff/2 + 5
Total Two-way Commercial Traffic (cvpd) in the year of 1399 Trial Thickness of Concrete Slab, m 0.233 135-145 140 0.00 280 - 300 290 1.40 380-410 395 2.00 0 2.820 0.570 71988 0.000 4632 2.4344 0.492 1163971.92 0.004 0 2.694 0.544 146555 0.000 5871 2.7343 0.552 116260 0.051 2915 2.6274345218 0.531 223128 0.013
completion of construction 0.5286868687

Av. Annual rate of growth of commercial traffic 0.055 Load Transfer Efficiency Factor for TDC analysis, Beta = 0.66 125-135 130 1.12 260 - 280 270 2.80 350-380 365 4.00 6914 2.703 0.546 139257 0.050 9264 2.3292 0.471 4960185.84 0.002 8764 2.614 0.528 244377 0.036 11742 2.6541 0.536 187367 0.063 5830 2.5472913694 0.515 401787 0.015
(expressed as decimal) 0.66 for dowel Joints, 0.90 for joints without dowels

Cumulative No of Commercial vehicles during design 36988090 Elastic Modulus of Concrete, Ec (MPa) 30000 115-125 120 4.49 240 - 260 250 9.09 320-350 335 4.00 27719 2.586 0.522 297878 0.093 30075 2.2241 0.449 infinite 0.000 35133 2.534 0.512 448152 0.078 38121 2.574 0.520 326319 0.117 5830 2.4671482171 0.498 823625 0.007
period (two-way), A
Average No of axles per commercial vehicle, B 2.11 Poisson's Ratio of Concrete, Mu 0.15 105-115 110 5.24 220 - 240 230 12.59 290-320 305 10.00 32349 2.470 0.499 803824 0.040 41656 2.1189 0.428 infinite 0.000 41002 2.454 0.496 944182 0.043 52799 2.4939 0.504 636848 0.083 14576 2.3870050647 0.482 2069130 0.007
Cumulative No of Commercial Axles during design
period (two-way), C = A*B 78044871 Radius of relative stiffness, m 0.60436 604.3587519668 95-105 100 8.99 200 - 220 210 19.58 260-290 275 26.00 55499 2.353 0.475 3368258 0.016 64783 2.0138 0.407 infinite 0.000 70345 2.374 0.480 2483012 0.028 82113 2.4137 0.488 1477554 0.056 37897 2.3068619123 0.466 7497432 0.005

Proportion of traffic in predominant direction (For 2-


lane 2-way highways use a value of 1.0), D 0.52 Design Axle Load Repetitions for Fatigue Analysis 85-95 90 8.99 180 - 200 190 18.18 230-260 245 24.00 55499 2.236 0.452 45870578 0.001 60151 1.9086 0.386 infinite 0.000 70345 2.294 0.463 9862370 0.007 76241 2.3336 0.471 4603741 0.017 34982 2.2267187599 0.450 infinite 0.000

Lateral Placement factor (0.25 for 2-lane 2-way. For


multilane highways the value is 0.25 X C), E 0.129 For Bottom-up Cracking Analysis < 85 80 70.79 < 180 170 36.36 < 230 215 24.00 437017 2.120 0.428 infinite 0.000 120302 1.8035 0.364 infinite 0.000 553919 2.213 0.447 infinite 0.000 152483 2.2534 0.455 26681737 0.006 34982 2.1465756075 0.434 infinite 0.000

Factor for selection of traffic for BUC analysis (for six- 0.20 Front single (steering) Axles = H * K1 954259 99.99 100 100 617281 Fat Dam from Sing. Axles = 0.262 330863 Fat Dam from Tand Axles = 0.006 782404 Fat Dam from Sing. Axles = 0.224 419369 Fat Dam from Tand Axles = 0.391 145756 Fat Dam from Tridem Axles = 0.111
hour period during day), F

