You are on page 1of 8

The TQM Magazine

Some pros and cons of six sigma: an academic perspective


Jiju Antony
Article information:
To cite this document:
Jiju Antony, (2004),"Some pros and cons of six sigma: an academic perspective", The TQM Magazine, Vol. 16 Iss 4 pp. 303 -
306
Permanent link to this document:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09544780410541945
Downloaded on: 02 October 2014, At: 10:12 (PT)
References: this document contains references to 16 other documents.
To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com
The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 8166 times since 2006*
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

Users who downloaded this article also downloaded:


Jiju Antony, Ricardo Banuelas, (2002),"Key ingredients for the effective implementation of Six Sigma program", Measuring
Business Excellence, Vol. 6 Iss 4 pp. 20-27
Ricardo Banuelas Coronado, Jiju Antony, (2002),"Critical success factors for the successful implementation of six sigma projects
in organisations", The TQM Magazine, Vol. 14 Iss 2 pp. 92-99
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Hugh Ette, Roger Pierce, Glory Cannon, Prathima Daripaly, (2005),"Six Sigma: concepts, tools, and
applications", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 105 Iss 4 pp. 491-505

Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by 173423 []
For Authors
If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service
information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit
www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information.
About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com
Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of
more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online
products and additional customer resources and services.
Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics
(COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation.

*Related content and download information correct at time of download.


Introduction
Some pros and cons of
Six sigma is a business strategy that seeks to
six sigma: an academic identify and eliminate causes of errors or defects or
failures in business processes by focusing on
perspective outputs that are critical to customers (Snee, 1999).
It is also a measure of quality that strives for near
Jiju Antony elimination of defects using the application of
statistical methods. A defect is defined as anything
which could lead to customer dissatisfaction. The
fundamental objective of the six sigma
methodology is the implementation of a
measurement-based strategy that focuses on
process improvement and variation reduction. A
number of papers and books have been published
showing the fundamentals of six sigma, such as,
what is six sigma (Hoerl, 1998; Breyfogle III,
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

1999; Harry and Schroeder, 1999), why do we


The author need six sigma (Snee, 2000; Pande et al., 2001),
what makes six sigma different from other quality
Jiju Antony is a Senior Lecturer and Director of Six Sigma
Research Centre, Division of Management, Caledonian Business initiatives (Pyzdek, 2001; Snee and Hoerl, 2003),
School, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK. six sigma deployment (Keller, 2001; Adams et al.,
2003), critical success factors of six sigma
Keywords implementation (Antony and Banuelas, 2002), six
Quality programmes, Management strategy,
sigma project selection process (Snee, 2002) and
Statistical methods of analysis organisational infrastructure required for
implementing six sigma (Adams et al., 2003; Snee
Abstract and Hoerl, 2003).
I personally have experienced that senior
Six sigma is a powerful business strategy that employs a
disciplined approach to tackle process variability using the management in many organisations view six sigma
application of statistical and non-statistical tools and techniques as another quality improvement initiative or
in a rigorous manner. This paper examines the pros and cons of flavour of the month in their list. I am often told by
six sigma in a detailed manner. This is followed by a section many engineers and managers, in small and big
about the future of six sigma and its links to statistical thinking. companies, that there is nothing really new in six
It is believed that, although the total package may change, the sigma compared to other quality initiatives we have
applications of six sigma will continue to grow in the witnessed in the past. In response, I often ask a
forthcoming years, due to the existence of sound principles of
simple question to people in organisations who
statistical thinking within the six sigma strategy.
practise TQM, “what do you understand by the
Electronic access term TQM?”. I often get many varying answers to
this question. However if I ask a bunch of six sigma
The Emerald Research Register for this journal is practitioners, “what do you know of the term six
available at
sigma?”, I often get an answer which means more
www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregister
or less the same thing and concurs with what I
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is would have expected. The following aspects of the
available at six sigma strategy are not accentuated in previous
www.emeraldinsight.com/0954-478X.htm quality improvement initiatives:
.
Six sigma strategy places a clear focus on
achieving measurable and quantifiable
financial returns to the bottom-line of an
organisation. No six sigma project is approved
unless the bottom-line impact has been clearly
identified and defined.
.
Six sigma strategy places an unprecedented
importance on strong and passionate
leadership and the support required for its
The TQM Magazine
Volume 16 · Number 4 · 2004 · pp. 303-306 successful deployment.
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited · ISSN 0954-478X
.
Six sigma methodology of problem solving
DOI 10.1108/09544780410541945 integrates the human elements (culture
303
Some pros and cons of six sigma The TQM Magazine
Jiju Antony Volume 16 · Number 4 · 2004 · 303-306

