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TITLE: SMALL CAPACITY FLYWHEEL UPS SYSTEM DESIGN

DESIGN AND FABRICATION A HELICOPTER TROLLEY


BY PNEUMATIC MECHANISM
TABLE OF CONTENT

PROJECT APPROVAL ii

DECLARATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

ABSTRACT v

LIST OF FIGURE vi

LIST OF TABLE ix

CHAPTER Page
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Background 1

1.2 Problem Statement 2

1.3 Objective 2

1.4 Thesis Overview 2

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 4

2.2 The HeliCarrier 4

2.2.1 Thee Point Ground Contact 4

2.2.2 Attachment System for Heli-Skid 5

2.2.3 Optimizing Tail Heavy Position 6

2.2.4 The Power Supply 8

2.2.5 Hydraulic and Lifting System 8


2.3 Tiger Tug 9

2.3.1 Four Point Ground Contact 9

2.3.2 The Attachment System 10

2.3.3 Lifting System 11

2.3.4 Remote Control Steering and Lifting 11

2.4 The Pneumatic Actuation System 12

2.4.1 The Advantage of Pneumatic System 12

2.4.2 The Limitation of Pneumatic System 12

2.4.3 Execution Component 13

2.4.4 Pneumatic Circuit 14

2.5 The Ideal Gas Law 15

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Design Specification 16

3.1.1 Market Requirement 16

3.1.2 Engineering Specification 16

3.2 Concept Generation 18

3.3 Design Concept 19

3.3.1 Concept 1 20

3.3.2 Concept 2 21

3.3.3 Concept 3 22

3.4 Concept Selection 23

3.5 Summary 24

CHAPTER 4: DESIGN DETAIL & CALCULATION

4.1 Design Drawing 25

4.2 Engineering Design Parameter 25


4.3 The Lifting Force 26

4.4 The Thickness of the Actuators 29

4.5 The Mass of Flow 30

4.6 The Compressed Air Tank 31

4.7 Thickness of the Two Tanks 32

4.8 The Final Design 33

4.8.1 Base Frame 35

4.8.2 Upper Frame 35

4.8.3Pneumatic Actuators 36

4.8.4 Caster Wheel 36

4.8.5 Compressed Air Tank 36

4.8.6 Pressure Regulator Valve 36

4.8.7 Trolley Handel 37

4.8.8 Speed Regulator 37

4.8.9 The Silencer 38

4.8.10 The Skid Attachment Gear 38

4.9 Pneumatic Circuit of Actuation 39

CHAPTER 5: RESULT & DISCUSSION

5.1 Inventor Force Simulation 40

5.2 Operating Constraint 40

5.2.1 Upper Frame 41

5.2.2 Base Frame 42

5.3 Simulation Result 45

5.3.1 Von Mises Stress (Upper Frame) 45

5.3.2 Displacement (Upper Frame) 46


5.3.3 Safety Factor (Upper Frame) 47

5.3.4 Von Mises Stress (Base Frame) 48

5.3.5 Displacement (Base Frame) 49

5.3.6 Safety Factor (Base Frame) 50

5.4 Discussion 51

5.5 Recommendation 51

5.6 Conclusion 52

REFERENCING
INFORMATION 53

PICTURES 54

TABLES 56

APPENDIX xiv

PROJECT PROPOSAL xxii

INTERIM REPORT xxv


Experimental Investigation on Passive Forced Ventilation System Induced
by Solar Energy Using Solar Chimney Concept
TABLE OF CONTENT

DECLARATION i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

ABSTRACT iii

LIST OF FIGURE iv

LIST OF TABLE vi

NOMENCLATURE x

CHAPTER Page
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Motivation 1

1.2 Project Background 2

1.3 Problem Statement 4

1.4 Objective 5

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 History of ventilation system 6

2.2 Ventilation System Background 7

2.3Ventilation System can be classified into 2 categories; 8

2.3.1 Forced/Mechanical Ventilation 8

2.3.2 Natural Ventilation 10

2.3 Solar Chimney 13


CHAPTER 3: Experimental Set-Up and Procedures

3.1 Pre-Experiment Run 16

3.2 Description on the convection cycle taking place inside the enclosed space 19

3.3 Experiment Set-Up 21

3.3.1 Construction of the space enclosure (air chamber) 21

3.3.2 Construction of the chimney 22

3.3.3 Combining the space enclosure and the chimney 23

3.3.4 Procedures 24

CHAPTER 4: Experimental Results and Discussion

4.1 Data Tabulation and Calculations for Experimental Run 1 29

4.2 Calculations for Experimental Run 1 30

4.2.1 Theoretical Calculations to obtain Volumetric Flow Rate 30

4.2.2 Theoretical Calculations to obtain Maximum Theoretical Air 32


Velocity

4.2.3 Determining the Occupants Reaction based on air velocity 33

4.2.4 Experimental Energy Conversion Efficiency 34

4.2.5 Theoretical Energy Conversion Efficiency 35

4.3 Data Tabulation and Calculations for Experimental Run 2 37

4.4 Table of Results 38

4.5 Table of Result Comparison for Experimental Run 1 and 2 39

4.6 Result Discussion 39


CHAPTER 5: Solar Chimney Design Application & Discussion

5.1 Designing the Guard house and the Solar Chimney 40

5.2 Calculations for Designing the Solar Reflector Area 40

5.3 Designing a solar powered ventilation system for a guardhouse using


44
Autodesk Inventor

5.4 Close View of the Solar Reflector and Solar Chimney encased in a
Glass Protector 45

5.5 Discussion 46

5.6 Conclusion 47

5.7 Recommendations 49

5.8 Maintenance 49

5.9 Precaution for the Project 49

REFERENCES 50

Appendices
Appendix 1: Proposal 53

Appendix 2: Interim Report 55

Appendix 3: Construction of the Solar Reflector 65