Factor for selection of traffic for TDC analysis (for six- Total Bottom-up Fatigue Damage due to single and
hour period during day), G 0.30 Rear single Axles = H * K2 617343
tandem axle loads = 0.262 + 0.006 = 0.268 Total Top-Down Fatigue Damage = 0.224 + 0.391 + 0.111 = 0.726
Front Single Axles and Rear Tridem axles not considered for bottom-up analysis
Design axle repetitions for BUC analysis (for 6 hour day
time traffic), H = B*E*F 2017460 Tandem Axles = H * K3 330863 Sum of CFD for BUC & TDC= 0.994 DESIGN IS SAFE SINCE SUM OF CFD FOR BUC AND TDC< OR EQ.1

Proportion of vehicles with spacing between front and


the first rear axle less than the spacing of transverse 0.85 Tridem Axles = H * K4 114995 Design for Bonded Pavement Option
joints, I
Design axle repetitions for TDC analysis (for 6-hour
night time traffic), J = B*E*G*I 2557130 For Top-Down Cracking Analysis 728303.024957935 Subgrade CBR (%)= 14 Trial Slab thickness (m) over DLC, h1 0.235 Poisson's Ratio of DLC, m2 0.2 Total Flexural Stiffness Provided = 46.65 + 23.28 = 69.93
Proportion of Front single (steering) Axles, K1 0.473 Front single (steering) Axles = J * K1 1209523 -225956 Granular Subabse Thickness (mm) = 200 Provide DLC thickness (m), h2 0.15 Depth to Neutral axis, m (See Fig.6) 0.16 which is more than the Flexural Stiffness of the Design Slab = 69.05
Proportion of Rear single Axles,K2 0.306 Rear single Axles = J * K2 782482 Effective k-value from Tables 2 and 3 (MPa/m) = 74.545 Elastic Modulus of Pavement Concrete (MPa), E1 30000 Flex Stiffness of design Slab 69.05 Hence, Provide a Slab of thickness (m) 0.235 over DLC of thickness (m) 0.15
Proportion of tandem Axles, K3 0.164 Tandem Axles = J * K3 419369 For k of 74.5 MPa/m and for Elastic Modulus of DLC (MPa), E2 13600 Flex Stiffness of Partial Slab Provided 46.65 Slab thickness (h1) over DLC layer may be obtained by iteratively changing h1 and matching the design
Proportion of Tridem Axles, K4 = (1-K1-K2-K3) 0.057 Tridem Axles = J * K4 145756 Doweled Joint and Tied Concrete Shoulders, Slab Thickness (m) = 0.3 Poisson's Ratio of Paving Concrete, m1 0.15 Flex Stiffness of DLC 23.28 stiffness with the combined stiffness provided

20894858
Design of dowel bars: Design of Tie bars:
Design wheel load (kN) 66.5 Slab thickness
Lane (cm)width, or spacing between longitudinal
width or slab 29.5
Percentage of load transfer (%) 50 joints (b) (m) 7.5
Slab thickness (h) (mm) 300 Co-efficient of friction between slab & base (f) 1.5
Joint width (z) (mm) 20 Density of concrete (kg/m3) 2400
Radius of relative stiffness (l) (mm) 604.36
Allowable tensile stress in plain bars (as per IRC:15-2011)
Characteristic compressive strength (fck) (Mpa) 40 (kg/cm2) 1250
Diameter of dowel bar,'b' (assumed) (mm) 36 Allowable tensile stress in deformed bars (as per IRC:15-2011)
Permissible bearing stress in concrete as per ACI (MPa) 27.5485564304 (kg/cm2) 2000
Let, spacing between dowel bars (mm) 275 Allowable bond stress for plain tie bars (kg/cm2) 17.5

Let, placement of first dowel is at a distance of (mm) From pavement `


edge 150 Allowable bond stress for deformed tie bars (kg/cm2) 24.6
Let, length of dowel bars (mm) 500 Diameter of tie bar (d) (cm) 1.2

Spacing & length of deformed bar:


Dowel bars upto a distance of 1.0 X radius of relative stiffness, from the point of load application are effective in load transfer.
Area of steel bar per meter width of joint to resist the frictional 3.983
force at slab bottom (A s) (cm2/m)
3.325 Number of dowel bars participating in load transfer when wheel load is 3 Cross sectional area of tie bar (A) (cm2) 1.131
just over the dowel bar close to the edge of the slab = Perimeter of tie bar (P),cm 3.77
Spacing of tie bars (A/As ) 0.284 28.40 cm