change, customer focus, belt system we calculate the sigma capability level of a
infrastructure, etc.) and process elements process. For instance, a defect in a hospital
(process management, statistical analysis of could be a wrong admission procedure, lack of
process data, measurement system analysis, training required by a staff member,
etc.) of improvement. misbehaviour of staff members, unwillingness
.
Six sigma methodology utilises the tools and to help patients when they have specific
techniques for fixing problems in business queries, etc.
processes in a sequential and disciplined . The calculation of defect rates or error rates is
fashion. Each tool and technique within the based on the assumption of normality. The
six sigma methodology has a role to play and calculation of defect rates for non-normal
when, where, why and how these tools or situations is not yet properly addressed in the
techniques should be applied is the difference current literature of six sigma.
between success and failure of a six sigma .
Due to dynamic market demands, the
project. critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) of
.
Six sigma creates an infrastructure of today would not necessarily be meaningful
champions, master black belts (MBBs), black tomorrow. All CTQs should be critically
belts (BBs) and green belts (GBs) that lead,
examined at all times and refined as necessary
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

deploy and implement the approach.


(Goh, 2002).
.
Six sigma emphasises the importance of data .
Very little research has been done on the
and decision making based on facts and data
optimisation of multiple CTQs in six sigma
rather than assumptions and hunches! Six
projects.
sigma forces people to put measurements in .
Assumption of 1.5 sigma shift for all service
place. Measurement must be considered as a
processes does not make much sense. This
part of the culture change.
.
Six sigma utilises the concept of statistical particular issue should be the major thrust for
thinking and encourages the application of future research, as a small shift in sigma could
well-proven statistical tools and techniques for lead to erroneous defect calculations.
defect reduction through process variability
.
Non-standardisation procedures in the
reduction methods (e.g. statistical process certification process of black belts and green
control and design of experiments). belts is another limitation. This means not all
black belts or green belts are equally capable.
Just like any other quality improvement initiatives Research has shown that the skills and
we have seen in the past, six sigma has its own expertise developed by black belts are
limitations. The following are some of the inconsistent across companies and are
limitations of six sigma which create opportunities dependent to a great extent on the certifying
for future research: body. For more information on this aspect,
.
The challenge of having quality data available,
readers are advised to refer to Hoerl (2001).
especially in processes where no data is
Black belts believe they know all the practical
available to begin with (sometimes this task
aspects of advanced quality improvement
could take the largest proportion of the project
methods such as design of experiments, robust
time).
design, response surface methodology,
.
In some cases, there is frustration as the
solutions driven by the data are expensive and statistical process control and reliability, when
only a small part of the solution is in fact they have barely scratched the surface.
implemented at the end.
.
The start-up cost for institutionalising six
. The right selection and prioritisation of sigma into a corporate culture can be a
projects is one of the critical success factors of significant investment. This particular feature
a six sigma program. The prioritisation of would discourage many small and medium
projects in many organisations is still based on size enterprises from the introduction,
pure subjective judgement. Very few powerful development and implementation of six sigma
tools are available for prioritising projects and strategy.
this should be major thrust for research in the .
Six sigma can easily digress into a bureaucratic
future. exercise if the focus is on such things as the
.
The statistical definition of six sigma is 3.4 number of trained black belts and green belts,
defects or failures per million opportunities. number of projects completed, etc. instead of
In service processes, a defect may be defined bottom-line savings.
as anything which does not meet customer .
There is an overselling of six sigma by too
needs or expectations. It would be illogical to many consulting firms. Many of them claim
assume that all defects are equally good when expertise in six sigma when they barely
304
Some pros and cons of six sigma The TQM Magazine
Jiju Antony Volume 16 · Number 4 · 2004 · 303-306