Provide at a spacing of 29 cm c/c Max spacing 620 mm c/c


Assuming that the load transferred by the first dowel is 'P t'and assuming 1.6349167654
that the load on dowel bar at a distance of 'l' from the first dowel to be
equal to zero, the total load transferred by the dowel bar system = Length of tie bar (L), cm 49

Load carried by the outer dowel bar, Pt (kg) Let, the length of tie bar be increased by 10 cm for loss of bond
20.34 due to painting and another 10 cm for tolerance in placement.
Therefore the length is 64 say 65 cm.
Check for bearing stress:
Moment of inertia of dowel (I) (mm^4) 82406.160
Elastic modulus of dowel material (Ed ) (MPa) 200000
Modulus of dowel/concrete interaction (k) (Mpa/m) 415000
3.451
Relative stiffness of dowel bar embedded in concrete (beta) 0.0218 4.451
30.03 0.02757
NOT Ok
This is less than the permissible bearing stress in
Bearing stress in dowel bar (kg/cm2) concrete 28 kg/cm2
Provide a dowel spacing (mm) 275
30
Bearing stress in dowel bar (kg/cm2) NOT Ok
Hence dowel bar details are as follows:
Diameter of bar (mm) 36
Spacing of bars (mm) 275
Length of bars (mm) 500
Placement of first dowel is at a distance (mm) from pavement edge 150
IRC:SP 76-2015 GUIDELINES OF CONVENTIONAL
AND THIN WHITETOPPING
Calculation for Design of Rigid overlay
Design Parameters
i) Design Life 30 Years
ii) Traffic Growth Rate, r 0.05
iii) Commercial Traffic 1399 cvpd
iv) Grade of Concrete M40
v) Cumulative Repetitions in 20 Years 33926000.8947012
vi) Design traffic 8481500.2236753
vii) CBR 14%
viii) Corresponding ‘k’ value: 6.2 kg/cm3
A minimum value of modified modulus of subgrade
xi) reaction has been considered in the design. 16 kg/cm3

Percentages of Axle Load for the Design of TWT


Single Axle Loads Tandem Axle Loads
Axle Load % of Axle Loads Axle Load Class, Tons % of Axle Loads
Class, Tons
185-195 1.71 380 - 400 2.92
175-185 3.12 360 - 380 3.42
165-175 1.51 340 - 360 3.63
155-165 1.91 320 - 340 5.44
145-155 1.71 300 - 320 5.04
135-145 2.32 280 - 300 6.14
125-135 2.42 260 - 280 4.33
115-125 3.52 240 - 260 3.32
105-115 2.11 220 - 240 2.82
95-105 3.83 200 - 220 1.61
85-95 3.32 180 - 200 0.40
< 85 32.33 < 180 1.11
59.82 40.18

Expected Repetitions for Axle Loads


Single Axle Loads Tandem Axle Loads
Axle Load in
Expected Repetitions Axle Load in Tonnes Expected Repetitions
Tonnes
185-195 145202 380 - 400 247697
175-185 264780 360 - 380 290404
165-175 128119 340 - 360 307486
155-165 162284 320 - 340 461230
145-155 145202 300 - 320 427064
135-145 196450 280 - 300 521019
125-135 204991 260 - 280 367275
115-125 298945 240 - 260 281863
105-115 179367 220 - 240 239156
95-105 324569 200 - 220 136661
85-95 281863 180 - 200 34165
< 85 2741754 < 180 93954
5073526 3407974

Length of Slab 150 cm


Elastic modulus of Concrete 305914.86 kg/cm2
Poisson ratio 0.15
Trial Thickness 30.2 cm
Subgrade Modulus 16 kg/cm3
Design period 30 Years
Modulus of Rupture 45 kg/cm2
Load Safety Factor 1
Radius of relative stiffness 81.85606

Analysis of Fatigue Life Consumption:


Fatigue Life Consumed for Single Axle Load
Axle Loads, Load Stress, kg/cm2 Stress Ratio Expected Repetition Fatigue Life, N Fatigue Life
Tonnes Consumed
19 15.10 0.34 145201.92 infinite 0.00
18 14.30 0.32 264779.97 infinite 0.00
17 13.51 0.30 128119.34 infinite 0.00
16 12.71 0.28 162284.50 infinite 0.00
15 11.92 0.26 145201.92 infinite 0.00
14 11.13 0.25 196449.65 infinite 0.00
13 10.33 0.23 204990.94 infinite 0.00
12 9.54 0.21 298945.12 infinite 0.00
11 8.74 0.19 179367.07 infinite 0.00
10 7.95 0.18 324568.99 infinite 0.00
9 7.15 0.16 281862.55 infinite 0.00
8 6.36 0.14 2741753.85 infinite 0.00
0.00

Fatigue Life Consumed for Tandem Axle Load


Axle Loads, Fatigue Life
Tonnes Load Stress, kg/cm2 Stress Ratio Expected Repetition Fatigue Life, N Consumed
39 21.20 0.47 247697.39 4763704.45 0.05
37 20.11 0.45 290403.83 infinite 0.00
35 19.02 0.42 307486.41 infinite 0.00
33 17.94 0.40 461229.62 infinite 0.00
31 16.85 0.37 427064.46 infinite 0.00
29 15.76 0.35 521018.64 infinite 0.00
27 14.67 0.33 367275.44 infinite 0.00
25 13.59 0.30 281862.55 infinite 0.00
23 12.50 0.28 239156.10 infinite 0.00
21 11.41 0.25 136660.63 infinite 0.00
19 10.33 0.23 34165.16 infinite 0.00
16 8.70 0.19 93954.18 infinite 0.00
0.0519968001

Sum of Fatigue life consumed for single and tandem axle loads 0.05
OK
The cumulative life consumed both by single and tandem axle is 0.06 which is less than 1; the design is safe for the traffic proposed from fatigue
consideration.
Temperature Curling Stresses:
σT= 1.933-241000(αΔT) + 1.267(L/Ie)
σT = 15.1720583815
α= 0.00001
ΔT = -4.53
L= 150
Ie = 81.85606

Total flexural stresses due to load and curling = Maximum load stresses + curling stresses = 36.3681739849
This is less than the minimum flexural strength of 45 kg/cm2
Hence, design is safe. White topping thickness of 30.2 cm can be adopted.
Annexure-A

Traffic data: D- E
Growth rates =

Period Average Annual Growth rate (%)

2 AXLE 3 AXLE MAV


2014-2017 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
2018-2022 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
2023-2027 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
2028-2032 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
2033-2037 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
2038-2042 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
2043-2047 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
Year AADT Total Traffic (No.)
Cumulative
2Axle & 3 Traffic
Mini Buses Buses LCV 2Axle & 3 Axle MAV CV* Mini Buses Buses LCV MAV CV*
Axle
2015 11 27 322 1316 4005 5681
2016 12 28 338 1382 4205 5965
2017 12 30 355 1451 4416 6263 4427 10865 129577 529575 1611662 2286105 2286105
2018 13 31 373 1523 4636 6576 4648 11408 136056 556054 1692245 2400411 4686516
2019 13 33 391 1600 4868 6905 4880 11979 142858 583856 1776857 2520431 7206947
2020 14 34 411 1680 5112 7251 5124 12578 150001 613049 1865700 2646453 9853400
2021 15 36 432 1764 5367 7613 5380 13207 157501 643702 1958985 2778775 12632176
2022 15 38 453 1852 5635 7994 5650 13867 165377 675887 2056935 2917714 15549890
2023 16 40 476 1944 5917 8393 5932 14560 173645 709681 2159781 3063600 18613490
2024 17 42 500 2042 6213 8813 6229 15288 182328 745165 2267770 3216780 21830269
2025 18 44 525 2144 6524 9254 6540 16053 191444 782423 2381159 3377619 25207888
2026 19 46 551 2251 6850 9716 6867 16855 201016 821544 2500217 3546500 28754388
2027 20 48 578 2363 7192 10202 7210 17698 211067 862622 2625228 3723825 32478213
2028 21 51 607 2482 7552 10712 7571 18583 221620 905753 2756489 3910016 36388229
2029 22 53 638 2606 7930 11248 7949 19512 232701 951040 2894314 4105517 40493746
2030 23 56 669 2736 8326 11810 8347 20488 244336 998592 3039029 4310793 44804539
2031 24 59 703 2873 8742 12401 8764 21512 256553 1048522 3190981 4526332 49330871
2032 25 62 738 3016 9180 13021 9202 22588 269381 1100948 3350530 4752649 54083520
2033 26 65 775 3167 9639 13672 9663 23717 282850 1155995 3518056 4990281 59073801
2034 28 68 814 3325 10120 14356 10146 24903 296992 1213795 3693959 5239795 64313597
2035 29 72 854 3492 10626 15073 10653 26148 311842 1274485 3878657 5501785 69815382
2036 31 75 897 3666 11158 15827 11186 27456 327434 1338209 4072590 5776875 75592257
2037 32 79 942 3850 11716 16618 11745 28828 343806 1405120 4276219 6065718 81657975
2038 34 83 989 4042 12301 17449 12332 30270 360996 1475376 4490030 6369004 88026979
2039 35 87 1038 4244 12917 18322 12949 31783 379046 1549145 4714532 6687454 94714433
2040 37 91 1090 4456 13562 19238 13596 33373 397998 1626602 4950258 7021827 101736260
2041 39 96 1145 4679 14240 20200 14276 35041 417898 1707932 5197771 7372918 109109179
2042 41 101 1202 4913 14952 21210 14990 36793 438793 1793328 5457660 7741564 116850743
2043 43 106 1262 5159 15700 22270 15739 38633 460733 1882995 5730543 8128643 124979386
2044 45 111 1325 5417 16485 23384 16526 40565 483769 1977145 6017070 8535075 133514461
2045 48 117 1392 5688 17309 24553 17353 42593 507958 2076002 6317923 8961828 142476289
2046 50 123 1461 5972 18175 25781 18220 44722 533356 2179802 6633820 9409920 151886209
151886209
Annexure-A

For both direction the total traffic would be= 303772418


Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-time
Rear Single Axles

Expected Flex Stress Stress Allowable


Repetitions (ni) MPa Ratio (SR) Repetitions (Ni)

8211 2.52 0.51 485831.15


16422 2.45 0.50 942483.80
24634 2.38 0.48 2165989.46
65690 2.31 0.47 6632833.98
65690 2.24 0.45 36874467.75
123168 2.17 0.44 infinite
303814 2.10 0.42 infinite
328448 2.03 0.41 infinite
459827 1.96 0.40 infinite
599417 1.89 0.38 infinite
640473 1.82 0.37 infinite
6495049 1.75 0.35 infinite
9130841 Fat Dam from Sing. Axles =
Total Bottom-up Fatigue Damage due to single and tandem axle loads
=

Top-Down Cracking Fatigue An

Rear Single Axles

Expected Flex Stress Stress Ratio Allowable


Repetitions (ni) MPa (SR) Repetitions (Ni)

10346 2.49 0.50 643022


20692 2.44 0.49 1042158
31038 2.40 0.48 1836922
82769 2.35 0.47 3648291
82769 2.30 0.46 8704716
155191 2.25 0.45 28567131
382806 2.20 0.45 infinite
413844 2.15 0.44 infinite
579381 2.11 0.43 infinite
755265 2.06 0.42 infinite
806996 2.01 0.41 infinite
8183762 1.96 0.40 infinite