understand the tools and techniques and the (2) Variation exists in all processes.
six sigma roadmap. (3) Understanding and analysing the variation are
.
The relationship between cost of poor quality keys to success.
(COPQ) and process sigma quality level
Statistical thinking can also be defined as thought
requires more justification.
processes, which recognise that variation is all
.
The linkage between six sigma and
organisational culture and learning is not around us and present in everything we do. All
addressed properly in the existing literature. work is a series of interconnected processes, and
.
The “five sigma” wall proposed in Mikel identifying, characterising, quantifying,
Harry’s book, Six Sigma: The Breakthrough controlling and reducing variation provide
Management Strategy Revolutionising the opportunities for improvement (Snee, 1990). The
World’s Top Corporations, is questionable. above principles of statistical thinking within six
Companies might redesign their processes sigma are robust and therefore it is fair to say that
well before even four sigma quality level. six sigma will continue to grow in the forthcoming
Moreover, it is illogical to assume that the years. In other words, statistical thinking may be
“five sigma” wall approach is valid for all used to create a culture that should be deeply
processes (manufacturing, service or embedded in every employee within any
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

transactional). Moreover, the decision of organisation embarking on six sigma programs.


re-design efforts over continuous However the total package may change in the
improvement depends on a number of other evolutionary process. It is important to remember
variables such as risk, technology, cost, that six sigma has a better record than total quality
customer demands, time, complexity, etc. management (TQM) and business process
re-engineering (BPR), since its inception in the
mid-late 1980s. The ever-changing need to
What does the future hold for six sigma? improve will no doubt create needs to improve the
existing six sigma methodology and hence develop
In my opinion, six sigma will be around as long as
the projects yield measurable or quantifiable better products and provide better services in the
bottom-line results in monetary or financial terms. future. As a final note, the author believes that
When six sigma projects stop yielding bottom-line companies implementing or contemplating
results, it might disappear. I also feel that while six embarking on six sigma programs should not view
sigma will evolve in the forthcoming years, there it as an advertising banner for promotional
are some core elements or principles within six purposes.
sigma that will be maintained, irrespective of the
“next big thing”. One of the real dangers of six
sigma is to do with the capability of black belts (the
so-called technical experts) who tackle challenging
Conclusion
projects in organisations. We cannot simply
assume that all black belts are equally good and Six Sigma as a powerful business strategy has been
their capabilities vary enormously across industries well recognised as an imperative for achieving and
(manufacturing or service), depending a great deal sustaining operational and service excellence.
on the certifying body. Another danger is the
While the original focus of six sigma was on
attitude of many senior managers in organisations
manufacturing, today it has been widely accepted
that six sigma is “an instant pudding” solving all
in both service and transactional processes. This
their ever-lasting problems.
paper highlights the pros and cons of six sigma
I also believe that the six sigma toolkit will
from the viewpoint of an academician. Although
continue to add new tools, especially from other
disciplines such as healthcare, finance, sales and the total package may change as part of the
marketing. Having a core set of tools and evolutionary process, the core principles of six
techniques is an advantage of six sigma that brings sigma will continue to grow in the future. Six sigma
speed to fix problems and its ease of accessibility to has made a huge impact on industry and yet the
black belts and green belts. academic community lags behind in its
I would like to raise the point that six sigma does understanding of this powerful strategy. It will
provide an effective means for deploying and therefore be incumbent on academic fraternity to
implementing statistical thinking (Snee, 1990; provide well-grounded theories to explain the
2002) which is based on the following three phenomena of six sigma. In other words, six sigma
rudimentary principles: lacks a theoretical underpinning and hence it is our
(1) All work occurs in a system of interconnected responsibility as academicians to bridge the gap
processes. between the theory and practice of six sigma.
305
Some pros and cons of six sigma The TQM Magazine
Jiju Antony Volume 16 · Number 4 · 2004 · 303-306

References Pande, P., Neuman, R. and Cavanagh, R. (2001), The Six Sigma
Way, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Adams, C., Gupta, P. and Wilson, C. (2003), Six Sigma Pyzdek, T. (2001), The Six Sigma Handbook: A Complete Guide
Deployment, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, MA. for Greenbelts, Blackbelts and Managers at All Levels,
Antony, J. and Bañuelas, R. (2002), “Key ingredients for the McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
effective implementation of six sigma program”, Snee, R.D. (1990), “Statistical thinking and its contribution to
Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 20-7. total quality”, The American Statistician, Vol. 44 No. 2,
Breyfogle, F.W. III (1999), Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter pp. 116-21.
Solutions Using Statistical Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Snee, R.D. (1999), “Why should statisticians pay attention to six
New York, NY. sigma?”, Quality Progress, September, pp. 100-3.
Goh, T.N. (2002), “A strategic assessment of six sigma”, Quality Snee, R.D. (2000), “Impact of six sigma on quality engineering”,
and Reliability Engineering International, Vol. 18 No. 2, Quality Engineering, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 9-14.
pp. 403-10. Snee, R.D. (2002), “The project selection process”, Quality
Harry, M.J. and Schroeder, R. (1999), Six Sigma: The Progress, September, pp. 78-80.
Breakthrough Management Strategy Revolutionizing the Snee, R.D. and Hoerl, R.W. (2003), Leading Six Sigma
World’s Top Corporations, Doubleday, New York, NY. Companies, FT Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Hoerl, R.W. (1998), “Six sigma and the future of the quality
profession”, Quality Progress, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 35-42.
Hoerl, R.W. (2001), “Six sigma black belts: what do they need to
know?”, Journal of Quality Technology, Vol. 33 No. 4, Further reading
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

pp. 391-406.
Keller, P.A. (2001), Six Sigma Deployment, Quality Publishing, ASQ (1996), Glossary and Tables for SQC, Quality Press,
Tucson, AZ. Milwaukee, WI.

306
This article has been cited by:

1. Claire Baldwin, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Vikas Kumar, Luis Rocha-Lona. 2014. Personal development review (PDR) process
and engineering staff motivation. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 25:6, 827-847. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
2. Aat van den Bos, Benjamin Kemper, Vincent de Waal. 2014. A study on how to improve the throughput time of Lean Six Sigma
projects in a construction company. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 5:2, 212-226. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
3. Louis Kirkham, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Vikas Kumar, Jiju Antony. 2014. Prioritisation of operations improvement projects in
the European manufacturing industry. International Journal of Production Research 1-23. [CrossRef]
4. Six Sigma without Lean 57-70. [CrossRef]
5. Lean Six Sigma 79-84. [CrossRef]
6. Six Sigma and HR 149-172. [CrossRef]
7. Lean 71-78. [CrossRef]
8. Paulo Augusto Cauchick Miguel, Marly Monteiro de Carvalho. 2014. Benchmarking Six Sigma implementation in services
companies operating in an emerging economy. Benchmarking: An International Journal 21:1, 62-76. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
9. Ploytip Jirasukprasert, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Vikas Kumar, Ming K. Lim. 2014. A Six Sigma and DMAIC application for
the reduction of defects in a rubber gloves manufacturing process. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 5:1, 2-21. [Abstract]
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

[Full Text] [PDF]


10. Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Ashley Flint, Vikas Kumar, Jiju Antony, Horacio Soriano-Meier. 2014. A DMAIRC approach to lead
time reduction in an aerospace engine assembly process. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 25:1, 27-48. [Abstract]
[Full Text]
11. Fu-Kwun Wang, Chen-Hsoung Hsu, Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng. 2014. Applying a Hybrid MCDM Model for Six Sigma Project
Selection. Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2014, 1-13. [CrossRef]
12. Monica Rolfsen, Jonas A. Ingvaldsen, Halvor Holtskog, Geir Ringen. 2013. Unlocking work standards through systematic
work observation: implications for team supervision. Team Performance Management: An International Journal 19:5/6, 279-291.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
13. Sanjit Ray, Prasun Das, B. K. Bhattacharyay, Jiju Antony. 2013. Measuring Six Sigma Project Effectiveness using Fuzzy Approach.
Quality and Reliability Engineering International 29:3, 417-430. [CrossRef]
14. Jithendran Kokkranikal, Jiju Antony, Hasib Kosgi, Erwin Losekoot. 2013. Barriers and challenges in the application of Six Sigma
in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 62:3, 317-322. [Abstract] [Full
Text] [PDF]
15. Nattapan Buavaraporn, James Tannock. 2013. Business process improvement in services: case studies of financial institutions in
Thailand. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 30:3, 319-340. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
16. Ayon Chakraborty, Michael Leyer. 2013. Developing a Six Sigma framework: perspectives from financial service companies.
International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 30:3, 256-279. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
17. Ben Marriott, Jose Arturo Garza‐Reyes, Horacio Soriano‐Meier, Jiju Antony. 2013. An integrated methodology to prioritise
improvement initiatives in low volume‐high integrity product manufacturing organisations. Journal of Manufacturing Technology
Management 24:2, 197-217. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
18. V. Arumugam, Jiju Antony, Maneesh Kumar. 2013. Linking learning and knowledge creation to project success in Six Sigma
projects: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Production Economics 141:1, 388-402. [CrossRef]
19. Sunil Sharma, Anuradha R. Chetiya. 2012. An analysis of critical success factors for Six Sigma implementation. Asian Journal
on Quality 13:3, 294-308. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
20. Ayon Chakraborty, Kay Chuan Tan. 2012. Case study analysis of Six Sigma implementation in service organisations. Business
Process Management Journal 18:6, 992-1019. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
21. Scott M. Shafer, Sara B. Moeller. 2012. The effects of Six Sigma on corporate performance: An empirical investigation. Journal
of Operations Management 30:7-8, 521-532. [CrossRef]
22. Jiju Antony. 2012. A SWOT analysis on Six Sigma: some perspectives from leading academics and practitioners. International
Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 61:6, 691-698. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
23. John Sheil, Dermot Hale. 2012. The ‘Democratisation’ of Statistics: Parastatisticians in Manufacturing. Quality and Reliability
Engineering International 28:5, 524-534. [CrossRef]
24. Ying-Jiun Hsieh, Lan-Ying Huang, Chi-Tai Wang. 2012. A framework for the selection of Six Sigma projects in services: case
studies of banking and health care services in Taiwan. Service Business 6:2, 243-264. [CrossRef]
25. Subashini Suresh, Jiju Antony, Maneesh Kumar, Alex Douglas. 2012. Six Sigma and leadership: some observations and agenda
for future research. The TQM Journal 24:3, 231-247. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
26. S. Karthi, S. R. Devadasan, R. Murugesh, C. G. Sreenivasa, N. M. Sivaram. 2012. Global views on integrating Six Sigma and
ISO 9001 certification. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 23:3-4, 237-262. [CrossRef]
27. Colm Heavey, Eamonn Murphy. 2012. Integrating the Balanced Scorecard with Six Sigma. The TQM Journal 24:2, 108-122.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
28. Professor Jiju Antony, Jiju Antony, Anmol Singh Bhuller, Maneesh Kumar, Kepa Mendibil, Douglas C. Montgomery. 2012.
Application of Six Sigma DMAIC methodology in a transactional environment. International Journal of Quality & Reliability
Management 29:1, 31-53. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
29. Professor Jiju Antony, Graham Manville, Richard Greatbanks, Radica Krishnasamy, David W. Parker. 2012. Critical success factors
for Lean Six Sigma programmes: a view from middle management. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management
29:1, 7-20. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
30. Stephan J. Silich, Robert V. Wetz, Nancy Riebling, Christine Coleman, Georges Khoueiry, Nidal Abi Rafeh, Emma Bagon, Anita
Szerszen. 2012. Using Six Sigma Methodology to Reduce Patient Transfer Times from Floor to Critical-Care Beds. Journal for
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

Healthcare Quality 34:1, 44-54. [CrossRef]