11504859 Fat Dam from Sing. Axles =


CFD for BUC Case

Slab Due to
Thickness,m Due to
Rear
Tandem Total CFD
Single
Axles
Axles
0.26 1.893 0.014 1.907
0.27 0.834 0.002 0.836
0.28 0.364 0.000 0.364
0.29 0.151 0.000 0.151
0.3 0.057 0.000 0.057
ue Analysis for Day-time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature Differential
Rear Tandem Axles
Allowable Fatigue
Fatigue Expected Flex Stress Stress Ratio
Repetitions Damage
Damage (ni/Ni) Repetitions (ni) MPa (SR)
(Ni) (ni/Ni)
0.02 0 2.15 0.43 infinite 0.00
0.02 0 2.08 0.42 infinite 0.00
0.01 22216 2.02 0.41 infinite 0.00
0.01 29622 1.96 0.40 infinite 0.00
0.00 37027 1.89 0.38 infinite 0.00
0.00 148110 1.83 0.37 infinite 0.00
0.00 259192 1.77 0.36 infinite 0.00
0.00 274003 1.70 0.34 infinite 0.00
0.00 296220 1.64 0.33 infinite 0.00
0.00 348058 1.58 0.32 infinite 0.00
0.00 348058 1.51 0.31 infinite 0.00
0.00 3184363 1.45 0.29 infinite 0.00
0.057 4946872 Fat Dam from Tand Axles = 0.000
e and tandem axle loads
0.057 + 0.000 = 0.057

wn Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Night-time (6 hour) traffic and Negative Temperature Differential
Rear Tridem Axles
Rear Tandem Axles (Stess
computed for 50% of axle load)
computed for

Expected
Fatigue Damage Expected Allowable Fatigue
Flex Stress MPa Stress Ratio (SR) Repetitions
(ni/Ni) Repetitions (ni) Repetitions (Ni) Damage (ni/Ni)
(ni)

0.016 0 2.52 0.51 517550 0.000 7507


0.020 0 2.47 0.50 811353 0.000 112611
0.017 27993 2.42 0.49 1366729 0.020 67567
0.023 37324 2.37 0.48 2542631 0.015 30030
0.010 46655 2.32 0.47 5475162 0.009 135134
0.005 186619 2.28 0.46 14944402 0.012 165163
0.000 326582 2.23 0.45 infinite 0.000 225223
0.000 345244 2.18 0.44 infinite 0.000 135134
0.000 373237 2.13 0.43 infinite 0.000 322819
0.000 438553 2.08 0.42 infinite 0.000 457953
0.000 438553 2.03 0.41 infinite 0.000 135134
0.000 4012298 1.99 0.40 infinite 0.000 720713

0.090 6233058 Fat Dam from Tand Axles = 0.056 2514988


Total Top-Down Fatigue Damage = 0.090 + 0.056

CFD for TDC Case

Due to Duo to Rear Sum of Remarks


Due to Rear
Tandem Tridem Total CFD BUC and
Single Axles
Axles Axles TDC CFD

1.504 1.285 1.446 4.235 6.142 Unsafe


0.775 0.647 0.797 2.219 3.055 Unsafe
0.396 0.310 0.426 1.132 1.496 Unsafe
0.194 0.139 0.218 0.551 0.702 Safe
0.090 0.056 0.107 0.253 0.311 Safe
Differential
Rear Tridem Axles
(Stress
computed for 33% of axle load)

Flex Allowable Fatigue


Stress
Stress Repetitions Damage
Ratio (SR)
MPa (Ni) (ni/Ni)

2.45 0.50 956664 0.008


2.40 0.49 1659527 0.068
2.36 0.48 3220126 0.021
2.31 0.47 7403090 0.004
2.26 0.46 22685195 0.006
2.21 0.45 infinite 0.000
2.16 0.44 infinite 0.000
2.11 0.43 infinite 0.000
2.07 0.42 infinite 0.000
2.02 0.41 infinite 0.000
1.97 0.40 infinite 0.000
1.92 0.39 infinite 0.000

Fat Dam from Tridem Axles = 0.107


+ 0.107 = 0.253
8.9
9
Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-time (6 hour) traffic
Day-time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature Differential
Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-time (6 hour) traffic
Rear Single Axles
Expected Allowable Fatigue
Repetition FlexMPa
Stress Stress Repetition Damage
Ratio (SR)
s (ni) s (Ni) (ni/Ni)
6275 2.617 0.529 238962 0.026
12549 2.542 0.514 419314 0.030
18824 2.467 0.498 827348 0.023
50196 2.391 0.483 1953337 0.026
50196 2.316 0.468 6285485 0.008
94118 2.241 0.453 39440982 0.002
232157 2.165 0.437 infinite 0.000
250980 2.090 0.422 infinite 0.000
351372 2.015 0.407 infinite 0.000
458039 1.939 0.392 infinite 0.000
489412 1.864 0.377 infinite 0.000
4963135 1.789 0.361 infinite 0.000
6977252 Fat Dam from Sing. Axles = 0.115
Total Bottom-up Fatigue Damage due to single and tandem axle
Day-time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature Differential
Rear Tandem Axles
Expected Allowable Fatigue
Repetition FlexMPa
Stress Stress Repetition Damage
Ratio (SR)
s (ni) s (Ni) (ni/Ni)
0 2.2334842 0.451 50476381 0.000
0 2.1656055 0.437 infinite 0.000
18824 2.0977268 0.424 infinite 0.000
25098 2.029848 0.410 infinite 0.000
31373 1.9619693 0.396 infinite 0.000
125490 1.8940906 0.383 infinite 0.000
219608 1.8262119 0.369 infinite 0.000
232157 1.7583332 0.355 infinite 0.000
250980 1.6904545 0.342 infinite 0.000
294902 1.6225758 0.328 infinite 0.000
294902 1.554697 0.314 infinite 0.000
2698038 1.4868183 0.300 infinite 0.000
4191371 Fat Dam from Tand Axles = 0.000
0.115 + 0.000 = 0.115
Rear Tandem Axles
Rear Single Axles
Expected Allowable Fatigue Expected
Flex Stress Stress
Repetitions Repetition Damage Repetition
MPa Ratio (SR)
(ni) s (Ni) (ni/Ni) s (ni)
7802 2.555 0.516 376401 0.021 0
15605 2.504 0.506 581846 0.027 0
23407 2.452 0.495 961855 0.024 23407
62419 2.400 0.485 1742616 0.036 31209
62419 2.349 0.474 3604924 0.017 39012
117035 2.297 0.464 9194288 0.013 156047
288687 2.245 0.454 34326908 0.008 273082
312094 2.193 0.443 infinite 0.000 288687
436932 2.142 0.433 infinite 0.000 312094
569571 2.090 0.422 infinite 0.000 366710
608583 2.038 0.412 infinite 0.000 366710
6171658 1.986 0.401 infinite 0.000 3355010
8676212 Fat Dam from Sing. Axles = 0.146 5211969
Total Top-Down Fatigue D
Rear Tandem Axles Rear Tridem Axles

Allowable Fatigue Expected Allowable Fatigue


Flex Stress Stress Repetition FlexMPa
Stress Stress
Repetition Damage Repetition Damage
MPa Ratio (SR) Ratio (SR)
s (Ni) (ni/Ni) s (ni) s (Ni) (ni/Ni)
2.5813572 0.521 308856 0.000 7802 2.5123776 0.508 538863 0.014
2.5296225 0.511 464601 0.000 117035 2.4606428 0.497 879658 0.133
2.4778878 0.501 740910 0.032 70221 2.4089081 0.487 1566008 0.045
2.426153 0.490 1277312 0.024 31209 2.3571734 0.476 3156167 0.010
2.3744183 0.480 2456345 0.016 140442 2.3054386 0.466 7711430 0.018
2.3226835 0.469 5567939 0.028 171652 2.2537039 0.455 26473076 0.006
2.2709488 0.459 16631890 0.016 234070 2.2019691 0.445 infinite 0.000
2.2192141 0.448 infinite 0.000 140442 2.1502344 0.434 infinite 0.000
2.1674793 0.438 infinite 0.000 335501 2.0984997 0.424 infinite 0.000
2.1157446 0.427 infinite 0.000 475943 2.0467649 0.413 infinite 0.000
2.0640098 0.417 infinite 0.000 140442 1.9950302 0.403 infinite 0.000
2.0122751 0.407 infinite 0.000 749026 1.9432954 0.393 infinite 0.000
Fat Dam from Tand Axles = 0.116 2613787 Fat Dam from Tridem Axles = 0.227
otal Top-Down Fatigue Damage = 0.146 + 0.116 + 0.227 = 0.489