31. Andrea Chiarini. 2011. Japanese total quality control, TQM, Deming's system of profound knowledge, BPR, Lean and Six Sigma.
International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 2:4, 332-355. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
32. Payyazhi Jayashree, Syed Jamal Hussain. 2011. Aligning change deployment: a Balanced Scorecard approach. Measuring Business
Excellence 15:3, 63-85. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
33. George J. Besseris. 2011. Applying the DOE toolkit on a Lean‐and‐Green Six Sigma Maritime‐Operation Improvement Project.
International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 2:3, 270-284. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
34. Denis Cavallucci. 2011. A research agenda for computing developments associated with innovation pipelines. Computers in Industry
62:4, 377-383. [CrossRef]
35. Michael J. Braunscheidel, James W. Hamister, Nallan C. Suresh, Harold Star. 2011. An institutional theory perspective on Six
Sigma adoption. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 31:4, 423-451. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
36. Paulo Augusto Cauchick Miguel, João Marcos Andrietta. 2010. Outcomes from a descriptive survey of Six Sigma management
practices in Brazil. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 1:4, 358-377. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
37. Sunil Sharma, Anuradha R. Chetiya. 2010. Six Sigma project selection: an analysis of responsible factors. International Journal
of Lean Six Sigma 1:4, 280-292. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
38. B. Tjahjono, P. Ball, V.I. Vitanov, C. Scorzafave, J. Nogueira, J. Calleja, M. Minguet, L. Narasimha, A. Rivas, A. Srivastava,
S. Srivastava, A. Yadav. 2010. Six Sigma: a literature review. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 1:3, 216-233. [Abstract]
[Full Text] [PDF]
39. Souraj Salah, Abdur Rahim, Juan A. Carretero. 2010. The integration of Six Sigma and lean management. International Journal
of Lean Six Sigma 1:3, 249-274. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
40. Yudi Azis, Hiroshi Osada. 2010. Innovation in management system by Six Sigma: an empirical study of world‐class companies.
International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 1:3, 172-190. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
41. Ashish Soti, Ravi Shankar, O.P. Kaushal. 2010. Modeling the enablers of Six Sigma using interpreting structural modeling.
Journal of Modelling in Management 5:2, 124-141. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
42. Diana Heckl, Jürgen Moormann, Michael Rosemann. 2010. Uptake and success factors of Six Sigma in the financial services
industry. Business Process Management Journal 16:3, 436-472. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
43. Djoko Setijono. 2010. Normal approximation through data replication when estimating DisPMO, DePMO, left‐side and right‐
side Sigma levels from non‐normal data. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 27:3, 318-332. [Abstract]
[Full Text] [PDF]
44. Mohamed Gamal Aboelmaged. 2010. Six Sigma quality: a structured review and implications for future research. International
Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 27:3, 268-317. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
45. Ben Clegg, M.P.J. Pepper, T.A. Spedding. 2010. The evolution of lean Six Sigma. International Journal of Quality & Reliability
Management 27:2, 138-155. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
46. Xingxing Zu, Tina L. Robbins, Lawrence D. Fredendall. 2010. Mapping the critical links between organizational culture and
TQM/Six Sigma practices. International Journal of Production Economics 123:1, 86-106. [CrossRef]
47. Sandip C. Patel, Xingxing Zu. 2009. E-government application development using the Six Sigma approach. Electronic Government,
an International Journal 6:3, 295. [CrossRef]
48. Emil Bashkansky, Tamar Gadrich. 2008. Evaluating quality measured on a ternary ordinal scale. Quality and Reliability Engineering
International 24:8, 957-971. [CrossRef]
49. Djoko Setijono. 2008. DisPMO and DePMO as six sigma‐based forward‐looking quality performance measures. The TQM
Journal 20:6, 588-598. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
50. Maneesh Kumar, Jiju Antony, Christian N. Madu, Douglas C. Montgomery, Sung H. Park. 2008. Common myths of Six Sigma
demystified. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 25:8, 878-895. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
51. Roger Hilton, Margaret Balla, Amrik S. Sohal. 2008. Factors critical to the success of a Six-Sigma quality program in an Australian
hospital. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 19:9, 887-902. [CrossRef]
52. Xingxing Zu, Lawrence D. Fredendall, Thomas J. Douglas. 2008. The evolving theory of quality management: The role of Six
Sigma. Journal of Operations Management 26:5, 630-650. [CrossRef]
53. Jiju Antony. 2007. What is the role of academic institutions for the future development of Six Sigma?. International Journal of
Productivity and Performance Management 57:1, 107-110. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
Downloaded by HERIOT WATT UNIVERSITY At 10:12 02 October 2014 (PT)

54. Ayon Chakrabarty, Kay Chuan Tan. 2007. The current state of six sigma application in services. Managing Service Quality: An
International Journal 17:2, 194-208. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
55. H. Sekhar, R. Mahanti. 2006. Confluence of Six Sigma, simulation and environmental quality. Management of Environmental
Quality: An International Journal 17:2, 170-183. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
56. J Antony, M Kumar, M K Tiwari. 2005. An application of Six Sigma methodology to reduce the engine-overheating problem in
an automotive company. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 219:8,
633-646. [CrossRef]
57. 2005. Best practices at Dow Chemicals. Strategic Direction 21:1, 9-11. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
58. Jiju Antony, Craig Fergusson. 2004. Six Sigma in the software industry: results from a pilot study. Managerial Auditing Journal
19:8, 1025-1032. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]